In the late 1960s, Herbert Voelcker then an engineering professor at the University of Rochester, now at Cornell University went on sabbatical and asked himself how to do "interesting things" with the automatic, computer-controlled machine tools that were just beginning to appear on factory floors. In particular, Voelcker wanted to find a way to take the output from a computer design program and use it to program the automatic machine tools. With funding from NSF, Voelcker tackled the problem first by developing the basic mathematical tools needed to unambiguously describe three-dimensional parts (see the chapter on Visualization: Staking the Pioneers). The result was the early mathematical theory and algorithms of solid modeling that today form the basis of computer programs used to design almost everything mechanical, from toy cars to skyscrapers. During the 1970s, Voelcker's work transformed the way products were designed, but for the most part they were still made the same old way. That is, either a machinist or a computercontrolled machine tool would cut away at a hunk of metal until what remained was the required part, in much the same way as Michelangelo removed chips of marble from a block until all that remained was a statue of David. But then in 1987, University of Texas researcher Carl Deckard came up with a better idea. Instead of making a part by cutting away at a larger chunk of material, why not build it up layer by layer? Deckard imagined "printing" three-dimensional models by using laser light to fuse metallic powder into solid prototypes, one layer at a time. Deckard took his idea—considered too speculative by industry—to NSF, which awarded him a $50,000 Small Grant for Exploratory Research (SGER) to pursue what he called "selective laser sintering." Deckard's initial results were promising and in the late 1980s his team was awarded one of NSF's first Strategic Manufacturing (STRATMAN) Initiative grants, given to the kind of interdisciplinary groups often necessary for innovation in the realm of manufacturing. The result of Voelcker's and Deckard's efforts has been an important new industry called "free form fabrication" or "rapid prototyping" that has revolutionized how products are designed and manufactured. An engineer sits down at a computer and sketches her ideas on screen with a computer-aided design program that allows her to make changes almost as easily as a writer can change a paragraph. When it's done, the design can then be "printed" on command, almost as easily as a writer can print a draft—except this draft is a precise, three-dimensional object made of metal or plastic.


The method can be used to make things that are more than prototypes. "Because you can control it in this incredible way, you can make objects that you just couldn't think of machining before," says George Hazelrigg, group leader of DMII's research programs. "For example, you can make a ship in a bottle." More practically, the method has been used to make a surface with lots of tiny hooks that resembles Velcro. These new surfaces are proving to be ideal substrates for growing human tissue. NSF-funded researchers have already grown human skin on these substrates and are looking to grow replacements of other organs as well. "So these are pretty fundamental things," Hazelrigg says. "I think it's fair to say that we played a major role in it." Bruce Kramer, acting division director of NSF's Engineering and Education Centers, is even more definite: "For a majority of successful rapid prototyping technologies, the first dollar into the technology was an NSF dollar."

Rapid prototyping is quite a recent invention. The first machine of rapid prototyping hit the markets in the late 1980s. The early rapid prototyping process derived its name from the activities and the purpose for which the earlier machines were utilized. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid prototyping refers to physical objects that are automatically constructed with the aid of additive manufacturing technology.


But nowadays with the advancement in technology. involves the use of additive manufacturing technology which actually takes the virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animation modeling software (AMS). virtual. Over here a process called WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) takes place wherein the final product is same as the image created. Additive fabrication has the benefit of creating any shape or geometric feature. they are either joined or fused automatically to yield the final shape. On completion of the model. These designs are further transformed into thin. The manufacturing of these quality parts however are very small in numbers. horizontal cross sections and then the process of creating successive layers continues till the model in complete. one may find that the virtual model is almost same as the physical model.Rapid prototyping in its earlier days was applied to production of models and prototype parts. Once the layers which correspond to the virtual cross section from CAD are formed. Apart from industrial applications. The application of rapid prototyping in sculpting is to generate fine arts exhibitions. PAGE 3 . rapid prototyping is also used in sculpting. Rapid prototyping as mentioned earlier. rapid prototyping is used widely for many applications that include manufacturing production-quality parts.

The method used over here also plays an important role. There are some other techniques that are used in the construction of parts. Smaller the facet. the application of additive fabrication is recommended more and is cost effective. The use of support material is to provide support to the projecting features during construction. Sometimes the type of machine being used also influences the time taken for the creation of a new model though the additive systems are applied. as the construction process of a model with the contemporary methods can take up a long time which can be several hours to several days. It actually depends upon the complexity and size of the model. In case of manufacturing polymer products in higher quantities. but when it comes to manufacturing parts in smaller volumes. higher is the quality surface. One should consider the meaning of the word rapid as ‘relative’. PAGE 4 . Even here the size and the number of models to be created play an equally important role.Working of Rapid Prototyping Machines CAD software and the rapid prototyping machine are connected with a data interface that is called as the STL file format. The technique used in solid free-form fabrication involves the use of two materials in the construction of parts. a process called traditional injection molding is more feasible in terms of cost. One of it is the building material of that part and the other is the support material. This STL file format enables the approximation of a shape of a part or the entire assembly using triangular facets.

This is an additive manufacturing technique. through the help of a SLS machine. metal etc. into a mass that represents a desired 3D object. PAGE 5 .Prototyping Technologies Some of the prototyping technologies used in various rapid prototyping machines are as follows: Selective Laser Sintering (SLS): This technology involves the use of high power laser for the fusion of tiny particles of plastic. Materials used in this technique are metal powders and thermoplastics.

This technology involves the use of eutectic metals and thermoplastics. Scott Crump and is used for applications like modeling. Photo-polymer is the principle material used in this technique. patterns etc through the Stereo lithography machine. prototyping and production. Laminated object manufacturing (LOM): PAGE 6 . Stereo lithography (SLA): This also is an additive manufacturing technology and is used for production of models.Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): This additive manufacturing technology was invented in the late 1980s by S.

paper or metal laminates are fused together and cut into shape with the aid of a knife or a laser cutter.Paper material is the base material used in this technology. In this method layers of adhesivecoated plastic. 3D Printing: PAGE 7 .

This is an additive fabrication technique. PAGE 8 . Though production applications are actually dominated by the additive manufacturing technologies. easy to use and speedy than the additive manufacturing technologies. in order to produce a particular part. that would be applied to the manufacturing of solid objects. 3D printing technology actually is said to be more affordable. is now entering into rapid manufacturing which is more advanced as compared to rapid prototyping machines as it can be used for large products.This too is an additive manufacturing technology and involves the use of various materials. In this technology successive layers of material create a 3D object. This process involves the sequential delivery of energy. Rapid prototyping. material (material sometimes may not be used) to the specified points in space. 3D has a great potential to prove useful in the production applications. Rapid manufacturing is an advanced form of this technology.

There are many advantages of rapid prototyping. 3) Easily the errors in previous design can be detected and errors can be rectified. 4) Only upon the complete satisfaction the complete product is designed. This is rendered from a CAD system. features. Some of the advantages of rapid prototyping systems are: 1) Reduction in project cost and risk. Seeing the efficiency of rapid prototypes. 6) All the designing flaws can be detected easily before the manufacturing of the product starts. presentation and output. Rapid prototyping is a well defined process of developing software. popularly known as SFF. This helps in easy implementation of the ideas and better communication of ideas. A rapid rapid prototyping system by and large involves making of a 3D objects based on design data. performance and output.1.2 DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES OF RP Rapid prototype is a process wherein a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various product features like design. a significant and essential part of the system designing process and it is believed to decrease the project cost and risk. easily one can get the user feedback. ideas. functionality. This helps to give the user higher output product. Hence. a Full color 3D analysis model can be easily created. The user can give an early feedback regarding the prototype. This process of development of working model is quite quick. Rapid prototyping is. designer and user can discuss the product and work forward to get the best product. Then and there it can be tested for its functionality. The product can be produced if the prototype meets the requirements of all designing objectives after sufficient refinement. PAGE 9 . 2) Can be used in different industries. The Rapid prototype that is developed by the process of rapid prototyping is based on the performance of earlier designs. Here the physical objects are automatically created using solid freeform fabrication. 7) Manufacturer.1. generally. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like. 5) Greater visualization capabilities are improved right from the first stage if designing. it is possible to correct the defects or problems in the design by taking corrective measures. Factors like manufacturability. As this program makes different models simpler. robustness and functionality of design are checked before sending it for production.

but expensive. Rapid prototyping techniques hold a number of advantages--like speed. Rapid prototyping systems build parts in an additive. ANOTHER ADVANTAGES OF RP In today's world. you would like to know the industries where this system works well. PAGE 10 . The next step after making these adjustments is manufacturing. automotive. A 60 to 90 percent reduction in prototype creation has a direct impact on how quickly companies can release their products to market. medical. Using their skill and expertise. faster is better. Cost Savings/Reduction Creating the tooling for injection molding prototypes is not only laborious. defense. Rapid prototyping systems are used in industries such as designing and engineering. time to market. Because of the competition to get products to market more quickly. These systems can be used over and over again to build a variety of different parts within their build size. Engineering & Manufacturing Services Inc (EMS) is one of the leading provider of rapid prototyping services and rapid prototype models. and cost savings--when compared to traditional prototyping methods. companies are using rapid prototyping techniques to build parts for testing and analysis. and consumer products. layer-by-layer manner. With rapid prototyping. the same model parts can be made within hours.Seeing so many advantages of rapid prototype. aerospace. Professionals have made use rapid prototyping systems wisely. Creating the tooling for injection molding and other conventional prototyping processes can take days. tooling can only be used for creating that particular part. the quicker designers and engineers can analyze it for design flaws and make necessary adjustments. they have been able to meet the future requirements of the customers more successfully. In addition. Time to Market The faster a prototype is created. Speed According to "The Benefits of Rapid Prototyping". the time spent using rapid prototyping techniques has decreased by as much as 90 percent compared to other prototype methods.

CLASSIFY THE THREE MAJOR GROUP PROCESS OF RP 2. polyphenolsulfone. After the platform lowers. Like a baker decorating a cake. of Eden Prairie. (b) Mechanical transfer of the sensitizer in the conducting path by image transfer by printing (stamping). fastened to the part either with a second.2. while load on etching is brought to a minimum in the semiadditive pattern plating technique. high-precision machines. weaker material or with a perforated junction. The basic material for fabrication is a laminate with copper foil bonded to the substrate. elastomer (96 durometer).3 EXPLAIN THE VIRTUAL PROCESS a. Stratasys. and investment casting wax. 2. Fused-deposition modelling In this technique. Supports are built along the way. Selective plating on conducting areas is carried out by several methods such as : (a) Selective desensitization of areas of the catalyst coated surface by exposure to light of suitable wavelength. the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the first.2 EXPLAIN THE ADDITIVE PROCESS Additive process : The raw material for the manufacture of PCB by additive or semiadditive technique is basically an unclad laminate and copper which is pattern plated selectively only where it is the fully additive process. The platform is maintained at a lower temperature. The image of the circuit pattern is produced either by printing and screen printing with ink resist or by photofabrication techniques. 2. filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that moves in the x-y plane. polycarbonate. Materials include ABS (standard and medical grade).1 EXPLAIN THE SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS Subtractive process : This is the most conventional method of getting the circuit pattern. PAGE 11 . so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. screen printing or offset printing method. Through holes are drilled/.punched in these clad laminates. MN makes a variety of FDM machines ranging from fast concept modelers to slower. the controlled extrusion head deposits very thin beads of material onto the build platform to form the first layer.

Schematic diagram of stereolithography. b. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. Stereolithography Patented in 1986. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer. the model is built upon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. PAGE 12 . As shown in the figure below.Schematic diagram of fused deposition modeling. solidifying the model’s cross section while leaving excess areas liquid.

Selective Laser sintering Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis at the University of Texas. Afterwards. TX. 3D Systems is the industry leader. Supports are broken off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. elastomer.Next. selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. Early stereolithography prototypes were fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion. The platform is lowered by the height of the next layer and powder is reapplied. into a solid object. but recent modifications have largely corrected these problems. stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other technologies are judged. sintering it together. Excess powder in each layer helps to support the part during the build. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin. This process continues until the part is complete. uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials. Parts are built upon a platform which sits just below the surface in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. and the laser traces the second layer atop the first. selling more RP machines than any other company. c. Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machines have been made since 1988 by 3D Systems of Valencia. the solid part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. Schematic diagram of selective laser sintering. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer. A sweeper recoats the solidified layer with liquid. and metal. such as nylon. To this day. The technique. CA. an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. shown in Figure 3. This process is repeated until the prototype is complete. PAGE 13 . Because it was the first technique.

The original material consists of paper laminated with heat-activated glue and rolled up on spools. As of 2001. where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. CA. e. During the build. the platform lowers out of the way and fresh material is advanced. Because the models are made of paper. Helisys is no longer in business. and the laser cuts the second layer. but prior to that it was an early generic term for inkjet-based RP. making it easier to remove during post-processing.d. Crosshatching breaks up the extra material. As shown in the figure below. This process is repeated as needed to build the part. The term is not often used at present. the roller bonds the second layer to the first. a heated roller applies pressure to bond the paper to the base. water-repellent paper. Inc. a feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform. The powder tapes produce a "green" part that must be sintered for maximum strength. now defunct. Laminated-object manufacturing and solid – ground curing In this technique.. they must be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype. BPM. Helisys developed several new sheet materials. Schematic diagram of laminated object manufacturing. At one time the term was used to refer to a specific company's technology. and ceramic and metal powder tapes. which will have a wood-like texture. The platform rises to slightly below the previous height. A focused laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper and then cross-hatches the excess area (the negative space in the prototype). the excess material provides excellent support for overhangs and thinwalled sections. including plastic. Ballistic – particle manufacturing A rapid prototyping process which deposits materials by means of inkjet technology. developed by Helisys of Torrance. After the first layer is cut. PAGE 14 . Next.

EXPLAIN BASIC METHODOLOGY FOR RP PROCESS USE AS A MANUFACTURING STEP IN PRODUCTION. Construct the model one layer atop another (Building). photosensitive resin is sprayed on the build platform. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic process similar to that found in photocopiers. 4.  Mereka bentuk 2.  Pembinaan PAGE 15 . which is also known as the solider process. 1. Next. 3.  Pemeriksaan reka bentuk. Unlike SLA. The mask is then exposed to UV light. SGC cures an entire layer at a time. Create a CAD model of the design (CAD/CAM). 3.  Tukar format 3. UNDERSTAND DIRECT MANUFACTURING AND RAPID TOOLING. First. Figure 5 depicts solid ground curing. the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built.Solid – ground curing Developed by Cubital.1. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers (Check drawing error). solid ground curing (SGC) is somewhat similar to stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet light to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. Convert the CAD model to STL format (STL Data). which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the shape of the current layer.

Large.stl format is universal. Clean and finish the model (Post processing). Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a number of different algorithms to represent solid objects. Since the . complicated files require more time to pre-process and build." 6 The file contains the coordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. Solid modelers. but at the cost of bigger file size. To establish consistency. the object to be built is modeled using a ComputerAided Design (CAD) software package. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry.  Penyudahan CAD Model Creation: First. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. "like the facets of a cut jewel. is to convert the CAD file into STL format. therefore.5. such as Pro/ENGINEER. so the designer must balance accuracy with manageablility to produce a useful STL file. the STL (stereolithography. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD. this process is identical for all of the RP build techniques. The second step. and will therefore yield better results. Because STL files use planar elements. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or may wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. PAGE 16 . Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation. This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.

and most allow the user to adjust the size. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs. Most machines are fairly autonomous. thereby shortening build time. PAGE 17 . First. prototypes are usually weaker and less accurate in the z (vertical) direction than in the x-y plane. internal cavities. part orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. In addition. needing little human intervention. properties of rapid prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to another. Several programs are available. Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.Slice the STL File: In the third step. The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. and thin-walled sections. or powdered metal. For example. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built.7 mm thick. depending on the build technique. location and orientation of the model. The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build.01 mm to 0. paper. Each PR machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary preprocessing software. Build orientation is important for several reasons. Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction reduces the number of layers. Using one of several techniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers.

PAGE 18 . This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports.Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. Sanding. sealing. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Basic methodology for RP process . and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability.

Inc.4. Sand Casting: A RP model is used as the positive pattern around which the sand mold is built. The paper shells burn out. The tools have fairly good accuracy. EXPLAIN RAPID TOOLING USES. The part collapses inward when heated. as they are dimensionally stable with temperature. LOM models. 3D Systems introduced QuickCast. When the binder cures. leaving a matched die set that can produce tens of thousands of injection moldings. When the rubber hardens. which resemble the wooden models traditionally used for this purpose. 2. Likewise. Vacuum Casting: In the simplest and oldest rapid tooling technique. known as the Keltool powder metal sintering process. a RP positive pattern is suspended in a vat of liquid silicone or room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) rubber. DTM sells Trueform polymer. The resulting rubber mold can be used to cast up to 20 polyurethane replicas of the original RP pattern. for use in its SLS machines. RP models can be indirectly used in a number of manufacturing processes: 1. A more useful variant. 4. PAGE 19 . or it will crack the ceramic shell during autoclaving. leaving some ash to be removed. 3. a porous substance that expands little with temperature rise. RAPID TOOLING Indirect Tooling Most rapid tooling today is indirect: RP parts are used as patterns for making molds and dies. Both Stratasys and Cubital make investment casting wax for their machines. are often used. which is then reinforced with a stiff ceramic material. so it is infiltrated with copper to bring it close to its theoretical maximum density. the "green" metal tool is removed from the rubber mold and then sintered. a stereolithography machine is used to make a match-plate positive pattern of the desired molding. At this stage the metal is only 70% dense. uses the rubber molds to produce metal tools. has developed the NCC Tooling System to make metal/ceramic composite molds for the injection molding of plastics. the Keltool process involves filling the rubber molds with powdered tool steel and epoxy binder. To counter thermal expansion in stereolithography parts. The pattern must not expand when heated. Investment Casting: Some RP prototypes can be used as investment casting patterns. To form the mold. it is cut into two halves and the RP pattern is removed. the SLA pattern is plated with nickel. a LOM pattern can produce about 100 sand molds. 18 First. 17 Developed by 3M and now owned by 3D Systems. but their size is limited to under 25 centimeters. If sealed and finished. a build style featuring a solid outer skin and mostly hollow inner structure. Injection molding: CEMCOM Research Associates. The two mold halves are separated to remove the pattern. Paper LOM prototypes may also be used.

Production runs of 1000-5000 moldings are envisioned to make the process economically viable. H13 tool steel.com) 3. and titanium carbide cermets. Extrude Hone. This was the first widely sold consumer product to be produced from direct rapid tooling. The outer surface can also be plated with metal to improve wear resistance. will soon sell a machine. Inconel 625. Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) is a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories and Stanford University that can create metal tools from CAD data. RapidTool: A DTM process that selectively sinters polymer-coated steel pellets together to produce a metal mold. but the process currently works only for parts with simple. 4. cores are made from thin SLA shells filled with epoxy and aluminum shot. PAGE 20 . A laser beam melts the top layer of the part in areas where material is to be added. tungsten. Direct AIM (ACES Injection Molding): A technique from 3D Systems in which stereolithography-produced cores are used with traditional metal molds for injection molding of high and low density polyethylene. 22 Very good accuracy is achieved for fewer than 200 moldings. 21 Materials include 316 stainless steel. Realization of this objective is still several years away. The mold is then placed in a furnace where the polymer binder is burned off and the part is infiltrated with copper (as in the Keltool process). based on MIT’s 3D Printing process.000 injection moldings. which then solidifies.mts. The system has been commercialized by MTS corporation (www. The resulting parts have exceptional mechanical properties. The resulting mold can produce up to 50. uniform cross sections.000 plastic desk organizers from a SLS-built mold. Powder metal is injected into the molten pool. polypropylene and ABS plastic. since the metal is melted. Long cycle times (~ five minutes) are required to allow the molding to cool enough that it will not stick to the SLA core. not merely sintered. but some strong strides are being made: 1. LENS produces fully dense parts.Direct Tooling To directly make hard tooling from CAD data is the Holy Grail of rapid tooling. In 1996 Rubbermaid produced 30. in Irwin PA. and could be used as tooling in a variety of manufacturing processes. LOMComposite parts would be very strong and durable. In another variation. that produces bronze-infiltrated PM tools and products. thus shortening cycle time. 2. polystyrene. Unlike traditional powder metal processing. Layer after layer is added until the part is complete. Aluminum’s high conductivity helps the molding cool faster. LOMComposite: Helysis and the University of Dayton are working to develop ceramic composite materials for Laminated Object Manufacturing.

because of the extremely high quality required. president of Technology Strategy Consulting in Concord. Tools often have complex geometries. electro-discharge machining.3dprinting. Sand Molding: At least two RP techniques can construct sand molds directly from CAD data. MA. A much-anticipated application of rapid prototyping is rapid tooling. To meet these requirements. (Direct Shell Production Casting). Soligen (www.5 micrometers root mean square). and have very low surface roughness (about 0. DTM sells sand-like material that can be sintered into molds.5. molds and dies are traditionally made by CNCmachining. Peter Hilton. In addition. indirect and direct. All are expensive and time consuming. so manufacturers would like to incorporate rapid prototyping techniques to speed the process. tools must be hard. PAGE 21 . or by hand.com) uses 3DP to produce ceramic molds and cores for investment casting. Rapid tooling can be divided into two categories. believes that "tooling costs and development times can be reduced by 75 percent or more" by using rapid tooling and related technologies. wearresistant. the automatic fabrication of production quality machine tools. yet must be dimensionally accurate to within a hundredth of a millimeter. Tooling is one of the slowest and most expensive steps in the manufacturing process.

Once the required corrections were carried out no more problems were encountered in the subsequent prototype. or perhaps a technology. which would be able to take over the current technology. and the further steps of the component’s mass production process could be carried out. injection molding. PAGE 22 . A technology that is worth looking forward to the future. For the studied ‘Upper Case” part. Rapid Prototyping is the future for the next generation of design and manufacturing with the traditional way of design and manufacturing found that there are many advantages with Rapid Prototyping. The key advantages highlighted are decreasing development time. Rapid Prototyping is an emerging technology that a brighter and efficient future. The disadvantages of equipment costs could be overcome by establishing a centralized service. 5. The main advantages of Rapid Prototyping is the ability to produce physical models using digital methods instead of traditional impression techniques. the risk of component failure was reduced. 4.CONCLUSION 1. 2. minimize sustain engineering changes and increasing the number of variants of products. 3.

expertsmind.com/1571938 3. PAGE 23 .additive-process-and-virtual-process3019050. Article Source: http://EzineArticles.org/wiki/Rapid_prototyping 2.wikipedia. Source: Mohd Zuhri b.aspx 5. Buku rujukan workshop technology 4. http://www.htm#p rocess 6.psu.REFERENCE 1. Mohamed Yusoff UTem Melaka 2007.edu/lamancusa/rapidpro/primer/chapter2. http://www.me.com/questions/subtractive-rapidprototyping-process. http://en.

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