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UNIT 8 DESIGN OF COLUMN SPLICES

Structure
8.1 Introduction
Objectives

8.2 Splicing of Columns 8.3 Design Elements of Splice Plate


8.3.1 8.3.2 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 8.4.6 8.4.7 8.4.8

Design Steps for Column Splice Design Problems on Column Splice Design Design Design Design Cesign Design Design Design of Framed Conneclion Example on the Framed Connection of Unstiffened Conneclion Example on Unstiffened Seated Connection of Stiffened Sealed Conneclions Example on Stiffened Seated Conneclion of Clip-angle Connection Example on Clip Angle Connection

8.4 Beam-Column Joints

8.5 Summary 8.6 Answers to SAQs

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Sometimes the length of a column in a multistoreyed building may be so large that it cannot be manufactured out of a single piece. Hence splicing is frequently be resorted to in such cases. As this is a common point of weakness, this must be properly attended to, so that a splice is not weak in axial load, horizontal shear or bending moment. The splices may be done by means of rivets or welds. These are explained in this unit. In case of beams joining into a column a large variety of cases may arise depending upon the shape and size of the joining members. These connections are again to be properly made to develop the requisite resistance to shear, bearing, crushing, bending (moment) or torsion. Again the principal fasteners are either welds or rivets.These connections are made by means of cleat angles, clip-angles, plates and seats or by simple framing. These have been extensively discussed in this unit.

Objectives
After studying this unit you should be able to design splices in column to column connections, design beam-column joints of various types, distinguish between stiffened and un-stiffened seated connection, and design cleat angle connection.

8.2 SPLICING OF COLUMNS


Columns are the structural members used to take compressive loads. The splicing of a column is necessary where (a) the available length is less than the required length or (b) the section is to be changed as per requirement. The beams are connected to the columns at their ends with the flange or web of the columns. The connection may be framed connections, seated connections

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

unstiffened or stiffened, or moment resistant connections. The connections may be riveted or welded. The necessity of column splicing is given is Section 8.2. The splicing should be done 30 to 50 cm above the floor level to make section easy. The splicing should be desi.gned to carry all types of loads i.e., axial loads, transverse force (horizontal shear) or moments. Typical column splices are shown in Figure 8.1.

PLice Plate

Figure 8.1: Type of Column Splices

8.2.1 IS Code Specifications


Clause 5.3.4 of IS: 800-1984 gives the specifications for column splices. These are:
1)

a)

Where the ends of compression members are faced for bearing over the whole area, they shall be spliced to hold the connected members accurately in position, and to resist any tension when bending is present. The ends of compression members faced for bearing shall invariably be machined to ensure perfect contact of surfaces in bearing.

b)

2)

Where such members are not faced for complete bearing, the splices shall be designed to transmit all the forces to which they are subjected. Wherever possible, splices shall be proportioned and arranged so that the centroidal axis of the splice coincides as nearly as possible with the centroidal axes of the members jointed in order to avoid eccentricity, but where eccentricity is present in the joint, the resulting stress shall be provided for.

3)

SAQ 1
1)
2) What is columns splicing? What is the necessity of column splicing? What are types of connections used for beam with columns?

3)

8.3 DESIGN ELEMENTS OF SPLICE' PLATE


1) 2) 3) Width of splice plate Length of splice plate Thickness of splice plate No. of rivets

4)

83.1

Design Steps for Column Splice

Case 1: For uniform column section, the ends of the column are cut by ordinary method and are not milled. Steps
1)
2)

Load to be transmitted by column splices = total axial load. Load taken by one splice plate = - total axial load. 2 Assume oa,= 150 ~ / r n r n ~ since , the slenderness ratio is zero because the splice plate is in contact with column. Calculate the area of splice plate required. Load on splice plate 150 The width of splice plate = width of flange of column. Area of splice plate =
1

3)
4)

5)

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

6)

Calculate the thickness of plate required Area of splice plate width of splice plate
'

Minimum thickness should be 6 mm.


7)

Assume the diameter of rivet and calculate the gross diameter of rivets. Calculate the strength of rivets in single shear and bearing. Find the rivet value. Calculate the number of rivets ( n )

8) 9)

: .

n=

Land on splice plate Rivet value

Adopt in 'n' number of rivets on either side of the joint. 10) Calculate the length of the splice plate
= 2 x edge distance

+ (n -

1 ) pitch.

Minimum pitch = 2.5 x nominal diameter Edge distance = 1.5 x nominal diameter

Case 2: For uniform column section, the ends of the column are machined and milled. Steps

1)

Load to be transmitted by column splices = 50% of total axial load. Follow the same step ( 2 ) to (10) as in case ( 1 ) .

Case 3: For uniform column section subjected to axial load and moment. Steps

1)
2)

Additional axial load due to moment =

moment depth of column section

Follow the steps ( 1 ) to (10) given in case ( 1 ) .

Case 4: Splicing of different column sections subjected to axial force, moment and shear.
a) When the difference in column depths is less, no bearing plate is required.

1)

Design of Filler Plate

1 For flanges, the thickness of filler plate = - x difference of column 2 depths.


The width of filler plate = It gradually decreases from width of flange of lower column to the width of flange of top column.

1 Length of filler plate 2 - x length of flange splice plate. 2 For Webs, Size of filler plate = size of web plate. 1 Thickness of filler plate = - x difference in thickness of webs. 2
2) Design of Flange Splice Plate It is used to resist axial force and moment. The design procedure is same as case (3).

Design of Web Plate

Design of Column Splices

Let us adopt 2 rivets on either side of joints. Calculate the rivet value. Calculate the force due to axial force, Fa=2'

Figure 8.2: Web Plate

Calculate the force due to moment, F,

M .r M = (H x a). z?

Calculate the resultant force on the rivet. F = It should be less than the Rivet value. If not change the diameter. Calculate the thickness of web plate = h 7va where, b)

zva= 100 N/mm 2.

When the difference in column depths is more, bearing plate is required.


Design of Bearing Plate

Moment M =

x b.
- u p p e r CoLuliln

Width of Bearing Plate = width of flanges = 1.

9
+
c b - y

5
4 Lower

A .

The design of flange splice plate, web splice plate and filler plate is similar to case (4).

Figure 8.3: Bearing Plate

8.3.2 Design Problems on Column Splices


Example 8.1
A column consisting of ISHB 400 @ 822 N/m carries an axial load of 400 kN. Design the colume splices when

Members in Flexure &

Column lasea

a) b)

The ends of the column are cut by ordinary method The ends of the columns are milled and faced for bearing. , = 250 Nlmm2. Take f

Solution
a)

The ends of the columns are cut by ordinary method. 1) 2) 3)


Load to be transmitted by column splices = Total axial load = 400 kN.

400 Load on each splice = -= 200 kN 2


Assume oa,= 150 N/mm2 Area of splice plate =

4)
5)

200 lo3 = 1333.32 mm2. 150

Width of splice plate = width of flange = 250 mm. Thickness of splice plate
=

6)

1333'33 = 5.33 mm. Adopt 6 mm thickness. 250

7) Let us use 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets.


Gross diameter = (20 + 1.5) = 2 1.5 mm.

8)

Strength of rivets in

ii)

300 Bearing = 21.5 x 6 x -= 38.7 kN 1000

. ;
9)

Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN.

200 No. of rivets = -= 5.5 36.3


Use 6 rivets in two rows of 3 each on either side of the joint.

10) Let pitch = 60 mm.


Edge distance = 30 mm Length of the plate = 5 x 60

+ 2 x 30 = 360 mm

(a)

(b)

'

Figure 8.4

b)

The ends of the columns are milled and faced for bearing
1)

Design of Column Splices

Load on column splices = 400 - 200 kN. 2 Load on each splice = 200 = 100 kN. 2 Assume o,, = 150 N m d . Area of splice plate =

2) 3) 4)
5)

loo lo3 = 666.67 mm2. 150

Width of splice plate = 250 mm.

6)

666.67 Thickness of splice plate = ----- - 2.67 mm. 250


Adopt 6 mm thickness.

7) 8) 9)

Let us use 20 mm diameter power driven shop rivets Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN. No. of rivets = loo - 2.8. Use 4 rivets is two rows on either side of 36.3 the joint

10) Let pitch = 60 mm.


Edge distance = 30 mm. Length of the plate = 3 x 60 + 2 x 30 = 240 mm.

(0)

Figure 8 5

6,

Example 8.2
A column consisting of ISHB 400 O 822 N/mm carries an axial load of 400 kN and a moment of 20 kN-m. Design the column splices when the ends of the column are milled and faced for bearing.

Solution
1)
Depth of the column section, d = 400 mm.

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

M 20 Additional axial load due to Monlent = - = -= 50 kN. d 0.4

2)
3)
4)

Total axial load = 400

+ 50 = 450 kN

450 Load on column splices = -= 225 kN. 2 Load on each column splice Assume o,, = 150 N mm2 112.5 x lo3 2 = 750 mm . 150 Width of splice plate = 250 mm. Area of splice plate 750 Thickness of splice plate = -- = 3 mm. 250 Adopt 6 mm thickness.

=2 E= 112.5 kN.

5) 6)
7)

8)

9) Let us use 20 mm dia. P.D.S. rivets 10) Rivet value, R = 36.3 mrn. 112.5 11) No of rivets, n = ---- - 3.1 363 Adopt 4 rivets in two rows of two each on either side of the joint
12) Let pitch = 60 mm Edge distance = 30 mm. Length of the plate = 3 x 60 + 2 x 30 = 240 mm.

(a)

Figure 8.6

Example 8.3
A column consisting of ISHB 400 @ 822 N/m carries an axial load of 400 kN, moment of 20 kN and shear force of 40 kN. Design the column splices where the ends of the column are milled and faced for bearing.
Solution Take f, = 250 ~ l m m ~ .

Design jlange splice plate

Design of Web Splice Plate


1) Shear force = 40 kN Average shear stress = 0.4 f , = 100 ~ / m m ~ 2) 3) Assume thickness = 6 mm.
lo3= 400 mmz 100 2 400 Area of one web plate = -= 200mm . 2 200 Length of the web plate required = -- 33.33 mm. 6

Design of Column Splices

Area of web plates = 40

4)

Let us adopt 120 mm length plate. Width 120 mm.


5)

Let us adopt 4 rivets of 20 mm dia p.d.s rivets Strength of rivets in i) ii)

6)

n: double shear = 2 q (21.5d) x


bearing
= 21.5 x

1000

= 72.6 kN

300 6 x -= 38.7 kN. 1000

: .
7)

Rivet value, R = 38.7 kN

Check for Rivets


The rivets are subjected to eccentricity of force. The rivets are under direct force and force due to moment.

Figure 8.8

Members In Flexure & Cotmnn~Base

Resultant force on rivet =

= Example 8.4

m=
22.4 k~

< Rivet value

(OK)

Design a suitable splice joint between the bottom column ISHB 250 @ 547 N/m and the top column ISHB 225 @ 468 N/m. At the joint, the column is subjected to an axial load of 400 kN, a moment of 25 kN-m and a shear force of 40 kN. The ends of the columns are fully faced for complete bearing. Take fy = 250 ~ / m m ~ .

Solution
Design of Flange Splice Plate
1) Thickness of filler plate Depth of ISHB 250 = 250 mm Depth of ISHB 225 = 225 mm Thickness of filler plate = 250 - 225 = 12.5 mm. 2

Since the difference is less, no bearing plate is required. Width of filler plate = 225 mm. 2) Axial load = 400 kN Depth of the section, d = 250 mm. Additional axial load = -= 25 -100kN. d 0.25 Total axial load = 400 3)
4)

+ 100 = 500 kN.

'0 - 250 kN. Load on splice plates = 2

Load on each splice plate = 250 = 125 kN. 2

5) 6)

, , = 150 ~ / m m ~ Assume o
Area of splice plate = 12' lo3 = 833.33 rnm2 150

7)

Width of splice plate = 250 mm. 833.33 Thickness of filler plate = = 3.33 mm 250 Adopt 6 mm thickness.

8)

9)

Let us use 20 mm dia. p.d.s rivets.

10) Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN.

125 - 3.44 11) No. of rivets, n = 36.4

Design of Coluron Splices

Use 4 rivets in two lines of two each on either side of the joint. 12) Using a pitch of 60 mm and edge distance of 30 mm. Length of the plate = 3 x 60 + 2 x 30 = 240 m.
A '

30

(a)

Figure 8.9

Design of Web Splice Plate


1)

Thickness o f filler plate


t, of ISHB 250 = 9.7 mm

t, of ISHB 225 = 9.1 mm


Thickness of filler plate = 2) Shear force = 40 kN 9.7- 9.1 = 0.3 mm. 2

4) 5) 6)
7)

Area required =

40x id = 400 mrn2 100

400 Area of one web plate = -= 200 mm2. 2 Assume thickness of web plate = 6 mm. 200 Length of web plate = -= 33.33 mm. 6 Let us adopt 4 rivets of 20 mm dia PDS rivets Let pitch = 60 mm, edge distance = 30 mm. Width of plate = length of plate = 2 x 30 + 60 = 120 mm.

8)
9)

10) Rivet value, R = 38.7 kN. 11) Check for Rivets Same as in Example 8.3

Rivets for Filler Plates: Use 2 - 20 mm @ p.d.s rivets for filler plates.

'Members in Flexure & Column Bases

C c - 2 5 0 d
(a)

h 2'Omd
(b)

Figure 8.10

Example 8.5
A column of section ISHB 300 @ 630 N/m. Carrying an axial load of 600 kN is supported over another column of section ISHB 400 @ 822 Nlm. Design the splicing at the joint. The ends are milled for full bearing. Take f , = 250 ~ l m m ~ .

Solution
Filler Plate Design

Depth of ISHB 400 = 400 mm. Depth of ISHB 300 = 300 mm. Thickness of filler plate = 400 - 300 = 50 mm. 2 Width of filler plate = 250 mm.
Design of Bearing Plate

Design of Column Splices

= 14.835 x lo6 N - mm

Width of bearing plate 1 = 250 mm.

Thickness of bearing plate


t=

q c
1 obc

+zzzz7
250 x 165

= 46.45 mm. Adopt 50 mm thickness

6)

Length of the plate = 400 mm.

Design of' Flange Splice Plate 600 Load on splice plate = -= 300 kN. 2 300 Load on each splice plate = -= 150 kN. 2 Width of splice plate = 250 mm.

w Z

o , , = 150 ~ / m r n ~
Area required
=

mm2

150 lo) = 150

Thickness = looo - 4 mm. Adopt 6 mm thickness 250

I I

I I

Rf2arcn$ Plate

---r

I S H B kOO

------*

Figure 8.12

Members in Flexure &

Column B w a

7) 8) 9)

Let us use 20 mm dia. PDS rivets Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN. No of rivets
=-150 -4.13

36.3

Use 6 rivets of two rows of 3 for each on either side of the joint. 10) Using a pitch of 60 rnrn and an edge distance of 30 mm The length of plate = 5 x 60 + 2 x 30 + 5 0 = 410 mm.

Rivets for Connecting Filler Plates


As per code, for 8 mm thickness -2.5% of rivets
\

2 5 50 For 50 mm thickness = -x -x 4.13 = 0.65 100 8 Adopt 2 rivets in two lines one for each Length of filler plate = 4 x 30 + 60 = 180 mm.

SAQ 2
1)

A column consisting of ISHB 400 @ 774 Nlrn caries an axial load of 700 k/N. Design the column splices, assuming that (a) ends of the column are cut by ordinary method and not milled and (b) ends of the columns are milled and faced for bearing. Take f , = 250 ~ / m m ' .
A column consisting of ISHB 350 @ 724 Nlrn subjected to a moment of 70 kN-m in addition to an axial load of 500 kN. Design the column splices, if the ends are milled and faced for bearing. Take fy 250 ~ / r n r n ~ .

2)

3)

A column section ISHB 150 @ 271 Nlrn is to be spliced with another column section ISHB 150 @ 346 Nlrn. The load on the column is 200 kN. Design the Splice.
A column section ISHB 450 @ 872 Nm is to be spliced with a column ISHB 300 @ 588 Nlrn. The load on the column is 500 kN. Design a suitable splice. If a shear force of 100 kN also acts, design the shear splice.

4)

5)

A column section ISHB 225 @ 468 Nlrn is to be spliced at floor level. The force at the section are axial load, transverse shear and bending moment of 300 kN, 80 kN, 22.5 kN-m. Design a suitable splice. ,
A column section ISBH 400 @ 0.822 Nlrn is carrying an axial load of 500 IcN (50t) and a Bending moment of 40 kN-m (4 t.m) as well as shear force of 60 kN (6t). Design the cloumn, the column splice and shear splice. Adopt IS 800-1984 specifications. A column ISHB 350 @ 674 Nlrn is carrying an axial load of 1000 kN. It is to be supported over a column section ISHB 450 @ 872 N. Design the column splice. Draw to a suitable scale (1) sectional elevation (2) End view.

6)

7)

8.4

BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS

Deslw' of Column S p l h

The beams are connected with columns by using rivets, pins or by welding. The beams may transmit vertical reaction or moment with vertical reaction. The connections may be simple Semi-rigid or Rigid. In simple connections rotational restraint is less. It is not used in practice. In practice Rigid connections are used. The connections in rivets may be i) Framed connections (Figure 8.13) ii) Seated connections a) Unstiffened seat connection (Figure 8-14) b) Stiffened seat connection (Figure 8.15) iii) Moment resistant connections a) Clip angle connection (Figure 8.16) b) Bracket connections (Figure 8.17) c) Split Beam connection (Figure 8.18) d) Modified split beam connection (Figure 8.19) Framed Connections
A beam is connected to a column by using two angles on both sides of the web of the beam.
*

i)

.
v

Stan chion
Figure 8.13: Framed Beam Connections

ii)

Seated Beam Connections


In some cases the width of the flange or the depth of the web may be insufficient to accommodate the connecting angles. In that case the seated Beam connections are used. a)

Unstiffened Seat Connections

A seat angle is used to receive the beam.The seat angle is the one which has horizontal leg to receive.
It consists of flange cleat angle to keep the beam stable in a vertical position. by

Stiffened Seat Connections


It consists of seat angles, flange cleat angles and stiffener angles. This type of connection is used when the reaction is to be transmitted is more such that the cleat angle does not bear it.

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

(b)
Figure 8.14: Unstiffened Seated Connection

Figure 8.15: Stiffened Seated Connection

iii)

Moment Resistant Connections


This type of connections transmit shear and moment. Based on the magnitude of the moment to be transferred the connections may be 1.5 m all and 2 large moment resistant connections. a)

CLIP Angle Connections


In this connection 4 angles are used i.e. two clip angles and two web angles. The web angles resist shear only. The clip angles resist moment only.

Design of Column Spllces

(b)
(a)

Figure 8.16: Clip Angle Connection

b)

Bracket Connections
This connection is large moment resistant connection. It consists of two sets of angles along with gusset plates. One set is attached to the flange of the column and the other set is connected to the flange of the beam.

Figure 8.17: Bracket Connection

c)

Split Beam Connections


It is a large Moment Resistant connection. It consists of 2 split beams provided at the top and bottom flanges of the beam and two web angles. The split beams resist only moment, the web angles resist shear only

M e m b n In Flexure Cdumn Bases

Figure 8.18: Spit Beam Connection

d)

Modified Split Beam Connection


It is a large moment resistant connection. It consists of two split beams two web angles and one or two flange clip seats. The flange clip seat is commonly I-section.

Figure 8.19: Modified Split Beam Connection

8.4.1 Design of Framed Connection


Data
1)

Size of the column

2)

Size of the beam

3)

End reaction

Dedgn of Column Splka

Step I : Design of Rivets

i) ii)

Assume the diameter of the Rivet. Calculate the Gross diameter of the Rivet. a) Rivets connectiong web angle with web of the beam Calculate the strength of rivets in double shear and bearing. Calculate the Rivet value. Calculate the no. of Rivets = b) End reaction Rivet value

Rivets connecting the angle with flange of the column. Calculate the strength of Rivets in single shear and Bearing. Calculate the Rivet value Calculate the no. of Rivets = End reactions Rivet value

Step 2: Size of the Angle


i) ii)

Size of the angle leg is decided by the no. of rows of Rivets The length of the angle depends upon the no. of rivets in a row and the depth of the web of the beam.
Thickness of the Web Angle

Step 3: i)

Calculate average shear stress n , = 0.44 Calculate the thicknesss required


f=

ii)

End reaction n,x2xh

where, h = length of the web angle

8.4.2 Design Example on Framed Connection


A beam ISLB 400 @ 558 Nlm is supported at the flange of the column ISHB 250 @ 537 Nlm. The beam cames an end reaction of 100 kN. Design a suitable framed connection. 1)

Design of Rivets

'

Let us provide 20 mm dia. power driven shop rivets Gross diameter = 20 a)

+ 1.5 = 21.5 mm

Rivets connection angle with web of beam

Strength of Rivets in
1) Double shear =2xax(21.3) x-- loo -72.6kN
71

1000

2) Bearing

=21.5x8x-- 300 - 51.6k.N. loo0

t, for ISLB 400 = 8 mm

Rivet value

= 51.6 kN

Members in Flexure & Column ~ a f e s

No. of Rivets n =

End reaction Rivet value

=
b)

2 (say)

Rivets Connecting Angle with Flange of Column Strength of Rivets in 1) 2) Single shear = 4 x (21.5)~ xE= 36.3 kN 1000
7C

300 -51.6kN Bearing = 21.5 x 8 x -1000


Rivet value = 36.3 kN End reaction No of Rivets n = Rivet value

= 4 (say)
Provide 2 rivets for each angle 2)

Size of the Angle


The rivets are provided in a single low. Adopt ISA 90 x 90 angle. Adopting a pitch of 60 mm and an edge distance of 30 mm, the length of the angle required =2x30+60
I

= 120 mm

Figure 8.20

Adopt 120 mm length angle

Design of Column Splices

3)

Thickness of the Angle


Average shear stress nva= 0 . 4 4

Thickness f =

End reaction nva h

Adopt 8 mm thick angle

8.4.3 Design of Unstiffened Connection


These are suitable upto an end reaction of 200 kN.
Step I : Design of Seat Angle

a) b)

Calculate length of seat angle = flange width of beam Calculate the bearing length (1)

where, V = ~ n reaction, d
op= permissible bearing stress (0.75 fy),

tw = thickness of web of the beam, and

h2 = from steel tables.


= Root of fillet

Adopt the greater values of the above tw. c) Calculate the moment M = V. a where, n =

(4

- 10) but actual value of a is equal to (end clearance


1 +- thickness of angle - root radius) 2.

But, calculation take approximate value of a . d) c) Calculate Z required = -= -. o,, 185 Calculate thickness of angle

rn

rn

62 - dLength of the angle

97

Mcnbbers in Colu~nnRases

&

Step 2: Design of Rivets in Vertical Legs a) b) c) d) e)


f)

Assume diameter of rivets Find gross diameter of rivets Calculate the strength of rivets in single shear and bearing Calculate the rivet value Calculate the number of rivets = End reaction Rivet value

Adopt the size of seat angle depending the no. of rivets and no. of rows

Step 3: Desigrz of Rivets Connecting Seat Angle with Bean? Provide two rivets. Step 4: Rivets Connecting Cleat Anlge Adopt two rivets for connecting cleat angle with beam and column also Step 5: Size of Cleat Angle Adotp ISA 100 75, 8 mm with 100 mm leg horizontal

8.4.4 Design Example on Unstiffened Seated Connection


A beam ISLB 400 @ 558 N/m is supported at the flange of the column ISHB 250 @ 537 N/m. The beam carries an end reaction of 125 kN. Design unstiffened seated connection.

Solution
Step 1: Design of Seat Angle a) b) Length of seat angle = flange width of beam = 165 mm. Bearing length ( 1 )

i)

o , = 0.7 f ,= 0.75 x 250 = 187.5 ~ / m m '


tw= 8.0 mm.

= 28.08 mm.

Adopt 1 = 41.67 mm.

Dcsign of Colun~nSplices

e)

t=

62 dlength of the angle

Adopt 18 mm thick angle.

Step 2: Rivets in Vertical Leg


a) b) c) Assume 20 mm. dia. rivets, Gross diameter = 20 Strength of rivets in i)
ii)

+ 1.5 = 21.5 mm.

Single shear = - ( 2 1 . 5 ) ' x B = 36.3 kN 4 1000 300 Bearing =21.5x8x-=51.6kN. 1000

71

d)

Rivet value, R = 36.3 kN. 125 Number of rivets = -= 3.44.

e)

36.3

Adopt 4 rivets in two rows. Let us adopt ISA 200 150, 18 mm angle with 200 mm leg vertical.

Step 3: Rivets Connecting Seat Angle with beam.


Provide 2-20 mm dia. rivets, one on each side of the web.

Step 4: Rivets Connecting Cleat Angle


Provide 2-20 mm dia. rivets to connect cleat angle with beam and column also.

Step 5: Size of Cleat Angle


Adopt ISA 10075, 8 mm size angle with 100 mm horizontal.
TOP

dl-

cleat

'f

(a)

-250

(b)

Figure 8.21

Design bf Stiffened Seated Connections


If the end reaction is more than 200 kN, then

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

i)

the required thickness of seat angle is abnormal, and the length of leg of the seat angle is not sufficient to accommodate the required number of rivets. In this case, stiffened seated connections are used.

ii)

Design Procedure
Step I : Design of Stiffeerzer Angle

a)

Calculate the bearing length

ii)

I=-

v
20,,,,

Adopt the maximum of the above two values. b) Assuming a clearance of 10 mln, find the distance of stiffening edge from the flange of column = (1+ 10) rnm. Calculate the bearing area required = OP

c)

Calculate the stiffener angle = e)

Area required (1 + 10)

Check the outstand of the stiffener angle Maximum outstand = 16 t.

Step 2: Design of Seating Angle

a)

Adopt ISA 130130, 10 mm seat angle Use 2-2 mm dia rivets for connecting with beam and column also Length = flange width

b)
C)

Step 3: Design of Connections

a)

Calculate the a = distance of end reaction from the face of the column
= (thickness of seat angle )

+ (horizontal leg

length of stiffener angle) --. 2

b)

Calculate

M ,= V.a (bending moment)

c)

Calculate torsion m2= V.g where, g = gauge distance.

Mz is only single s t i f h e r angles.


d) Calculate the rivet value, K Calculate the number of rivets,

e)

where, m = no. of rows.


p = pitch of rivets

Step 4: Check for Stresses in Rivets

Design of Cdumn Splices

a) b)

Calculate SF in each rivet ( F I ) Calculate shear force due to M2 ( F 2 )

C) d) e)

Calculate the resultant SF, F = Calculate nv fl Calculate


0%
l,

,.,,=

6 M2 r n ~ n * ~

f)

Calculate,

0~ cal nvfca~ +-

olj

nvf

It should be less than 1.40


Step 5: Design Cleat Angle

a) b)

Use ISA 100 75, 8 mm angle with 100 mm leg horizontal. Use 2 rivets for connection with beam and column also.

8.4.6 Design Example on Stiffened Seated Connections


A beam ISMB 400 transmits an end reaction of 250 kN to the flange of ISHB 300. Design the stiffened seat connection using one stiffener angle.

Solution
1) Design of stiffener angle o,, = 0.754 = 187.5 MPa a) i) I = - o,, t w
h 2 6

tw = 8.9 mm.

Adopt 93 mm bearing length.


b)

Assume end clearance = 10 mm. Min. distance of stiffened edge from the column flange = 10 + 93 = 103 mm.

c)

Bearing area required = -

d)

Thickness required =

1333.33 = 12.9mm 103

Adopt ISA 130 130, 15 mm as stiffener angle

Members in Flexure & Column Bnses

e)

Maximum allowable outstand = 16 t = 16 x 15 = 240 mm. Outstand = 130-15 = 115 mm < 240 mm (OK)

Step 2: Design of Seating Angle

a)
b) c)

Adopt 1SA 150 150, 10 mm seat angle. Use 2-22 mm. dia, rivets for connecting with beam and column also. Length of angle = flange width of beam= 165 mrn.

Step 3: Desigrz of Conrzections

d)

Using 22 mm dia power driven shop rivets Gross diameter = 22 Strength of rivets in

+ 1.5 = 23.5 mm.

i)
ii)

Single shear = - (23.5)' x 1 0 0= 43.37 k~ 4 1000 300 Bearing = 23.5 x 10.6 x -= 74.73 kN 1000 (thickness of flange = 10.6 mm)

..
e)

Rivet value, R = 43.37 kN.

Number of rivets, rt =
=

/,.

6 x 23375 1 x 70 x 43.37

let Y = 70 mm

= 6.8

Adopt 8 rivets in a single row

Step 4: Check for Stresses in Rivets

= 36.75 kN.
36 - 75
Z V J c01=

lo3

11
= 84.74 Njmm2

IL
+

(23.a2

Figure 8.23

Design of Colutnn Splices

Not sa.f'& Let us adopt 10 rivets in a single row

Figure 8.23

Figure 8.24

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

--- 110'76 - 1.10 < 1.40 Safe. 100

Step 5: Design of Cleat Angle


a) b) Use ISA 10075, 8 mm angles with 100 mm leg horizontal. Use 2 rivets for connecting with beam and column.

8.4.7 Design of Clip Angle Connection


Data
Size of.beam Size of Column. End reaction and moment.

Step I : Culculation of Strength of Rivets


Assume the diameter of rivets. Find the gross diameter. Calculate the strength of rivets in a) b) c) d) e) Single shear Double shear Bearing against web of beam. Bearing against flange of beam & column. Axial tension.

Step 2: Design of Clip Angles


a) b) c) Adopt 2 rivets for connecting the clip angle with column flange. Find the strength of 2 rivets. Calculate the minimum distance required between top and bottom rivets.

d)
e)

End moment Strength of rivets

Choose the suitable size of vertical leg of clip angle. Calculate the horizontal shear between clip angle and beam. Calculate No. of rivets = Horizontal shear Rivet value

f)

Minimum number of rivets is 4 for rigidity g) h) Choose the size of horizontal leg Calculate the moment in the clip. ( M I )

M, = 0.6 x pull in each rivet x g (g


i)

60 mm)

Calculate the thickness of clip angle

Dcsig11 of Colunlli Splices

r=

Here, b = Rivet spacing

j)

Adopt the suitable clip angle.

Srcp 3: Design of Web Atzgles

a) b) c) d)

Adopt the size of web angles. Calculate the number of rivets for connecting with web of beam. Calculate the number of rivets for connecting with flange of beam. Adopting suitable pitch and edge distance, find the length of the angle.

8.4.8 Design Example on Clip Angle Connection


An ISMB 350 @ 524 N/m. transmits an end shear of 100 kN and a moment of 20 kN-m to the flange of column ISHB 350 @ 724 N/m. Design a suitable clip angle connection
Solution Data
V = 100 kN . M = 20 kN -m. For ISMB 350 @ 524 N/m.
fJ.=

14.2mm r, = 8.1 mm. b = 140 mm

For ISHB 350 0 724 N/m.

rf= 11.6 mm,


g = 140mm

b = 250 mm.

Step I : Stretlgth of Rivets

Assume 20 mm dia, P.D.S. rivets. Gross diameter = 20 a)

+ 1.5 = 21.5 mm.

Strength of rivets in single shear

b) c)

Strength of rivets in double shear = 2 X 36.3 kN. Strength of rivets in axial tension

d)

Strength of rivets in bearings on 8.1 rnm Web = 2 1 . 5 x 8 . 1 x--300 - 52.25 kN. 1000

I
I

e)

Strength of rivets in bearing on 11.6 mm

300 Flange = 2 1.5 x 11.6 x ---- = 74.82 kN. 1000


f)

Strength of rivets in bearing on 14.2 mm

300 -91.59kN. Flange = 21.5 x 14.2 x 1000

Members in

Cahmn Bases

&

Step 2: Design of Clip Angles

a) b)

Adopt 2 rivets for connecting the clip angle with column flange Rivet value = 36.3 kN (single shear, bearing against 11.6 mm thick plate) Strength of 2 rivets = 2 x 36.3 = 72.6 kN

c)

Minimum distance required between top and bottom rivets

End moment - 20 X 103 = 275.5 mm. Strength of rivets 72.6

But, the depth of beam is 250 mm. d) e) Hence adopt 100 mm vertical leg. Horizontal shear between clip angle a'nd beam = - = 2 0 x 1 0 3 = 5 7 . 1 k ~ d 350
f)

Rivet value = 36.3 kN. (Single shear & bearing on 14.2 mm plate) 57.1 36.3 - 1.57. NO. of rivets, n = Adopt 4 rivets

g) h)

Adopt 200 mm horizontal leg Pull in two rivets =

20 lo3 = 42.55 kN. (350 + 2 x 60)

42.55 = 21.28 kN. Pull in each rivet = -

M , = 0.6 x pull in each rivets x g

=0.6x21.28~60
= 766.08 kN - mm
= 766.08 x lo3 N

- mm.

i)

Thickness, t =

Use 15 mm thick angle.


j)

Adopt ISA 200, 150, 15 mm angle as clip angle

Step 3: Design of Web Angles

a) b)

Adopt ISA 100, 100 m 8 rnm angle Rivets connecting web of beam Rivet value = 52.25 kN. (Double shear & bearing on 8.1 mm plate)

100 No. of rivets = = 2 52.25 c) Rivets connecting column flange. (Single shear & bearing on 11.6 mm plate) Rivet value = 36.3 kN No. of rivets = -= 3. 36.3 Adopt 4 rivets. d) Adopting a pitch of 60 mm and an edge distance of 30 mm, length of web angle = 2 x 3 0 + 3 x 6 0 = 2 4 0 m m .
100

Design of Column Splices

8.5

SUMMARY

In this unit you have studied the subject of splicing in long columns. As the columns in multi-storyed buildings are very long, they need frequent joining by means of splices. You have studied both the riveted and welded type of such column splices. The other important topics explained in this unit was that of beam-column connections. As they are generally right-angled connections and may lie in different planes these are effected by framing, the directing seating design of all these connections have been explained in detailed in this unit.

8.6 ANSWERS TO SAQs


Refer the text and examples given in the unit.