In the late 1960s, Herbert Voelcker then an engineering professor at the University of Rochester, now at Cornell University went on sabbatical and asked himself how to do "interesting things" with the automatic, computer-controlled machine tools that were just beginning to appear on factory floors. In particular, Voelcker wanted to find a way to take the output from a computer design program and use it to program the automatic machine tools. With funding from NSF, Voelcker tackled the problem first by developing the basic mathematical tools needed to unambiguously describe three-dimensional parts (see the chapter on Visualization: Staking the Pioneers). The result was the early mathematical theory and algorithms of solid modeling that today form the basis of computer programs used to design almost everything mechanical, from toy cars to skyscrapers. During the 1970s, Voelcker's work transformed the way products were designed, but for the most part they were still made the same old way. That is, either a machinist or a computercontrolled machine tool would cut away at a hunk of metal until what remained was the required part, in much the same way as Michelangelo removed chips of marble from a block until all that remained was a statue of David. But then in 1987, University of Texas researcher Carl Deckard came up with a better idea. Instead of making a part by cutting away at a larger chunk of material, why not build it up layer by layer? Deckard imagined "printing" three-dimensional models by using laser light to fuse metallic powder into solid prototypes, one layer at a time. Deckard took his idea—considered too speculative by industry—to NSF, which awarded him a $50,000 Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) to pursue what he called "selective laser sintering." Deckard's initial results were promising and in the late 1980s his team was awarded one of NSF's first Strategic Manufacturing (STRATMAN) Initiative grants, given to the kind of interdisciplinary groups often necessary for innovation in the realm of manufacturing. The result of Voelcker's and Deckard's efforts has been an important new industry called "free form fabrication" or "rapid prototyping" that has revolutionized how products are designed and manufactured. An engineer sits down at a computer and sketches her ideas on screen with a computer-aided design program that allows her to make changes almost as easily as a writer can change a paragraph. When it's done, the design can then be "printed" on command, almost as easily as a writer can print a draft—except this draft is a precise, three-dimensional object made of metal or plastic.


The method can be used to make things that are more than prototypes. "Because you can control it in this incredible way, you can make objects that you just couldn't think of machining before," says George Hazelrigg, group leader of DMII's research programs. "For example, you can make a ship in a bottle." More practically, the method has been used to make a surface with lots of tiny hooks that resembles Velcro. These new surfaces are proving to be ideal substrates for growing human tissue. NSF-funded researchers have already grown human skin on these substrates and are looking to grow replacements of other organs as well. "So these are pretty fundamental things," Hazelrigg says. "I think it's fair to say that we played a major role in it." Bruce Kramer, acting division director of NSF's Engineering and Education Centers, is even more definite: "For a majority of successful rapid prototyping technologies, the first dollar into the technology was an NSF dollar."

Rapid prototyping is quite a recent invention. The first machine of rapid prototyping hit the markets in the late 1980s. The early rapid prototyping process derived its name from the activities and the purpose for which the earlier machines were utilized. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid prototyping refers to physical objects that are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology.


horizontal cross sections and then the process of creating successive layers continues till the model in complete. virtual. The application of rapid prototyping in sculpting is to generate fine arts exhibitions. These designs are further transformed into thin. The manufacturing of these quality parts however are very small in numbers. Over here a process called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) takes place wherein the final product is same as the image created. Rapid prototyping as mentioned earlier. Apart from industrial applications. On completion of the model. involves the use of additive manufacturing technology which actually takes the virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software (AMS). one may find that the virtual model is almost same as the physical model. they are either joined or fused automatically to yield the final shape. Additive fabrication has the benefit of creating any shape or geometric feature. PAGE 3 . But nowadays with the advancement in technology.Rapid prototyping in its earlier days was applied to production of models and prototype parts. Once the layers which correspond to the virtual cross section from CAD are formed. rapid prototyping is also used in sculpting. rapid prototyping is used widely for many applications that include manufacturing production-quality parts.

higher is the quality surface. but when it comes to manufacturing parts in smaller volumes. One of it is the building material of that part and the other is the support material.Working of Rapid Prototyping Machines CAD software and the rapid prototyping machine are connected with a data interface that is called as the STL file format. PAGE 4 . as the construction process of a model with the contemporary methods can take up a long time which can be several hours to several days. The use of support material is to provide support to the projecting features during construction. This STL file format enables the approximation of a shape of a part or the entire assembly using triangular facets. the application of additive fabrication is recommended more and is cost effective. One should consider the meaning of the word rapid as ‘relative’. Smaller the facet. In case of manufacturing polymer products in higher quantities. The method used over here also plays an important role. There are some other techniques that are used in the construction of parts. a process called traditional injection molding is more feasible in terms of cost. Sometimes the type of machine being used also influences the time taken for the creation of a new model though the additive systems are applied. The technique used in solid free-form fabrication involves the use of two materials in the construction of parts. It actually depends upon the complexity and size of the model. Even here the size and the number of models to be created play an equally important role.

metal etc. through the help of a SLS machine. PAGE 5 . Materials used in this technique are metal powders and thermoplastics. into a mass that represents a desired 3D object. This is an additive manufacturing technique.Prototyping Technologies Some of the prototyping technologies used in various rapid prototyping machines are as follows: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS): This technology involves the use of high power laser for the fusion of tiny particles of plastic.

This technology involves the use of eutectic metals and thermoplastics. Laminated object manufacturing (LOM): PAGE 6 . prototyping and production.Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): This additive manufacturing technology was invented in the late 1980s by S. Photo-polymer is the principle material used in this technique. Scott Crump and is used for applications like modeling. patterns etc through the Stereo lithography machine. Stereo lithography (SLA): This also is an additive manufacturing technology and is used for production of models.

In this method layers of adhesivecoated plastic. paper or metal laminates are fused together and cut into shape with the aid of a knife or a laser cutter.Paper material is the base material used in this technology. 3D Printing: PAGE 7 .

This is an additive fabrication technique. is now entering into rapid manufacturing which is more advanced as compared to rapid prototyping machines as it can be used for large products. Rapid manufacturing is an advanced form of this technology. PAGE 8 . Though production applications are actually dominated by the additive manufacturing technologies. that would be applied to the manufacturing of solid objects. 3D has a great potential to prove useful in the production applications. Rapid prototyping. In this technology successive layers of material create a 3D object. 3D printing technology actually is said to be more affordable.This too is an additive manufacturing technology and involves the use of various materials. material (material sometimes may not be used) to the specified points in space. This process involves the sequential delivery of energy. in order to produce a particular part. easy to use and speedy than the additive manufacturing technologies.

This helps to give the user higher output product. As this program makes different models simpler. Rapid prototyping is. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like. designer and user can discuss the product and work forward to get the best product. it is possible to correct the defects or problems in the design by taking corrective measures. There are many advantages of rapid prototyping. A rapid rapid prototyping system by and large involves making of a 3D objects based on design data. 6) All the designing flaws can be detected easily before the manufacturing of the product starts. Some of the advantages of rapid prototyping systems are: 1) Reduction in project cost and risk. a Full color 3D analysis model can be easily created. 7) Manufacturer. features. Factors like manufacturability. 2) Can be used in different industries. presentation and output. This helps in easy implementation of the ideas and better communication of ideas.1. 5) Greater visualization capabilities are improved right from the first stage if designing. a significant and essential part of the system designing process and it is believed to decrease the project cost and risk. 4) Only upon the complete satisfaction the complete product is designed. Rapid prototyping is a well defined process of developing software. performance and output. Seeing the efficiency of rapid prototypes. Then and there it can be tested for its functionality. The Rapid prototype that is developed by the process of rapid prototyping is based on the performance of earlier designs. This is rendered from a CAD system. The user can give an early feedback regarding the prototype.1. This process of development of working model is quite quick. Here the physical objects are automatically created using solid freeform fabrication. The product can be produced if the prototype meets the requirements of all designing objectives after sufficient refinement. 3) Easily the errors in previous design can be detected and errors can be rectified. robustness and functionality of design are checked before sending it for production. popularly known as SFF. easily one can get the user feedback. Hence. functionality. generally. ideas. PAGE 9 .2 DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES OF RP Rapid prototype is a process wherein a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various product features like design.

Rapid prototyping systems build parts in an additive. Rapid prototyping systems are used in industries such as designing and engineering. you would like to know the industries where this system works well. defense. These systems can be used over and over again to build a variety of different parts within their build size. the quicker designers and engineers can analyze it for design flaws and make necessary adjustments. and cost savings--when compared to traditional prototyping methods. Engineering & Manufacturing Services Inc (EMS) is one of the leading provider of rapid prototyping services and rapid prototype models. Creating the tooling for injection molding and other conventional prototyping processes can take days. medical. the time spent using rapid prototyping techniques has decreased by as much as 90 percent compared to other prototype methods. With rapid prototyping. they have been able to meet the future requirements of the customers more successfully. Speed According to "The Benefits of Rapid Prototyping". ANOTHER ADVANTAGES OF RP In today's world. but expensive. A 60 to 90 percent reduction in prototype creation has a direct impact on how quickly companies can release their products to market. tooling can only be used for creating that particular part. automotive. Using their skill and expertise. Rapid prototyping techniques hold a number of advantages--like speed. faster is better. companies are using rapid prototyping techniques to build parts for testing and analysis. In addition. Cost Savings/Reduction Creating the tooling for injection molding prototypes is not only laborious. The next step after making these adjustments is manufacturing. and consumer products. aerospace. Because of the competition to get products to market more quickly. Professionals have made use rapid prototyping systems wisely. layer-by-layer manner.Seeing so many advantages of rapid prototype. time to market. the same model parts can be made within hours. PAGE 10 . Time to Market The faster a prototype is created.

2 EXPLAIN THE ADDITIVE PROCESS Additive process : The raw material for the manufacture of PCB by additive or semiadditive technique is basically an unclad laminate and copper which is pattern plated selectively only where it is the fully additive process.3 EXPLAIN THE VIRTUAL PROCESS a. Through holes are drilled/. Supports are built along the way. fastened to the part either with a second. elastomer (96 durometer). The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. screen printing or offset printing method. weaker material or with a perforated junction. CLASSIFY THE THREE MAJOR GROUP PROCESS OF RP 2.2. PAGE 11 . polyphenolsulfone. The basic material for fabrication is a laminate with copper foil bonded to the substrate. polycarbonate. 2. so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens.1 EXPLAIN THE SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS Subtractive process : This is the most conventional method of getting the circuit pattern. The image of the circuit pattern is produced either by printing and screen printing with ink resist or by photofabrication techniques. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade). of Eden Prairie. Fused-deposition modelling In this technique. Selective plating on conducting areas is carried out by several methods such as : (a) Selective desensitization of areas of the catalyst coated surface by exposure to light of suitable wavelength.punched in these clad laminates. filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. and investment casting wax. Like a baker decorating a cake. high-precision machines. After the platform lowers. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. while load on etching is brought to a minimum in the semiadditive pattern plating technique. MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower. 2. Stratasys. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. (b) Mechanical transfer of the sensitizer in the conducting path by image transfer by printing (stamping).

A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution.Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. PAGE 12 . Stereolithography Patented in 1986. b. Schematic diagram of stereolithography. the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. As shown in the figure below.

elastomer. PAGE 13 . CA. but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. To this day. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. and metal. Because it was the first technique. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion. A sweeper recoats the solidified layer with liquid. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. This process continues until the part is complete. Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia. The technique. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. such as nylon. Afterwards. c. selling more RP machines than any other company. TX.Next. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. into a solid object. stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. Selective Laser sintering Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. sintering it together. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. 3D Systems is the industry leader. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. shown in Figure 3.

layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. e. Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. Inc. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. water-repellent paper. developed by Helisys of Torrance. which will have a wood-like texture. the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. Helisys developed several new sheet materials. PAGE 14 . including plastic. As of 2001. After the first layer is cut. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools.d. but prior to that it was an early generic term for inkjet-based RP. the roller bonds the second layer to the first. The powder tapes produce a "green" part that must be sintered for maximum strength. BPM. Laminated-object manufacturing and solid – ground curing In this technique. At one time the term was used to refer to a specific company's technology. making it easier to remove during post-processing. Ballistic – particle manufacturing A rapid prototyping process which deposits materials by means of inkjet technology. and the laser cuts the second layer. Next. As shown in the figure below. During the build. the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thinwalled sections. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). Crosshatching breaks up the extra material. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. Because the models are made of paper. This process is repeated as needed to build the part. and ceramic and metal powder tapes. CA. The term is not often used at present. now defunct. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. Helisys is no longer in business..

1. EXPLAIN BASIC METHODOLOGY FOR RP PROCESS USE AS A MANUFACTURING STEP IN PRODUCTION.  Pembinaan PAGE 15 .  Tukar format 3. Convert the CAD model to STL format (STL Data). Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing. Next. solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. UNDERSTAND DIRECT MANUFACTURING AND RAPID TOOLING. SGC cures an entire layer at a time. 4. Create a CAD model of the design (CAD/CAM). which is also known as the solider process. The mask is then exposed to UV light. Unlike SLA. the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built.  Mereka bentuk 2. First. 3. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform.1. Construct the model one layer atop another (Building).  Pemeriksaan reka bentuk. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers (Check drawing error). which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer. 3.Solid – ground curing Developed by Cubital.

Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. the STL (stereolithography. Large. To establish consistency.5. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation. and will therefore yield better results. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. PAGE 16 . tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD. such as Pro/ENGINEER.stl format is universal. the object to be built is modeled using a ComputerAided Design (CAD) software package. therefore. so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. Solid modelers.  Penyudahan CAD Model Creation: First. is to convert the CAD file into STL format. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. but at the cost of bigger file size. Since the . this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. complicated files require more time to pre-process and build. "like the facets of a cut jewel. Because STL files use planar elements. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly." 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. Clean and finish the model (Post processing). The second step.

For example. thereby shortening build time.Slice the STL File: In the third step. and thin-walled sections.7 mm thick. and most allow the user to adjust the size. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. location and orientation of the model. internal cavities. paper. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary preprocessing software. properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. depending on the build technique. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers. First. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.01 mm to 0. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. Several programs are available. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. or powdered metal. Most machines are fairly autonomous. In addition. Build orientation is important for several reasons. PAGE 17 . needing little human intervention. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers.

Sanding. PAGE 18 .Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. sealing. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. Basic methodology for RP process .

Inc. a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds. DTM sells Trueform polymer. are often used. LOM models. known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process. the "green" metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. 2. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern. a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. leaving some ash to be removed. The part collapses inward when heated. or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings. a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. When the binder cures. it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters. A more useful variant. Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique. 4. 3D Systems introduced QuickCast. RAPID TOOLING Indirect Tooling Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. 3. Likewise.4. which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used. uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. The tools have fairly good accuracy. EXPLAIN RAPID TOOLING USES. a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise. as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts. If sealed and finished. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. The paper shells burn out. for use in its SLS machines. Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems. which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes: 1. 18 First. the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. PAGE 19 . Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates. the SLA pattern is plated with nickel. To form the mold. When the rubber hardens. The pattern must not expand when heated. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense.

000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster. Realization of this objective is still several years away. since the metal is melted.com) 3. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable. which then solidifies. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. Extrude Hone.000 injection moldings. will soon sell a machine. LENS produces fully dense parts. RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30. In another variation. based on MIT’s 3D Printing process.mts.Direct Tooling To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. but some strong strides are being made: 1. LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core. polystyrene. polypropylene and ABS plastic. but the process currently works only for parts with simple. Unlike traditional powder metal processing. The resulting mold can produce up to 50. and titanium carbide cermets. H13 tool steel. cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. uniform cross sections. Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene. Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products. thus shortening cycle time. tungsten. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool. Inconel 625. and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. not merely sintered. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. PAGE 20 . 4. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. in Irwin PA. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel. 2.

tools must be hard. molds and dies are traditionally made by CNCmachining.5 micrometers root mean square). Soligen (www. so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. Tools often have complex geometries. wearresistant. All are expensive and time consuming.3dprinting. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds. because of the extremely high quality required. believes that "tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more" by using rapid tooling and related technologies. A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling. MA. Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories. the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. and have very low surface roughness (about 0.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting. Peter Hilton. indirect and direct. PAGE 21 .5. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process. electro-discharge machining. president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord. yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. To meet these requirements. In addition. or by hand. (Direct Shell Production Casting).

minimize sustain engineering changes and increasing the number of variants of products. The disadvantages of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service. Once the required corrections were carried out no more problems were encountered in the subsequent prototype.CONCLUSION 1. or perhaps a technology. 2. injection molding. For the studied ‘Upper Case” part. A technology that is worth looking forward to the future. which would be able to take over the current technology. 3. the risk of component failure was reduced. PAGE 22 . Rapid Prototyping is an emerging technology that a brighter and efficient future. The key advantages highlighted are decreasing development time. and the further steps of the component’s mass production process could be carried out. 5. 4. Rapid Prototyping is the future for the next generation of design and manufacturing with the traditional way of design and manufacturing found that there are many advantages with Rapid Prototyping. The main advantages of Rapid Prototyping is the ability to produce physical models using digital methods instead of traditional impression techniques.

aspx 5.com/1571938 3. PAGE 23 . Mohamed Yusoff UTem Melaka 2007.com/questions/subtractive-rapidprototyping-process.REFERENCE 1. http://www.wikipedia.htm#p rocess 6.edu/lamancusa/rapidpro/primer/chapter2. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.expertsmind. http://www.additive-process-and-virtual-process3019050.psu. Buku rujukan workshop technology 4. Source: Mohd Zuhri b. http://en.me.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping 2.

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