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Using Animation Movie in Teaching Writing through Audio Visual Aids

( An experimental study at MTsN Model Banda Aceh )

THESIS

Proposed by: Cut Meutia Rezeki ( Nim: 0809 2000 800 11 )

Academic Advisor : Dra. Surya Nola Latief, M. Sc ( NIP. 130 230 673 )

Syiah Kuala University Graduate Program in English Language Education Darussalam - Banda Aceh April, 2011

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1. The Background of Study Somehow, communication has become and has played important role in our life. Therefore, learning a language is no longer an option, but more on obligation especially in Education field. Depdiknas ( 2006 : 227 ) has stated that the objective of the English teaching is intended to reach functional level ; to use English either oral or written. Unfortunately, the fact shows that after students have spent six years learning English, they still do not have such good mastery in that subject especially in building communication with others. The condition becomes more significant, especially when the researcher found unexpected reality in MTsN MODEL Banda Aceh that most of the students still have some problems in using English as a tool for communication either oral or written, whereas MTsN Model is one of the favorite schools in Banda Aceh. Hence, the reality which was found eventually leading the researcher to make it as the starting point of her ( this ) paper. To come out with the problem to solve in the future, the researcher doing some observations at the school. After spending few times there, she found out that : The objective of writing at junior high school which is based on The School Based Curriculum, grade 2, 2nd semester is students are able to express various meanings in the development of a

simple written text in order to interact with surrounding ( from MTsN Model Banda Acehs archieve ). In order to achieve this objective, teachers are expected to implement suitable techniques or principles to stimulate students in improving their writing skill. In fact, the researcher found out that instead of implementing one of the techniques provided in communicative language teaching which can be used as a tool to stimulate students, the teachers still teach writing by using traditional methods. They teach writing which focuses on grammar ( Laksmi : 2006 ), and in a twosteps process, first figure out the students meaning and put it into language ( Elbow : 197). As a result, even students are taught to write, they still have difficulties in transferring ideas or to write well. From the findings that have been stated above, it can be understood that there are some problems that occur at MTsN Model in the way of teaching writing that persisted in a long time which the researcher calls as the conventional teaching. That is why, it causes so much trouble when the students face the writing lessons in class. The problems will be explained as follow. First, the problem that makes the students afraid is grammar. The majority of the students think that writing takes time and energy. It is a long process. Besides, some of the mistakes are as the result of their little understanding in grammar. Therefore, they are worried about their writings being judged as right or wrong. That is why, many students waste valuable time just for getting started. For them, writing is becoming a scarried field in their study and they cannot enjoy the learning in the class even just to sit or to pay attention while the teaching learning process is running.

Second, as it is found by the researcher that the teaching writing at MTsN Model only focuses on meaning. In fact as it is known that every school now has to adopt the communicative language teaching in teaching English which focuses on the process of language learned. Given that, in CLT (Larsen-Freeman: 1986) meaning does not come at first, but it comes when the process of writing is done by the students. In other words, the process of producing meaning is created through a writing process. In relation to this, Elbow (1973) gave his opinion that :
Instead of a two-step transaction of meaning into language, think of writing as an organic, developmental process in which you start writing at the very beginning, before you know the meaning at all and encourage your words gradually to change and evolve. Only at the end you will know what you want to say or at the words you want to say it with. Meaning is not what you start out with but what you end up with.

The last problem from the findings is on the way the teachers teach the students. The teachers teach which is focused on the finished work and just in two stages just as what has been said by Elbow. Whereas, they should teach writing to a new methodology by shifting the traditional practice which leads the student to go through the processes of writing in a number of activities, processes or stages ( Graves : 1983 ). The effect is that, the studentss writings are in low quality, unorganized and lack of paragraph unity. It is the effect on the way of the conventional teaching, which eventually let many students to be afraid of doing writing task. But anyway, the assumption of such kind of teaching and the way of the writings learning are wrong. They should

develop their writing skill without having to master the basic fundamental elements of writing, such as grammar or meaning ( Laksmi : 2006 ). However, it is not wise for students to have attended all the grammar classes before they start their writing class, because writing does not only mean applying grammatical rules or producing meaning, it is also a lesson to create students to be able to communicate their ideas in written form. In line with this, based on the curriculum the students of junior high school have to study some kinds of texts namely, descriptive text, narrative text and also procedure text, etc. Students have to have enough knowledge about these texts. Hence, students are prepared to know the basic skills for the texts. For some students, amongst these texts, narrative text is the most interesting one for them because it is a kind of text which present of the amusement when they read it. However, this text become more difficult and boring to be mastered by students due to the less interesting method used by English teachers, hence still students cannot produce the text well. One of the problems found by them in producing narrative text is the idea or topic to be written. Here, they are always confused and have to think hard about what they should write. Consequently, it took some time and they cannot finish their text as the time required. This leads them to think that narrative text is difficult even though the text is interesting. As mentioned before, the problem that the writer found when she did her preliminary study at the school is that the students were having difficulties in transferring ideas which means that the students encounter problems in managing the

ideas as well such as prewriting which include brainstorming to organize ideas into topic,drafting revising,editing and publishing ( Tompkins : 1994 ). Sometimes they just got stuck and stopped writing because they did not know what to write. Therefore, teachers have to pay serious attention to overcome this problem. So that students can write, transfer and flow their narrative product easily into their worksheets. In line with the problems above, the writer would like to apply the interesting alternative to help students learning writing in an interesting way without being bored and scared through narrative text and also the use of Audio Visual Aid. Thus to ease in comprehending, this thesis is organized based on few theories which relate to writing and this becomes the basic reason for choosing this topic. For the first, Hirschs theory (1996) which states that: Since the literature offers a multitude of methods, teachers can use some of it to increase their students interest by varying their teaching styles. They should always teach beyond a diversity of approaches, both in order to avoid boring students through obvious repetition, to manage such students who have unexpected result in their class report and in hope that different approaches will adhere to the students. Another theory which supports the use the animation movie in teaching writing is formulated by Harmer. According to Harmer (2001: 282) a movie is
one of the audio visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing classes .

This statement is also supported by Stempleski and Tomalin (1990:3), they state

that children and adults feel their interest quick on when language is experienced in a lively way through television and or video ( movie). As it is known, movie is a story and the best way to teach writing text through movie or story is through narrative genre. By implementing her technique, the researcher would like to show that animation may influence and may affect students in learning and may create a wonderful condition in teaching learning. As it is asserted by Erickson ( 1978 ) that the movie may stimulate studentsinterest to the lesson as an effective learning which depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest . Besides, movie will be the most powerful for getting teachers points, because it provides a concrete way to present important information ( Anderson : 1992 ), and help students to become critical consumers of popular information ( Hollander : 2000 ). Therefore, paying attention to these theories which have been mentioned above and also to respond to them, the researcher would like to try out one principle of Communicative Language Teaching, using animation in teaching writing as a technique which is presented through multimedia (audio visual aids ) . Here in CLT approach, teachers are insisted to use an authentic material ( For a better perception on CLT approach that the writer adopts in applying the technique of teaching writing through audio visual aids, please refer to Appendix IV ). Therefore, the researcher chooses an animation movie ( motion pictures ) in teaching writing, because it is an authentic material which offers the real life to

students and of course it will overcome students problems in learning language in classroom. Additionally, for the motion of this research is an experiment; therefore, it should have two variables namely dependent and independent variables. And to ease the readers in comprehending this study, the writer has formulated the following frame:

Variable

dependent

independent

writing

schematic features: narrative 1. Orientation 2. Complication 3. Resolution animation movie

audio visual

Operationally, based on the frame, this study can be explained as follows: 1. Writing. The writer focused on the narrative genre for her research. Here for her purpose the writer used animation movie or story as the way of

teaching or delivering narrative writing and it should be done in a narrative way. 2. Narrative In doing this study, the writer only focused on the schematic structure of the narrative text, they are: a. Orientation : here, student can identify where the story is taking place, and if they are able to make an opening paragraph. b. Complication : here, student can tell the problems faced by the character of the narrative story. c. 3. Resolution : here, students can tell how the story ends.

Animated story

What the writer meant with the animated story is that the story which consists of: a. True plot : here, the students can follow the story from the

beginning to the end. b. Fully developed character : here, students can identify how

many characters the story has and are the character developed. c. Language, songs and music : here, those three things are

used to entertain the students while focusing on the animated story. 4. Audio visual For the aim of this thesis is to explore the possibilities of animation movie as a method of learning which is presented through CD ROM

program, it is a need to design the function of the learning resources which is influenced by each of audio visual aids variation such as the computer programs, projector and CD-ROM. Here, AVA is only as a medium used in teaching narrative 5. To evaluate students writing, the writer uses Browns weighting scale which consists of two of his five categories, ( Brown 2000: 357-358), they are: Schematic Structure Browns weighting scale Content - Development of ideas through personal experience, illustration and facts - Use of description - Consistent of focus Organization - Assessing the effectiveness of introduction - Logical sequences of ideas - Resolution - Conclusion

From

to

Orientation Complication

But before going too far, may be after reading some paragraphs and also the frame above, however, yet it still arises a big question about why would the researcher quite sure that the animated cartoon might give a different dimension to the process of teaching writing, especially to the learner in improving their writing ability, where as there are so many approaches, techniques and methods in CLT.

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Concerning to this, the researcher has some reasons why she choose this technique as her best strategy. First of all, the teaching writing by inserting animation movie in, is starting form some statements from the experts, particularly, the use of animated movies was found to have a positive effect on students' learning ( Rosen : 2009 ) , and animation may effective for gaining attention in presenting information in the lesson ( Rieber : 2001 ) Second, one of the aims of this paper is to figure out whether the students are easy in transferring their ideas when the researcher practices her writing technique through description of a process.In connection with the practice, what the researcher has done is eventually the same as in Paivio's dual coding theory ( Pavio : 1986 ) that in teaching students to write a description, movie is as an appropriate tool for it. Pavio has theoretically established the fact that processing of verbal and visual information is interrelated and one gives cues to the other, that is why animation can be used to explain, elaborate and illustrate animate expressions to abstract concepts. Further, he also mentioned that one of the language skills that can be developed with animation is writing, such as for description of a process. The next reason is because animation has some advantages ( Journal of The Animation Workshop : 2005 ) as follow : first, animation is popular among children; second, with animation no after-editing is necessary; third, in animation each move and cut is planned thoroughly which makes it possible to reflect and analyze; fourth, animation can be included in a regular teaching situation because it does not take up a

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lot of space; fifth, aanimation and imagination are closely connected which makes it possible to use animation even with the youngest pupils; sixth, an animation production can combine the physical and the virtual worlds; and the last advantages is that animation strengthens the creative mind. From all above explanation, prior reasons of the researcher to take this technique as her best strategy are due to some research findings which indicate that it was succesful with the use of animated movies through audio visual aids. Firstly, the use of animation developed higher motivation to learn in terms of : self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment, connection to daily living, and importance to the students future, compared to students who studied in a traditional way ( Dori & Belcher : 2005; Rosen : 2009 ). Then according to Ames ( 1990 ), technology has the potential to increase students positive attitude toward learning . This was evidenced in a research study of the impact of Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 4 (1) which is conducted by Rochowicz ( 1996 ). Rochowicz concluded that studying by using computers make the learning more relevant, meaningful, and enjoyable. Students experience a greater enjoyment from learning content because they are confident in their ability to accomplish the task given from the teachers when using technology. Thirdly, Chun and Plass ( 1996 ), and Plass, Chun, Mayer, and Leutner ( 1998 ) found support for using integrated multimedia for second-language comprehesion. More specifically, Plass and his colleagues underscored the importance of simultaneous visual and verbal and supported for facilitating and enhancing comprehension in second-language learners. The last finding that the

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researcher found is on Knights ( 1994 ) and Leffas ( 1992 ) studies, which also stated that Students who had access the technique which using animation movie learnt more than those under the comparable no-computer conditions . However, the most important reason why the researcher chose this kind of media in teaching narrative text is students are hoped to study about the linguistic feature in a very interesting way instead of the conventional method where teachers only explain and they listen. As mentioned before, the schematic structure of the narrative text is sometimes stressful for students because it forces them to remember and to think hard while they only get the material in a very boring way. Here, the researcher believed that teaching the schematic structure of the narrative test by using the animation movie will be very communicative and enjoyable. In consideration of the findings and some reasons that the writer has desribed beyond, the writer would like to introduce the effectiveness of this technique, using animation movie in teaching writing which is presented through audio visual aids to the others in pedagogical area, but before it is done, the researcher would do a study in MTsN Model at first to know whether this technique will be useful for students in improving their writing skill, since it was successful in few studies that have been conducted by some experts for greater experience. The researcher will focus more on the students ability on collaborating the use of schematic structure in the narrative text the students can apply the schematic structure well when they write about narrative text based on the given topic by the teacher. After all, the writer also expects that the research result can be an input of English instruction and one of effective

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solutions related to the problem in English teaching.

2. Research Problem The students achievement in learning English may be influenced by several factors such as the methods or approaches used by the teacher, media to transfer knowledge ( lessons ) to the students and students cultural background. However, the number of students in a class may also strongly influence the teaching learning process. But, without ignoring all factors which may influence teachers in teaching writing, the technique that will be applied by the reseacher is going to make the students to be able to communicate their ideas in written form or not. In line with the background of the study, the writer needs to formulate the research problems as follows: 1. Will students have a better result in writing after being manipulated by the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids ? 2. How are the students responses to the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids?

3. Research Objectives According to the research formulation above, the aim of this research are : 1. To find out whether the students will have a better result in writing after being manipulated by the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids.

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2. To figure out how the students responses to the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids

4. Hypotheses In doing the research, the writer chooses the experimental research. An experiment is a way to prove certain hypotheses : 1. Students will have a better result in writing after being manipulated by the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids. 2. The students responses are positive to the technique of using animation movie through audio visual aids.

5. The Significance of the Study The result of study is expected to provide theoretical and practical benefit. Practically, this study is expected to show that there are some other alternative techniques than conventional techniques which are more effective and can improve the writing skills. This study is also done to provide benefits of teaching writing and help the students to solve the problems that are encountered in English teaching. For instances, writing is not as a scaring lesson anymore for students and they may use English as a tool for written communication to build communication with others. However, it also enriches the teacher to choose an alternative technique in practicing one of the various methods such as the technique that will be used by the researcher using animation movie through audio visual aid technique in teaching writing .

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Theoretically, the result of this study is expected to contribute to the school in improving the quality of their staff as an input. In addition, using the method can stimulate the students in learning English more enthusiastically and effectively. However for other researcher, it is hoped that the benefit of practical and theoretical result would be used as reference or as comparison in conducting the further research.

6. The Scope of Study This experimental study is conducted to implement the technique of using animation movie in teaching writing which is presented through audio visual aids. In implementing the technique, the researcher focused on two factors. First, according to the MTsNs syllabus for the second semester, the students should be taught text monologue or short functional texts for based competence which only focus on teaching narrative text especially for description of a process. It will be performed into a video program or CD-ROM program entitled Alvin and the chipmunks . Relating to this, the researcher focused only on the schematic structure of the narrative text. She evaluated the students work whether they could apply the schematic structure of the narrative text including orientation, complication and resolution. Second, the researcher focused on the students responses toward the implementation of her technique whether the students like or dislike it. On comparing the results of teaching, the researcher will compare the teaching that uses conventional techniques and the audio visual aid techniques. The object of research teaching is the second year students of Islamic secondary school (

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MTsN ) 1 Banda Aceh which is located at Jl. Pocut Baren no. 14.

7. Definition of Key Terms

7. 1. Animation movie

As opposed to a cartoon movie, animation movie which is used as a technique to help the researcher to teach writing should be defined as an animated narrative that includes (or at least aspires to include) all six of Aristotle's elements of drama: a true plot, fully developed characters,, language, songs and music, .. ( Heinemann : 1932 ), which is probably effective for gaining attention in presenting information of the lesson, since it pretends to be more intersting in the performance, easy in the application, more economical and more interactive ( Simpson : 1989 ).

For the first, the reseracher chooses a movie which presents a true plot. in this study a true plot that the researcher meant is a plot which contains a beginning, middle, and end. It is not as narrative which followed by a series of repetitive incidents that continue until the piece reaches the proper length and stops. Second, fully developed character is the character where people or audiences can relate to real personalities with some degree of complexity; or in the other words, the characters are developed. Third, language is the spoken language that is used by the character in the movie where the audience can get the language which is easy to take for language use. Fourth, song and music are things which are used to entertain the students while

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focusing on the animated story. For example, the song of Alvin And The Chipmunk fully entertained the audience for the song is offered by interesting dance and also its music, which are beautiful.

7. 2. Teaching Writing Teaching, is defined as the the interaction of a student and a teacher over a subject ( Davis : 1995 ). According to Klein (1985), writing is the ability to put pen and paper to express ideas through symbols. In this way, the representations on the paper will have meaning and content which could be communicated to other people by the writer . To gather the two-definitions, teaching writing is a teaching where a teacher have an interaction to make his students to be able and to be confident to express their ideas into a paper which then have a meaning and content inside. Here on, as in CLT approach, the researcher will act as the teacher who guide and help the students to write easily by using her strategy. In doing the thesis research, she starts to teach in few steps as follow. At first, before she gives the students the CD- ROM program to watch, she provides them with a set of questions that they should be able to answer/discuss after viewing the movie, and finally, the researcher will ask them to write a description of what they have watched, for the motion of this research is to write a description of a process.

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Here with, the researcher will assist the students to be familiar with the writing by telling them that writing is free and it is not as what they have presently thought, felt, and perceive so that they can enjoy writing as well. It can be done by letting them to write what they want to write at all without thinking about grammar, transitional phrases, etc at first. Later on, after they finish with the ideas to tell, let them to follow few phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing ( Elbow : 1973 ).

7. 3. Audio visual aid Audio visual aid is one of media. It is also called as media. Media comes from the Greek, medius which is mean as medium or conductor. W. S. Winkel ( 1991 : 187 ) reminds that media is a mechanic and electronic device that is used to catch, to process, to deliver information and also as an activity to create a condition, until it enables the students to obtain the new knowledge, skills and behavior. Here, in doing this research, the writer will focus on choosing audio visual aids such as projector, computer and CD-ROM as media in teaching learning process.

7. 4. Conventional technique In earlier, conventional technique is a kind of teaching writing where the textbook, visual aids ( e.g : flash card,etc ) and audio aids ( e.g : tape,etc ) are the resources for the material providing for both the teachers and the students. But after gathering some information, the researcher may bravely stated that the technique in

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teaching writing in MTsN Model should be account into the conventional technique due to some reasons which refers to what that has been stated by Elbow ( 1986 ). They still teach by using grammar translation methods ( grammar as the first focus ) and still teach writing by using traditional practice ( teach by focusing on meaning and only in two stages of process to produce writing products ). For these reasons, the researcher may conclude that the technique in teaching writing at MTsN Model should be called as conventional technique.

9. Organization of Study This study will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one consists of background of study, research problem, research objective, significance of study, the scope and limitation of study, definition of key terms and research methods. Chapter two is theories and literature review related to the variable. Chapter three will describe about research method, research location and population and sample. Chapter four will discuss the result of study. The last, is chapter five that will discuss about conclusions and suggestions.

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