In the late 1960s, Herbert Voelcker then an engineering professor at the University of Rochester, now at Cornell University went on sabbatical and asked himself how to do "interesting things" with the automatic, computer-controlled machine tools that were just beginning to appear on factory floors. In particular, Voelcker wanted to find a way to take the output from a computer design program and use it to program the automatic machine tools. With funding from NSF, Voelcker tackled the problem first by developing the basic mathematical tools needed to unambiguously describe three-dimensional parts (see the chapter on Visualization: Staking the Pioneers). The result was the early mathematical theory and algorithms of solid modeling that today form the basis of computer programs used to design almost everything mechanical, from toy cars to skyscrapers. During the 1970s, Voelcker's work transformed the way products were designed, but for the most part they were still made the same old way. That is, either a machinist or a computercontrolled machine tool would cut away at a hunk of metal until what remained was the required part, in much the same way as Michelangelo removed chips of marble from a block until all that remained was a statue of David. But then in 1987, University of Texas researcher Carl Deckard came up with a better idea. Instead of making a part by cutting away at a larger chunk of material, why not build it up layer by layer? Deckard imagined "printing" three-dimensional models by using laser light to fuse metallic powder into solid prototypes, one layer at a time. Deckard took his idea—considered too speculative by industry—to NSF, which awarded him a $50,000 Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) to pursue what he called "selective laser sintering." Deckard's initial results were promising and in the late 1980s his team was awarded one of NSF's first Strategic Manufacturing (STRATMAN) Initiative grants, given to the kind of interdisciplinary groups often necessary for innovation in the realm of manufacturing. The result of Voelcker's and Deckard's efforts has been an important new industry called "free form fabrication" or "rapid prototyping" that has revolutionized how products are designed and manufactured. An engineer sits down at a computer and sketches her ideas on screen with a computer-aided design program that allows her to make changes almost as easily as a writer can change a paragraph. When it's done, the design can then be "printed" on command, almost as easily as a writer can print a draft—except this draft is a precise, three-dimensional object made of metal or plastic.


The method can be used to make things that are more than prototypes. "Because you can control it in this incredible way, you can make objects that you just couldn't think of machining before," says George Hazelrigg, group leader of DMII's research programs. "For example, you can make a ship in a bottle." More practically, the method has been used to make a surface with lots of tiny hooks that resembles Velcro. These new surfaces are proving to be ideal substrates for growing human tissue. NSF-funded researchers have already grown human skin on these substrates and are looking to grow replacements of other organs as well. "So these are pretty fundamental things," Hazelrigg says. "I think it's fair to say that we played a major role in it." Bruce Kramer, acting division director of NSF's Engineering and Education Centers, is even more definite: "For a majority of successful rapid prototyping technologies, the first dollar into the technology was an NSF dollar."

Rapid prototyping is quite a recent invention. The first machine of rapid prototyping hit the markets in the late 1980s. The early rapid prototyping process derived its name from the activities and the purpose for which the earlier machines were utilized. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid prototyping refers to physical objects that are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology.


Additive fabrication has the benefit of creating any shape or geometric feature. PAGE 3 . Apart from industrial applications. The manufacturing of these quality parts however are very small in numbers. But nowadays with the advancement in technology. horizontal cross sections and then the process of creating successive layers continues till the model in complete. rapid prototyping is also used in sculpting. they are either joined or fused automatically to yield the final shape. Rapid prototyping as mentioned earlier. Once the layers which correspond to the virtual cross section from CAD are formed. one may find that the virtual model is almost same as the physical model. On completion of the model. These designs are further transformed into thin. Over here a process called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) takes place wherein the final product is same as the image created. The application of rapid prototyping in sculpting is to generate fine arts exhibitions.Rapid prototyping in its earlier days was applied to production of models and prototype parts. virtual. rapid prototyping is used widely for many applications that include manufacturing production-quality parts. involves the use of additive manufacturing technology which actually takes the virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software (AMS).

There are some other techniques that are used in the construction of parts. Even here the size and the number of models to be created play an equally important role. The technique used in solid free-form fabrication involves the use of two materials in the construction of parts.Working of Rapid Prototyping Machines CAD software and the rapid prototyping machine are connected with a data interface that is called as the STL file format. In case of manufacturing polymer products in higher quantities. It actually depends upon the complexity and size of the model. The method used over here also plays an important role. as the construction process of a model with the contemporary methods can take up a long time which can be several hours to several days. This STL file format enables the approximation of a shape of a part or the entire assembly using triangular facets. higher is the quality surface. Sometimes the type of machine being used also influences the time taken for the creation of a new model though the additive systems are applied. One should consider the meaning of the word rapid as ‘relative’. the application of additive fabrication is recommended more and is cost effective. but when it comes to manufacturing parts in smaller volumes. Smaller the facet. a process called traditional injection molding is more feasible in terms of cost. The use of support material is to provide support to the projecting features during construction. One of it is the building material of that part and the other is the support material. PAGE 4 .

through the help of a SLS machine. into a mass that represents a desired 3D object. This is an additive manufacturing technique. metal etc. Materials used in this technique are metal powders and thermoplastics. PAGE 5 .Prototyping Technologies Some of the prototyping technologies used in various rapid prototyping machines are as follows: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS): This technology involves the use of high power laser for the fusion of tiny particles of plastic.

patterns etc through the Stereo lithography machine. Stereo lithography (SLA): This also is an additive manufacturing technology and is used for production of models. This technology involves the use of eutectic metals and thermoplastics. prototyping and production.Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): This additive manufacturing technology was invented in the late 1980s by S. Laminated object manufacturing (LOM): PAGE 6 . Photo-polymer is the principle material used in this technique. Scott Crump and is used for applications like modeling.

paper or metal laminates are fused together and cut into shape with the aid of a knife or a laser cutter. In this method layers of adhesivecoated plastic.Paper material is the base material used in this technology. 3D Printing: PAGE 7 .

PAGE 8 . Rapid prototyping. This is an additive fabrication technique. 3D has a great potential to prove useful in the production applications. In this technology successive layers of material create a 3D object. Rapid manufacturing is an advanced form of this technology. material (material sometimes may not be used) to the specified points in space. This process involves the sequential delivery of energy. Though production applications are actually dominated by the additive manufacturing technologies.This too is an additive manufacturing technology and involves the use of various materials. is now entering into rapid manufacturing which is more advanced as compared to rapid prototyping machines as it can be used for large products. easy to use and speedy than the additive manufacturing technologies. that would be applied to the manufacturing of solid objects. 3D printing technology actually is said to be more affordable. in order to produce a particular part.

5) Greater visualization capabilities are improved right from the first stage if designing. presentation and output. This helps to give the user higher output product. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like. As this program makes different models simpler. functionality. The product can be produced if the prototype meets the requirements of all designing objectives after sufficient refinement. a significant and essential part of the system designing process and it is believed to decrease the project cost and risk.1. ideas. PAGE 9 . This is rendered from a CAD system. robustness and functionality of design are checked before sending it for production. popularly known as SFF. easily one can get the user feedback. 6) All the designing flaws can be detected easily before the manufacturing of the product starts. generally. performance and output. 4) Only upon the complete satisfaction the complete product is designed. Hence. features. Then and there it can be tested for its functionality. 7) Manufacturer. 2) Can be used in different industries. 3) Easily the errors in previous design can be detected and errors can be rectified. This helps in easy implementation of the ideas and better communication of ideas. Here the physical objects are automatically created using solid freeform fabrication. There are many advantages of rapid prototyping. A rapid rapid prototyping system by and large involves making of a 3D objects based on design data. Factors like manufacturability. Some of the advantages of rapid prototyping systems are: 1) Reduction in project cost and risk. designer and user can discuss the product and work forward to get the best product. Rapid prototyping is a well defined process of developing software. The user can give an early feedback regarding the prototype. Seeing the efficiency of rapid prototypes. The Rapid prototype that is developed by the process of rapid prototyping is based on the performance of earlier designs. Rapid prototyping is.1. a Full color 3D analysis model can be easily created. This process of development of working model is quite quick.2 DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES OF RP Rapid prototype is a process wherein a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various product features like design. it is possible to correct the defects or problems in the design by taking corrective measures.

Rapid prototyping systems are used in industries such as designing and engineering. companies are using rapid prototyping techniques to build parts for testing and analysis. Engineering & Manufacturing Services Inc (EMS) is one of the leading provider of rapid prototyping services and rapid prototype models. Using their skill and expertise. faster is better. medical. PAGE 10 . they have been able to meet the future requirements of the customers more successfully. and cost savings--when compared to traditional prototyping methods. A 60 to 90 percent reduction in prototype creation has a direct impact on how quickly companies can release their products to market.Seeing so many advantages of rapid prototype. The next step after making these adjustments is manufacturing. and consumer products. With rapid prototyping. aerospace. the quicker designers and engineers can analyze it for design flaws and make necessary adjustments. Creating the tooling for injection molding and other conventional prototyping processes can take days. automotive. These systems can be used over and over again to build a variety of different parts within their build size. Cost Savings/Reduction Creating the tooling for injection molding prototypes is not only laborious. tooling can only be used for creating that particular part. In addition. ANOTHER ADVANTAGES OF RP In today's world. Time to Market The faster a prototype is created. but expensive. Rapid prototyping systems build parts in an additive. the time spent using rapid prototyping techniques has decreased by as much as 90 percent compared to other prototype methods. time to market. you would like to know the industries where this system works well. defense. Professionals have made use rapid prototyping systems wisely. Speed According to "The Benefits of Rapid Prototyping". Because of the competition to get products to market more quickly. the same model parts can be made within hours. layer-by-layer manner. Rapid prototyping techniques hold a number of advantages--like speed.

while load on etching is brought to a minimum in the semiadditive pattern plating technique. polycarbonate. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer. high-precision machines. 2. 2. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first. Supports are built along the way. so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. elastomer (96 durometer). MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower.2. The basic material for fabrication is a laminate with copper foil bonded to the substrate.3 EXPLAIN THE VIRTUAL PROCESS a. Fused-deposition modelling In this technique. Selective plating on conducting areas is carried out by several methods such as : (a) Selective desensitization of areas of the catalyst coated surface by exposure to light of suitable wavelength. fastened to the part either with a second. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. After the platform lowers. CLASSIFY THE THREE MAJOR GROUP PROCESS OF RP 2. Stratasys. Like a baker decorating a cake.punched in these clad laminates. The image of the circuit pattern is produced either by printing and screen printing with ink resist or by photofabrication techniques. (b) Mechanical transfer of the sensitizer in the conducting path by image transfer by printing (stamping). Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade). and investment casting wax.1 EXPLAIN THE SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS Subtractive process : This is the most conventional method of getting the circuit pattern.2 EXPLAIN THE ADDITIVE PROCESS Additive process : The raw material for the manufacture of PCB by additive or semiadditive technique is basically an unclad laminate and copper which is pattern plated selectively only where it is the fully additive process. weaker material or with a perforated junction. Through holes are drilled/. screen printing or offset printing method. of Eden Prairie. polyphenolsulfone. filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. PAGE 11 .

Schematic diagram of stereolithography.Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. PAGE 12 . As shown in the figure below. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. b. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. Stereolithography Patented in 1986. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light.

PAGE 13 . A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. Selective Laser sintering Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. TX. Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. Afterwards. 3D Systems is the industry leader. selling more RP machines than any other company. shown in Figure 3. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion. Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia. CA. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer.Next. To this day. Because it was the first technique. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. c. but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. elastomer. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. The technique. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. and metal. sintering it together. stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin. such as nylon. into a solid object. A sweeper recoats the solidified layer with liquid. This process continues until the part is complete.

Next. Inc. making it easier to remove during post-processing. As of 2001. Laminated-object manufacturing and solid – ground curing In this technique. PAGE 14 . the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. Because the models are made of paper. including plastic. layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. but prior to that it was an early generic term for inkjet-based RP.. As shown in the figure below. developed by Helisys of Torrance. Crosshatching breaks up the extra material. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. and the laser cuts the second layer. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. water-repellent paper. the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thinwalled sections. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. Helisys is no longer in business. BPM. The term is not often used at present. This process is repeated as needed to build the part. which will have a wood-like texture. During the build. e. a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. The powder tapes produce a "green" part that must be sintered for maximum strength. After the first layer is cut. now defunct. Ballistic – particle manufacturing A rapid prototyping process which deposits materials by means of inkjet technology. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. At one time the term was used to refer to a specific company's technology. Helisys developed several new sheet materials. CA. and ceramic and metal powder tapes. the roller bonds the second layer to the first.d.

First.  Tukar format 3.Solid – ground curing Developed by Cubital. Create a CAD model of the design (CAD/CAM).  Pemeriksaan reka bentuk. Unlike SLA. Convert the CAD model to STL format (STL Data). which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer. Construct the model one layer atop another (Building). 3. 4. 1. SGC cures an entire layer at a time. photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. The mask is then exposed to UV light. EXPLAIN BASIC METHODOLOGY FOR RP PROCESS USE AS A MANUFACTURING STEP IN PRODUCTION.  Pembinaan PAGE 15 . Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing. which is also known as the solider process. Next. 3.1. solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers.  Mereka bentuk 2. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers (Check drawing error). UNDERSTAND DIRECT MANUFACTURING AND RAPID TOOLING.

the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. To establish consistency. Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. PAGE 16 . so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. Solid modelers. Large." 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. therefore. Clean and finish the model (Post processing). This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. Since the . "like the facets of a cut jewel. and will therefore yield better results. but at the cost of bigger file size. complicated files require more time to pre-process and build. Because STL files use planar elements. such as Pro/ENGINEER. this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.  Penyudahan CAD Model Creation: First. the STL (stereolithography. the object to be built is modeled using a ComputerAided Design (CAD) software package. is to convert the CAD file into STL format.stl format is universal. The second step. tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD.5. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes.

The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. For example. paper. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary preprocessing software.01 mm to 0. and most allow the user to adjust the size. needing little human intervention. and thin-walled sections. In addition. Several programs are available. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers. First. Build orientation is important for several reasons. Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part. depending on the build technique. thereby shortening build time. internal cavities. location and orientation of the model.7 mm thick. properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers. PAGE 17 . Most machines are fairly autonomous.Slice the STL File: In the third step. or powdered metal. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model.

Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment.Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. sealing. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Basic methodology for RP process . and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. PAGE 18 . Sanding.

The tools have fairly good accuracy. a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. To form the mold. To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts. the SLA pattern is plated with nickel. 2. leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings. for use in its SLS machines. RAPID TOOLING Indirect Tooling Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. 3. known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process. a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds. Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. When the binder cures. so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. A more useful variant. EXPLAIN RAPID TOOLING USES. the "green" metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters. a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. If sealed and finished. are often used. the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique.4. which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates. it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems. The part collapses inward when heated. 4. or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. 3D Systems introduced QuickCast. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern. DTM sells Trueform polymer. leaving some ash to be removed. The paper shells burn out. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used. 18 First. The pattern must not expand when heated. Likewise. LOM models. Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. When the rubber hardens. PAGE 19 . RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes: 1. a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise. which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose. Inc.

Powder metal is injected into the molten pool. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core. 2. uniform cross sections. LENS produces fully dense parts. Realization of this objective is still several years away. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. H13 tool steel. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster.mts. PAGE 20 . and titanium carbide cermets. but the process currently works only for parts with simple. based on MIT’s 3D Printing process. will soon sell a machine. Inconel 625.000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel. Extrude Hone. Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene. 4. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www. which then solidifies. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. In another variation. A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing. not merely sintered. tungsten. but some strong strides are being made: 1. cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. polypropylene and ABS plastic. Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable. thus shortening cycle time. RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold.Direct Tooling To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data.com) 3. since the metal is melted. polystyrene. and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes. The resulting mold can produce up to 50. In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. Unlike traditional powder metal processing. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties. in Irwin PA.000 injection moldings. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products.

electro-discharge machining. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds. PAGE 21 . believes that "tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more" by using rapid tooling and related technologies. yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. In addition. the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories. To meet these requirements. wearresistant. and have very low surface roughness (about 0. so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process. Tools often have complex geometries. because of the extremely high quality required.5. president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord. A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling. (Direct Shell Production Casting). tools must be hard. Peter Hilton. molds and dies are traditionally made by CNCmachining. Soligen (www. All are expensive and time consuming.5 micrometers root mean square). MA. or by hand.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting. indirect and direct.3dprinting.

minimize sustain engineering changes and increasing the number of variants of products. 5. 3. The main advantages of Rapid Prototyping is the ability to produce physical models using digital methods instead of traditional impression techniques. Once the required corrections were carried out no more problems were encountered in the subsequent prototype. injection molding. Rapid Prototyping is an emerging technology that a brighter and efficient future. Rapid Prototyping is the future for the next generation of design and manufacturing with the traditional way of design and manufacturing found that there are many advantages with Rapid Prototyping. which would be able to take over the current technology. The disadvantages of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service. and the further steps of the component’s mass production process could be carried out. A technology that is worth looking forward to the future. or perhaps a technology. For the studied ‘Upper Case” part.CONCLUSION 1. 2. 4. The key advantages highlighted are decreasing development time. PAGE 22 . the risk of component failure was reduced.

psu. Buku rujukan workshop technology 4.aspx 5.wikipedia. http://www.com/questions/subtractive-rapidprototyping-process.htm#p rocess 6.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping 2.additive-process-and-virtual-process3019050. Mohamed Yusoff UTem Melaka 2007.com/1571938 3.me.edu/lamancusa/rapidpro/primer/chapter2. Article Source: http://EzineArticles. Source: Mohd Zuhri b. http://en. http://www.REFERENCE 1.expertsmind. PAGE 23 .

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