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VARIABILITATEA UNOR CARACTERISTICI MORFOLOGICE DECORATIVE LA SPECIA PAPAVER RHOEAS DIN FLORA SPONTANA DECORATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE

SPECIES PAPAVER RHOEAS OF SPONTANEOUS VEGETATION Mitroi D., D.Anton, C.Nicu, M.Manda Abstract. Flora spontan ofer posibiliti nelimitate pentru selecia unor indivizi valoroi din punct de vedere ornamental. Macul de cmp ( Papaver rhoeas), planta i fructul uscat, au potenial decorativ. Spontaneous vegetation provides unlimited possibilities for the selection of individuals in terms of valuable ornamental. Field poppy (Papaver rhoeas), herb and dried fruit have decorative potential. Prezenta lucrare a urmrit variabilitatea caracterelor morfologice decorative la plante recoltate din flora spontana. Variabilitatea a fost studiat folosind distribuia procentual i coeficientul de variabilitate. The present work aimed variability in morphological characters, decorative plants collected from the spontaneous flora. Variability was studied using the percentage distribution and coefficient of variability. Limitele de variaie au fost mari pentru numrul de capsule pe plant (16-125), urmat de numrul de ramificaii pe plant (4-23). Coeficientul de variabilitate a variat de la 10.12 % pentru nlimea plantei la 50,9 % pentru numrul de capsule pe plant. Existena unei variabiliti n cadrul materialului genetic studiat, indic posibilitatea de utilizare in programele de selecie. The limits of variation were high for number of capsules per plant (16-125), followed by the number of branches per plant (4-23). Coefficient of variability ranged from 10.12% to 50.9% for plant height number of capsules per plant. Existence of variability in the genetic material studied, indicating the possible use in selection programs. Key words: diversitate morfologic, mac, flora spontan, plante decorative morphological diversity, poppy, spontaneous vegetation, ornamental plants INTRODUCTION In zona Olteniei exista un mare numr de specii spontane cu potenial ornamental valoros, spre care s-ar putea orienta cercetrile privind selecia de plante decorative. In Oltenia numerous wild species with potential ornamental value, to which research may influence the selection of ornamental plants. Pe plan mondial este susinut ideea exploatrii comerciale a vegetaiei spontane, o resurs important pentru industria florilor slbatice decorative

(decorative wildflower industry) (Davis, 1992, Lamont, 2001, Chimonidou 2005, Gtebl 2009). In sud-vestul Scoiei, numeroase specii din flora spontana au fost testate in vederea realizarii unor pajiti urbane atractive, care necesita lucrari de intretinere minime pentru utilizare n parcuri (Hitchmough, 2000). Idea is supported worldwide commercial exploitation of wild vegetation, an important resource for industry, wild flowers, decorative (decoration wildflower industry) (Davis, 1992, Lamont, 2001, Chimonidou 2005 Gtebl 2009). In the south-west of Scotland, many species of spontaneous flora were tested in order to make attractive urban lawns, wich require minimum maintenance works for use in parks (Hitchmough, 2000). Variabilitatea caracterelor morfologice, studiata la numeroase specii din flora spontan, este destul de mare, fapt confirmat si de ali autori (Malaviya, 1996, Brezinov et al. 2009). Se consider c variabilitatea nregistrat n cadrul speciilor nmulite prin semine depinde de caracteristicile genetice i de condiiile de mediu. Variability of morphological characters, studied in many species of spontaneous flora, is quite large, a fact confirmed by other authors (Malaviya, 1996, Brezinov et al. 2009). It is considered that the variability within species recorded propagated by seeds depends on the genetic characteristics and environmental conditions. Cercetri privind variabilitatea morfologic la specia Carex spicata, au artat c populaiile acestei specii, provenite din diferite comuniti, produc ecotipuri diferite, cu caracteristici genetice fixe adaptate la condiiile determinate de habitat (Janyszek, 2008). Folosind diferenele morfometrice, Selin (2000, 2008) a analizat variabilitatea n cadrul unor populaii de Papaver radicatum. Miklokov et al., 2005 a studiat variabilitatea caracteristicilor economice la populaii de Papaver somniferum. Research on morphological variability of the species Carex spicata showed that populations of this species from different communities produce different ecotypes, with fixed genetic characteristics adapted to conditions caused by habitat (Janyszek, 2008). Using morphometric differences, Selin (2000, 2008) examined variability within populations of Papaver radicatum. Miklokov et al., 2005 studied the economic characteristics of the population variability of Papaver somniferum. Scopul prezentului studiu a fost de a evalua variabilitatea unor caractere morfologice la plante de mac (Papaver rhoeas) din flora spontan, n condiiile pedo-climatice din regiunea Oltenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the variability of morphological traits to plant poppy (Papaver rhoeas) of spontaneous vegetation in pedo-climatic conditions in the region of Oltenia.

MATERIAL SI METODA MATERIAL AND METHOD Materialul folosit n cercetare provine din flora spontan. Au fost recoltate plante din zona Olteniei, specia Papaver rhoeas, la care au fost efectuate observaii biometrice. The material used in research comes from the spontaneous flora. Plants were harvested in Oltenia, the species Papaver rhoeas, in which biometric observations were made. Au fost urmrite urmtoarele caracteristici: nlimea i diametrul plantei, numrul de ramificaii i numrul de capsule pe plant, diametrul la partea superioar a capsulei i nlimea capsulei. Datele obinute au fost analizate statistic. parametrii statistici: Pentru analiza variabilitii au fost utilizai urmtorii coeficientul de variabilitate i distribuia de frecvene (histograma),

coeficientul de regresie i determinare (Botu et al., 1997). Were seen following characteristics: plant height and diameter, number of branches and number of capsules per plant, diameter at the top of the capsule and the capsule height. The data were statistically analyzed. To analyze variability statistics were used the following parameters: coefficient of variability and frequency distribution (histogram) and regression coefficient determination (Botu et al., 1997). REZULTATE SI DISCUII RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Macul de cmp (Papaver rhoeas) este o planta anuala, erbacee, nalt de 20-90 cm, cu tulpina adeseori ramificata. Fructul este o capsul ovoid sau uor turtit, cu stigmat persistent (aspect de rozet). Fructul uscat are valoare ornamentala (Popescu, 2009). Field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) is an annual herb, herbaceous, 20-90 cm high, with stems often branched. Fruit is a capsule oval or slightly flattened, with the persistent stigma (bow aspect). Dried fruit has ornamental value (Popescu, 2009). Analiznd caracterele morfologice ale plantelor i fructelor uscate, la plante din flora spontan, a fost observat o mare variabilitate a acestora. Tabelul 1 prezint valorile medii ale caracteristicilor morfologice la plantele si fructele uscate, deviaiile standard, valorile minime si maxime pentru aceste caracteristici. Analyzing the morphological characters of plants and dried fruits, plants from spontaneous flora, a great variability was observed them. Table 1 shows the average values of morphological characteristics of plants and dried fruit, standard deviations, minimum and maximum values for these characteristics. Datele indica mari variaii ale caracteristicilor plantelor si fructelor uscate de la o plant la alta, variabilitate mare n ceea ce privete diametrul plantei, numrul de ramificaii i numrul de capsule pe plant i o variabilitate mijlocie n ceea ce privete caracteristicile fructului uscat (capsul). Valoarea medie nregistrat pentru nlimea plantei a fost de 74,7 cm, iar pentru diametrul 57,68 cm. The data show large variations of plant characteristics and dried fruits from one plant to

another, great variability in terms of plant diameter, number of branches and number of capsules per plant and a medium in terms of variability characteristics dried fruit (capsule). The average value recorded for plant height was 74.7 cm and 57.68 cm in diameter. Cea mai mare variabilitate a fost obinut la caracterul diametrul plantei, fapt confirmat de deviaia standard nregistrat (SD = 12,9) pentru aceasta caracteristic, de diferena dintre valoarea maxim i minim (range = 50) si coeficientul de variabilitate (s% = 22,37) (tabelul 1). Highest variability was obtained from nature diameter plant, recorded as confirmed by the standard deviation (SD = 12.9) for this feature, the difference between the maximum and minimum (range = 50) and coefficient of variability (s% = 22.37) (Table 1). Numrul de ramificaii pe plant i numrul de capsule pe plant au nregistrat un coeficient de variabilitate de peste 30 %, astfel c media nu este reprezentativ pentru aceste caracteristici, pentru analiza variabilitii se va folosi distribuia procentual. Limitele de variaie pentru aceste caracteristici au fost largi, intre 4 i 23 pentru numrul de ramificaii pe plant i ntre 16 i 125 pentru numarul de capsule pe plant (tabelul 1). Number of branches per plant and number of capsules per plant had a coefficient of variation above 30%, so the average is not representative of those characteristics, variability analysis will use the percentage distribution. The limits of variation for these features were large, between 4 and 23 for number of branches per plant and between 16 and 125 for the number of capsules per plant (Table 1). Brezinov et al.( 2009) consider c numrul de capsule la mac ( Papaver sp.) este o caracteristic genetic influenat mult de numrul de plante pe unitatea de suprafa i elementele nutritive. Brezinov et al. (2009) considers that the number of capsules in poppy (Papaver sp.) Is a genetically influenced characteristic than the number of plants per unit area and nutrients. Caracteristicile fructelor uscate constituie unul din criteriile de selecie, avand in vedere ca acestea reprezinta principalul element de interes decorativ, in vederea utilizarii lor pentru realizarea unor aranjamente florale in diferite combinatii cu flori cultivate sau salbatice, in stare uscata (imortele) sau proaspata. Characteristics of dried fruit is one of selection criteria, since they are the main decorative element of interest in order to use them for making floral arrangements in various combinations with wild flowers cultivated in the dry state (imortele) or fresh. Din determinarile efectuate cu privire la nlimea i diametrul capsulei, o variabilitate mai mic a fost nregistrat pentru nlimea capsulei (SD = 0,179, s % = 12.29). Valorile medii nregistrate au fost de 1,46 cm pentru nlimea capsulei i 0,96 cm pentru diametrul capsulei. From measurements performed on the height and diameter capsule, less variability was recorded for the capsule height (SD = 0.179, s% = 12.29). The mean values recorded were 1.46 cm and 0.96 cm for height Capsule capsule diameter.

Tabelul 1: Principalele date statistice ale caracteristicilor morfologice studiate la plantele i fructele uscate de mac Table 1: Key statistics of the morphological characteristics studied in the poppy plants and dried fruit
Nr Crt unit. No.

Caracteristicile studiate
nlimea plantei Plant height [cm] Diametrul plantei Plant diameter [cm] Nr. ramif. din planta No. branch. of plant Nr. capsule din planta No. capsules of plant nlimea capsulei Capsule height [cm] Diametrul capsulei Capsule diameter [cm]

Mean

Standard Deviation

Range

Standard Error

Coeficientul de Limite de variabilitate (s variaie %) 10.14 22.37 32.15 50.9 12.29 16.56 60-89 30-80 4-23 16-125 1.1-1.8 0.7-1.2

1 2 3 4 5 6

74.7 57.68 13.58 50.28 1.46 0.950

7.576 12.905 4.366 25.595 0.179 0.157

29 50 19 109 0.7 0.5

1.071 1.825 0.617 3.619 0.025 0.022

Confidence Level(95.0%) Calculnd distribuia procentuala a plantelor, n funcie de parametrul numr de ramificaii, s-a constatat ca cea mai mare parte a indivizilor se ncadreaz n clasa de mrime 14.85 17,57 (36 %), urmata de clasa 9,42 -12.14 (26 %) ceea ce nseamn ca 66 % din indivizii studiai au un numr de ramificaii cuprins ntre 9 i 17 (tabelul 2). Calculating the percentage distribution of plants, according to parameter number of branches, it was found that most individuals fall within the size class 14.85 - 17.57 (36 %), followed by 9.42 -12.14 class ( 26 %) which means that 66 % of individuals studied have a number of branches between 9 and 17 (Table 2). Pentru numrul de capsule, 40 % din indivizii studiai au avut un numr de capsule cuprins ntre 31 i 47 (tabelul 2). The number of capsules, 40 % of individuals studied had a number of capsules 31 to 47 (Table 2). Principalul element decorativ, insa, rmne fructul uscat (capsula), ale crei dimensiuni determina, n mare msur, valoarea decorativa. Pentru nlimea i diametrul fructului uscat, analiza histogramelor indic c cea mai mare parte a fructelor uscate au avut o nlime cuprins ntre 1,4 i 1,5 cm (28 %) i un diametrul la partea superioar ntre 0,98 i 1.06 cm (40 %). The main decorative element, however, remains the dried fruit (capsule), whose dimensions determine largely decorative value. For height and diameter of dried fruit, histogram analysis indicates that most of the dried fruits have a height between 1.4 and 1.5 cm (28%) and a top diameter between 0.98 and 1.06 cm ( 40%).

Tabelul 2: Variabilitatea caracterelor morfologice (distribuia procentuala) ale plantelor si elementelor decorative (capsula) la specia Papaver rhoeas Table 2: Variability of morphological characters (percentage distribution) of plants and decorative elements (capsule) to the species Papaver rhoeas Numr ramificaii Numrul de capsule nlimea Capsulei Diametrul capsulei Number of branches Number of capsules Capsule height Capsule diameter
Bin Cumulative % 2.00 8.00 18.00 44.00 48.00 84.00 96.00 100.00

Bin
16 31.571 47.142 62.714 78.285 93.857 109.428 More

Cumulativ e%
4.00 22.00 62.00 76.00 88.00 92.00 96.00 100.00

Bin 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 More

Cumulative %

Bin

Cumulativ e%

6.714 9.428 12.143 14.857 17.571 20.285 More

2.00 18.00 28.00 42.00 70.00 82.00 98.00 100.00

0.7 0.771 0.842 0.914 0.985 1.057 1.128 More

10.00 10.00 20.00 38.00 38.00 78.00 90.00 100.00

Calculul coeficienilor de regresie (r) i determinare (R 2), au pus n eviden relaiile dintre unele caractere morfologice analizate (tabelul 3). Calculation of regression coefficients (r) and determination (R2), highlighted the relationship between some morphological characters examined (Table 3). Analizand asfel, calculul coeficientului de regresie si de determinare, indic o corelaie pozitiv, intre numrul mediu de ramificaii i numrul mediu de capsule pe planta; coeficientul de determinare (R2 = 0,519) arat faptul c, n procent de 52 %, numrul mediu al capsulelor este determinat de numrul mediu al ramificaiilor pe plant (figura 1). Thus analyzing, calculating and determining the regression coefficient indicates a positive correlation between average number of branches and the average number of capsules per plant, the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.519) show that the percentage of 52%, the average number of capsules is determined by the average number of branches per plant (Figure 1).

140 120 100 nr. capsule 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 nr. ramificatii 15 20 25

y = 0.1326x 2 + 0.6788x + 14.136 R2 = 0.5187

Figura 1: Corelaia dintre numrul de ramificaii pe plant i numrul de capsule Figure 1: Correlation between the number of branches per plant and number of capsules In scopul seleciei ar fi utila o metoda de estimare rapida a dimensiunilor prii decorative (capsul) si aceasta s-ar obine prin cunoaterea corelaiilor ce exista intre caracterele plantei. The selection would be useful for a quick estimation method of decorative party size (capsule) and it would get by knowing that there are correlations between plant characters. Cele mai stranse corelaii ce implica caracteristicile capsulei (pentru plantele studiate) au fost gsite intre diametrul capsulei i numrul de capsule pe plant (R 2=0.231) i ntre nlimea i diametrul capsulei (r = 0,363), indicnd faptul ca aproximativ 13 % din variaia nlimii capsulei ar putea fi determinata de variaiile diametrului capsulei (R 2 = 0,132) (tabelul 3). The tight correlation involving capsule characteristics (for plants studied) were found between capsule diameter and number of capsules per plant (R2 = 0.231) and between height and diameter of the capsule (r = 0.363), indicating that approximately 13% of variation capsule height variations could be caused by capsule diameter (R2 = 0.132) (Table 3). Tabelul 3: Coeficienii de corelaie si determinare ntre principalele caracteristici fizice ale plantelor i fructelor la specia Papaver rhoaes Table 3: Correlation and determination coefficients between the main physical characteristics of fruit plants and the species Papaver rhoaes
Caracteristici Features Diametrul Diameter r nlime planta Plant +0,711 height Diametrul plant Diameter plant R2 0.506 Numr ramificaii Numr capsule nlime capsula Number of Number of capsules Capsule heght branches r R2 r R2 r R2 +0,268 +0,555 0.072 0.308 +0,291 +0,497 0.085 0.247 +0,278 0.077

Numr ramificaii Number of branches Numr capsule Number of capsules Diametrul capsula Diameter capsule

-0.091

0.0083

+0,720 +0.481

0.519 0.231

-0.279 +0,138 +0,363

0.0078 0.019 0.132

Rezultatele obinute indic o mare variabilitate n cadrul populaiilor studiate, variabilitate util n programele de selecie a unor indivizi valoroi din punct de vedere ornamental. The results obtained show a great variability in the populations studied, variability useful in screening programs for individuals in terms of valuable ornamental. CONCLUZII CONCLUSIONS Prezenta unor astfel de variaii pentru caracteristicile plantei i fructului, indic un potenial ridicat n selecia de plante utilizate ca flori uscate (aranjamente din flori uscate). Flora spontan poate fi considerat o surs reala, privind i selecia de flori uscate cu potenial decorativ. This changes the characteristics of such plants and fruits, indicating a potential in the selection of plants used as dried flowers (dried flower arrangements). Spontaneous flora can be considered a real source, the selection of dried flowers and decorative potential.

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