1. UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF RAPID-PROTOTYPING (RP) 1.

1 HISTORY OF RAPID-PROTOTYPING
In the late 1960s, Herbert Voelcker then an engineering professor at the University of Rochester, now at Cornell University went on sabbatical and asked himself how to do "interesting things" with the automatic, computer-controlled machine tools that were just beginning to appear on factory floors. In particular, Voelcker wanted to find a way to take the output from a computer design program and use it to program the automatic machine tools. With funding from NSF, Voelcker tackled the problem first by developing the basic mathematical tools needed to unambiguously describe three-dimensional parts (see the chapter on Visualization: Staking the Pioneers). The result was the early mathematical theory and algorithms of solid modeling that today form the basis of computer programs used to design almost everything mechanical, from toy cars to skyscrapers. During the 1970s, Voelcker's work transformed the way products were designed, but for the most part they were still made the same old way. That is, either a machinist or a computercontrolled machine tool would cut away at a hunk of metal until what remained was the required part, in much the same way as Michelangelo removed chips of marble from a block until all that remained was a statue of David. But then in 1987, University of Texas researcher Carl Deckard came up with a better idea. Instead of making a part by cutting away at a larger chunk of material, why not build it up layer by layer? Deckard imagined "printing" three-dimensional models by using laser light to fuse metallic powder into solid prototypes, one layer at a time. Deckard took his idea—considered too speculative by industry—to NSF, which awarded him a $50,000 Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) to pursue what he called "selective laser sintering." Deckard's initial results were promising and in the late 1980s his team was awarded one of NSF's first Strategic Manufacturing (STRATMAN) Initiative grants, given to the kind of interdisciplinary groups often necessary for innovation in the realm of manufacturing. The result of Voelcker's and Deckard's efforts has been an important new industry called "free form fabrication" or "rapid prototyping" that has revolutionized how products are designed and manufactured. An engineer sits down at a computer and sketches her ideas on screen with a computer-aided design program that allows her to make changes almost as easily as a writer can change a paragraph. When it's done, the design can then be "printed" on command, almost as easily as a writer can print a draft—except this draft is a precise, three-dimensional object made of metal or plastic.

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The method can be used to make things that are more than prototypes. "Because you can control it in this incredible way, you can make objects that you just couldn't think of machining before," says George Hazelrigg, group leader of DMII's research programs. "For example, you can make a ship in a bottle." More practically, the method has been used to make a surface with lots of tiny hooks that resembles Velcro. These new surfaces are proving to be ideal substrates for growing human tissue. NSF-funded researchers have already grown human skin on these substrates and are looking to grow replacements of other organs as well. "So these are pretty fundamental things," Hazelrigg says. "I think it's fair to say that we played a major role in it." Bruce Kramer, acting division director of NSF's Engineering and Education Centers, is even more definite: "For a majority of successful rapid prototyping technologies, the first dollar into the technology was an NSF dollar."

ANOTHER HISTORY OF RAPID-PROTOTYPING
Rapid prototyping is quite a recent invention. The first machine of rapid prototyping hit the markets in the late 1980s. The early rapid prototyping process derived its name from the activities and the purpose for which the earlier machines were utilized. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid prototyping refers to physical objects that are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology.

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On completion of the model. Rapid prototyping as mentioned earlier. The application of rapid prototyping in sculpting is to generate fine arts exhibitions. Over here a process called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) takes place wherein the final product is same as the image created.Rapid prototyping in its earlier days was applied to production of models and prototype parts. horizontal cross sections and then the process of creating successive layers continues till the model in complete. involves the use of additive manufacturing technology which actually takes the virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software (AMS). Apart from industrial applications. rapid prototyping is used widely for many applications that include manufacturing production-quality parts. These designs are further transformed into thin. virtual. one may find that the virtual model is almost same as the physical model. PAGE 3 . rapid prototyping is also used in sculpting. But nowadays with the advancement in technology. The manufacturing of these quality parts however are very small in numbers. Additive fabrication has the benefit of creating any shape or geometric feature. Once the layers which correspond to the virtual cross section from CAD are formed. they are either joined or fused automatically to yield the final shape.

the application of additive fabrication is recommended more and is cost effective. Even here the size and the number of models to be created play an equally important role. Sometimes the type of machine being used also influences the time taken for the creation of a new model though the additive systems are applied. PAGE 4 . but when it comes to manufacturing parts in smaller volumes. It actually depends upon the complexity and size of the model. This STL file format enables the approximation of a shape of a part or the entire assembly using triangular facets. Smaller the facet. One should consider the meaning of the word rapid as ‘relative’. The technique used in solid free-form fabrication involves the use of two materials in the construction of parts. In case of manufacturing polymer products in higher quantities. The use of support material is to provide support to the projecting features during construction. a process called traditional injection molding is more feasible in terms of cost.Working of Rapid Prototyping Machines CAD software and the rapid prototyping machine are connected with a data interface that is called as the STL file format. One of it is the building material of that part and the other is the support material. as the construction process of a model with the contemporary methods can take up a long time which can be several hours to several days. The method used over here also plays an important role. higher is the quality surface. There are some other techniques that are used in the construction of parts.

through the help of a SLS machine. PAGE 5 .Prototyping Technologies Some of the prototyping technologies used in various rapid prototyping machines are as follows: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS): This technology involves the use of high power laser for the fusion of tiny particles of plastic. into a mass that represents a desired 3D object. Materials used in this technique are metal powders and thermoplastics. metal etc. This is an additive manufacturing technique.

Laminated object manufacturing (LOM): PAGE 6 .Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): This additive manufacturing technology was invented in the late 1980s by S. Photo-polymer is the principle material used in this technique. Scott Crump and is used for applications like modeling. This technology involves the use of eutectic metals and thermoplastics. prototyping and production. Stereo lithography (SLA): This also is an additive manufacturing technology and is used for production of models. patterns etc through the Stereo lithography machine.

paper or metal laminates are fused together and cut into shape with the aid of a knife or a laser cutter. 3D Printing: PAGE 7 . In this method layers of adhesivecoated plastic.Paper material is the base material used in this technology.

This process involves the sequential delivery of energy. Rapid manufacturing is an advanced form of this technology. PAGE 8 . that would be applied to the manufacturing of solid objects. 3D printing technology actually is said to be more affordable. In this technology successive layers of material create a 3D object. This is an additive fabrication technique. Though production applications are actually dominated by the additive manufacturing technologies. is now entering into rapid manufacturing which is more advanced as compared to rapid prototyping machines as it can be used for large products. 3D has a great potential to prove useful in the production applications. material (material sometimes may not be used) to the specified points in space. easy to use and speedy than the additive manufacturing technologies. Rapid prototyping. in order to produce a particular part.This too is an additive manufacturing technology and involves the use of various materials.

As this program makes different models simpler. PAGE 9 . features. The product can be produced if the prototype meets the requirements of all designing objectives after sufficient refinement. a Full color 3D analysis model can be easily created.1. This helps in easy implementation of the ideas and better communication of ideas. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like. Seeing the efficiency of rapid prototypes. 2) Can be used in different industries. The Rapid prototype that is developed by the process of rapid prototyping is based on the performance of earlier designs. it is possible to correct the defects or problems in the design by taking corrective measures. 7) Manufacturer. This process of development of working model is quite quick. Then and there it can be tested for its functionality. Here the physical objects are automatically created using solid freeform fabrication. popularly known as SFF. 3) Easily the errors in previous design can be detected and errors can be rectified. a significant and essential part of the system designing process and it is believed to decrease the project cost and risk. Rapid prototyping is. 5) Greater visualization capabilities are improved right from the first stage if designing. 4) Only upon the complete satisfaction the complete product is designed.2 DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES OF RP Rapid prototype is a process wherein a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various product features like design. A rapid rapid prototyping system by and large involves making of a 3D objects based on design data. designer and user can discuss the product and work forward to get the best product. There are many advantages of rapid prototyping. Factors like manufacturability. robustness and functionality of design are checked before sending it for production. generally. presentation and output. functionality.1. Hence. performance and output. This helps to give the user higher output product. The user can give an early feedback regarding the prototype. This is rendered from a CAD system. Rapid prototyping is a well defined process of developing software. ideas. Some of the advantages of rapid prototyping systems are: 1) Reduction in project cost and risk. 6) All the designing flaws can be detected easily before the manufacturing of the product starts. easily one can get the user feedback.

faster is better. Time to Market The faster a prototype is created. The next step after making these adjustments is manufacturing. you would like to know the industries where this system works well. Professionals have made use rapid prototyping systems wisely. Rapid prototyping techniques hold a number of advantages--like speed. In addition. Because of the competition to get products to market more quickly. and consumer products. Cost Savings/Reduction Creating the tooling for injection molding prototypes is not only laborious. Rapid prototyping systems are used in industries such as designing and engineering. Rapid prototyping systems build parts in an additive. PAGE 10 . the quicker designers and engineers can analyze it for design flaws and make necessary adjustments. they have been able to meet the future requirements of the customers more successfully. Using their skill and expertise. A 60 to 90 percent reduction in prototype creation has a direct impact on how quickly companies can release their products to market. Speed According to "The Benefits of Rapid Prototyping". defense. Engineering & Manufacturing Services Inc (EMS) is one of the leading provider of rapid prototyping services and rapid prototype models. aerospace. With rapid prototyping. medical. the same model parts can be made within hours. These systems can be used over and over again to build a variety of different parts within their build size. Creating the tooling for injection molding and other conventional prototyping processes can take days. but expensive. tooling can only be used for creating that particular part. ANOTHER ADVANTAGES OF RP In today's world.Seeing so many advantages of rapid prototype. companies are using rapid prototyping techniques to build parts for testing and analysis. automotive. the time spent using rapid prototyping techniques has decreased by as much as 90 percent compared to other prototype methods. and cost savings--when compared to traditional prototyping methods. layer-by-layer manner. time to market.

2 EXPLAIN THE ADDITIVE PROCESS Additive process : The raw material for the manufacture of PCB by additive or semiadditive technique is basically an unclad laminate and copper which is pattern plated selectively only where it is the fully additive process. After the platform lowers. (b) Mechanical transfer of the sensitizer in the conducting path by image transfer by printing (stamping). PAGE 11 . fastened to the part either with a second. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. Through holes are drilled/. 2. elastomer (96 durometer). 2. MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower. Selective plating on conducting areas is carried out by several methods such as : (a) Selective desensitization of areas of the catalyst coated surface by exposure to light of suitable wavelength.3 EXPLAIN THE VIRTUAL PROCESS a.1 EXPLAIN THE SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS Subtractive process : This is the most conventional method of getting the circuit pattern. The basic material for fabrication is a laminate with copper foil bonded to the substrate. high-precision machines. while load on etching is brought to a minimum in the semiadditive pattern plating technique. CLASSIFY THE THREE MAJOR GROUP PROCESS OF RP 2. filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. Like a baker decorating a cake. Stratasys.punched in these clad laminates. polycarbonate. screen printing or offset printing method. Supports are built along the way. and investment casting wax. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade). Fused-deposition modelling In this technique. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. of Eden Prairie. so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens.2. polyphenolsulfone. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. weaker material or with a perforated junction. The image of the circuit pattern is produced either by printing and screen printing with ink resist or by photofabrication techniques.

Schematic diagram of stereolithography. the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. b. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. As shown in the figure below.Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid. Stereolithography Patented in 1986. PAGE 12 . The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light.

SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. Selective Laser sintering Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. selling more RP machines than any other company. Because it was the first technique. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. shown in Figure 3. To this day. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. This process continues until the part is complete. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia. but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems. CA. TX. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete.Next. 3D Systems is the industry leader. Afterwards. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion. The technique. such as nylon. A sweeper recoats the solidified layer with liquid. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. elastomer. into a solid object. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. sintering it together. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. and metal. PAGE 13 . c.

A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype).. the roller bonds the second layer to the first. Helisys developed several new sheet materials. where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. including plastic. As shown in the figure below. BPM. water-repellent paper. Crosshatching breaks up the extra material. Inc. the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thinwalled sections. Because the models are made of paper. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. developed by Helisys of Torrance.d. but prior to that it was an early generic term for inkjet-based RP. layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. As of 2001. CA. e. At one time the term was used to refer to a specific company's technology. and ceramic and metal powder tapes. This process is repeated as needed to build the part. After the first layer is cut. making it easier to remove during post-processing. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. PAGE 14 . now defunct. Laminated-object manufacturing and solid – ground curing In this technique. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. The powder tapes produce a "green" part that must be sintered for maximum strength. and the laser cuts the second layer. The term is not often used at present. Next. which will have a wood-like texture. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. Ballistic – particle manufacturing A rapid prototyping process which deposits materials by means of inkjet technology. During the build. Helisys is no longer in business.

1. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. Unlike SLA.  Mereka bentuk 2. SGC cures an entire layer at a time. EXPLAIN BASIC METHODOLOGY FOR RP PROCESS USE AS A MANUFACTURING STEP IN PRODUCTION. which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers (Check drawing error). which is also known as the solider process.  Pembinaan PAGE 15 . photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. 3.  Tukar format 3.  Pemeriksaan reka bentuk. 3. The mask is then exposed to UV light. the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. 1. 4.Solid – ground curing Developed by Cubital. Convert the CAD model to STL format (STL Data). Construct the model one layer atop another (Building). Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing. First. solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. Next. Create a CAD model of the design (CAD/CAM). UNDERSTAND DIRECT MANUFACTURING AND RAPID TOOLING.

tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD. "like the facets of a cut jewel. Large. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation.5. this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. Because STL files use planar elements. Solid modelers.  Penyudahan CAD Model Creation: First. such as Pro/ENGINEER. The second step. PAGE 16 . and will therefore yield better results. the object to be built is modeled using a ComputerAided Design (CAD) software package. To establish consistency." 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. complicated files require more time to pre-process and build. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. but at the cost of bigger file size. is to convert the CAD file into STL format.stl format is universal. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. the STL (stereolithography. Since the . This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. Clean and finish the model (Post processing). Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. therefore.

properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. thereby shortening build time. For example. and thin-walled sections. and most allow the user to adjust the size. First. depending on the build technique. Several programs are available.01 mm to 0. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary preprocessing software. needing little human intervention. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. PAGE 17 . In addition. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. paper.Slice the STL File: In the third step. location and orientation of the model. Most machines are fairly autonomous. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. Build orientation is important for several reasons.7 mm thick. internal cavities. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. or powdered metal. Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.

Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. Basic methodology for RP process . PAGE 18 . Sanding. sealing. and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use.

but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters. Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique. Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense. To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts. so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. Inc. LOM models. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. Likewise. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. are often used. A more useful variant. The pattern must not expand when heated. known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process. RAPID TOOLING Indirect Tooling Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. When the rubber hardens. The paper shells burn out. a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. PAGE 19 . 2. or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. DTM sells Trueform polymer. it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. The part collapses inward when heated. 4. EXPLAIN RAPID TOOLING USES. The tools have fairly good accuracy. the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern. leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings. which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. If sealed and finished. a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise. the "green" metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. for use in its SLS machines. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used. 3D Systems introduced QuickCast. 18 First. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes: 1. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds. a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools.4. leaving some ash to be removed. the SLA pattern is plated with nickel. 3. When the binder cures. which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose. as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems. To form the mold.

tungsten. Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. which then solidifies. uniform cross sections. Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable. cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. and titanium carbide cermets. will soon sell a machine. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties. that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products. since the metal is melted. RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. polypropylene and ABS plastic. PAGE 20 . Realization of this objective is still several years away.000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes. Extrude Hone. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. H13 tool steel. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene. but some strong strides are being made: 1. based on MIT’s 3D Printing process. polystyrene. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www.Direct Tooling To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. 4. LENS produces fully dense parts. In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30. 2. thus shortening cycle time.com) 3. not merely sintered. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). The resulting mold can produce up to 50. In another variation.mts. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core. Inconel 625. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool. Unlike traditional powder metal processing. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster.000 injection moldings. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable. in Irwin PA. LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. but the process currently works only for parts with simple.

Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories. electro-discharge machining. molds and dies are traditionally made by CNCmachining. All are expensive and time consuming. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process. Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. To meet these requirements. believes that "tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more" by using rapid tooling and related technologies. tools must be hard. Soligen (www. Peter Hilton.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting.5. so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. MA. and have very low surface roughness (about 0. A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling. (Direct Shell Production Casting). or by hand. wearresistant. PAGE 21 . the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord. Tools often have complex geometries.3dprinting. because of the extremely high quality required. indirect and direct.5 micrometers root mean square). In addition. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds.

The key advantages highlighted are decreasing development time. which would be able to take over the current technology. A technology that is worth looking forward to the future. The disadvantages of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service. and the further steps of the component’s mass production process could be carried out. The main advantages of Rapid Prototyping is the ability to produce physical models using digital methods instead of traditional impression techniques. the risk of component failure was reduced. Once the required corrections were carried out no more problems were encountered in the subsequent prototype. minimize sustain engineering changes and increasing the number of variants of products. PAGE 22 . or perhaps a technology.CONCLUSION 1. 5. For the studied ‘Upper Case” part. 3. Rapid Prototyping is an emerging technology that a brighter and efficient future. 2. injection molding. Rapid Prototyping is the future for the next generation of design and manufacturing with the traditional way of design and manufacturing found that there are many advantages with Rapid Prototyping. 4.

aspx 5. PAGE 23 .wikipedia.additive-process-and-virtual-process3019050.REFERENCE 1. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.me. Source: Mohd Zuhri b.com/1571938 3. http://www. http://en.expertsmind. Buku rujukan workshop technology 4.htm#p rocess 6.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping 2.com/questions/subtractive-rapidprototyping-process. http://www. Mohamed Yusoff UTem Melaka 2007.edu/lamancusa/rapidpro/primer/chapter2.psu.

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