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Examples of Gaussian Elimination

Example 1: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations x1 + 5x2 2x1 7x2 = 7 = 5.

Solution: We carry out the elimination procedure on both the system of equations and the corresponding augmented matrix, simultaneously. In general only one set of reductions is necessary, and the latter (dealing with matrices only) is preferable because of the simplied notation. x1 2x1 + 5x2 7x2 = 7 = 5 1 2 5 7 7 5

Add twice Row 1 to Row 2.

x1

5x2 3x2

= =

7 9

1 0

5 3

7 9

Multiply Row 2 by 1/3.

x1

5x2 x2

= 7 = 3

1 0

5 1

7 3

Add 5 times Row 2 to Row 1.

x1 x2

= 8 = 3

1 0

0 1

8 3

Example 2: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations 2x2 + x3 x1 2x2 3x3 x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 8 = 0 = 3.

Solution: As before, we carry out reduction on the system of equations and on the augmented matrix simultaneously, in order to make it clear that row operations on equations correspond exactly to row operations on matrices. 2x2 2x2 + x2 + x3 3x3 + 2x3 = 8 = 0 = 3 0 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 8 0 3

x1 x1

Swap Row 1 and Row 2.

x1 x1

2x2 2x2 + x2

3x3 + x3 + 2x3

= 0 = 8 = 3

1 0 1

2 2 1

3 1 2

0 8 3

Add Row 1 to Row 3.

x1

2x2 2x2 x2

3x3 + x3 x3

= 0 = 8 = 3

1 0 0

2 2 1

3 1 1

0 8 3

Swap Row 2 and Row 3.

x1

2x2 x2 2x2

3x3 x3 + x3

= 0 = 3 = 8

1 0 0

2 1 2

3 1 1

0 3 8

Add twice Row 2 to Row 3.

x1

2x2 x2

3x3 x3 x3

= 0 = 3 = 2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 1 1

0 3 2

Add 1 times Row 3 to Row 2. Add 3 times Row 3 to Row 1.

x1

2x2 x2 x3

= 6 = 5 = 2

1 0 0

2 1 0

0 0 1

6 5 2

Add 2 times Row 2 to Row 1.

x1 x2 x3

= 4 = 5 = 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

4 5 2

Multiply Rows 2 and 3 by 1.

x1 x2 x3 1cm

= 4 = 5 = 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

4 5 2

Example 3: Use Gaussian elimination to solve the system of linear equations x1 2x2 6x3 2x1 + 4x2 + 12x3 x1 4x2 12x3 = 12 = 17 = 22.

Solution: In this case, we convert the system to its corresponding augmented matrix, perform the necessary row operations on the matrix alone, and then convert back to equations at the end to identify the solution. x1 2x1 x1 2x2 + 4x2 4x2 6x3 + 12x3 12x3 = 12 = 17 = 22 1 2 1 2 4 4 6 12 12 12 17 22

1 0 0

2 8 2

6 24 6

12 41 10

Add 2 times Row 1 to Row 2. Add 1 times Row 1 to Row 3.

1 0 0

2 2 8

6 6 24

12 10 41

Swap Row 2 and Row 3.

1 0 0

2 2 0

6 6 0

12 10 1

Add 4 times Row 2 to Row 3.

1 0 0

2 2 0

6 6 0

12 10 1

x1

2x2 2x2

6x3 6x3 0

= 12 = 10 = 1

Since the nal equation 0 = 1 cannot be satised, this system has no solutions.