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DIGITAL

MANGA
Techniques
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Digital
Manga
Techniques
CREATE SUPERB-QUALITY
f\llANGA ARTWORK
ON YOUR COMPUTER
HAYDEN SCOTT-BARON
A QUARTO BOOK
C.opynght tJ 2005 Quarto Publishing pic
hy New Flurlington Books
6 Blundell Slreel
London N7 9BH
All reservec1 No pilrt of this book may be
rcrmdured in any torm. by photostat. microfilm.
xeroqraphy. or any otl1er means. or incorporated into any
Information retrieval system, electronic or mech,mic.-11,
Without the wntten permission of the copyright owner.
ISI:lN: 978- 1-84566- 173- 1
Concervf'(J, ilnd produced by
Ouilrto Publfshrng pic
The Old Brewery
6 Blundell Street
London N7 9BH

r'roJetl edrtur Liz Pasfield
ArT cc1iror Annrt Knight
drl direttur Penny Cobb
Copy edrtor Chris Middleton
Karin Sk:tnberg
Hayden Scott-Baron, Selrna Dean,
Wrtnon
lrtdexer Pdmela Ellis
1\rt cJrr ettor Moira Clinch
PAul Carslake
ManutJctured by Provision Pte Ltd, Singapore
I 'llnle(l IJy Star Standard Pte Ltd, Singapore

Contents
Introduction 6
CHAPTER ONE
Analysis of style 8
CHAPTER TWO
Character creation 22
CHAPTER THREE
Digital foundations 44
CHAPTER FOUR
Digital techniques: line art 54
CHAPTER FIVE
Digital techniques: colouring,
screentone, and effects 64
CHAPTER SIX
Creating pages 1 oo
Resources 124
Index and credits 126
"t' Line art styles
Uelicate and mtnimal
1 of line <trl
1 rrpltHt '\ , 1 r l kll/11
ell ill CJidU'. kt'C:'!Jilllj
rile focus on
the
lru:'m;elve;_
Introduction
ea.
Manga in its present form has existed for over fifty years.
but the origins of Japanese sequential art date back to Ukiyo-E
a11 from the nineteenth centuty. Hokusai, a famous Ukiyo-E
artist, is generally credited with coining the term manga
meaning literally "irresponsible pictures". The development and
social acceptance of mass-produced artwork and sequential
.vt in the early twentieth century. combined with influences
from Europmn and American strip-panel comics. evolved into
wlktl is now commonly known as manga.
Manga has grown and developed as an art form
considerably over half a century in Japan. and has also enjoyed popularity in the West
tor almost llalf of tllis time. Tile acceptance of the manga style and its iconic imagery
into a modern subculture as well as mainstream entertai nment has emphasized its
place on tile world stage. New generations have grown up with manga
il5 c:1 m<'Jjor artistic influence. through cartoons, video games and the
popularity of printed manga. There:S little wonder. then. that so many
Western artists are creating great work with the manga aesthetic!
TilE DIGITAL WORLD
The advent of the digital age has made a huge difference to the world
of manga. The lntemet allows attists to share their finished creations
with a huge audience instantaneously, and to
receive feedback and advice from others.
Ar rile silme time. the Internet lets artists
li ke you see plenty of artwork and get
exposecl to a wealth of different manga
styles - any or all of wllich can be incorporated
into your own style if you see fit.
Alongside the widespread popularity of the Internet, home

computers have become much more powerful. Previously
specialist tools such as flatbed scanners and graphics tablets
have become both commonplace and very afFordable. By
getting familiar with the software and techniques available
to them. everyone now has the opportunity to produce
professional-quality artwork.
A LEARNING EXPERIENCE
This book will break down some of the difFerent styles
and genres of manga, explaining the subtleties of
the styles. so that you can work towards finding
a look and a theme that suits your tastes. By
understanding the focus of the art style and
Colourful
cbaracters
5c-:cigirl characters
_ ::r...pular in manga


fOUthful

INTRODUCTI ON 7
the distinctive visual techniques. you can begin to develop your artwork in a
way that suits you - and with confidence!
Whether you wish to work on single illustrations or go a step further and
create your own manga-style comics, this book wi ll guide you through the
process. Methods of character design and applied
<>
L will help you to see the possibilities of the medium. rtnd
. the sections on story will help you give your characters a
believable life all of their own.
Everything from advice on creating
a world for your characters to
choosi ng how to dress them
wi ll help you develop your own
cool and stylish manga characters.
A LIFE OF MANGA
0
Producing manga over the years has
afforded me no end of happiness. with
each picture representing a minor personal
victory. The endless range of styles and subject
matter has enabled me to skip between mature and
realistic drama to cute and happy illustrations easily and
0 comfortably, instilling me with a certainty that I can apply
my skills to whatever suits me at the time. The experience
of seeing a project through from the early pencil strokes
of a character design to the completed story in print is
incredibly satisfying. Theresa lot of hard work
involved - but its that hard work that lets you
know that what you've produced is the very best
you can manage. I look forward to developing
my skills further and to working on more comic
projects over the coming years .
... Costume
influences
In manga. costumes
are often elaborate
or outlandish. with a
mixture of street
styles and military
and naditional
influences.

/
/
The word manga literally :translates as . ;> . /"
"conlics ': but has come tQ refer to a specific .=:. /
. . . "': .
0lS1nY ... _ .. :- . ..
rllanga .. ::< ./.: .. :
ic1cntify our work/ .::.
7
_ .. _; .: .. =
. .. :
flJ What is manga? 1 o
. .. .... ; . : ;. .i > .
Shoujo. 1 : . . :.
i ro. :
. .
and science 1 ...
:::. ;/ {.: ;'uO;" I:
Come.dy 20 : :_<. .' .. .-._; .: . :
. ..
. .... . .. . .-
' ..

10 ANALYSIS Or STYLE
at is manga?
Although to non-expert Western eyes the term
manga might conjure up a single graphic style, it
simply refers to Japanese comic art and to the
comics However, despite there being
many differPnt visual styles in Japanese comics,
U1ere (:lre some underlying elements that represent
J shared aesthetic, giving the medium a distinct
visual edge.
)tylization is probably Lhe mosl significant recurring element
ot manga artwork. The d ldrdcters are realized with stylish
yet clean and con.si\ltJnl visuet ls that concentrate on the
c. haracters charm and expressiveness.
Minimalism is another readily
of almost all forms of
rlldrl Ji 1. One ot the most
irnport;mt of the

when working on

1111 rmati ons. is
reitll7lng thnt ynu
dun'L ll.ive to every detail -
you cdn ;Khieve il (jre<Jter effect through the power of
1. A exilmf11E' would be to look at the
noses of manga characters: you'll notice some artists,
when <irilwing at certain angles, don'L drdw the nose at all.
The JC'ddi..'J by this, and the image remains
clc:dn. 1l drJd rrun1mal.
Analysrng many of the common
d ements uf rrkJngd wrll help you
"flfXCciatc the nuances of lhe art
torm, and ilpply rhrm ro your
See also Planning your pages, pages I 02- 1 03
VISUAL GRAMMAR
Colourful
characte rs
Vibrant colours and
the frog-themed
clothing reflect
this characters
cheerful nature.
Manga artists often use varieties of visual
shorthand to tell readers what they need to
know about a characters emotions without
the need for exposition, explanatory dialogue
and lots of extraneous panels. Using such
graphic devices lets the artist retain the all-
important simplicity of expression that is a
hallmark of manga style. These techniques
are also useful as comedic devices when
using hyperstylization {see Comedy,
pages 20- 21).
SAMPLE COMIC BOOK PAGE
t . This panel is small.
with dynamic cropping.
It gives the impression of
viewing the scene from
a distance before leading
into a much closer view.
3. Using a distant
camera". its possible to
show all the characters
in the scene at once.
Irrelevant derails such as
facial features are
removed from this image
as a means of focusing
the readers attention on
body language.
s. The hand is shown
.vith sparkles of
screentone effects [see
oage 94). implying an
emotional response to
whatever is said.

Beads of sweat
Oo

Bubbles
Embarrassment. above head
nerves, drscomfort Drunk

'00
f Q
Sparkles Pounding vein
Extreme happrness in Angry
romancrc Situations
6 . Using d simple trick. the moved
hand to open the cupboard. The position of the
previous panel the is altdCI1et1 to
this person. but it nuidly leads into a different action.

Mushroom cloud Vertical lines Bubble from nose
Sigh of relief Sllocked Sleeping


Scribble cloud Chick on head Spiral/helix
Very <mgry Innocence Dizzy
WHAT IS MANGA? 11
2. HyperstyllZation
t e to
me
in the t;:Ke ot the boy .Jt
the bJck ot the scene.
c,uccnlor l<' c llcc I\
(sec puqcs I 06 I 07).
I tw c llnl 11"1 111 lronl i\
dramJtiC.:llly lit. Tl1e
pdr 11.:: 1 cunlir lUI.:::, ull t1 11.::
Jkl(_Jt" 10 ri<Ji llh,Jrul
r.irlf', oivlno lr .1 m1 1rh
gn?.:Jtcr fOCli S ti1Jil liSllJI
cli1U 111iplyu 1q ll
( 'Vl'l l I IICJlC' II llrlC/C'
beyond the P.rlge
uf till: !Jd<.JC.
4. The ch:.1rKrer is
prt '\('11/( 'I I rl(JrlH 1\l rl
wi1Jit
brxkground with no
suggestion of
bnckqround derail.
This allows the re.Jdcr
to tows on the
charJcter. while also
lhill tht'
other d k11 ..-iller .:11 e
tocusing their Jttcntion
o r 1 the lll<lkllll'J too
Ghost leaving
nose
Omd

Hearts

Hair bristling
in love
Annoyancl:!. irritation
+b
12 ANALYSIS OF STYLE

UJO
Unlike the comics industry in most Western countries today,
Japan otters a broad and rich vari ety of comics designed
srP.ci0cdlly For a femal e audience, and has done so
Lhrougllout tile r1i sLory of manga.
S!?OLljO is t11e Jrtp.-mese word for "girl", so shoujo manga
to the comics produced in Japan specifically for
girl\ . A\ a demographic tenn, shoujo strictly a
genre. but by exremion it does refer to the styles
ot artwur k userJ to ilJlpcal to female readers.
Almost exclusivPiy lhese comics are written and
c1r;,wn by c:tnc.J offer i1 visual style serving
stones tlrat Focus un the emotions of
lllf' r h<irdctcrs.
Wi tlr its on relationships and
emoliuml struggle. the style lends itself to
rorrrc:tnce storylrnes. but also to a huge
numiJer or deillinq witlr more
m mplex and mdture plots. As i1
result, embraces
cvcrytlring from chilcJhQOd dreams and
flutty ilnimals to violer 1l.
apocalyptic dJdllld, but e.lch srory is captured with the
r re deydnce, and rapturous charm
wrth mangd.
Shoujo characteristics
I hrrr many Llldt c:tcteristrc elements of slloujo dt twork.
nri1r,lctcr s Lencl to Lle drilwn with tall and slender
WhiCh brrng ro mind European rastliun
illu.mminn rllltl Mule ar e often
clrdwn With sofT ilfl(1 rlrgant fedlures. creating a slightly
yet look.
Line .:m rn mure delicate than other mangn
will1 ttun 11nes and long, flowing strokes.
rlSide. abstrcJCtion JlOSSibly the most
rc-mllrkablc trdil of iJrtwork. where it is
cornrnon ror ; trtim to represent the emot1on. beauty
r1nd significc:tnce of iJ scene with almost dreamlike
VISUal tlourislles. Flowers. sparkles, feathers and
wisps are superimposed the image,
and tire or characters shine so brightly
that tl1ey can be seen through the hair
draped over them.
alSO Costume design, pages 40-41 )
Shoujo details
Hair is captured with delicate curls and
perfect grooming. and the clothi ng has an
attention to detail and a fashion
consciousness that is unsurpassed.
Representation of children
In comics For young girls. children are
represented with large eyes and a delicate
manner. with sparkles and flowers signifying
happiness and beauty.
Shoujo: classic and modern
The style of line art and illustration has
developed and matured throughout the
history of shoujo comics. w ith modern titles
toning down many oF the most
notable traits. Eyes are less
sparkly, yet often
drawn even larger to
::ompensate. Faces
are more defined
and less "flat"
chan in older
.?rtwork. but still
emain minimal
and elegant.
O..sslc shoujo
SHOUJO 13
SHOUJO ICONOGRAPHY
Abstract images are used heavily in shoujo-style artwork as a means of
communicating emotions beyond what is literally presented. They can also
help represent how a character is interpreted by other characters.
t
Flowers
Flowers are a classic
metaphor for beauty.
romance and the
blossoming of hope
and potential. The use
of flowers around
characters ernph..t\1/f:'S
their charm and
splendour. and often
the way other
characters interpret
tllem.
0
sp ... rklt!s of light
LJ4I1l klu1y trll<l
rPtiPrting rhroLrghout J
Kt:llt: (jiVl'\ ill(' 1(1 Ill
Pxrr.-r rlrmPminn nf
bcJuty .:md
ir I 1111\ 1\ CJM'Il
grParer emorlonJI lmpJct
cl11U UC!Jlll I.Jy ur ,rwiiUJ
or st.:lrs In the
l<ll(j!' I'Yl'\
to represent hope.
I r-rpp1111 '\\ or IC111(JIIl(J
o C9 o"'
0
0
__
'>f11111!J r htmy blossoms.
ou /)
0
kllCIWil .-!\ 1.-lkt 11.-1 Ill
(_/ Jtrptlll, \Yillllulitt '
sprinqlimc rum,ult t',
whereJs the fillling of
blossoms R'pr r1h lin
('110 of 10111rlllll', Of
t Vl.!ll Ut'dtll
rrliltr ro
n of
i'lnd i'lngC'I whirh
in shoujo onen
rrrrcscnt pure and Idyllic
rlcoq;rnce. With a
suggestion ot mortality.
Ch..lldCII:'I\ \llrlCllJrldC'cJ tly
feathers arc often serious,
rnel,mctroly or unf,mly
mrsunderstood.

14 "9 t\NALYSIS OF SIYLE
f Q
unen
The ll rsL rnanga stories were targeted at boys. So wllat are
tile key elements of artwork designed to appeal to a young
rrlc:ile Cll!Uierlce, 2llld rlOW do you produce it yourself?
Shounen is Japanese word for "boy", and the term
s11ounen manga refers w comics produced specifically for
young mc1les. Most of first manga was written for boys.
dn(i it wasn't until several years later tllat the medium
developed to appeal to a wider audience.
Mucl1 like st1oujo, sllounen isn't strictly a genre. The term
ro ril e demogr.1phic. but it also describes tt1e styles of
artwork used for these titles.
The central role
Central characters in st1ounen h1.1nga are almost .1lways
male - female protagonists are granted masculine roles and
u5tJ.illy wield qum i'lncJ kung fu skills. and wear tight outfits.
t11crc v1c usually two types of male characters : tl1ose who
Jrc painfully average. and tl1ose w t1o l1ave great skills.
AlthotJqh r11c <;ki lled characters l1ave obvious heroic roles, its
L11e un.'>kill ed ch;1r<Kters thi1t tend to offer the more
intNc<;tinq storylines. A relatively ordinary male chordcter
will be nung ir 1lu .::1 wur /c.J where t1e irnrnediatefy gr<:mted
d beautifUl girl, rl gi<lnt robot tO pifOt
or some torrn ot .lma7ino fiJtent power: Such tf1emes are
common and effective forms of storytelling.
Action in shounen
1\ m .. aspect or shounen i:lrtwork is action nnd physici'lf
movement. t:ven stones without dynnmic physicrll cvenrs
/ u t "prL''L'r lll'cl w1lt 1 c.Jr drTkltll c.urnpusitlons and a moving
"rnml'rrl". face connicl. be it physical or social.
nn<i rill' c:cnrmf tnn ;<; nf manga is the desire to
iKcompfish ,, goilf or overcome ll obstAcle. A1t ists also
Jines" t.lmiiinr trom acrion comirs. even when a
ct1amcrer IS Shocked or m represent an intense
illl(J sudden emotion.
.;:ee also Action, pages 1 8- 19
)
Themes
Shounen has a generally
grlllier luok - espeoally in
and aggressive
storylines Involving
combat. mil1tary themes
or mar 11al arts.
Idealization
In llkii!Yd. wum<-:11 c1re
often presented in
a typically
m.'mner. With
H11n waists and
large chests.
Lineweight
Shouncn c1rtwork
rends ro h<lve
rnuth t1envier
ul klng lt1an lhe
<.:quJval<.:nt comrcs
f01
Man of action
Generally male
characters are drawn
wrth realtsnc
proportiOns. although
their faces retain many
of rhe d1slincuve
features of mangil
Shounen: classic and modern
Shounen artwork has become more cleanly drawn
over the years, with more angular features and
larger eyes than were common in earlier examples
of the form. In classic shouncn artwork. however.
more hatching (shading buill up by layers of lines)
Clnd additional lines were used to define folds,
'lluscles and facial features. Older comics also featured
""'lale characters with large eyebrows and small eyes -
c reference ro Japanese Kabuki theatre.
SHOUNENICONOGRAPHY
Mobile fortress
Giant robots are a popular recurring
theme 1n shounen manga, ortcn
representing grcilt power granted to .:1
young male character.
"'he iconography and effects used in shounen manga are far less abstract than those 1n
shoujo artwork. They are mostly associated with realistic or outrageous express1ons of
such as fire, lightning or physical energy. Speed lines are also used to great effect
accentuating this power and adding dynami sm to the overall image.
Explosions
are a simple form of
tgery, yet also a hugely
ecuve visual statement of
.:.er and movement. By us1ng
. e. small particles and p1eces
clebns. you can g1ve an
s1on real energy.
Ughtning
Ughtning and other sparks of
energy can be literal or used
purely for emouondl impact. as a
v1sual metaphor for a characters
rage or as an express1on of
shock. for example.
Speed lines
Spec>d 11ncs ilrc used extensively
in shouncn mangil to show
speed bur also to express
dynam1sm. even 1n scenes
where emotions dre the
rc"'ther lh<ln physic .. !l <lCtion
SHOUNEN IS
Hands on fire
This is an extension of lighu1iny
1magery and other
represenrattons of ene1gy
1eleo:1se. Showinq fire ,uounrl .1
c.h.tr<tcter. or i1rounrl limbs .
demonstrates where h1s power
and strength lie.
+a
I 6 ANALYSIS or S I YLE
Fantasy and
fictio

sc1ence
r and science fiction are just as popular in
Iapan as they are in til e West, yet familiar themes
c.m: fillerecl through the manga aeslhetic to create
artwork that is fresh and distinctive.
M.1nga stones are full of fantastic images, portraying events that are
unlike we see in everyday life. Any story that doesn't take
pldr l" c1thcr on contemporary Eartt1 or at a predetermined point of
IS <1 fantasy world. From Tolkienesque stones of dragons and
ro ruturistic space rJdventures. worlds can breathe
li fe .mcJ wonder intu d f!dding - sometimes literally-
flllmhcr uimemton.
Cha1 dLLers Ciln be hroughl from another world. but the world
tllcy cor nl" from will define their person - and this needs to be
expressed in your With consideration. it is
to worlds that can be the basis for
dr .:tmatic or epic storylines, or seNe as lavish backdrops
to more tales.
Look to the future
Bold wlours ;md futur
materials ddine the look of
th1s space ranger.
The interesting stranger
A mntE>mporary cllardcter travels through a
portal and up in a new world. ThiS
< oulrl be through time trdVel. or something
more AltE>rnatively. a cl1aracter
rrorn il fantasy world comes 1nto the real
world and l>efnends or interacts w1th the
other characters. In both of these instances.
till' characters dress and t1ppearance should
reflect the world he or she comes from Th1s
is i!lso a good example of n catalyst character
(seC' Catalyst chdracters. pages 34-35).
Elven beauty
Traditional clothes
and delicate
features complete
the look of this
elven archer.
Killing monsters
Monsters m1ght take the form of evil
tyrants or g1gantic sea creatures. for example
If an entrty IS a large enough threat.
gathenng the strength of one or more
characters to overcome 1t can make for a
compelling and thnlhng storyline. Th1s type of
story applies equally well to different worlds
and to different penods 1n ume.
See also Creati ng a setting, pages 42-43
FANTAS Y AND SCIENCE FICTION 17
Traditional fantasy
- ghly decorative
:::esigns based on classic
=-opean styles.
OUests
pursuit of someth1ng mystical. or a
Magical worlds
Your clli'ifilctel s Cdn
ex1st in worlds of
magic and mystery.
Fantasy: classic and modern
Many of classic fantasy and sci fi designs
were heavily innuenced by Europmn. British ilnci
American fantilsy anwo1 k. films dnd TV These
images stuck closely to the barbarians. wizards and
elf designs popular in tl1e West. Modern 1magery.
however. often looks to f1nd irs own inspiration and
crosses modern styles and fasl1ions with cii ffcrrnl
styl es of clotlli ng From 11istory ancl diFferent cultural
dress. This appli es equally to both futuristic and
ancient characters.
Modern styles
Contemporary
fash1on and
design IS mixed
with classic looks.
ney ro k1ll a monster. can be a great way
\ake characters through strange worlds
6ld amaz1ng locanons. Quests have been
al to legends for centuries. and they
themselves particularly well to fantasy
soence fict1on stones. because new
onments are equally fascinating to the
terers and to the reader
DRAWING UPON REALITY
There IS much 1n the real world that already
borders on f<mtastic. so its often worth
exploring the wonders of our world betore
seeking 1mp1r<tt1on from elsewhere.
Mdny .. classrc hrstoric.JI roles were dirlillt-'t/
by therr envrronment .:md the society rl l ltlt-'
trme. such .Js pir.Jtes and Wt-'l t:'
s1mply 'j obs .. that reflected the needs of til e
society rl l l hP t1me I or example. pirates were
a comc(juPnr e of t11e mcreased trade in gold
and luxury goods ovPr\Prt\
these can be reworked into difftrt-'nl
envrronments with interesting Cowl mys
an(1 p1rates have otten been used in il sp,1r r
fhght scenario.
You may even choose to focus solely on 1 ht
visu<t l s1de of th1ngs. and borrow styles and
dcsigm from costumes to crearc your
own unrque look. Try crossrng over tr<ldirionill
styl es and desrgns to something
Interesting. or mixing wit II
modern and styli sh designs. You could cntl t Jfl
w rth something re<JIIy cool and dislinclivP.
Stories can .Jiso be set in the pt'riocJ in
which you t.1ke iH1 interest. ilnd IJe erlher
historically c:KlUi dle or Simply bUilt upon
folklore This can g1ve you a nch and
interesting environment to work w1th ils well
as an established soc.ial structure, g1vmg you
a perfect start1ng po1nt for a fantastic sel
of characters.
Hist oric influences
A lUte mang;1 rPndirion of illl Jtl l-
cenrury K.. 'lhukr ilrror frnm tilL' EdLJ j.)t'IIUcJ of
Jap;mcse history.
+b
18 ANA l YSIS O F STYLE

I On
AltliOtJgli comics a slalic medium. it is possible
Lo express great speed. swiftness and power
cJyn.:mlic poses and attistic tli cks.
Action stories are predominantly the mainstay of
shouncn m;.tnga. but most comics have dramatic
moments or emotional confrontations. The appropriate
usc of action scenes can drive a story forward and
11f'ighten tension and drama. setting a hero apart from
nrher char.Jcters as he or she overcomes an adversary,
or is defeated only l o rise again.
Reach for the sky
Jumping can be mildc morr
t l yndrruL w1Lt1 lilt' heavy
lJSC of ilrld
lJold
COMMON SCENES FOR ACTION
Jumping
Jumping is a truly dynamic
uctivity to illustrate, and offers
great opportuntties for
stunning artwork in stories
about martial arts. and also in
sports manga. Jumping to
make that vital basketball shot
or a slow-motion dive to catch
a match-winning ball
represent t1efini tive
make-or-break situations for
your characters. Jumping is a
fantasti c metaphor for
personal risk taking - putting
everything on the line in the
hope of reward.
Car chases
The use of vehicl es in a chase
is always dramatic. It increases
the potential for injury or even
death. making the action
much more exciting,
dangerous and destructive
Ito both body and machine).
Cclr chases are also thrilling
because they are something
not commonly seen in
everyday life.
Flowi ng fabrics
and long hair help
to accentuate
movement in
action scenes.
Dest ruction
A breaking object,
even an innocuous
pair of glasses. can
be presented as a
dramatic event.
Falli ng and dropping
Dropping an important or rare
item might be a significant
event in your story, so it makes
sense to emphasize the drama
with dynamic acti on in your
illustration. Equally, if a person
falls from a fatal height the
intensity is extreme, so be sure
to accentuate the drama and
speed of the moment.
also Special effecu, pages 94- 99 )
The position of a weapon
can communicate the
direction of action in
Running
In action manga, running is
usually the result of urgency.
A character is driven by a
pressing desire to achieve
something, facing the fear of
tripping, and the threat of
failure. A chase scene should
convey similar emotions,
rncluding the fear of
being caught.
Combat
A dynamic resting
pose. re<Jdy to
srrike. Clothes are
motionless. and
just l1<1ng from the
shape of the bony
A confrontation between two
or more people, perhaps
assisted by weapons or
machinery, is intensely
dramatic, and often the
defining act of a story. Neither
character wishes to lose, but
both risk doing so if they make
the wrong move. A closely
contested battle is the most
exciting, and each motion
should be exaggerated or
savoured in your work.
ADDING ACTION TO A SCENE
Sometimes it is necessary to make an event more dramatic.
Through use of speed lines, composition and focal objects,
it is possible to add tension and motion to a scene.
1.
5.
J I he ch<lmacr is walking
c1tlWn llrl:' t.:trryJnq
some tood. This lmugc h,,, nt >
suqqcstion of till run
2. I llt' c llrll..tt lcr rl-'rnf'mht>rs
that he lu CJI'I t uHnt
quickly. SO i1C iS SlltJWII I t1 I It'
running. Speed lines .::tre
rnlroch u 1-'rllo rPpresent the .Jir
IJI()VII ICJ Cjl liC Kl)l. ..tllrf
ilt'..tcl\ Cll \WI:'c!t dl l:' tOffilnq
lrwn Ill\ l>row
3. I\ r 111 " KJ tt1e
This much grcwC'r
11111 'rll. 1\ 111.-t(ll:' I:'VI:'Il 1!1011:'
rmposlng by i'ln i'lnmtion-
gr.Jbbrng compmirion
showrnq both characters
movrng ;mo rhr relative
l!t!lWt!l:'ll lt11m.
hrrvc bct:n dtklt!tl
to lriylrliylll lilt! of
drld remron
4. In !Jdlll:'l, .tnorhcr
thrcnr hus been introduced in
thr torm ot a tank. The
ilrtwork has been rotated
sliglllty lo incrl"<l\!' tcnsron
ilnd cmphasrzc the horizon
line. It dllow\ I hi-' two
foc.JI p,ms of the rmagc to be
drawn larger.
5. However; don't go ltXJ fdr
with your .tr!fonr It rs very
easy to make action
look riclic ulou\ . tncl rn d01ng
so you can sport the tension
<tncJ bt' lt"rt wrtll
that feels out ot place.
20 or STYLE
Comedy
However dramatic the action or emotional the scene might
be in a manga story. humour has been a key ingredient
LhroughotJt tile llistory of Lhe form.
The very earliest manga titles had a strong comedy focus.
and manga has evolved to nllow for ever more outrageous
to present humour. One of the ways to do this is
throug11 exaggerating the style and understanding mangas
visual gri'lmmar. Because manga is such i'l visual medium. it
is possible ro illustrate ft.1nny situations characters
wi tl1out relying on dialogue.
Wacky girl
A cri1zy r1nc1 fc utny 911 I.
He c IJC:"ntly.
figure is more c.:m:oon
111.-tr 1 (or
1r r !pie\ \ion, her posture
rulll cx1uewon suggest .J
IJUufy uullook on lite. By
c il'rllln!J rh.-1r<tcters that don't
to care looking
(JOod. but who do cAre
.:!bOUt being lilt '111\l'IVCS
.1nc1 fun. you can
presenr i1 livrly Cl i1d
enjoynblr story
\..
See also What is manga7 pages 1 0-11 )
-- -------
Funny salaryman
A middle-aged
businessman
(known as a
salaryman" in
Japan). His dull
appearance and
stubby physique
make him excellent
comedy material.
To put this character
in any situation
other than an
office would
guarantee hilarious
consequences.
COMEDY 2 1
USING HYPERSTYLIZATION FOR COMEDIC EFFECT
Manga is a very malleable art form. Manipulating the
presentation of a character or object at key moments can
change our perception dramatically. For example. there are
some instances when you might wish t o highlight the comedic
behaviour of characters in a scene. By exaggerating their form,
shape. colour or style. you can introduce humour into the
scene fluently - and entirely visually.
This process is known as hyperstylization. and is a form of
visual interpretation, a subjective viewpoint. rather than a
fundamental alteration of any characters design. Such
exaggerated images help express characters behaviour. as well
as adding a comic flourish to your artwork.
Wobbling limbs
Another technique 1s to give
characters arms and legs an
almost jelly like quali ty. This Is
often used to create the
Impression of a character
dancing or moving in a
stupid manner - usually With
a blank and blissful expression
- suggesting the character is
obliVIOUS to what others think
of h1m or her.
Using different combinations of mangas visudl grammar
(see page 11 ), it is possible to detail an emotional state in an
amusing and entertaining wily.
Zombie gaze
This exaggerated gaze emphasilt:S tl1e ch&acters
emotional state. Showing the mouth extending
beyond the bottom or the face gives the
impression or the mouth being open mucl1 wider
than it ought to be. This is the equivalent
of the technique used in cartoons
where someones Jaw stretches downwards to an
impossible extent. In the case of mangd. the v1sua1
portrayal is far less literal and pl<tys on the twcr
dimensional nature of the artwork.
Simple body
Reducing the shape of the limbs to
a simple point makes the character
look simple and cute. while also
ridiculous. This is a variation of the
wobbling limbs technique. In this
1nstance. the character is happy.
and is runn1ng around gleefully.
Happy floating cheeks
d techni<"!UC' m
the mouth dropping urr Ute
f<tct>. thrs ch;rmctcr has
clteek!. cJ1 odWn so that they
;rppcar to 11over dWd'f f1 urn
tltf' skrn iln cxaqqcration.
or hyperstyh7atron.
rne1rcat1ng a moment or
extreme happiness.
CHAPTER TWO
Character creation
The key to making stories come alive is the
creation of real personalities rather than mere
two-dimensional drawings. Here are some
examples of classic manga archetypes.
~ Male lead 24
~ Female lead 26
~ Teenage boys 28
~ Teenage girls 30
~ The villains 32
~ Catalyst characters 34
~ Children 36
~ Supporting cast 38
~ Costume design 40
~ Creating a setting 42
24 CREATION
e lead
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES AND TRAITS
If CONTEMPORARY MALE: MY\TCRIOUS/SLY/t'C lWFRFUL
f1'- SCI-FI MALE: SmiUlJV\ It II 110US
If FANTASY MALE: I
ThcsP c11aracter types represent the fully matured male
(75- 30 years old) . His personality is developed and his skills
and dbilitif's are estdblished. Physicc:tlly he will be at his
strongest and be familiar with his own strengths. but also
witll wcaknf'<;<;es.
Tile benefi ts of such a character to a manga story lie in
his wnfidcnce and self-c.twareness. With such a c11aracrer
th!:-'le is generally none of the doubt and paranoia of youth.
!Jut still enough vigour and strengtll to him an
cxciling
ll"lis givt-'\ you absolute freecJom witll to the roles
1 h.tl Gill be rtppliecJ to htm - tram simpering. romantic poet
tu riCJ(jrcssrvc space w,trrior!
AVOIDING ONE-
DIMENSIONAL
CHARACTERS
Elaborate demit or d
d1st1naive design on
cloth1ng can help to
make a charilcter
out
The rlnwns1de t o suc11 il
characrcr is '' s all roo
to lall rnro rhc trup of
Ultly ..tllnwing rhc a
goal 111 rl1c story
wry linle substunce. Ttte key
CONTEMPORARY MALE
t n successful male
rolf' is ro rcmcmbe ltlnt,
his conlidl:tiLt: ;.mel
he is a cl1<1rt1Cler
willt ,. ri1is
you ll:c.JI for ch.:tr.:tclcr
hulldinq. Hl:, unl1ke
or ct111cJ male
l trJs "' hrstory rl1.:1t
will ll <IVI"' his outlook
and bc hilVio ur. What is ir rhm
dnves 111m' What does he
hope to i1CI1ieve7
GENRE: LUNII MrORARY
CHARACTER TRAITS: MYSTERIOUSANLJ
DESIGN FEATURES: U lNTfMPORARY HAIRSrYU..
FTHI\1( I ONG \0-\T t'JR OF
POSTURE: Ufi\IGHT. LUNI II JfNT
ADDITIONAL: l1 1r LXI'Ri TS
/.11 I l\1v1'ir NATURE. ANLJ I'[ Rill\/"\ A nARK SIDE.
i\11/\ L[ LCAD 25
Meral plating on
the head and
wires entering the
neck remind us of
the characters
android nature.
SCI-FI MALE
FANTASY MALE
GENRE: f'ANlA)Y
CHARACTER TRAITS: BRAVE. HONEST AND TRUE
DESIGN FEATURES: DETAILED ARMOUR DESIGN;
RECURRING POM-POM FEATURE: ORIENTAL-STYLE TUNIC
POSTURE: DETFRMINED. R&'DY FOR 1\G ION
ADDITIONAL: F1\ RRINGS r\ND SUGGEST
A REBELLIOUS STREAK
DESIGN FEATURES: INI'UI ACU:)'>
POSTURE: II. UNlw\I UI-1/\LLY f(l(jll)
ADDITIONAl: THE COSTUME DESIGN PFRHI\r<;
SUGGESTS A POSITION OF '. FRV/Tt II !I
comrlemenr
d<.:srgn.
ltu.: rq.x:tirion of
rhl' rp,1 n11
ht"1ll1 Wt',ljlllll'>
f.I LIIII lit<.: LUI lUI Ill:
dt:l i(jll roqcrhcr
whnll'
26 CREATI O N
ale lead
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES AND TRAITS
4f. CONTEMPORARY FEMALE: M\'STl:I<IUl JV( ( lf\J/ II Jl NI/POWERFUL
4f. SCI-FI FEMALE:
-*" FANTASY FEMALE: I /[ROIC/11\/TELUGEf\11
Fcmlllc:s in m.-uliJ.-1 Lyp1cally present a
wr<.ler range of emotions L11an Lheir
Lounler p<:1rts. and inrroduce
more rompl ex molivdtions. This is
IJecause their roles ilf'l'' nflcn
grnt 1mi< d r nure in emotional depth
ltldrl in the Si111f1IC' uf
pruiJierm. However: rl1is ciln pul Llle
fcm,dc ir 1 pu)rtron where a lesser
Vdrlety ot roles ilVrlilr1hJv lu l1er.
Whereas Ill i ll! . (_ J ldl r/( I PI\ are
depicted by Llwir \IJr'nCJI Il or
:,kill, 11 rn..-11<' charJcters tend to
llt-> detined by tlieir bCdUiy rll!d
femininity. d:> well rl\ llwir maternal
Ill\ Ill 11 I ' Despite this. they art: on< n
qrcllitccl "111.-i\CUiine" roles.
such CiS sui<.Jrcr::. 01 lrCJrllf'r\ This
r llriXII r 11/P\ It It' potentiJI tO creiJtC
complt:X Cllrll rll I I 'I\
w i.H )\( IM"'\ .-1re daily conflicts between
tl'il''il fr 'I I IIIli! W ( jU<ilitieS and the desire
ro ncilicv1 111 r1 r 11<"111:'-cJorninated
society. Tl;cr<' rrn rll\1) 1 )lenly ot
possibilities In r wrlll' set in
temJie domin<IIC'd or in
worlds wlierC' wo1TH .,,, dfl<.l rnen:S
t.Jmilic1f' rill' ll'W f <>ed or mixed up.
CONTEMPORARY FEMALE
GENRE: CONTfiVIrORi\RY
CHARACTER TRAITS: 1-r\:,HION CON<;CIOUS;
Al/1<1\( I lVI t\NI) CONFIDENT
DESIGN FEATURES: F. ClASSIC OUTFIT.
f\11/\1 I lAIR ORI\!Aiv!EI\IT:
IIMITFrl ACCESSORIES
POSTURE: OVFR I Hi: POS[;
(.01\JriDCNT. 1\1\11") PFRHAP"
ADDITIONAL: I Hlf\IG If\! TillS
CH,\1\CITR'S rOSC 1\ND '\Mil F '\IJ(j()l:S I:, I
IS MCJRr TO HFR I HAl\/ Mi:l: TH[ [Y[
MORE THAN JUST
EYE CANDY
Although it might seem generally
accepted that a male manga
character can rely on strength,
heroism or a quirky nature to
engage the reader. and the female
simply needs to be beautiful. this
should not be the driving force of
your characters. Even a voluptuous
form will seem much more
attractive wt1en the smile seems
genuine and there is a real person
behind it - however much
attention you pay to accessories.
A glass of
w ine gives
the characrer
a !OUCh Of
crass and
sophistication.

GENRE: SCIENCe F- ICfJON
CHARACTER TRAITS: SFRIOLJ<; i\ND STUDIOUS
DESIGN FEATURES: f'IJ\STIC i\N\TERV\t.e:.; ROl KH
RIBBED iv'ATERIALALLOWS EASE OF MOVEMEI\JT
POSTURE: ARfvlS CLOSE TO BODY ANLl LE:llS
BENT INWARDS
ADDITIONAL: TIICRf: I<; 1\ <;TRON\ , rJ rtvlrNT Of'
INNOCENCE TO HER FFATURES, YET HER ATIIRE IS
RUIIJ FOR COMAAT
II special rocker pack
with booster j el5
allows rhe
to fly. Note the
consistent design
and sl)'le
or the clothes
and
FANTASY FEMALE
GENRE: FANTASY
CHARACTER TRAITS: RELIGIOUS. INTEWGENT
DESIGN FEATURES: SHINTOESOUF STAFF;
CEREtv:OI'JV\L ROBES. :Vli\I{J(INu ON I !IlL
POSTURE: PEt\CHULIV'JLJ SOLEMN. YET CONFIDENT
ADDITIONAL: THE CHARACTER WEARS A NON-cOMI?AT
OUTFIT YET GIVES THE IMPRESSION OF WIELDING
POWER. WE THEREFORE PIJ\CE HER IN THE POSITION
OF PRIESTESS, HEALER OR CLERIC
FEMAU: LFAD 27
Il K: ; tull i; ;Jrn).Jic.: I.Jur
tlas an lnrrirmc
<it tile.: WJ.! . lrnplyinq ;rn
c.: n<.:r(.Jy dl(rrrncl.
28 CREATI O N
nage boys
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES AND TRAITS
4f CONTEMPORARY TEENAGER: TEEN
If' SCI-FI TEENAGER: I 11\J'I'Y I lt:/\0
FANTASY TEENAGER lvii\1 URII\IG TEEN
Teenagers ( 14-1 A ye&s old) are
among the rnmt popular protagonists
1n mnnqa. Actiny d) d "hlimk canvas".
a 1s ilt i1 PC?int wl1ere his
L>o<.Jy mi1y 1v1ve developed physici111y.
hur l1is mind IJ.:t) not yet ft 111y
malUJed. arc rnore
.\USCC'ptihlc to <md c>morions
- and c11e in ;1 position to
, wt 1 1pnn those feelings Without an
I
teemg0 rll<lractcrs the
trictb .:tr Kl tnbuliltions of mctnt Juod, but
wil11uut tt1e mmurity. or
.:tiJillty ot their nldC'r counter p&ts. They
m;,y di)U IJe portrJyccl decrlinq With
the uf sexu.:tl desire. Oftrn
illc 1 IS trustriltion. rxp1 1tse/t
1n a brontiina ar 1tf tormented nJrurr .
Huwever. thiS age grntJp also
represcnrs r11r p()inl '" hie at whicl1
lntdliu< nee power fi rst
&ld With it the' ht"'ginl 1inqs ot maturity
tlll<i I'C'\J
ANTI-HERO
CONTEMPORARY
TEENAGER
GENRE:
CONTEMPOR/\I,'Y
CHARACTER
TRAITS: FRUSTRI\Tm.
ANGRY
DESIGN FEATURES:
STRFFIWI\ 1 /WI )S
SENSE. i'vlU)I( I 'lt\YI f.!;
I INGCRLESS GLOVES
POSTURE: STRONG Yl I
I )IITNr.IVE; CONFIDEI\11
YET 1', !INC,
ADDITIONAl: HE ?PPI:AI<'> (()I 0-
1\!ATURED 8UI \ONlnt\TS HIS
WIT! I 1\J\IGFR
An .:mti-hcro contritdtcts almost all of the notions of a classic
hero, nnd yet presents il and interesting protagonist
tor a story. Tccnilgc males are the most common form of anti-
ht'I O, as they hilvc not yet shown the bravery or strength of
tlte claSSIC. heroic male. As a result. anti-heroes are often
who <Jre ready to attain those qualiti es by any
means possible, or they are characters that are out of place in
the world bur crave the chance to demonstrate their latent
qualities. Whiny. selfish or awkward teens can attain growth
and self-discovery in your stories. as well as spark entertaining
reactions from other characters.
Even non-focal
areas such as
shoes should be
considered and
designed carerully.
FANTASY TEENAGER
GENRE: FANTAW
CHARACTER TRAITS: WORRIFD /\NJ) ANXIOUS
DESIGN FEATURES: VISIBLE STITCHINC) ON t I C)! I lff\IC '
WEAPON. CLOAK CIRClET ON FOREHEAD
POSTURE: ON EDGE AND READY FOI< /\liiON
ADDITIONAL: THE CHARACli:I('S HMJU ON II II I 1111 01
HIS BL/\D!: SUGGESTS 1\1\Jf} CON\T/\NT VIGil
Unusual rlnthP.' anri
that do nor relatf' tn
contemporary fashion help tn
highlight an imerestinq i'lnri
original character.
SCI-FI TEENAGER
GENRE: I[N(T IYTION
CHARACTER TRAITS: "1-V\PI>v ..
DESIGN FEATURES: MllffARYSTYLE
UNif-ORM. REPETITION OF CIRCLE
MOTIF, HEADGf.AR
POSTURE: CHHRFUL AND
CONHDF.NT. ENfRGI:liC
ADDmONAL: UNTHREATENING
AND FRIE'NDLY
TEENAGE BOYS 29
Discreet ;md
details such as this
pml<'llM.: CIICI<'i
help to show 111,-u
(/I(' <llrlld( rcr r\
J.l t t:I.J<lll:C) lor IJrrii iC'.
30 CREATI ON
nage
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES AND TRAITS
* CONTEMPORARY TEENAGER: CONFirJFNT
fie SCI-FI TEENAGER: r>rlviil/{l
If<: FANTASY TEENAGER: I ILI<UIC
k wiltl rn;!IP'i. the female teenager
r 14- 18 ye.:u ulu) is .1 populilr
rho1rc tnr manga protagonist and
for rndny of the same reasons.
What sets fL'mdle dldrdcters
ir 1 opilrt is
11uw they dP.ill with rhc
ch.lngc"i iln<i <hlillcnqcs
wi th whirl"l lift" prcscnb
them. With f!"mlllcs there no
app.1rcnr pl1ysirlll srrcnsJlh tu
problems; they come Lo
l er r wrtt1 tt1e1r emotions, scxuill
cirsirrs lind k d result,
the tcmi1IC' tr'cn,l<Jf'r c ; 1n u fler 1 dppe<:tr
fdr ITH)re and settled thJn
t 1er male COLtnterpJrt. There is i'llso
scope for t11r fr.m,llc or
the ;mri-hero - IIH >tJUt 1 JlUl one
11 1n1cd 1n .,my rnal e-fike inner turmoil,
l..l Lit chamm:r whmc super iur
of controlling c' moliom t1er i:lpdrt.
girls
"CONTRADICTORY" FEMALE ROLES
It is interesting to consider the use of female
characters in what some might regard as
standard male manga roles. Often we see a
female protagonist thrust into the posit ion of
hero, or leader. Ultimately wi th the female
hero, however. the final sentiment is often
one of "friendship can conquer all"
and a reliance on other
characters as backup. In cases
where the female truly does
triumph as a solo heroine. she is
often a character with a strongly
male orientation.
A designer bag
renects the
characters tastes
and aspirations.
CONTEMPORARY TEENAGER
CHARACTER TRAITS: CONFIDENT
DESIGN FEATURES: FASHIONABLE CLOTHING. MUITIPLf::
ACCESSORIES. INCLUDING PHONE. JEWEllERY. KEYS
POSTURE: DISMISSIVE 1-iA.ND GESTURE: STRONG AND
ARROGA.NT STANCE
ADDITIONAL: EVERYTHING ABOUT THIS CHAR--\GER
SAY'S SHC IS CONFIDENT AND IN CONTROL -
Futuristic
accessories
create more
believable
character.
SCI-FI TEENAGER
GENRE: SCICNC[ FIGION
CHARACTER TRAITS: SHY. THOUGI Ill UL
DESIGN FEATURES: PLASTIC MATfRll\1 \ HULKY. I
ACCESSORIES; COMMUNICAI ION Df VllL: ( jli\SSES
POSTURE: . NON-NiGRfSSIVE
TCCNAGE GI RLS 31
ADDITIONAL: THE 01 I II I V\1'-JJ") TO COVER PART OF
FAlL )UGGI '> p; 1\ I ACK OF PHYSICAL LONFIDLI\ICL
Comidering t11e securrng
of we,1pom to Lilt: body is
dnnnponam detail and
to a more
re.Jiisl ic ch<lractcl.
FANTASY TEENAGER
GENRE: 11\NTASY
CHARACTER TRAITS: HEROIC.

DESIGN FEATURES: ( lVI IN/I I)
ARM GUARDS /\1\JD flC X) I\
EXAGGERATFD Ht\JI(\fYII
POSTURE: DCTmMJNLU t\NlJ
PRrJi'\RED: )01 II) ) lANCE
ADDITIONAL: SIMPLE.
UNCOviPUC/\TW CLOTHING
OVERSHI\DOV/ED BY WARRIOR
El[MENTS SUGGESTS A TOMBOY
ASP[Cf 10 HfR CHARACTER
32 CREATION
villains
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES
.. HISTORICAL VILLAIN: ;\RRnt-v\1\fT CiFhJTI Flvlt\1\J
VIllAIN: < ()f\JI JUU,f l Vt\fvll '
.. SCI-FI VILLAIN: rOWIRII II t' il\i'f( i I r;\n rR
FANTASY Vlll,AIN: l l<ll il\1 W/ 1.1<1<101<
nC'cds lln anri1gonist.
Wirhour mntlicr, ,, story cannot truly
progress. All rhc pressure is on the bad
guys or manga to act as the element of
ch;IOs the problem that must be
.resolvecJ. As i l result, the bad guy is
essentri.il to the development or the hero.
/\ny dkrr dller c.dn become an dntaqonisl.
i1 or r111 oppming force given r11c correct
circunlSlcHlCe dllCI molivdtion - even without dny
ot tl1e estJblished visual archetypes. One of the
only rcq1 f)C'rhllps, rhc conviction thCit
lt1ey dre
A successful bad guy
Wl1iit mii kcs un antugonist truly successful as a
f'lrmf'nr of rP.<l lism r1nd
( ll 'l lll l rr' r ( L'llrlill il llldY be sufficient
lu uecil e d IJdU wt1me rnotrvalion rs to
rule lt1e wurlu. bull.:tr rnure c1ppealing is
rHl writ! rl 1-rl,-rl 11-rw, or one
Will! rl \ I I II y rllld rl \( '( Vrl lid
rcJson for his or llcr actions. Empatlly
is the key. By creJtinq an antaqonist
wt1me urr vl:'\ <-rrnbiliom can be
undcrs1on1j cllld even empathized
witll. tile rewder is put into wn
uncomtortable position. In this
Wrly, li lt: l:VII cit: I m:nl ur lilt: '\lory
becomes far more threateninq. Aft:er all.
wrtt1out d tt1e hero has
to overcome anc1
becomes me<Jningless.
SCI-FI VILLAIN
GENRE: SCIENCE FIG ION
DESIGN FEATURES: LONG J/\CKFT. WI
GLOVES. HEAD&\ND. RED EYES. lARGE AND
POWERFUL BOOTS
POSTURE: POWERFUL AND FEARLESS
ADDITIONAL: THE GLOVES AND
POSTURE OF TH[ CHt\RAGER IMPLY A
ROLE OF POWER AND AUTHORITY.
THE GlARING EXPRESSION
AND HAND GESTURE
SUGGEST FEARLESSNESS
Dramatic use of wind
to lift I he jacl<et is
useful to accentuate
the pos11ion of the
feet. Usil)g a light
source from beneath
also helps lO establish
atmospl1ere.
FANTASY VILLAIN
GENRE: FANTASY
DESIGN FEATURES: PRIMITIVE STAFF,
CLOVEN-HOOF-EFFEG BOOTS; GRASS
:JECORATIONS. POINTED Et'RS. SKULL MOTif-;
DEMON-WING HEADGEAR
POSTURE: INVITING /IN ARGUMENT.
SURE OF WINNING IT
ADDITIONAL: THIS CHARAGER APPI:/IRS
TRIML WITH VOODOO ELEMENTS HrR
CUTENESS CONTRASTS WITH HER 0.\RK ROLE
CONTEMPORARY VILLAIN
GENRE: CONTH..U>oJV\RY
Ths single demons
wing implies some
sort of injury and
raises the qucsuon of
what might h,:we
previously.
DESIGN FEATURES: VAMPISH OUIHL
SUCK HAIRSTYLE. GOI HIC r1 rMENT
POSTURE: CONFIDI NT N\lil COOL
ADDITIONAL: THIS CHARAGER'S DARK
ATIIRE REFLECTS HER DARK NATURE
SHE ArrEARS TO BE READY FOR
PHYSICAL CONFRONTATION
THE VII I /\INS 33
DESIGN
FEATURES: A
tlri'JTI FIIAAN WITH
LACE WALKIN< I
( N\11 I J\ril MfRrl Y FOR
EFFECT. CRAVAT.
POSTURE: ARROGANT
tW[) CONCFfTFf)_ TAll
tWU lONHlJf-Nf
ADDITIONAL: THE CALM Yl: I UJNHDLNT
POSE PAINTS HIM AS /\ METHODI0\L 1\NO
ANTAGONIST. RATHER THI\N A
PHYSICAL FOE
34 CREATION
a lyst characters
EXAMPLE CATALYST SITUATIONS OR CHARACTERS
GIRL MEETS BOY: AN AIII{A( I lVI: cJIRL EI\ICOURAC::jE$ A GEEKY <3UY
If EVIL NEMESIS: rvri\JT\ CAtJ\1 I ) I!Y I I II\ I VII I 'I INJN
It THE FAIRY MESSENGER: HFLPS THF PROTAGONIST TO rii)T
I Hl::ll< ts!::HAVIUUI<
One uf tt1e Simplest ways to initiate your
I.Jy the of a catalyst
ltl &i:l<.ter. lntroclu<.1ng this charetcter
into your pruld'-JUI world will
n rilnin of events,
creilring il new scenario out of
Wt llltl yULI (.drl drl ex<.iting plot.
Til<' cllilrr!Cter is one who spurs
tr1e story tu IJeqn1 IJy 1ntruc.JuLing c1 ktnc.Jurn
clement tllilt tile protagonist must deal with.
ur1 U1e furrn the catalyst takes, this
c11.1mctcr mily LJiso create a climate of
Llfl<.er tdlnty. furLII KJ ott 1er <.tl&d<.ters to
.1r tile same time as
U 1e rec1c.Jer them. This is a far
better way ot exploring your characters
1 llilll giving your a long-winded
1 xplrlr lrll it lf 1 of II H'ir
I Jr 1tloul 111 Illy, Ill< mml noliltllc ciltnlysts tiikc
It II' fnrr 11 of II w rll llrl!JI If li\1 ilfl f'flCfllY
wllo\t \ol< pur pmc to set obstacles for tile
plol ri!JOni\1. Hnwc'Vfr; I is not by Any
Ill(' only form " Cr'l li ilyst can take.
II fr1irly mmmon for n milnga story to revolve
<1round an ordinJry chJructec whose life and
are plain and
unremilrkable. Typically, tl1ese characters
mighr encounter "" outlandisll, sexy or
rh;lrr"tr l<"r wlrn offers tl1em r1
lirr<. lylc> lhnl their
mundane hie.
It is not always necessary to create a
character; however. Sometimes the catalyst may
take the form of an event - such as the
protagon1st:S be1ng granted great power in
the form of magic abilities.
Geek meets girl
Here we see a popular catalyst
situation. A young man with a
quiet. possibly geeky nature
fi nds his fife turned upside
down by the arrival of an
anractive female character who,
for some reason. feels inclined
to stay with him.
The evil nemesis
This catalyst takes the form of a mean
character who feels the need to make
life harder for the protagonist. She or he
creates a situation that the protagonist
needs to overcome.
CATALYST CHARACTERS 35
The inspirational messenger
A tiny Fairy has befriended <1 boy
wirh n vif'W to helping him
<:tch1eve and fulfil his dreams nnd
ambitions. Ch,lrilrtcrs sul/ 1
these help to push rind dnve lilt'
tJeyonrl or her
hehaviour and sc1vc us ltlc
embodiment of th1s mcssa(.jc.
36 CREATI ON
dren
Note the way in
wl1ich the fi re in
thi s characters
hand illuminates
the wl1ole of
the illustration.
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES AND TRAITS
ACTION BOY: HAPPY AND CHEERFUL
GENI<I SCHOOLGIRL: < t\1-:1 I 1{1 I Af'l l ) II( .IIVL
TRADITIONAL CHINESE BOY: MATURE Al'ir> SFRIOUS
-liC MAGICAL GIRL:
M; tngrt rhil dwn usuAlly personify
innocence .:mel an undistorted outlook
Qn lire. In your story. their open-
minded attitLide coLIId make a good
contrast witll tile burdens of your
fldult charflctcrs. A playful child
rh;trrxlcr milkcs il wonderful nddition
In mru1y lypcs nf story. either in a
rol e or indeed, nS
the
One of the most significant things
;-1! mut ctlild crl.:-tr2l cl ers is thdt ttley
'>t:lrJunr l1crve concerns about love or
reiJtlonships. Any focus they do have
nn wt;.Jt iomrlip\ w t/1 U\Uiilly r.. entre on
their friends. or lif
the characters are
in i l .suppnrl ing
role) on 11ow they
wl;.rlr to ;.r pnrent nr
older sibling.
TRADITIONAL
CHINESE BOY
GENRE: FAf,JT/\'\Y
DESIGN FEATURES:
( OMRi f\J/\TION OF ORIFI\ITAf
1\1'-JD Mlf'lf'll F
TR/\DIT/Of\!1\1 DRF'\'; IGGF'\T<;
'\mll\l(i; FIIIMF rATTFRN
Rm ras Wl(il(l\l. r o w eRs: NOTE
Tl I[ LONG r li\IT Or 111\/R
POSTURE: POSE,
RFAFJY TO ATT/\(K WIT/ I FIRF
ADDITIONAL: I HI:: lHAI<I\C
<:FFM\ VFRY '\FRIO! I\ '\l JGGF'\T/1\J(j
I I[ IS MI\TUR[ !3CYOI,ID HIS YCI\RS
MAGICAL GIRL
GENRE: :,(.1-FI
DESIGN FEATURES: 8UTTFRFLY MOTIF; FUTURISTIC CIRCLE
DESIGNS; GIRLY RIBBONS IN
POSTURE: SPRITE. FAIRY OR BALLET Di\NCER POSE
ADDITIONAL: THE OUTFIT liND WAND ARE ALL COORDINATED.
SUGGESTII'!G THE OUTFIT IS A COSTUME OR UNIFORM
GENKI SCHOOLGIRL
__ Y____________________
DESIGN FEATURES: SCHOOL UNIFORM IICADBA.ND; -..,:::::....
TENNIS SHOES; CARRYING A BOX OF SCHOOLWORK
--------------------------------------
POSTURE: IN A HURRY. BUT STOPPING TO SMIL[
AND WAVE
ADDITIONAL: ALTHOUGH CLUMSY AND NOI STUDIOUS
SHE IS. NEVERTHELESS HAPPY AND CAREFREI:
'
ACTION BOY
GENRE: CONTFMPORARY
DESIGN FEATURES: SPORTY
LOOKING. STREElWISE CLOTHING:
LAYERED SV.IE/\TSHIRT UNDfR
HOODED TOP. SI\DGE ON HAT
POSTURE: BOUNCY AND ACTIVE.
READY FOR FUN AND t\aiON
ADDITIONAL: THIS CJ-!AAAaER IS HAPPY
AND CHEERFUL. WITH HIS CUTE 11/V\SCOT
SIDEKICK THERE'S NOTHING HE CANT FACE


I he
elf 1 If uporl<.lfll
fur cJ
child character.
SUPPORTING
MASCOTS
If a story focuses on child
characters. it is not uncommon for
characters to have pets or talking
creatures. (see pages 38-39). This
helps to present the child as being
responsible. and it also allows the
character to have something to
"parent", or guard.
CHILDREN 37
H "' vtllor 11niform
Is a common form
of drcS\ lor
J.:tp.:tnL .. . A'
llrw lyh f).
)ull 1 rhcse
help rhe
of 11 1rory
38
porting cast
EXAMPLE CHARACTER TYPES
PIBO [1'0 1101)
.. PINI<AA (rt\IRY)
.. TIGGY j(i\T)
*- KURIMI !l'vlCINKEY)

.. ZENNI j\( ll I)
MINUU ii:!UI\11\!Y)
run lo non-t1uman
to clct in <.1 supporting role
lo lhe or Lomir rPiicf. ;md
tllcsc ch.Jracrers Jre often very popular:
Cl!rifriCICT'i SUCil il' tilCSC' FJISO FlCt <.15 <.1 velliCie
tor Other to cornrnunildle llleir
emotions .Jnd opinions - tor example. by
pouring out their hmrrs to them -
,wnic1ing tl"lc necessity for tllougllt bubbles.
nr nvrrrclir1ncr: upon subtle visuCJis.
Supporting animals CJiso lluve tile ability to
rci.lct to the lead cllCJrCJcters emotions and
perhups refl ect t he readers Feelings. so the
reJder feels he or she is watching the action
atongs1c1e the pet. .1lso i-1\
I HUll'< liVt ' VUrllillr'lfl\ arvrng It-It' clld(rlCICr cl form
()r ri <lililinrliil sl rr ngtll or power.
GENRE: CONTEMPORI\I(Y
DESIGN FEATURES: STYLIZED
AND UNUSUAL-LOOKING lv101\JKCY;
SARCASTIC EXPRESSION; SIMPLE
CIRCLEMSED lv\ARKII\JGS ON BODY
POSTURE: WALKS ON TWO LEGS.
WITH LEGS SPREAD WIDE
ADDITIONAL: THE
MONKEY'S FUNNY
EXPI<ESSION MIIKES H!M
FUN TO SEE AND A GOOD
ALTERNATIVE TO USUAL.
Lr'\RGE-EYED lvlASCOTS
PINKAA
GENRE: MA.(jiCAI
DESIGN FEATURES: '\TARLIKF
AND SIMPLY SHAPFD
POSTURE: HAPPY AND AGILE.
WII H LIMBS
ADDITIONAL: THE CHAAAGER IS
fRIENDLY AND CHEERFUL. WITH A
CHILDLIKE
MINUJI
GENRE: CONTEMPORARY
DESIGN FEATURES: FAT AND
ivlfiLL[/\BLE W[/\RS AN EARRING
POSTURE: USUALLY A SOFT
AND LOVING POSE BUT CAN
EASILY POUNCE IF ANGRY
ADDITIONAl: BY TALKING TO
THIS SILENT BUNNY THE
CI-1ARI\CTER IS ABLE TO THINK
MORC CLEARLY ABOUT
HER EMOTIONS
SUPPORTINC 39
GENRE: CONTFMPORARY
DESIGN FEATURES: DISTINCTIVr lAill lY \I I\' II AND
I II JITY n lEST GIVE THIS CAl/\ LUI ( ll ( 111\1./A(Trf:'
POSTURE: WALK\ f\11 AllY t\f'.J[) \ARFFULLY
ADDITIONAL: Tl II'; (t\T I IN\ A 1-HFFI:Y
ANLl CUUW AI\IY
PJBO
GENRE: FUIUfiL fiOilOT
DESIGN FEATURES: OF DISTINCTIVE
DfSIGN ASPCCTS ON U!:LLY AND FOREHFN). WlTI I [Y[S
FOLLOWING THE SA.'v1E STYLE. JOINTS AND tDGES SHOW
PLASTIC BODY CONSTRUCTION
POSTURE: SIMPLE. \.VITH AN EXPRESSIONLESS FACI:
ADDITIONAL: TillS ROBOT IS BUILT FOR A PURPOSE.
BUT CAN BECOME A GOOD FRIEND 1\S vVELL
ZENNI
DESIGN FEATURES: rl I IfFY Fl
ANI) AI irr'-J IIKr ANTr NNAF
POSTURE: BOSSY ANLl lviUOI.l't:
08\IIOUSL'r' I 0 Nt\( I
ADDITIONAL: n rr,rrrr f'lFII J(i A I
C,Oi.IIRREL SEEMS IINU II I< Jl J< ,I I II III
40 CREATI ON
tume design
C:()\llJrriC j<., d rrlc.Jjur pcJ rl or ch<Jrc:JCl er crecJlion. It
cnnlnluniCJtes ,J gre,Jt cjeal ,Jbout a characters personality.
rlnc.i ,]ISO U-J e Lime ancJ lhe culture in Wllicll they live.
When <jcsigning or try to
experiment rlS much c1s possible with costume designs. Take
rlS mr1ny influcnct:s rlS you Crln from different sources; avoid
seeking inspirrltion solely from mrlngrl r1nd r1nimc. lnstcrld,
rcsCrJrch the frJshions of different cultures and centuries.
even wl1en desiqninq the inhabitants of imagined.
futuristic worl ds.
Uesrqnrnq costumes that are reminiscent of clothing from
' I H.'LIIH in tri\lury Ldn tell your re21ders a great
CJl:rll ri hOtJI lilt' kind or rul tm \OCicly your Slory is Selin: in
future worlds. a medievJI costLJme might suggest a society
1\ \ Jill prrrr !II IV< 111 r r wrry\, wtwrt-'r!\ milit&y-style
HINTS AND TIPS FOR COSTUME DESIGN
OLD-WORLD FANTASY
.- wot rlci hP togetlier more
cruddy. wi th visible sritchinq and
fi/JI L' LIL[IUII.
.- Comlc1er suci; si lk, leatlier
.rncl S<lck clolh.
Urfferc>nl colours dncl
represenr rhe of the rh"'r"'C'tf'r.
1\ would regal colours
suct1 .Js red or pur pic, dnd Liollling
WOIJid h('IVf' finp det('lilili'] .
FUTURISTIC SCIENCE FICTION
and moulded
might he in
Soft m.1renats
<111. .' IL'SJ
"ncrlrve !hcH1
t kt<tl rndler
Shiny plastics
reflect tiqhr.
dress might suggest a totalitarian state. Also look at modern
product design: the cuNes of a sports car; a gadget or a
new computer might be the inspiration for part of a
spacesuit, for example.
Its important to think about the detail of the costumes as
well as the overall look. For instance. consider the
technology available to the world in which your characters
live. Simple inventions. such as zips. velcro or elastic might
not be available in an ancient world of swords and sorcery.
On the other hand. laces and buttons might not be
necessary in a futuristic realm. as they may have developed
better technologies of their own.
GENERAL
Strai ght lines
look nat.
44' Strings and tassels swing in the
wind, and help convey motion
during action.
44' Long. flowing hair and cloaks
have a similar effect.
Stripes and geometrical patterns
help define volume.
lft. When designing children:S
costumes, consider drawing
baggy and ill-fitting clothes. as
young children are stili growing.
-II' Coordinate your design
elements, especially in fantasy
and science-fiction manga. as
this reinforces the impression of
a fully realized society.
Stripes on the characters hat and
sleeves help to define the volume.
as well as coordinating the costume
wrth a consistent style.
COLOUR SCHEMES
lf Coordinate the colours on your
character with his or her
costume. Defining the colours
on certain sections of the
costume also helps define their
volume. This applies just as much
to black-and-white illustration as
it does to full-colour.
HAIR AND SKIN TONE
4f If you're going to have characters
that appear often in the same comic
or series. it is important that you
make them as different as possible at
a glance. Making sure they have easily
identifiable hair colours. facial features
and even skin tones allows the reader
to recognize the character instantly.
even if not fully visible in a frame.
BELTS AND BUCKLES
4f Belts and buckles serve a practical
dimensional person
rather than a flat.
2-D image.
ZIPS AND LACES
4f Zips can introduce detail to even the
simplest garment designs.
A simpler colour
is much
more
Remember to vary
the skin tone of
dillerent
Experiment! Usrng a
zip as an earring
d tool.
streerwrse style.
COSTUivlC DESIGN 41
DEFINING CHARACTER DIFFERENCES
Certain elements can be used to distinguish characters from
each other. The shape of a characters fctci.:tl outline. eye. nose
and mouth can be very different. Hair is also commonly used to
distinguish characters.
The following are examples of 11ow shupc can ddtnc
a character:
m.rlc lt1in -
not porntt>t1 h11l nnl
square jawed either.
More realistically
dcpitt
gentleness. wl1rrl1 r.-n
be easier for the
l l'ddCI tu I L'idtl' tO.
ACCESSORIZE!
)

\
;
L<Jrger and
Jlrllllll't l I IIIII tdl l
mean a younqeor

UlrCJI". t"lllrf;t>
innocence.
t 11111/\l l y Ill

imclligcncc.
I
\
\
\_(
.I
Jn ll"'l"ilr- t lr.tr.ttltr .t
thin lim:
""I"'"''""'"""'
of character.
1
.- -- . '

N.IIIIIW ' 'Y' " lll 'lll'lolll.v
refien nr
cviltll,u,rw.:r.
Accessories can be used to grec1t effect when bullrllnc:J up .'!
character. However. as wlrh everything. misuse c.:tn be
detrimental to your design.
It is important to bear certain elements In mind when
accessorizing characters;
4f The characters themselves; their pcrsonuhly, JOb, hi tbrkrl c1nd
social grouping. For example, warriors almost certainly sport
items that strengthen or protect their bodies. such as forms of
armour. A specific society rnrghl c:Jern<tncJ
4f The environment: how cold is the settrng? Your
may require gloves or scarves. Cert.:tin .:ttmosphcric con<.Jrtrorr:.
would call for specific accessories or equipment.
4f Aestheti c: accessories are a building block of a char.:tcter. The
a characters appearance as much
as the clothes they arc wearing.
Bows. ribbons, piercings,
jewellery, belts, chains and
other accessories can be
used to adorn a character -
as long as they are
appropriate.
4f Don't overdo itl Too
many accessories can
detract from the strength and
coherence of your design.
Simplicity and practicality are the
key. Also, be sure that the
accessories you choose match
the style.
42 CREATION
ating a
setting
Tt 1c scttinQ of yot 1r rnanga story is imporlanl.
Tt 1c ' miverse or microcosm you create
c.licJ.:llr.s lhC' <;tylc of tllP rllaracters and ttle
rnoocJ of tllC' <;tOIY. If you plan it out properly
tllC'n nn wn11d 1s too lanlaslic Lo be
C:::tpturecj COl
C"Rr /\Tif\JC, A FANTASY
1\ ldnt;.1sy world is often dictCJted by tile rcrilnologies
JVJiiLiblc ro it. Ev<"lythino frnm commurliCc:tllons to
.1rrhi1r-r1111t' w111 fkfine l11e lrl'ldSJined culture and the
plly;i( rll {'()VII UllrTlenL Uoes the culture have time travel.
'if'!rll t ;I up\ ; I< .-1m power; electricity or even proper roads?
If It I{ 'II' rill. pt opiP with magical powers in your story. you
hiNt' lu t t Hl\lcl t r wtwtller tt1ese would be applied to
pr<wlit ptHfH>\t'\ lou. r1ncl what impact this might have on
Other p.Jrts nf .mcidy. If r1 lui uf reople have a special skill. it
will Jffect cvc1yonc. Its illl th1nk1ng through the
implic.:ttions of your idccl.
Geography and atmosphere
Wl1r11 \Oil nl 1>nwonrnenr do the char.::tcrers live in? Is it a
plc<Js.Jnt vis1;1 uf fil'f(h or r1 series ot closed cities
wirh mJrJudinq <Jnim<Jls in the waslclanc.h ouls1de? What is
II u l1kel An especi.::tlly wet environment would
r1ffcrl LJdirWIOur and temperament. as would a
hot ,:md urid locCJtion. Comi<Jc1 ex11 eme too. like
Incredible city
A ruturislic
envwonmcnl With
geometrical designs
and bright colours.
There arc many
robots based
on h;mds.
Use of magic
Magical powers to summon the wind are
used practically. to help move the boat across
the water.
heavy pollution or toxic gas in the environment. forcing
people to settle in communes or use breathing apparatus
to survive.
Political and economic situations
Is the society a democracy, or a dictatorship? Are its rulers
proud and noble. or evil and greedy? Consider the ways in
which different types of people live their lives. and what
their society is like. It isn't necessary to define every minor
detail, but it helps to get a genera/ idea of the forces that
govern your characters' lives - and whether they accept
them. or rise up heroically against their oppressors.
Different races and creatures
The coexistence of and relations between people or
creatures is often one of great intrigue and complexity. In
your manga it could be the source of a characters
alienation or others rejection of him or her through fear or
misunderstanding. Alternatively. it could be a force for
unity as races work together to make the most of their
skills. Think also about how different races would affect the
technology, the economic si tuation or the environment.
Details such as these will help make the fantasy world
seem real.
Consider gods and deities
The effects of a major overruling power could make a
significant difference in the way people live their lives, and
the w orld they live in. A world prone to floods would have
houses designed in such a way that they could cope with
this. If there is a need to worship or appease a god through
prayer or sacrifice, this will also affect the world and
its occupants.
OTHER PHYSICAL
MARKINGS
Tattoos. birthmarks. freckles
and other distinguishing
marks can help identify a
character. In certain
si tuations they may also
reflect the society a character
is placed in. For example. in
Dragon Heir. the citizens are
branded at an early age
with a "Spirit Sign", a mark
that dictates their role
in life.
CREATING 1\ SETTING 43
INTRODUCING THE
ENVIRONMENT
Introduce each interesting part of
your scenery to the reader slowly.
Focus their attention on the obJects
so they can learn or pay attention,
re.::11izing the significance of objects.
Mixing things up
Even the scenery
of (jlltly rillclrt',III\IIC

You can make your fantasy world more inreresring by
introducing cerldin wt11Je remoVIrKJ ultler.!..
For example, consider a wor/ci that ncwr held ;my
fuels (such as coal) but has hei:lvy 1ndustna/1zat1on tt1rough
wind power. water or solar energy. This wur It/ wuukl I ktve
fascinating cities. with huge structure<> dc<>igncYI In m; tkr
the most of the energy. Also consider the way thilt maoic
could be used as Jn alternative to electricity or steJm
power; as magic could be harnessed to produce light
or heat.
Spirit signs
Children
demonstrate their
special abilities.
represented by the
symbols on
their foreheads.
.
0
.
.
0
-e--
to\

Healer spirit
One w110 he.Jis
lite ktllc.J
Warrior spi rit
nn .. whn
ttl<' lnrid
Worker spirit
OrwwtHlWCHI:\
the l<1nd
Noble spirit
Onf' whn rul('\
che land
Mage
{magic) spirit
One w ith power
ro split the land
CHAPTER THREE
Dig ita I
fou ndatiens
U ~ 1 r 1 ~ a computer to produce artwork can
IJe fairly daunting al first. However, by
lccH ning sonle silllple techniques and
unc:lPrstanding which software to use, you'll
CJUickly make the most oF working digitally.
Q Peripherals 46
Q All about software 48
Q Photoshop basics 50
Q Photoshop layers 52
Q Resolution 53
ITAL FOUNDATIONS
1pherals
H::Jvinu rorrc'r l looL<., lor lhc-':JOb always makes a big
diff(' rcncc in 1 r1c cmJ resulls, ?mcJ the same goes for creating
cliS:JiLal artwork. lllele a1e expensive, professional-quality tools
dVdikliJie, IJul dl:,o plenLy of options for the smaller budget.
LCD OrTIC/\L MOUSE
Ynu wnn't get VCI)I fur using c:t grc:tphics program without a
rnnt J'\r. highly rcrommcnded that you use J modern
I FD (lighl -cmitting diode! mouse rather than a tradi tional
b;!ll-nwrhrlnism model. Optical mice offer greater accuracy,
\JJH a >I ht..,. mnl inn find f!rcn't prone to jamming.
---1----An 1dent1f1ed by
ILJ\TOCD SC/\1\J I\JCR
the U:D bulb on its under in
pl.",.. nl b.1ll .
A\( rlflrll'f 1\ IJ\!Jrllly ltll' rJJUllrll rlfli.\1\ fi rs! purchase.
ScJnncrs photocopier-like devices that interpret flat
rtrlwnrk rtrlCIIJHil il ir rln c.ompul.er-rerrc.JctlJie rJdlcr. Tllese
cJ,-Jys mosL n.:1tbcd scunncrs urc inexpensive. or bundled free
with J new PC. and all are extremely useful for this type of
work. lwr 1 r-1 l >ri\Jl model ts usunlly sufri cient For scanning
in line rl rt for colouring in a software package. Pay attention
to the opticJI resolution when buying a
scanner: Tl1is will be around 600 dpi
or I 7.00 dpi. Anything higl1er
Lhdn 2000 is usudlly a
fake resolution
created by scaling
the image.
PR/1\JTER
Printers might seem something of a luxury for the digital
artist. as often our work doesn't get printed at all and is
only published on the Internet. However; its often good to
print your w ork - especially if it is intended for use in print -
so that you can check the colours and quality.
There are several different types of printers. but two types
are most common:
Laser Printer
Laser printers are excellent for text
documents and printed black and
white comics. The quality of the lines
is vel)l sharp. and work prints
quickly. However; ink
toners (refills) are
expensive. and the
printers themselves can
require costly
maintenance. There are
colour laser printers
available. but these too
are vel)l expensive.
Inkjet
An inkjet printer produces colour work
cheaply, and quality can be high with
specialist photo-paper. However; black
lines aren't as crisp as those produced
by laser printers. and the ink isn't
waterproof. making it liable to
smudging.
PERIPHERAlS 47
GRAPHICS TABLET
.. .
Most artists regard the graphics tablet as the essential
peripheral for digital work. A graphics tablet is essentially a
sheet of plastic that represents the shape of the monitor.
Using a special pen. you "draw" on the surface. but rather
than dispense ink the tip applies variable pressure. which
the computer interprets and turns into an on-screen
drawing. Using the pen you can use line and colour just as
subtly as you would with a real pen and paper Graphics
tablets allow much greater and more natural control of the
tools in all major graphics packages.
TIP Graphics Tablet
Using a graphics tablet can be tough ro begin
with. but donr be discouraged. It's a good ide.1 to
scan in existing line cut ;met t:)et used to
COlOUring it USing Lilt' In I rPn, ratl"ler til.:Jil
trying ro ctr<'lw something frcclrdl 1<1 I.Jclw<-'
the hang of lilt: m;w This will hi"IJ"l yn11
develop your mnrrol
Once you get used to the tablet. you will soon be able
to sketch. ink and colour your artwork entirely on the
computer - without using paper at all!
:
' ' v '
Graphics Tablet Sizes
The size of the graphics tablet you
choose can make a big difference to
your overall experience of working
digitally. and how comfortably you
can work. Consider the size of your
desk area. or whether you need to
transport the tablet between different
computers. If you're working with a
very large monitor then a small tablet
may be too inaccurate to be
used easily.
The cost is almost twice as much
for each increase in area size. so the
larger tablets can be rather expensive.
Its worth considering the tablet as a
long-term investment though. A
good-quality tablet will last for more
than five years and still work perfectly.
Some ranges also offer replacement
pens and nibs.
There are also 30 em x 46 em
( 12 in. x l8 in.) size tablets available.
but because of their size these are
generally considered too large for
comfortable illustration work.
Large
23 em x 30 em (9 in. x t2 in.J
Lctrger tablets are popular
with manga I.J<:causc tt1cy
allow fine mntrol as well as
general bro<:1d strokes. llowever.
the l<irge footprint of
devices (often as large as 35.5 em
x 46 em 114 in. x lAin.) can
make th<:m impracticrtl for sm<'lll
workspact:s.
Small
t 0 em x t 3 em (4 in. x 5 in.J
The smallest size graphics tablctts Vt'IY
popular and cost-effective and is ideal as
a first tablet. Even 1f you would like to
use a larger tablet li'ltcr. tl wor1t1
investing in a small one to get r1 leel
for how a tablet is usecJ.
Medium
t 5 em x 20 em (6 in. x 8 in.J
Tl1is size d tjfl:rll lrrtcJc-oll
hf'IWf'Pn price and desk
space. allow1ntj quocJ p!'ll .-11 c 111 ncy
lor t1 tt1hlet that can also be easily
tucked into r1 llriU. 01 IIIOVI 'I I 0111 Ill
the way. However. some utllsb clo
ltr 1cJ ltll\ roo restrictive for
daily use.
48 g D GITAL FOUNDATIONS
C1
about
software
rllOiO<;IlOf) j<; illP lllO<;i popular graphics
.\OfiWdfC for l.t lC rrk.ljur ily ur l.d::.ks, bul Lt-lefe
arc lots of clleaper alternatives, and also
more specialized tools fo1 rnanga
c,rNrRAI <!RAP/ 1/C<:; PACKACiFS
Photoshop (Mac and PCJ
1 't H.>Lo>l HJP i> d> u1e lJe>L drL-generalion
and image editing package. It offers a wide range of tools
for nriginrlling digirn/ i'lrtwnrk, plus sophisticated output
cunlrols rt1ulosllop is U1e soflwctre most commonly used
lor proressional print work. but it also offers tools For
creJtinq images for use on the Internet. It comes bundled
with a dedicJted packaqe, lmageReady. for this purpose.
Althouqh Photoshop c.:.m seem overwhelming as a result
of til e IJrge number of tools and options, its easy to come
to qrips with the p.:ms of the softvvare that you'll use most
Pros:
Offers the widest range of tools and complete
control over output resolution; is widely used and
tdeally suited to supplying digital work for print.
Cons:
Expensive. limited effective ndturdl media
style funct1on<11ity.
Photoshop Elements
(Mac and PCJ
The "cut down" version of
Photoshop, minus some of the
more advanced features. Elements
contains all the basics and is an
excellent choice for getting started
with digital artwork.
Paintshop Pro (PC Only)
Paintshop Pro is a popular budget
alternative to Photoshop. Offering
many of the same basic features.
as well as some of the more
advanced, its a good alternative
for those who want to save
money. It doesn't provide as much
control over print-oriented work,
but its still great for Internet work.
If you want to get started with
digital artwork, its a great choice.
Pros:
A good introduction to
Photoshop, its interface
and features.
Cons:
Doesn't offer as many
features as other budget
software programs.
Pros:
Inexpensive; offers most of
the tools from Phoroshop.
Cons:
Lacks DPI (dots per inch.
see page 53) and CMYK
(cyan, magenta. yellow
and key plate - or black)
controls, which are
important for print work.
Runs slowly with
multilayered and high-
resolution images.


'
, ..
DIGITAL PAINTING
Open Canvas (PC Only)
Open Canvas is the cheapest of the
software listed here. and probably has
the least options available. However. it
offers a number of unique features.
such as brush styles that smudge the
paint allowing you to emulate certain
types of natural media.
COMIC-MAKING SOFTWARE
Comicworks (PC Only)
Comicworks is a specialist software
package from Japan. designed solely
for the production of Japanese comic
books. It allows you to place
predefined screentone patterns onto
the page and produce incredibly
smooth line art. You can easily export
your artwork and load it into other
software. such as Photoshop. if you
wish to add colour. Comicworks is an
ideal choice for anyone who is
dedicated to producing comics.
Pros:
Fantastrc for producing
prinr-rei'ldy line arr;
makes applying digital
screentone ei'lsy. and
prints at high quality.
Cons:
Umited to black and
white artwork jno
colour or grey);
interface can be
difficult to usc.
Pros:
The line (Jtt.-=llity
<tnd colour !.>lending;
mmm'll
medici cxtrt:rnely well.
Cons:
Lacks h.'lsic im;,ge
adjusrmenr fei'ln
no option to disable
on lines.
lmetges can'r be
mctnipuldted tor
pr rnl prcpctr ctlion.
ALL ABOUT SOFTWARF 49
Pros:
Fxnlh>nt l.11 r li...'UI
ucdtC\
.1nd
Cons:
I .11 k , h
."' rr"
f11 ff1n Ill, ll l l<.'l kH.I.'
<IWkWcll d ell
Painter (Mac and PCJ
Painter is cJ iliql1ly
cJt:)l(jlll'cl 1 o
n..-tlt rr...t l mt->r!ia such as oil puint
and wutcrcolour.
P...tinter otters a huge selection of
brushes rlrld llrl\ {'X( 1-'llf-'lll I lr ushsrroke
control. Despite its lllrrrry wt>rul('rllll
features. however, P.1in1r-r ''" ko, '' vt r.-tl
simple imaqe editing fr1cilitics ilnr I
forces lines to be ilnti-;dirt'it r I (" '<
page 62), milking
screentonc diffiwll 1 n ... rpply
50 g DIGITAL FOUNDATIONS
C'1
toshop
basics
Its oriqlll<; wr.rr. ;1s .::1n image-editing sui te, but Photoshop
11.1s t"">PrnnlP tllC' most common graphics and painting
fl.1rk;=Hl f', ,1nc:t tll P. standard for both home users and
Industry professionals alike. Mosl Pholushop basics are
dppliccJL>If:' lu ulllf:'r paint snttwarP, <i O what you learn here
Will tJc useful
Kl Y 1-1-/\ll JI\I S OF F'IIOTOSI-IOP
Tool bar
Dlr.nl:wr. rhl' r11rrl'nrly
(.<.li<AII ,11 ld tl IL' lli li L'I L'IIt
for ciri'lwlnCJ. ()i'linrin(j
<IIIU <.:dill/ 1!:) ll1c.: 1111<.1!:)<.:.
... ""

. i :),
(J
Tool Options Bar
Shows all the ava1/able
fut your
sclccrcd roo/, ?tllowing
you to chilnge the WilY
the too/ behaves.
Swatches Palette
Lets you pick from a
palette of different
co/ours as well as add
co/ours of your own.
Brushes Palette
you to choose from
different types of brushes
<tnd struke styl es.
Layer Palette
Allows control of the
different parts of your
illustration by
separating it into
editable layers. (See
page 52 for more
information.)
USING THE TOOLBAR
Selection Tools
A selection is a part of the image that you
wish to modi fy. either by drawing onto it or
by using your selection to define an area you
wish to cut and paste, edit or apply effects
to. Selections are easy to use. and make work
on your image much easier.
Lasso Tools
These tools allow you to select areas of the
image while allowing greater freedom in
defining the shape of your selection. Use
the Polygonal Lasso to define a precise
area by joining points. and the Magnetic
Lasso to pick up the shape of the image as
you move the tool over it. The Iauer is of
limited use in painting and illustration. but
very effective in editing photographs.
Marquee Tools
The Ellipt<cal and Rectangular Marquee
tools are used to select areas of an image
defined by the shape of the tool .
Magic Wand
The Magic Wand selects an area of the
image based on the shapes and lines of
the existing image. It selects an area in
the same way that the Paint Bucket fi lls
an image.
Cropping and Slicing Tools
These allow you to cut an image. either to
remove elements of it or to apply information
to the slices .
Crop Tool
Used to trim the image down to a smaller
size. removing unwanted parts. Marking a
rectangular selection and choosing Image
> Crop from the menu will achieve the
same result.
Slice Tool
For use specifically in Web site design
work to separate an image into different
rectangular areas. to which can be
added hyper/inks.
Paint Tools
Tools that use natural media and real-world
painting tools as their starting point. adding
numerous editable possibilities and digital-
specific effects.
Paintbrush
The Paintbrush tool acts much like a
conventional paintbrush or marker pen. It
allows you to apply opaque or translucent
colour and lines to the page. as you would
with paint or ink.
Choosing a brush size will define the size
and shape of your brush. changing the
thickness and style of the li nes you draw.
Round brushes are most common. and will
draw an ordinary line at regular thickness.
Squarer and more angular brushes vary
the line width when you draw in different
directions. and irregular -natural media"
brushes will produce a gritty.
textured stroke.
-
-
-
- -
The number beneath
each brush indicates its
"

-
-
Round Brushes, Square Brushes
and Natural Media Brushes
The "hardness of the
edge of the brush will
define the cnspness of
the colour. and how
much the colour fades
out towards the edge
of the stroke. The solid
black shapes indicate
hard brushes. whereas
the fuzzy-looking
circles represent
soft edges and
diffused effects.
Hard and Soft Brushes Airbrush Mode
Opacity
When in Airbrus11
mode. holding down
the mouse button (or
your graphics tablet
pen nib) in the same
place will apply colour
over itself. thrckening
its application. Airbrush
mode can make rt
tricky to distribute
colour uniformly.
A soft-edged brush
can often achieve the
same results.
This affects the translucency of your applied
colour. with I 00% being completely solid
colour. and 0% being completely invisible.
Layering semiopaque colour will thicken
its effect.
Pencil Mode
This applr es colour with a sharp. pixellated
edge (rather than a soft, translucent one).
wrth no anti-aliasing (see page 62).
Although this might look abrasive on--
screen. it is the best way to ensure a
perfectly crisp edge to your lines areas.
Generally, Pencil mode is best when
working at very high resolutions, if you
rntend to print or reduce the image later
on. Working in this mode also makes it easy
to select colours sampled from
artWork accurately.
Healing Brush,
Clone Stamp Tool
and History Brush
These are custom versions of
the Paintbrush For speciillist
uses. and are rnostly useful when
editing photogrilphs.
PHOTOS HOP RASICS 51
Tolerance, Anti-Alias and All Layers
II T-..-: J2ci""" r .... 17 ean._,_ r All t...)wa
Anti-Alias
lOIL'I dr1Ce= I 0 tolerance I 00
Tolerance
This chan ges how rh e colour has t o be for rl lu lJt:
considered l hc sc1me colour by a selecti(ln mnl A 0 vJILJc
mean s it has to be the cxdll RGO colour. /'i'i
means rhar any coloLJr will be consrdt:rt:<.J l i lt: even
black and whire. Low v.1i ues from I 0 to 50 arc
effectrvc
ChPrkino rhP Anrl bo!\
Will .1IIOW YOI/1' r -Jint (01
\eiPrrinn) m hlt>F>.-1 nvr:r lil <.:
ccJqe of rhP .'lrTWnrk it1
r.1n
pr u iJI<.:rr w ilt 1 lft:dn linP
.1rt if Tnler dilL<.:
hi(Jh, ht> "' rrP tn 70r)ll l
111 cJt ltl c hl'ck yn1 1r wnrl.:
all layers orr ( lN

Eraser
Deletes areas of the imaqe rn
tl1c thickness and edge of rhe bru<h <ile
you - effectively like the rai mbrush
111 II you this on the base layer
tusually l.1bdletJ it will use
your wlour.

Paint Bucket
This will paint the currenrty <f'lfftt>c1 rnlnur
onro the working rll a srmri<Jr
manner to t11e WdncJ.

Smudge, Blur and Sharpen
The Smudge tool wrll move wlours
[QJ
rn the dorectron ol the brush movemenr.
which is useful for blenc11ng roloo rr< Oil
hair. or for creatrng subtle foiLls Ill il.
lliJ
The Blur tool milkes rhe softer.
whereas Sharpcn lllcikcs it crisper by
increasing the contrast of tile sun ountJrng
pixels. The fi lter is a more
sophistiGltl'd version.

Dodge. Burn and Sponge
Dodge ilnd Burn named Jfter old style
[S]
darkroom techniques.
are used For lightening and
darkenrng of respectively. The

Spongf' c1Psarurates colours. m.Jking them
less vrbrant. 1\tthough they provicle quick
results, it is generally iJ goot.lrdcd to
the Paintbrush for il clt:yrce ol
control over tone and colour

Vector Path Tools
Advanced tools for cre<lung curved shapes
[I]
and selecrions rhat can be scaled up to any
size without pixellating. These tools can be
difficult to use. but create very smooth.
curved areas. They are especially useful
For highlights.
All Layers
wl11?lilcr lilt:
selt>Cfi(ln/flll nn
lllC cll lWOik in rhP
l<rycr ur rly. Ul w l iclt lcr 11
sl1oLJic1 comrllcr .rll
nf rhP ;m work
ITJ
Text Tool
thil tO pl,ll'l" l t-'XI I II I lilt' 1-'<IIJI.'.
on thl' p.>,()l' tn r,..,,, ,.. , , rr xi 11111 .orrd
hold down thl" mn11'.f" hr Jll nn . 11 11 I rio "U
ro create a mulrllint' rl'xt ht1x w1111
rexr.
[gJ
Shape Tool
for rurh . rr r 1,11 ryiL-:. ,u rLI
nrhf'f' <rmph <11.11 rr " )unc j.rr:uf.lle J.!ll.'k:r to
use .r M.u4uce wrrrlJrrrccJ with rhe rill ronl
lU dllricvc 1hc \i'lml'

Notes Tool
tu Wllll.' llicJcJcn lnon-prlnrln()) r.-xr
<nn01ariom .>.hn11r rhr> im.1rJo>
[ZJ
Eyedropper
Thr> Fyl'droppcr s,1nlJJb Luluur lrurn tire
urklC/t' i-l nd chJngc5 U1c
LUIIl.'lll LOIOUI IO 1/H' nf>\,VI_y l ,>,mp1Pc1
sclcctron. lulllllllllllll l>c hy
holdin\,1 down U 11.:1\11 key wlwn rn
Paintbfllsh moue.


Hand Tool
ymrr lm.>.fJI' hP 1.1r(Jr"r rh.1n the
present wrnLlow, wrll ltrt: im,rqc
dJuuncJ. Yn11 arhiPVI' .1r .111 lrrnt:s l;y
holdrng dOWI I lill.' lldl.

Zoom Tool
1\tltlW\ yot r ro mnm In out of rile
image. m<lking it I.Jrqcr or smaller
onscreen. You llll -rl\lr '"' ' tllf Llrl + H
and c.trl + /+) keys to do rhis.
Photoshop Elements
Most o f rh e techniques ap plied in th e
tutorials on pages 66- 99 can al so be
carried o ur in Photosh op Elements.
!TAL FOUNDATI ONS
toshop layers
Lighten
Mtwll of rile: freedom of working in Photosr10p comes from
tile Laye1s function. Tllis allows you to work without
cldrTk.!CJir oU ll'f or lhe cJrawing.
This example
shows the effect
of various layer
Screen
Overlay
L;wers t;e rn<:mipLIIi:itecl <:1nd altered easily. so your
character can be made to wear a blue jacket instead of a
reel jrlrkcr, for cxilmplc; or you can sec what the image
woulci look like wirh il different type of lighting. Layers are
I he kry In wnrking cffcclivc/y wirh digira/ manga.
I t1e IJe;L wo::ty to l.dyers is lo compare the
tuncrion ro sheers ot glass or cleiJr plastic, like the overlays
lllo::tl designers usecl to use before
rhe dJys of digitJI. When you draw and paint on a
rhnlmhnp 1,1yrr. il> ronlenls nre Pntirely inrlependent of
ott1er !.dyers. 2tllhough lhe 1mage will appear to be a
1tem.
[,rdJI,ry<.:r
llllllollll'o

parrs of
imugc.
Flattening Layers
l.uyLu LIIL' ullly IJy Pllulu:.I JujJ 111 LL'Ildltl filL' furmats. so w11en
wu1 w1llr llu.: l.uyL'J s furKLJOIJ you should always save in your
dcfJull formJt - PSD in the case of Photoshop.
If y) U Fl.:tttcn U1c (Luycr > Flatten Image). t11e fi le size of your
lm:1QP will hE' muc11 sm.111er, because Photos110p creates a single
mmrmlrP of of rhe elements_ This means that you lose the
:'lhlllry rn Prllr rhP im:'loe l;:trer nn You should always ny ro keep an
mlolml copy of your image with L3yers intact.
BENEFITS OF LAYERS
Easi er to add colour to lines by drawing on the layer
underneath, without worrying about the details.
* Layers can be moved around. allowing you to after the
compositior1 of tl1e image freely.
;.:. Parts of each layer can be deleted freely without altering
other layers - making it easy to create clean, professional-
quality artwork that will look great in print or on the Web.
styles when pink Soft Light
is overlaid on a
- blue layer.
] Hard Light
MASKING LAYERS
A simple way to think of a mask is as a permanent
selection. outside of which - or within which (depending
on how you set it up) - the image is unaffected by any
tool you use, or modification you make. L3yer masks add a
lot of flexibi lity to the way you can work with Layers in
Photoshop, by defining how much of each layer should
be visible.

HOW TO MASK A LAYER
Using masks
Masks help control the
placement of colour and inks.
1 . Choose the layer. and select the area you want to
be visible.
2. Click the "Mask L3yer" button at the bottom of the
Layer stack.
3. The layer w ill now be masked out and should
be highlighted.
4. You can edit the layer mask with black and white
brushes to alter the masked area.
5. Click back on to the main colour part of the layer to
paint here as normal.
6. Right-clicki ng on the layer will give you the choice to
disable, enable or discard the mask.
I
I
J
I
I
Resolution
Understanding the resolution of images is crucial when worki n<J
digitally, and can help improve the quality or your work. Whether
images are intended for distribution on the Web or in
print, its important to consider resolution in advar1ce.
All digital images, be they on-screen or printed on paper, are made
from dots. The more dots they have, the finer the image is. Producing
images at a high resolution means more pixels (short for "picture
elements", the dots used to form the image on-screen). High
resolutions give you greater creative flexibility in how the final im<:tge
can be used. as we will see.
Working at a high resolution puts a much greater strt:Jin on your
computer. When you save files they take up more disk space, ancJ
your computer will require more memory to handle the work and a
faster processor to manipulate it. The larger the image, the more data
the computer has to deal with. and if there isn't enough memory
available to store all that data comfortably. the computer will soon
slow down or indeed be unable to load the file. Recent computers
are much more capable of handling large, uncompressed graphics.
but you should still invest in a decent-sized hard drive and more RAM
if you intend to work on large images.
PROS AND CONS OF HIGH
RESOLUTION IMAGES
Pros:
Minimum resolution
Low dpi images look poor
when printed. 300 dpi IS lilt:
minimum resolution you
Resolution 2!:i dpi
10 11 /) tlpi
I SO dpi
4fc Image can be used for print at
high quality.
4fc Ability to add fine detail to small
areas of the image.
should work at. 600 <.IJJi
4f: Minor errors become less noticeable.
4f: Working at a high resolution gives
you the freedom to display the
image at any size you wish.
Cons:
4fc Can lead to large file sizes on disk.
4f: Requires a more powerful computer
to manipulate.
See also Scanning, pages 56- 57
/
GREYSCALE FOUR COLOUR
Pnmers simulate colours and grey tones by us1ng
patterns of dots. Greyscale images are produced
using only blacl< ink. whereas four colours (cyan.
magenta. yellow and black. otherwise known as
CMYK) are used to produce colour-printed images.
53
DPI
DPI stands for "dots per inch". and
refers to the number of dots ust.:d to
make up an 1m<rge. A high-DPI
im.:tge will contain more dots
finer therefore) than .rn imdqt.:
w1ll1 low Ul'l. 1'1'1 for
per inch", which is PSSP11ti;-lly tilL
same thing fer lm:l!)f>s on-scr(.!(.!ll.
but mmr pPCf1IP rPfer to
cclour i11 terms of
their DPI.
on "' romruter screen
require a lower DPI counl lo ilPPl.:dT
srnoot11 l h<:rn 1Jrrnted on
paper; of the way
a screen is illuminated. An 1m.rqt.:
prinlt.:c.J un IJdper will need
300 dpl to .:tppeilr high qucJhly,
wherens on-screen can be .:ts
low as 7 2 dp1 c1nd sllll seem
This means that an irncJgc 900 pixels
w1de would be 12.5 Inches wide
on-screen, bul would only be J
inches wide when printec.J .rt :.lUO
dpi, or l _r; inches ,Jr 600 dpi.
DeSIJile this, mmr .'lrtwork Intended
ror on cornruter is produced
cit C1 very higt1 resolution and rhen
1,1ter compressed. This Is because
working i'lt "' high resolution to
beg1n w1th you ro zoom into
lht.: irn.:tge I'O nrld derails. and
dlso g1ves you the treedom to use
your 1mngl:' tor either print or the
Internet. When creating an
illustration. work prrmarrly with the
image displayed in a "zoomed out"
view, displaying the image at SO%
or 25% of the actual size.
CHAPTER FOUR
Creatinq lligh-quality line art is one of the most important
c.;IC'pr.; 1o pro(JucineJ CJ ny irnage. Sharp, clean lines will make
colouring easier and will si gnificantly improve the presentation
ol your pr in Led manga.
8 Scanning 56
8 Traditional inking 58
8 Digital inking 60
8 Di gital line art 62
-
56 e DIG ITAL TECHNI Q UES: LINE ART
Usinq J fiJtbeci scanner allows you to take an image
frorn p,3pe1 ,3n(j transfe1 it to computer. Such devices
;:m-:-. illf'XfJe'll<;iVP c11ld <; imple tO USe, and enable you tO
cr 1t 1c.1r Ill' yuur IS wiLtl digilal lecrHliques.
\CANNINCi OPTIONS
Colour
TIJi'> uplior 1 '>ldll'> the image using full colour. Useful for
s<<Hining mlourcd irntlges, it is seldom necessary for
line l. It rmy IJe userul if you have coloured
pt neil lines on your page as well as ink.
Greyscale
Use rhe greyscJfe oprion ro sGm the image in shades of
grey, mnking up 256 tones altogether. You'll probably use
lhi.c, mnst nflt' n when SCilJllling .sketches and tine art.
Blacl( and white ("line art" mode)
Usinq this option converts your imogc into pure black and
Wll ire (rwo colours) . This .Jchieves decem resulrs. but you
can proiJaiJiy control the quality better by using Photoshop
to CClrlVC' rl UUY\Crl lc work lrll n tllriCk .-JmJ WhiiC.
Colour scan Greyscale
Mark out the area or
rhe imi'lqe you inrend
rn wirh rhe
Select
Culour dtt' &1<.1 more rnernory
I t1ey shoutcJ only lle used for
Greyscale 1s good for scanning pencil work
or for qu1ck results from ink.
colour images.
Adjust settings on
your scanner before
you choose scan.
' .
..... ..... - ...... -- .. - ... -...
Black and white
Black and white mode is perfect for scanning
ink drawings.

- ne most common resolution at which to scan images is
300 dpi but you can choose 600 dpi for work you intend
:o print or images you wish to enlarge. Very few affordable
scanners can scan at much higher than 600 dpi or 1200
dpi, and attempting to scan at higher resolutions than
these will do little other than freeze your machine and fi ll
up your hard drive.
Scanning in pencil work and sketches
Pencil work can be a great starting point for a digital
image. You can clean up your pencil work by increasing the
contrast of the scan. Often the quality will be high enough
w be used online without further modifi cation. but
generally the line quality of pencil work won't be high
enough for print. except in rare instances. You can also use
the Sharpen tool or Unsharp Mask filter in Photoshop to
make your lines appear crisper.
Scanning in line art
Most digital artists still produce their line art on paper and
then scan in the image for colouring and manipulation on
computer. This tends to be the best compromise between
line quality. time spent and overall image composition.
You can choose whether to scan your lines in as greyscale
or black and white. both of which offer their own
advantages (see previous page). Setting your lines to grey
can retain subtle detailing in the strokes. and is sometimes
better if your line work is especially fine. However.
converting your lines to black and white (whether through
the scanner or in Photoshop) will give you crisper lines that
have a sharper edge when printed. These wi ll be easier to
colour cleanly in Photoshop.
TIP: Splicing Images
If you have an image that is too large for the scanner. you
can usually scan in several parts and then splice the image
together in Photoshop. Be sure to keep the edges of the
paper straight when doing this, and leave an area of overlap
present on both scanned images. Create a large document.
then copy and paste the two images onto the page. You
can reduce the seam between the two halves by using a
soft eraser {or mask) on the edge of the image on the
higher level.
SCANN I N G 57
TIPS for Scanning
Remember you can scan straight from t1ny
software by choosing the se<mner from Acquire or lmpot l
in the File menu.
4ft Make sure I here 1s no or eraser tlecks on either your
paper or your scanner bed before scunninq.
4ft If youre having troubl e scanning sometilinq flut. t1y
picKing books on l op of lh!:' firl m r ress It down.
*If tllere is cJrtwork visibk: riUI II lilt: Ull lt:r ol illlrl prtpcr
!"show rhrough"), you r;m rPr1ttr P by pl.xing bi.:Jck.
card over the buck of tile p.:rpcr.
Pencil work and sketches
,..J I . \ '
:: ;
I.
Coloured lines
can be removed
digit.ally .:lftt'l"
Kunn1ng.
Adjusting
contrast can
result 1n a good
scan. even from
penc11 work.
. .
IIVLIYI I )ltc.:ld
I IIVIt'
tu
l.>ut uti: J.X:rfcu
for diqlr.ll lnkinq
58 -8 DI GITAL TECHNIQUES: LINE ART
Trad itiona I inking
lnkin9 is .::1n important skill for any manga artist. For tllose
wllo cJn't Jfford tile expensive equipment for digital inking,
ur wt ru prdcr d murc tacl.ilc experi ence, traditional
ir lki rl(.j lOCJ.S orrcr cl cheap alternative.
rl of lllrlkin<J r1 mistake and ruining your
k wl len rr 1krnq wrth re(,ll pens. so working on paper
requires more prJcrice Jnd discipline thi:tn digital inking.
ynt r ilrr rnnficknr rontrnllin<J your pens. trnditional
111krr '!.J you rnure cuntrur. yuu cctn ::.ee the
wt1ule at once. rather than having to zoom in ro a
smJII section Js you do on computer. Even small things like
nf rnt,lting thr prl<Jf' rl'\ you work it Cflsicr to
Cl\'rlll' \l\'riCJy !ill\'\.
Tr ridil iollrll I() ril\\1 uivt') you more lUillrul uver line
Vil(irJiinn. Rcrrl IJCil lint:$ rlll' rlffcr ll'ri lJy bolh
premrre ,:md speed unlike ril e pen of J graphics tablet.
wtll( t1 only sensitive ro pressure.
< lv1 1 llw r wxl 1 < u rple ol p.:tges. we'll look 21t lhe three
most commonly used for inking. 111c pros ;md
cons ot eJch.
nRl IrS AND JSI I PFNS
lnklnq with .:1 brush is <JctuJIIy more commonly seen
111 comics. but there are some illustrators
111 1./flrlll wtlll rnk 1t11<; woy. Brushes give the
r 1111:-.1 t1 <JI Crl l dt 'til of Ill II' Vrlllrll/011, lJUI
reqLr ire skill .:md cJreful control. Bear in
rrr11 1rl ltJ.-11 rl\ rlrllic ult to dr21w tine
!lvlrlll', wrll l ,, 111 11\t l, \Cl
pictures mJy hJvc to be lcJrgcr tflcJn
youre used ro.
Brushes <md brush pens can create
some' dcrcnciin<J on rhc
\ f)('('( J rll wlli< II you cJr dW Slow. Ulref ul strokes
produce cleJn lines, whererls quick, loose
ledve Ll1e texture ut the bnstle. These sott.
TIPS Inking
4fC Use different-sized pens according to the amount of detail
you're drawing. Fine derails like facial features should be
drawn with finer pens than the rest of your character.
* If you make a mistake while inking. don't worry. Simply
while out the area with correction fiuid or white ink. and
draw over it when its dry.
* To make your inked pictures easier to scan. try drawing
with non-photo pencils (whose lines are nor picked up by
a scanner) and inking over them. Or scan in your pencil
sketch and tint it blue in your image-editing program
(Photoshop. if you're using it). then print it out and use
that to ink from.
* If the ink you use is particularly sticky, try dabbing it with a
puny rubber to remove the excess after its dried.
textured Jines are great for drawing hair or anything with a
feathered texture or edge.
In terms of convenience. a brush pen is better
than a brush. and is less messy. Brush pens
often take ink cartridges. so you don't
have to worry about the brush drying or
being ruined by sticky ink. Pens with a
bristle tip give the sharpest lines and have
the greatest fl exibility. Fibre-tipped brush pens
are more suited to colouring rather than inking.
as their tips are less fine and tend to blunt
TRADITI ONAL I NKI NG 59
FINELINERS
Fineliners are great for creating nat, consistent lines. There is
no line width variation with pressure (in fact, don't prP.ss too
hard - you could break the tip!) . and little variation with the
speed at which you draw. Tt1e uf IiTle il
r------ you're creating a eel-style coloured in1nge (r,('c
TIP Varying Line
Width
To vary line width with a fineliner, you
need a different technique than the
method you use with nibs and brushes.
Because of the lack of flexibility in the tip.
the only way to vary the lines is by
drawing over them a few times.
Drawing quickly. in a way similar to
how you would build up lines on a
pencil sketch. creates a more
natural-looking image.
NIBS
Nibs are the traditional inking choice of manga artists.
Nibs come in a range of different shapes and
sizes, each with a different purpose. Wide,
pointed nibs are good for drawing most
things, with a smaller. firmer-pointed nib
used for details and finer lines. Square-
tipped nibs intended for calligraphy are
rarely used.
You can easily create interesting-
looking lines with nib pens with just a little
practice. However. nibs can be messy and are
liable to cause inkblots on your artwork. Ink also
takes a while to dry. so you have to make sure
you don't smudge your work as you draw. Nibs
need to be thoroughly cleaned and, although
they are inexpensive. they do need to be
replaced frequently.
70-73). but not the ol pen lor -
unless you usc several tllicknc:ssc:s of p('nr, nnrl
layer your to u edte vct nctUon deptr1.
Fineliners come 1n two types: disposJble
pens with plastic t ips, and expensive mct.l l rippc:d
models. Metal-tipped pens arc rcfi /l ,lblc with n Vcl rit 1y uf
different inks. but l"llr:y rrqt Jir(' c rl rrftJI /l lrlilll< 'llr/1 Ill' r/1 i( I
cleaning (sometimes with expensive kits) . Tilr. 'il iffnC'i \ or
the tips makes them difficult tO USC, clS tllC ink only
properly when the pen is held at .:1 90 deqrce anq/c from
the page. Plastic-tipped tineliners cope better with
more comforlr1lliC' ltl<'H' r ll <' lol \ ol clili<'H'fli
brands available, eac/1 witll different ink qunlitics
tip strengths.
PENS TO AVOID
Biro
Biros crecJle cJ mil line to
This makes them acceptable for the
occasional sketch, but a finished piece
will look scrurry cornp.1rcd to one 1nkecJ
witll <1 pen intended for drawing.
Gel pens
These are similar to biros. but stickicc
The ball in tile tip is clogged by
ink, leading to broken lines. 1 his sticky
ink also rncJkes the lines 1l
smudgy and slow tu d1 y.
Pencils
Skipping the inking sldgc dlld
your pencil sketch Jnstei'lcl rr11gllt seem
like a time-saving tip. but it takes
JUSt as long to cle<m pencil lines as 1t
does to ink a picture. Pencil has more
texture than ink, but lacks crispness.
Use pencils if you want that effect. but
don't think of them as a replacement
for inkiog.
60 e DI GITAL TECHNIQUES: LINE ART
ital inking
Tr1anks to qrapllics tablets becoming less expensive and more widely
iL now practical to produce line drawings entirely on a
comptllCI. I )r clwir 19 clis.JiLally gives you a lot more freedom tllan traditional
ir 1king clocs. bt tt you will need a lot of pr-actice with your graphics tablet
Lu become: as r;roflrient as you migllt be with a traditional pencil or pen.
IATING TilE PAGE
The t rur ndr r wr c.dn unfy turn through so many/"---:=
deqrees. so wtlen trufcJrng 21 pen it feels more,j
curr rf UlldiJie dlld rrdlur dl Lu c.lraw certain
rlnd strokes of lines lhan others.
espcci.1lly ilr 1.1rg<--r Fm Px;rmplc,
rl lu cJr dW small circle
rnmfnrtrrhly. <rs illl the muvemenl
111 yuur tr21nc.l 21ncl trnqers. However. when
drclwinq u circle lurgcr rh;m ;r couple of inct;cs in
dlilmcrcr; you will fincl thcll the prlrl uf the c.irc.le closest to
AwiY hn\IV ...
ClwiWtll.,,
lmoll" Sltn
C nihst.ol ...
f11t1tl Aap.fld Uahn
I , .. ,,
lnm
qu.:lhly I)
retained wllen you usc
RotJte CJnvJS to rotulc
your omage.
Scr Traditio nal inking. pages 58-59
you will be the
least comtortable
to draw.
A graphics
t ... rt>lcl (or mouse)
is operated in
with
your screen. and
you w111 be sitting
rrt n wilh the
graphics tAblet in
front of you, so
you'll find there
are physical
limitations to what you can comfortably achieve. There
are ways to reduce the problem. however.
In Photoshop (and most other packages), you can
rotate the image by 90 degrees by using the Rotate
) Canvas option from the Image menu. This can be a
little slow. but it keeps your image intact so that you
can rotate it back to the correct position without any
loss of image quality. However: do not use the
"Arbitrary" rotate option, as this will permanently
damage your lines and lower the quality when you
rotate them back into position.
Specialist packages such as Painter and Comicworks are
designed more with the concept of drawing straight ro the
computer in mind. so they give you the option of rotating
your canvas freely while you draw, making it much easier
to work on.
FLIPPING THE PAGE
You can often spot flaws and errors in your artwork when
you mirror it. so when drawing digitally it is worth using
the "Flip Canvas Horizontal" function occasionally to see if
you can spot any problems with the image. Fix them, and
tt1cn flip the image back.


/
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Check the
"Smooth Unes"
_ ,
box to enable
A
line smoothing. _,._
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DI GITAL SKETCHING
Computers offer a lot of flexibil ity with regards to how you
can draw. and its this flexibility that makes them fun to
sketch with.
Experiment!
Want to try a different pose? Wondering what
your character would look like carrying an item.
or wearing a different outfi t? Duplicate your
sketch layer and hide the original. then you can
draw on the new layer as much as you wish.
trying out as many new ideas as you can think of.
DIGITAL INKING
Creating the outline
Always work on a new
layer when producing
your ink outline. ideally
fading your sketch to
30-50% opacity on the
layer beneath. Work over
the lines of your
charaa er with the Brush
or Pencil tool. Sometimes
it helps to turn off the
sketch layer briefly to see
more accurately how
your lines are looking.
ROTATI!. SCALI! AND MOVE
While you're still sketching. you
can take advantage of the Image
Transform tool 1n Photoshop.
Rotating an arm, scaling a head
or moving a waist might be all
you need to get your image
looking perfect.
DIGITAL INKING 6 1
'
Building up your sketch
Try Vl.'l y Ut I
n nt-w J;wl'r 1 nrll yn11 gt>t ,.,
1ouyh of rhe
nr r mc yot. Wdl tl. Nuw.
lnyer ro a low O('l:'lriry
( ur c.IIIU l..r <.:cJt<.: d
new J.:.yt-r Dr:'lw yn1 1r 1111.1!.)1.''
w1ttl <.l<.:flrution
rlmP. yn11r nthrr '"Yt.''
c.1 yu1<.1<.:. By rq.x:atinq
yn1 I (,111 I
out t1t1 imclqc.
Sharpening your
lines
thP
the edges
of blunt lines
into t11c pou 1l
yuu
Drawing on
separate layers for use in
colouring later
Its worth drawing folds or
clothing details at this stage
on a new layer. They can be
used as guidelines later when
it comes to colouring.
62 e DI GI TAL TECHNIQUES: LINE ART
it a I I i n e a rt
Preparing line art for further digital production work is an important step in
eve1y piece of artwork, and with understanding can make your work easier
to produce and can give you more options in developing your images.
WHA"I IS ANTI-ALIASING-I
Everything un d computer screen is macle of square pixels, so in order to
represent diagonal lines and curves the screen has to arrange tiny squares in
di<:1gon<:1l or curved patterns. With close inspection. it becomes obvious that the
irnagc is pixellatecl - curves in particular can look jagged on screen.
Anti aliasing is a method that blurs the colours around the pixels in your lines
to more nccuratcly fnkc the clppearance of a curve or diagonal. This is very
ellect1ve on a computer screen and will vastly improve the overall appearance of
your im<:1gc. However; it is less desirable in print. The printer will t1y to make a
f)i"rtlcrn to represent the greys, with the overall effect that the line looks far Jess
lllrrn !he "aliiiscd" version.
when 111c Mngic Wnnd nnd Paint Bucket tools. the computer has
to begin making assumptions about correct selections C'lnd fills when it comes to
working with anti-<:l liased images. This can lead to a loss of quality on the image.
f3A)1C LINt: ART GREYSCALE LINE ART
l J\1no d "Mr Jltlf)ly" layer is the simplest way of setting up your line art in graphi cs
softworc. This projects tt1e black lines of tt1e artwork over the image. and any
grey of the image make the underlying colours darker. This method is quick
lu tip, rrmJ U.'>dul for rnm l types of Its also great for pencil line art. or
i:lnythinq with distinct and crisp edges to the line work.
1. Background colour
Open your line arr file in
This Cdn be
e1L11er 11nes you have
pmduced digit-'llly or an
you h-'lve sc;mned
Specify your b;:rckground
rotor 1r -'lS the rolour you
wish ro have as a backdrop
this will be white
at thrs
2. Select the entire image
using Ctrt + A cut the
lm-'lge with Ctrl + X; rhen
press Cl1 I + V to paste the
image into a new layer.
Change the layer style to
Multiply. This will make all
white areas or the image
tri1nsparcnt. and all black
parts of the image opaque.
Fill tool without
anti-alias
Fill tool with anti-alias
3. Ready to start
colouring If you create
another layer. located
beneath the line art
layer. you should be able
to draw and colour
without obscuring the
line art at all. You're now
ready to start colouring.
ADVANCED LI NE ART PREPARATION: BLACK AND WHITE LI NE ART
In many instances of producing digital line art. you will want your work to be as
clean and "digital" as possible. This essentially requires converting the line art to
black and white, and removing all white from the layer: Although this will make
the edge of the line art appear 'j agged" and aliased up close, it will produce the
crispest line results, especially in print.
.. ____ _
"--
iliil I OK


+10
G!Q( 0Pre-;tow
.)
4. Removing the white Select the Magic Wand
tool, making sure "Anti-alias and "Contiguous are
both unchecked. Select the white area of the page.
and hit the delete key to delete the white area.
( ee also Scanning, pa ges 56-57
.....
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tt."Y.
'- ..1.
. 35.
o. o.
.....
it . T.
DIGITAL LINf: ART 63
1 Of)f'n yni 1r llnf' .'lrt fiiP r1orm.11, .-wrt1
.:oorn in to tt1e line\ rhf' lm:'IIJI' .'lr
1 iJIXr..:i
2. Select t11c 11 llll + A wl
rhf' irn.1QP witl1 Ctrl .. X, ti1L'n 11il l lll t V l o
rhP lm.::tQP inrn a nPW L1yPr
3. rhf' ann tnnl Tc"l
tt 1e line drt w be wrnpiPTf'ly hlark
U1e 100, tlricJ lt lt'rl rtcJju\c
U1c UJ il il U it:
the dCSII"CU <IfiLl:. U cll l<.l
unchccktng llle 1-'i L'VILW I.Jux will <i lluw you to
Sl:l: I lOW lllC' l llrttk l'lr1cl Wtliff'
look l o 1t1e ori9innl
5. Your line url will
now < Orl\1\l ol p11w
black lines. and will
bC Ill W<Jik
wirh. with QfE'<lter
ncxibilily foi pill !(
and coloured lines.
ro digital colouring, it is now easy to create professional-looking
work. WiU 1 an undcrsLanding of the different methods you can choose the
per leU !"or your manga pages.
Col ouring basics 66
eel -style colouring 70
Ai rbrush-styl e shading 74
Si mulated media 78
Lineless artwork 82
Digital screentones 88
9 Special effects 94
/
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-d/j
66 D \3ITAL TECHN I QUES: COLOURING. SCREENTON E AND EFFECTS
uring basics
Nn rn.=1tter what kind of image you're making. you've
gnl In "'.;Jrl sorncwt-lcrc. A lol or illustrations begin with
tJ-,e scJme bcJsic steps. Here are a few general tips that apply
Lo n JOSL Lechniques.
BASE COLOURING TECHNIQUE FOR GREYSCALE OUTLINES
lJ!'
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1. Set up line art layer Rl\-ji Jh.hLk l11c ldycr wnldinin4 yuur inkc<.l
rool"tlll'l" ;u1d Duphc.:otc Wycr NJmc tillS new layer "outline.
:mrl lr rn Mllltll"liY rhe drop down menu at the top of the
I ;.tyt'r
2. Create a
background
layer MJke J
IILW I<IYCI <IIIU
fill ir with any
w lour (light or
lliiJif'diOill'S cll t!
best). The
purpme of J11is
is to it
easier to sce
any g.lps 1n
your bnse
col ours later on.
3. Create base
colour layer
Make another
new layer for
your base
colours. Select
an area you
want to colour
with the Magic
Wand.
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COLOURING BASICS 67
AI ctri+A
l:>csele<:t Ctri+O
-r a+.:trlr'
tnvC'rse SNft+(:trl+l
4 . Notice how the selection doesn't go
right to the edge of the lines? To get
around this. go to the menu ilnd choose
Select > Modify > Expand. and cxJVtncJ
your by 1-3 pixels.
Color R""9"
father... Al+Ctri>O
5 . Block in colours Use
the Fill tool to colour rhe
area. 1r you turn
"Contiguous" off. you
can fi ll the whole
selection at once.
6. If there are still some
areas lert outside the
selectton. use the
Polygon Lasso tool to
select them manually. Its
mostly small corners and
sharp po1nts that get left
behind. so pc1y spectal
attention to those areas.

T.

51. J'.
Q,
. . .

7. Where theres a Jot of tight
detail on the image, like tile
sleeve on this picture. its
quicker to use the Polygon
Lasso tool to draw the
selection mnnt;nlly you rlKl
1n the prev1ous step. Instead
of using the
Magic Wilnd ro select Cr1Ci1
bit individually.
8 . Now that you've got the
foundations down. you can
colour the image in any style
you want.
0 . _J f:J. 3.1 ii
D I GITA L TEC HNIQUES : COLOURI NG. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
BASE COLOURING FOR BLACK AND WHITE OUTLINES
4. Block in colours Usc the Fill tool.
with Anti-aliasing off. ro start filling in
the colours.
5. If there < ~ r e < ~ n y
small areas left
behind WithOUt
colour. you can
simply touch them up
with the Brush tool.
Just usc a very small
brush and be careful.
1. Create layer for line art Start by right-clicki ng the layer
containing your inked picture and select Duplicate Layer. Name
this new layer outline.
3. Create background
layer Make a new layer
and fill ir with any
colour. Duplicate the
outline layer and name it
"base colour . then move
it below the outline layer.
6. Now that you've
got the foundations
down. you can
colour the image in
any style you want.
2. Remove white
areas Use the
Magic Wand tool.
with both Anti-
aliasing and
Contiguous turned
off. to select all the
whi te on that layer.
Hit Ctrl + X or
choose Edit > Cut
to remove all
the white. Lock
this layer.
FIXING GAPS WHILE COLOURING
QJ
I[Q]ta
ljJO t;ii

.-.--...
I
If your image outline has a lot of gaps in it.
you can patch them with the following
simple method. On your base colour layer.
use the Brush to draw a line between the
sides of the offending gap in the colour you'll
be blocking in. Then you can select the area
with the Magic Wand (ser to "All or
usc the Fill tool to colour rhe area.
COLOURING JARGON
The colouring tutorials over the following pages will be
easier to follow if you have an understanding of basic
colour terms.
Hue The technical term for colours.
Shade Hues mixed with black, or other dark colours.
Saturation The intensity of a colour. A saturated hue has
very pure. strong colour. whereas a
desaturated hue is muted and dull.
Contrast The difference in hue or shade between
two colours.
COLOURING BASICS 69
COLOUR 'I'HIIOIIY'
compuller- millions tl calaurs
fl 6.7 mfllonl Iran wNch to Rllllre
seledlori. so where do )QI staR? Cclour
theory can help you understand &he
way CXllours me Ul&d In a composldon
...:I can help you mate ufanned
Chola!s abour your own COiaul'ing.
Colour theory dOIII nat jusr apply Q) art
- Irk all around )IOU. lbur anvtnmment IS
lfl'eded by light elemellll tl talcur
pn!S!I'If
SUVng cob.n ldlraCt .. m
La lhls to Cft!8llt dt!pdt In your picture.
Objem In the ft:ngRiund shaukl bet
more 5illunlllld 1t11n obJKIIIn n
bacfcgralnd This wll make the--
focus on yow d'llrilclln. ..a
realislk-- of
Achlelllng befarw wl1'h cxdour Is
lmparrar. tao. "you want tg La WilY
bright aDn )IOU hiM: to know Whlth
cdaLn to use ID A very
bright or saturalleCI colour on 11:. awn ;n
a t*tUn: 11 jlrrtng, bUt appears raJmer
When used wlrh mau:hlng .... puling
.. ..... whale tatnposlllan.
Calallr ........ ...
lJghUng ...... carour RlcRnn moar
peopleNIIIIa.lt ctMAgll ........
cobndlhldcMS..aNgl __ _
also .. calaull ahheWIICie ...
Nodclehow..,... aan:l,au lse
dlft'eelt CGiaUr mlcldly1hln fr II
dU!f(l If JDUI' llluslratian has .., strorllt
CGiaunld llgt81Q. calour ...
bldcglaund ftrst ...-ld UR that II blsls
far ,a.l' c:IW8CIM" cdaurs. If ,au
colcu' lhe charaallr first. you mlgnt nat
be able tiO miiiCh lhe Jfgtllfng tllhe
chalac:ter wllh thellghllng ollhl
erwlrorirnenC sunaundfng lt. leavtng JOU
Wllh e11t1er 11 df9*\ted Image or a
piCa.n w11t1 a dlfl'eelt mood ftan the
one you ser out to achieve.
blllck shadi'lg should be
avakled. Blade drains IIWilJ colour 6tm
" pldUre. maiCing It teem cold and
unr'IIIIUrlll. ......
purples ant gacx1 Clo'lblrllD use rar
lhldlng. bUt II10IIIy ... ChiD ......
on tt1e llgtldng In )OUr

70 DtGI TAL TECHNI QUES: COLOURI NG, SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
style
colouring
C c'/-')iyle culuur inq refers to the animation
eels usP.c.J in >.- lr .::mime. and to the
led 1r 1ique of shadi ng a chal-acler using a
lirnited lllJnlher of tones.
lrdmpdrent sheets ot ilrrrmC' <trC' pilinted witl'"l bold block
wluur only a tew shrtdes to represent shCJdows
lllld hiqhliqllU. .
TilL' tedmique or ueat1ng toml definiti on through the
1 nf <;h,'"Jdows ddte) IJdLk tu lt1e I 'i60s, With even black
iJnd WllitC' nninv1tiom 1 r'i ing the method. IJul it i) found
ir 1 \orne edrly colour pieces wo. From tl1c 1970s
onw Jrds, tile v,l<;t m<ljnrily of used
ryp1 of orr drHrnated characters. and the
l.Jec.:ame commonpiJcc wirh nnimC' .
In comrasr, mmt C'clrly WC'stcrn no
liqllting or 1111 II w li krr dller) at all. In the 1990s,
some We\ I 1 r n pr lldl 11 I rllrt\ the technique with
s,lri:. fying r t'\t rll\, 111 rl rr rrrr 1y nun-l u American animation,
includin<J I,UIJI "'\ trlll ' frlrn prncluctrom, dues without
sll JCfnws on IlK r hrllrtl 11 '1\ 1 umpletely l hrs rs part of the
rcJson w hy 1 1 I ' 'Y'I I lrt) become so intrinsically
<JSSOcirltCCf w il h I ht. r lr rill II. \lyl t'
Irs vC'ry <;imr lc Ill ltre eel-painted visual style
rl1rnrrtJh 1/11 1 J\1 1 rf , oftw.:He .:rnd digital techniques. You can
cllnngc rolnur'l rrnd 1 onlr nlthe overall look of your image
CJSily by ndju<; t iniJ II r1 lrlyt r \ c1r rd you can alter your
SI1Jdlnq .Jt w ill unt il you're 1 ompletely with the
results. Using your or I dnd Photoshop
tools. tile following 'P" >Ill HJirl .-tlluw you to easily achieve
Lln rlUtl"lcntir rr'i--;tylr look rn your c.Jr.:rwrnqs.
CREATING A CEL-STYLE IMAGE
1 . Blocking out
colours Start by
filling in your base
colours using one of
the methods
detailed on
pages 66-69.



. Yf.

.....
T.

51. /.
0..

I[Q)[J
E:J 0


2. Create layers Select an area to
shade with the Magic Wand. Make
a new layer underneath the
outline for the shading.

3. Block out shade and refine Loosely shade
the area wi th the Brush tool. and then use the
Eraser to smooth the lines and sharpen the
points. Some parts may need more than one step
of shading to give them extra depth or definition.
but be sparing with your shading; adding too
much will make the image look less like an
authentic animation eel.
CEL -STYL[ COLOURING 71

,j , ....
lt. T .
.J. u.
IJ. )',
'-\
!]
1@:-i:J
IQ,tl 0

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING. SCREENTON E AND EFF ECTS
..; .e...
T.

.1.
,.., L\,
Fol:
!II .,.. ....
4 . Finish
LUIUUI II 14 dli
itl{' '-----"='--------
Less Is More
I urullrt!.J yClur p...rll"'llt' seem like a crazy thing to
SUqqcst. considering lllc pul e11llr!l of di!.JIIrtl rlrlwork.


I lowever; eel-style pictures benefit from minimul shading.
l t rv \I lrldiii!.J 111 c C'l c olcH mng is dependent on how
reflective t ile object you're colouring is. Tile 'illinier il is. lhe
mort' \h.;tdows and highlights you apply. This means it:S
lJt'\1 In lM' II'\\ ,,.k1rl1ng on that are more matt. like
r loii-1111\J ,.,, tel \kill, dnc.J rnore on areas that are shiny. such
JS hair c1nd jcwciiC'r y. U\illSJ fc wer 1.-ryer \ of shadrng will also
mJkc the imc1gc rl!"ilnC'r.
MATERIAL TYPES IN CEL SHADING
Sltin Skin tones 0
usually use
three basic
steps of colour.
with a fourth
additional colour sometimes
used for white highlights.
Hair Hair in 0
anime is often
incredibly shiny.
wi th at least four
shades of colour.
including bold
white highlights.
Cloth Soft cloth
absorbs light.
5. Highlights Make a new layer above the
shading layer for the highlights. Colour the
highlights in a similar manner to the shading -
sparingly - and with consideration of how muct1
light reflects off the character.
6. Your image is
complete. Here
you can see a
breakdown of the
various layers.
and can be
accurately
portrayed with just
two tones of colour.
Plastic Plastic is
similar to metal.
but tends not
to reflect. It will
use three or four
shades of colour.
.. ....... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .
TIP Quick Colour Change
..
.
.
.
If you want to adjust any of the colours you've used. you can do so simply by
selecting the area you want to change and going to Image > Adjustments >
Hue/Saturation on the menu. or hitting Ctrl + U. Use the Hue slider to change the
colour. Saturation will either fade or intensify your colours. and Lightness will fade
colours out to black or white.
The saturation
slider increases
the amount of
colour intensily.
or reduces it
to greyscale.
.
.
-
)
- --------fi)
Edtt I Master
Hue:
--- ...J
Saturation:
..J
Lightness:
v
OK
_o - J
L
Cancel
oj
Load ...
Save ...
lo I
.,
"'
0 COIOIIZe
-:(
e] Preview
Increasing tile lightness will mix
white with the chosen colour
Reducing it w ill mix black.
J
The Hue slider
shifts rhe color rr
spectrum .Jnd
dUJU>b <ill
colours
.J
.
.......................................................
Rubber Rubber
is harder than
cloth, but not
as hard as
plastic. Use two
or t hree shades.
Metal Different types of metal use
different numbers of tones. but often
metal is presented as shiny, with four
colours being used. Sometimes the
metal refl ects objects around it. so it will
pick up colours from neighbouring objects
or the environment.
.
.
CEL-STYLE COLOURING 73
............ -............. .. . . . . . . . . ... . .
TIP Alternative
Coloured Version
The alternative colouring is achieved
using the exact same techniques
described on these H1e
difference is that the artist opted for
a single lrrytr for <III ItH \tt&llrtSJ - c1
/)right rJiue colour was painted over
the whole imaqe on .:1 layer set to
Multiply. This technique gives the
character consistent and dr.:tmatic
lighting. bur it can cause the coloLrrs
lo look wrt\hec J nul il you U\e 21n
inapprupricilc tddc. Be \IJIC lo
experiment witll different sh.:rdcs
and colours to gain the best resLIIts.

74 DI'GITAL TE CHNIQUES: COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFF ECTS
rush-style
shading
Many ar ll.)l.) U.)e brush tools in Photos hop to soften the
appearance of their arlwork, and to accentuate the
volume of tlleir characters. DigiLal airbrushes and
other soft-edged brushes inl roduce subtle blending
of shacJuw.) on the figure, e1nd can help to
c.listinguish between dirrerenl Lypes of material
and surface.
AIRBRUSH-STYLE SHADING
ON AN IMACil-
ChOO)C" kugl',
brush.
1 . Block out base colours Block
our your fine arc as normal, with
solid shades of colour. as shown
on pages 66- 69. Use the Selection
tool to select arr of the nesh-
coloured areas. and then create a
new layer. You can create a mask
based upon your selecti on. or just
keep your selection and use that
as a guide.
T.
"

_ .. ,
2. Soft cer style Choose a
complemenrary colour tone and use
a large. soft-edged brush. Mark out
the lighting much as you woul d
with eel colours. with your brush set
to I 00% opacity.
6. Create a new layer and
use any obvious colour -
here we've used green - as a
guideline ro draw folds of
clothing onto the image.
Bearing 1n mmd where the
fabric will pinch and gather.
draw lines emanating from
the point of tension.
AIRBRUSH-STYLE SJ JADING 75
3. Erase highlight areas Ch;mQP
thP rool ro use a simil.:lr l.:1rgc
soft brush. and work w1U1 I.JuU 1 U 1c
Brus11 .:llld EluSl:l lu tll:lllll: lilt' \l lnpt
or U1c ull:d.
4. Brush control Ch.:lnging U1c b1
size willllclp you cullllul Ll ll: of
colour l11c ol lhP ffiQP
JhP 1 nnrl J m sr.lle rhe brush
up and down A smJII brush will huvl: u
!larder cdqc lhun" lrHtjl' IJIU\11.
5. Define subtle shading ,, clnrktr \kill tone
10 CJdtJ rurllll'f defnlll!Ofl cHid benemh the
neck. beneath the lips ilnd under the nmr. Tht'
shading of rhc skin .1rr,1s is nnw cor llfJit'lt'. ctntl
we ldn rnove on to shLJde the re.sr of til<' im,1Qt'
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES: COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
7. For the rest of
the clothes. use a
srnglc layer to
define Sh..iding.
Cre<ltf' ;1 new layer
set to "Multrply" at
I 00% opacity. At
thrs pornt. we have
chosen a cream
which will
IJe diJiJiietl tu the
rmi.lgc <IS the
tone.
T.
"
I!;, .-f.
, .. , '-\.
9. TIP: CirPy stripes have been added ro
rile giri:S top Jt this point to 11clp ddnc
vulu11rt:. Rt:rncrni.Jer lhdt the curvAture of
Sl lliJl'\, t-tnc1rnrrerm helps to stop
from looking flat and lifeless.
B. Precision smudging Using
smaller brushes will create sharper
creases. whereas larger brushes will
create bunched folds. Bearing in
mind the shape of the character. you
can define volume with these folds.
I 0. We've used the Smudge tool to create
the impression of fabric folds. Smudging
the shadow outwards along the guidelines.
and then smudging the shadow inwards.
creates the desired effect.
I I . Fine detail <.reate a new layer (set to
"Normal") for the make-up and facial det:arls. Add
pink lipstick and cycshddow. and lighter tones to
the light shining off the lips. Add similar
details to the fingernarls and belly button.
.,
. ;, +
'?_,
,_
. /.

,)_ ,_
:;_ / .
' }
ALTERNATIVE COLOURING
Here the same process is used to achieve
a radically different result, transforming
the girl from a contemporary girl-
next-door to a futuristic space star.
Skin: Strong blue
shadow, and
softer application
of Airbrush. Using
brushes with low
opacity on the
Airbrush serting,
you can slowly
work over the
image increasing
shade gradually.
Design: A few
changes ro the
design and colour
pattern of the
clothes can make
a big difference
in the perception
of the character.
Backlighting: A white light is used
from behind the image. surrounding the
shapes in a striking white glow. Tracing
the outline of the shape, and consrdenng
where the backlight would be blocked.
adds a dramatic look to the image and
helps define volume.
12. Smudging highlights We've
created the hair with the Smudge
tool in a manner srmilar to the folds
of the fabric. To do this, place layers
of colour down to define shade.
and then smudge to follow 1 he
shape of the head. When you're
happy with one layer of depth.
introduce lighter shades .:md rt'pt>al
the process over again ro build up
layers j ust like those of real 11.:rir.

cnlo11r anr1 white
lipsuck q1vc the
g1rl a scr fi look
and complement
thewhireof
her out11L and
blue lr ghlrng.
Hair: The exact same
hair as before. but
wilh a few alterations
to the Hue. Saturation
and Contr.Jst tools.
AI RB RUSH-STYLE SHADING 77
T,
\). "
eJ. J'.
-::' Q..
fJ
i?,30
13. Coloured lines Here wc'vt.:
tilC llllilqC by LUIUUIIII(.j lill: Ill It'\ II I rl
\lrllrldr rnnnnt'r 1.0 1 hi-lt In
Simulated Narur.:Ji Medl.:r (sec
78-81 ). SCIC:tllll(.j lllC lllrllk Ill It'\ rrruJ
colouring rhem on a new layer. The
rmaqc rs now tUIIIJ.Jk:lc.

78 TECHNIQUES: COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
ulated
natural media
CorrlpuLcr-gcnerc:JLecl (CG) illustration is known for
IJcing prrsl inc and flawless, but as computers have
l)ec orm' more powerful and versatile, software
pdc been created to make illustrations
look rr1orf' r1wnan, and a little less than perfect.
Natural media simulaLors such as Painter add that
litiiP bit of "lranc.. i-made" texture.
OIL r/\/NT STYLL
Oil painls smear Logether; giving Lonal dfei.1S definilion yet
blcndinq at the cc.igcs.

[J . .1.

1 . out Lay down some base colours
one uf the methods described on pages 66-69.
2. Set up shading lay e rs Create a
new layer For your shading. This
illustration only uses one for all the
shaded areas. However. you can use as
few or as many as you feel comfortable
with. Theres a second layer for the
palette to help us keep a record of the
colours we've used. This is essential in
natural-media-styled work. because the
original shades are blended together so
much they may become hard to pick
out with the Eyedropper.
QJ
I!.Q!C
CC!D

4. Soften colours The colour is blended
out to the base colour tone using
increasingly lighter shades.


SIMULATED NAI URAL MCDI /\ 79
3. Starting to shade Select .:m L!rca und 5tdl t sllcidlll() w11t1 It II'
d..-trkest shade. Here we've used Lin ulmost transp.:wcnt ll'XhJrl d t'" " ' '
Between I U% and 25% opacity Is recommended. depcndinu nn 11ow
d<1r k your colours are. Notice how we're working texture intu It ll'
Short. quick brushstrokes are used to build up colntJr \ lnwly
5. Build up highlights Add your highlights in the Sctme
way. Just blend the colour. getting lighter and lrghtcr. But
be careful when adding highlights: if an image has an
excessive number of highlights compared to the amount
of light in the picture. it can look less natural.
DIGITAL TECHN I QUES: COLOURING, SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
B . LJ.
0 .....
T.
u.
l'l. ,_-,,
{ "} Q,.
6. Colour tr1e rest ot the 1mage 1n
1 hr fll;Jnnr-r.
WATERCOLOUR STYLE
This image was actually created in
Painter rather tl1an Photoshop, but
the results are achievable in both
packages. The most obvious
difference in thi s picture is in the
delice1cy of the palette. Real
watercolours are a very transparent
med1um. so this is reflected in the
lightness of the CG. The shading is
blended from the midtone to off-white
shades, or white - a huge contrast to
the bold, strong hues of oil paints.
Another difference is the complete lack
of black. In a watercolour-style picture itS
better to colour in off-black shades, such
as dark greys, purples. blues and
browns. This helps to keep the image
looking soft and light.



-

t
' - ..
I -



0
Some layers have been
locked to avoid accidently
editing them.
Shadows and
highlights are built up
on a separate layer.
UMler Diamet
-.)-----
( U.... Sample Size

Jts p x

c::=J
- ---------- -------

14
Grainy brush
shapes help to
capture the
feel of
genuine
brushstrokes.
Multiplied washes
59
Just like adding pale washes of colour
over a painting, you can add pale washes
over your image in CG. This is great for
ti nting areas. Rather than constantly
having to blend colours together. you can
j ust make a new layer and paint straight
over them. Setting the layer to Multiply
and colouring with light shades will
preseNe the texture and depth of the
shade you've already coloured. The shiny.
pink blush on this image was created in
this way.
v
..,. ACRYLIC STYLE
Colouring an image to look like acrylic paint is a mid-point
between oil painting and eel-style artwork. Real acrylic
paints have the same strong pigments as oils but don't
blend, which you can reflect in your colouring. The edges
of the colours are much softer than eel-style images.
showing the texture of the brush.
T PAINTER ADVANTAGES
For creating natural-media-style images, a dedicated natural
media simulator like Painter is the easiest way to produce
good results. Not only is the brush control more flexible,
allowing you to blend and push around colour in a realistic
way, but the sheer number of simulated media means its
more akin to having a whole studio full of supplies in your
computer. Anything can be reproduced on your computer
reasonably faithfully, from traditional materials like oils and
watercolour. to less orthodox brushes like the Japanese
sumi-e brushes and wax crayons.
Much of the fun from Painter comes from using materials
that could never be used together in the same picture. Oil
brushes can be used to add a bit of colour to rough sumi-e
brush outlines. yet you could never practically mix these
techniques on a real canvas. You can paint with the same
techniques as a real oil painting (loosely building up colour
and tightening the details of the picture as you go), or you
can use Layers to keep your painted areas safe from
each other.
A feeling of layered
paint is created by
the different tones
and hues rn the
shaded areas.
Soft but nchly
coloured brushslfokes
build up to make a
Slfrlong rmage.
SIMULATED NATURAL MEDIA 8 1
</i
82 D viTAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
less artwork
Images without lines fall into lwo categories: flat eel style,
and a more natural "realism style" . Cel style is si mple to
arhi eve, and creates an effective look for your images.
Natural styles are trickier to pull off, but offer greater
versatili ty in mood.
As lineless colouring relies on defining the shape of an object through
colour and shade, its viral to make good colour choices to begin with. Make
sure your colours have enough contrast in both hue and shade to keep
them clear; muddy. indistinct colouring can confuse a picture. making it
difficult for people to understand what you have drawn.
LI NELFSS < I I STYLI:
The lilck of a black line give::. Lhis style a distinct and bold
r1ppmmn1C'. Volume is defined entirely through colour and shade.
v.
1\, T.

l'i". , _
.;:')


ltiU!ll
lt:IIOU

---
(1.-\_ ...... .....,.
I . Block out base colours Fill 1n your base
colours one of the detailed on
pngcs 66-69. You need to stilrt with pure black
and white outlines to be able to colour them
easily later. Make sure you turn Anti-aliasing off on
both the Fill tool and the Magic Wand.
-,.. .
. ./.
.$.
o.e-.
.J .....
it. T.

./.

2. Create a layer for shade Make a new
layer between your base colour and outline
layers. Lock those two layers for now. to
prevent you from accidentally colouring over
something important. Select an area you want
to colour with the Magic Wand. If the
"Contiguous box is unchecked. you can selea
all of one particular colour with a single click.
4. Block out shadows Colour the rest of
the shadows. Make sure where areas of the
same colour overlap !the legs on this picture.
for example) that theres enough shading to
make each part distinct from the others.
Complex parts of the picture. like the hair.
may need more than one step of shad1ng.
3 . Mark out highlights
Use the Paintbrush tool
to loosely <tpply your
shading. then use U1c
Eraser to neaten the
edges. smoothing U1c
cuNes and sharpening
the points.
LINELESS ARTWORK 83


5. Add extra
highlights Make u
rww layer above
lilt' \ I klc.l1ng layer.
U\e l hrs to add
hrghlights to the
1maqe using the
same technique'\ ,1\
you tr\cO lu dtlc.l
In this
picture.
used sparingly
1o keep tt1e nni:tge
ilS CICilr f'lOSSible.
6. Select black outlines
Using the Magic Wand.
making sure contiguous 1s
unchecked. select your entrre
black outline.

. ./.
. Jf.
.
.J . ....
T.

!jl, -"
.;,.
7. Colour in the lines Mctke a new layer above your outline layer to
rcYolour rhr (Working on a new layer wi ll preserve your origrnal
lines. just in case anything hLJppens and you need to select tllem
i19i1in.) When colowing I he lines. remember that lrnes on top get
prrunty - where two colours overlap, the area thLJt is on top should
be usccl ro rhr colours for U1e lines. For example: hair overlaps
the kKe. so tt1e lrnes between them should be haircoloured.
(t:f.' Ccl-stylc rmagcs. pages JQ-73
.....
TIP Removing Specks
of Outline
specks appear when the
outline is <tnl hllirl\ccJ. You lan leU if
yoJH c urt11ne alia sed by zooming
into the lm.:1ge. If the line is very
. .
.
hlrtc k ,uiCJ JliXt'lirlltcl, 11 IS allased; If It's
and fades tram black to grey.
its .Jntlaliilsed. This 11
rrrow rJIIfiC:I rll to select the whole
outline at once. so you mily be left
wil h ,1 frrnoe of grey.
On the base colour layer. select il
w luiH w1lh the Mag1c Wand. and
eXfklllc'J thr ion by I or 2
pixels, choosing Select > Modify >
Expand from the menu. Oui(kly
mlnur the offending area with a
large brush. If the specks are on the
outside or the line, select the area
outside of the character. expand it
by I to 3 pixels and then cut
the selection.
)
UNELESS
COLOURING
WITHOUT UGHTING
Uneless Images without
lighting similar to this
one are very popular In
Japanese design. The
bold shapes make for a
striking Image, but work
best on simple
compositions. or
illustrations that have a
very limited palette.
8. The image is
complete. (For more on
eel-style images. see
pages 70-73.)
LI NELESS ARTWORK 85
LINELESS REALISM STYLE
Soft brushstrokes and blended colours echo natural media yet
retain stylish contrast and defini tion .
.. _
1 . Block out colours Start with pure blnrk
and white outlines in the same way as the
eel-styled lineless image. and by filling in yow
base colours using one or the methods on
pages 70-73.
2. Create shading
layer Lockrng your
outline and base
colour layers. make
a new layer for
the shading.

Loak:O d +M
,, ,1-
'jj
I
. . ...
I
I
3. Sample colours Tt1is rmagc has a lcryl:!r called
"palette. This is a layer thar only conldrns sm.111
samples or colour. Because or tht:! softness of this
method of colouring. it:S advisable to h.we r1
sample somewhere of the colours you're usrng. so
you can easily grab them with the Eyedropper
tool. Now select an area you want to colour.
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES: COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
4. Rough out dark areas Using a
brusl1 with 1cx1urc to bcrw<'m I 0%
and 25')6 opacity). start colouring the
\llrrdifiU wil ll \I lOr 1. quirk stmkcs of the
llrll\11 II\ t'rf\H'\1 10 \lrlf l drrrk blend
oulllre loluur to lire milkC
\llf l' I o 111 I.JOicJ -rnd lrlY clown more
w lour lllrrn you think you'll need.
..
\ . T.
0. CJ.
1:} _ _,_
{')
-
5. Soften tones Start to blend
it out with lighter shades.
6. Add a few
hrghlrghts. Be careful
nor ro make the
imGJge look too shiny.
You can add these on
a separate layer if you
wish. but in this
rmagc we've used
one layer for dll of
the shading.
8. Coloured outlines Make
a new layer for your
coloured lines. Use the
Magic Wand to select ail the
black on your outline layer.
7 . Colour
the rest of
the image.
f ie Edt lm<oge Loy..- Select Fl or View Wv1dow
/ Bru:l" Modt' tbmol v Opodly, _ ,
.:.. -..
It . T.

J'.

9. Try to match the colour of the lines to the
colour of the picture as much as possible. In
this case. the same textured brush as earlier is
being used. but set to 50% opacity to make it
more solid. Holding the Alt key to switch
quickly between the Eyedropper and Brush
tools makes it easier to pick up and adjust the
colour as frequently as you need.
t!H l
L.ock.OJ' +IIII
Fll:" 100'11.
.:.>'
1
-t


.
"'*"
1111
A breakdown of the layers
and a reference of the brush
sizes used .
_ .........
,e;;-J
'

:J
.JJ


r-=-1


I.
-
_ ...



'
24
v
7
(
l'l


G)
.

"

..

so
-
See also Simulated natural media. page s 78-81
10. The image
is complete.
LINELESS ARTWO RK 87
TIP Coloured Lines
If you like I he subtlety ot an image withmrt lJLit don't
wam to be- ddr inq .:ts to remove them you can
try colouring the 11nes to matcf1 your picture rmtead. rhc-
lines on thrs image are slightly darker than the colourc-cl drect.
so it keeps the detarl of the original inking. whrle not
overwhelming the c..olour wrth bluck !inC's.

88 TECHNI QUES: COLOURI NG. SCREENTONE AND EF FECTS
1ta I screentones
Japanese manga is rarely printed in colour.
but something called "screentone" to
introduce of grey as well as patterns
cncJ to its pages.
Screentones traditionally were transparent sheets of
adt1esive plastic with patterns of black dots printed onto
tile surface. Illustrators used to use these to create the
in newspaper cartoons. and in original manga
.1rtwork. I hese dotted sheets. when cut to shape and laid
over llnP work. crcmcd the appearance or "grey" shades.
and also ei'ISIIY on conventional printing and
wpy1ng mt1rhines
Tl1e usc or dul pdllerns as this Cldds <1 lot to the
rcclliauilily ur giving you much greater control over
style. rt using scrcenlone has become
wirh m<1nga itself. and using it in your work
Will go wily to crealinq dn dUltlentiC style.
The' usC' of scrccntonc !>llongly to the sense of
otrcn present in Jiipc:mese drl work. What you're
p1 e)enllm.J c.loesn't have to be entirely realistic; it just has Lo
look "righr". 'lbtJ can !>iynifiLdnlly enhance the drama.
01 .:tl llon ot a scene by using pllrterns and
st1ades etteaivcly.
tn )LJdl as Photoshop and Comicworks,
il pt '""'IJ/e to emulate old style scrccntones nccurately on
rl I lliiiJJUler laretul and restriCtive USC will help you Cdplure
rtx t'))ence ot the technique, while retaining 111e
' ur tven1ence and flexibility of working
LPI
LP/ stunds fur per tnch", is a term used a/most
for screentone in tllis context. It refers to how
cllunky or t.k:lculed the pattern is - a tow LPI pattern will have
very thick lines. whcrcus il l11gt1 LPI pattern will have thin and
dt:lnriPn lines.
MOIB
MoW (or screen dash.) refers to the
visual effect caused when two fine
patterns are overlaid but misaligned. It Is
similar to the shimmering effect that net
curtains create when they overlap. To
prevent this undesirable artefact from
occurring. you should avoid rotating and
resJztng screentone after applying lt.
also worth nodng that sa&etltolle with
a high LPf wiD be mont likely to suffer
from rnoln! because It Is more likely to
mlsalign wilh the arrangement of
pixels on a digital image.
HALFTONES
Halftones are the most common type
of tone used in manga. These are
simple arrangements of dots designed
to portray solid shades of grey when
used in print. Please note: large dot
tones can represent a lack of focus. by
using it over a large area.
1 . MiJrk out the areas
you wish to be greyscale
in sunple shades of grey.
CllOOSC "Halftone
Screen: whicll wrll
open the dtalog box
with opttons.
2. Pllotoshop works
best at LP/ size of 25. 50
and 100.
3. Oe sure to keep line
nrt on a separate layer
from the grayscale layer.
.....
.....
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

. . . . .
. . . . .

. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

. . . . .
. . . . .

.....
. . . . .

.....

. . . . .
... ..
. . . . .
Using large halftone dots can indicate a lack
of focus. useful for highfighung characters
in the background or middle ground.
NOISE OR SAND TONE
Noise tones are useful for introducing
texture. as well as seNing a
dramatic purpose.
I . Create a new layer. and till out an area of
the image you wish to be noise with a 50%
grey shade. This effect can also be applied to
a gradient.
2. From the Filter menu. choose "Pixel/ate.
then "Pointi/ /ize".
3. Set the size of the filter. The larger the
number. the coarser the noise tone will be.
A value between 5 and I 0 should be fine for
most purposes. On a high-DPI image you wil l
need a coarser tone to achieve the same
effect than on a /ower-DP/ image.
4. Adjust Brightness and Contrast in the
image so that Contrast is I 00%. and
Brightness is as high as you wish. This will
also change the overall tone of the image.
. .....
TIP Making Coarse Tone
GRADIENT TONE
Gradients can add depth and
definition to manga images. as well as
helping to define shiny materials.
I . Selecting black and white as your
foreground and background colours. create
a gradient using the griidienr tone.
2. Convert to Halftone or Noise using the
same procedure as before
3. Wil en using noise gradients. consrder
layering the tone and rnovrng ,rround to
achieve greater dcfinrtion.
..
Often using digital screentoncs can create a pattern tllat is
too fine. making it Jess than ideal for print and giving you
texrureless results.
.
.
.
1 . Go to: Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur. The higher the value
chosen for Blur. the coarser the image wi ll be. A value of I .0
and 2.0 should be okay.
2. Convert the image to Halftone. using the Mode option in
the Image menu. Choose an LPI of 50.
3. The gradient will now be much coarser. and have a more
distinctive texture when prrnted.

..........
.
.
Of G I TAL SCRE F N TON ES 89
GEOMETRI CAL TONE
Simple vertical lines serve mnny
purposes in drawing manga.
Follow u K: nmrP!1ure for rc:.:I.JUI<.II
ll..rlrtom: bur choose " LrrrLo;" ur
"Cil l'C k\ tor rhe pattern.
TONI FEATHERING
Using <1 scl l o "Dissolve", the-
greys of the imngc will be rnterprNf'c1
as nne of dol ::.. Tt11S can be
achieved to "tenrhf'r" the t:c.I<:Je ot
screentone, as rhough a .stH:el ot
had been rubbecJ
You can use d l<1rge. white 1
for a sofr edge. or a small, hcird brush
moved in patterns to create an
interesting transition.
..
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DIGITAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING. SCREENTON E AND EFF ECTS
Backgrounds can be simply
and effectively represented
by layers of screentone.
USING YOUR
OWN PATTERNS
fhere are books available
containing copyright-free tone
patterns. which you can scan into
yoLir computer and use freely in
your manga work. You can also still
buy sheets of original adhesive
screentone and scan them for your
own rer\Ondl use.
Al-'1-'1 YINC.J I ON[
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Q.

--.;.-. . \ .
-... .... ..
SPECIAUST SCREENTONING SOFTWARE
Comlcworlu
Comicworks is produced by Deleter. a company whose business revolves entirely
around supplying traditional printed screentones to the Japanese comic industry.
As a result, Comicworks is designed from the ground up for the production of
manga, and has great screentone facilities.
More than I 40 different tones and patterns come provided with the software.
stored In the software at high clarity and I 200 dpi, 600 dpi and 300 dpl sizes.
meaning they are always perfect for print work. If you're keen on the process of
applying scrcentone '" manga, then Comicworks will be ideal.
.
. .
TIP Keeping Grey
Layers Hidden
Be sure to keep your original grey
layers intact (set as "Hidden") even
after you have made a halftone
equivalent. This allows you to come
back to the image at a later stage
and alter the toning or reapply the
screentone with a different LPI.
This can be useful if you have to
print the image at a different size, or
decide to change the image after
doing test pnnts.
1. Set up a line art layer Start with a new Photoshop document.
and set up your line art on the topmost layer. as you would with a
coloured piece. It is especially helpful to lock thiS layer. as you can ruin
your page by applying screentonc to the line art layer.
.
.
3. Rightclick on the layer. and choose 'Duplicate". Select "New" from
the Destination dropdown list to create a new document.
5. Choose your halftone pattern
Choose "Halftone Screen". which
w ill open the dialog box with
options. In this case the artist has
chosen 50 LPI. with round pattern
and 45' angle.
DIGITAL SCREENTONFS 9 1
2. Block out basic shading
Create a new layer. set to
"Multiply". Choose a grey brush
and begin to milrk our I he , ueas
of the page you want to shade.
pitying to the light
source. In this case. the artist has
also m,u keO \Ome obj ects with a
darker tone.
Adjuslments
"' GIII)'SCUIC

---
Ouolonc ...
0uplicii1C ... lnclcxcdColor
Apply Image ... RCBColor
Calculations .. CMYKColor
Lab Colo<
Image Size ..
Multichannel
Canvas Size ...
Pixel As9ed >1 8 Bits/Channel
ROU!e Canvas
1!1 Bits/Chamol
Crvp
...
Trwn ...
Reveal All AnignProllle ...
Convert to Proflle ...
.
4. Convert grey to
black and white
From lllllt.Jl:
menu.
. .. u IU llll:ll
Bitm.:lp. If yuur
rm't
ulr l'dtJy. you wrll
ll<'<'rl 10 c-onvl'rr rn
grf'}"Cillf" In rhP
Mode menu
dOIIIt.j
T.
0 .
[j_ J'.
It . T.
o.
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1- 0 0

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING. SCREENTONE AN D EFFECTS
7. Darker tones Here
tile rntrocluc eel
d.'lrker shade on a
wprH r11! lr1y!-'r .-1nd
rcpcrlltd ll1e procedure.
CrHe l dken to use the
SilmC number of LPI
when ovcrlilying tone to
ilVOid moire problems.
.
.
6. Paste into position Select the whole image
by hitting Ctrl + A. Paste it into your previous
image and change the layer style to "Multiply".
Hide your previous greyscale layer.
.., Opat;ty.

.'). ... ...,....,::.........t.......,_,_:...L-_;
It. T.
o.
5]. J'.

8. Introducing fabric textures In
order to apply texture to the image.
the artist has hidden all tone layers
and marked out the carpeted area
of the image with a grey brush.
T.
0 .
J'.
'1? Q..
kJ




.? . ./.
. :Jf.

,.> . ...
T.

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":'7
1 0. Hide unwanted layers Finally.
hide all grey layers and reveal the
screentone layers. Your image is
now finished.



D I GITA l SCRCENTONES 93
9. Using premade patterns LOrld a prevlc11
screentone pattern. unc.J LI H5 Jnto the imilC:JP "
new layer. Select the grey cJJcc.J l l lc.JJkctl out hic1P
the Use the selection to ll It: K l l:t:IILUnt:
layer. or inverr t he sE'IE'ction and delete ll11..'
excess screenrone.
..

94 0 GITAL TECHNIQUES: COLOURING. SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
cia I effects
One of tile characteristic aspects of manga is its use of abstract patterns in
the background or scenes to help capture the emotion or action of tile
current event. Tllis tecllnique /las been developed over many decades and
ic; now closely identified with the style.
Using Phoroshop. you can emulate many of these types of
effecb very simply on your home computer. Just a few
steps can produce professional effects that would loqk ar
home in a professionally printed Japanese manga.
PAITERN FOUNDATIONS
1 . CreJte J new. I.:Jrqc
greysG11e im.Jqe . :md
"ncl white
rl\ IIH' IOH'UIOIJIII/ rlrll/
bJckqround
2. lmrn rh,.. r ilrl:'r menu.
cl1oosc "Clouds from
If!(' k r \Ill lllll't 111
3. ct1oosc
"Urlll:rl:r ru.: Uuuth" from
rhf:' Rf'nrler submenu.
Jr1l1 lllL'rl ll:pl:cJllllrs. If
you r<prrtf<"d. npply
fllrPr Crrl r F m .:1
Sf10f'lCul). lfl L' J.hllll.:l I I
wrll I H'l nnw rnnrf' Prr.'lrir
.1nd fiery. whlcl1 will
inlrOLIUCl: II lUll: VcJIIl:U
rlrl(/
4. Now 111
apply filters .:md produce
rll Iron You mrty
Wl\11 I II 'VIVt'
"Cirnrrh" urrrtgf' In <lrsk
ifytnr frnrlll lt' frllers
rllt' \lllW
IMPACT ZOOM
Lines of irregular width but with rhe
same emanating poinr accenruare
acrion and impact.
1 . Starting with the Cloud filter apply the
Pinch filter from the Distort submenu. with a
setting of I 00%.
2. Repeat this filter ten times. You may wish
to use more or fewer times depending upon
the results you wish to achieve.
SF}I:CIAL EFIICTS 95
3. Us1ng rhe Brightness drl<.l
Contrast tool. rdl5e the Conrrmr
ro ft11l. and Brigt1tness to
wt1ateve1 level you n r ~ i r c .
4. Convert the final
image to halftone using
the Bitmap option.
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING. SCRE ENTON E AN D EFF ECTS
IMPACT SWIRL
Lines spinning around a
centrepoint suggest an arc
of movement.
,.+

14 ,,
" ./.
r!3. 5!.

!P . ...
lit . T.
o.
(jl . ..f.
::7
Q]
1 . Startrng with the Cloud filter. apply the
GilussiCJn Blur filter (set to 35 in this
You cdn choose not to blur the clouds.
bur the results you will get will be coarser.
This look may be desirable. however.
IMPACT ZOOM AND SWIRL
Ry rllr imr(lct lines. rile effect
suqqests somethinq uncontrollable.
1. Lit:dlt: lilt:
IIIIIJd<..l LUUI/1 dft:Ll.
C/1<11/llj Up Willi d
bldck
11/klljt:.
. ._ _ _ .
3 . Use parts of
the resulting
image to
accentuate
aaion events.
8 tOO% 8
Cancel
0 Preview
2 . Apply the Twirl fi lter
from the Distort
submenu. with only a
small value 160" should
be fi ne).
SHOUJO SPARKLES
2 . Choose the Twirl
filter from the
Distort submenu.
3. Choose 6oo For
the angle. You can
raise and lower this
to vary the results.
4. ThP
and
contrast.
5 . Curwcrl ti le frn<ll
imi'lgf' ro hi=l lfrone
if intended for use
in print.
Characters' emotions are represented by mysterious sparkles of light.
l . Create a new layer.
set to "Multiply".
2 . Fill in some opaque circles.
ovals or hexagons in white.
3. Right-click on the layer. and
choose "Layer styles .
4. Disable "Stroke". and check
the box next to "Outer Glow:
5. Set Colour to black. Opacity
to 30% and Style to "Dissolve."
..
. !:/ r_ --
::::t a- CA::J
;::=.,.,.... ..........
6. Change the distance o--
under the dots spread out 0 l!i,.....,.
from the ci rcle. ,:.:;,' g:,:.._ - .
7. Create a new layer with the same layer
style {copy and paste the layer style by right-
clicking on the layer). Altematively. right-click
on the layer and select "Duplicate Layer".
QC:.....
o-
a co....i'
Q Gt.-.cO.W}If

o-.
....
,..,.,
I S1 'o
II
SPECIAl FFFECTS 97
'.; .. ..

...
...
8 . Add small er
shapes overlapp111g
the ong1nal shapes.
, ...,..... ,..._ . - -, 0
-;,;:;;;-;- \MW

CJ ...
9. Flatten the image (see page
52), apply Gaussian Blur and
convert to halftone. This will make
the tone coarser. as described in
Digital Screentones (see page 89).
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES : COLOURING, SCREENTONE AND EFFECTS
GRITTY ANGST
Personal torment can be conveyed by
the use of gritty. dark patterns.
r ' IC
1 . r a solid
50% grey d i L:tl .
2 . r rom the Filter menu,
choose "Pixcllatc. ctncJ
then "Mezzotint".
FMO 110 1\lAL
I rails ot dust and energy h<"'lf"l to
cxaggcr,ltc r1 of melrmcholra.
I . Wrll 1 d rcqulrtr
w lulc: 11/ldqt:.
l l\..'ulC: d I ILW lc.Jyer
lo
2. l "' medium sized black
Alrhn wlrh Flow set to I 0%, create
ctJrvt>c1 mokes across t he page.
Vnryfng rht> 11ressure with the graphics
lrJIJicl will help ro creare width.
. - ;, s': '':v.\t\,,.;;,.J::,.
' ' ,' -" " 0
.
("' . ......... J,
.::
.,, ,...
......, .. ' ......
3. Choose the
Long Strokes filter
to create the
desired effect.
3 . Repeat the
effect over the
page many
times, and
then Flatten
the image .
SENTIMENTAL PAITERN
Heavenly sparkles of white help to portray hopeful or
whimsical feelings.
1 . Create a solid
7 5% grey image.
making sure it is
300 or 600 dpi.
2. Convert the
image to Bitmap,
and choose the
Halftone option.
3. Choose "20 LPI".
and the "Cross"
pattern option.
This will create a
mesh effect.
MAKING YOUR OWN PATTERNS
Although most screentones in manga
use simple patterns. shapes and lines to
express the tone or atmosphere of the
image. there are also a lot of other
available styles created from patterns of
small images. These are great if you're
trying to express a funny emotion
or scene.
You can easily make a pattern by
drawing something and defining it as a
Pattern in Photoshop. Select the area
you wish to define as a pattern. and
then choose "Define Pattern" from the
Edit menu. You can then fill areas with
this pattern by choosing "Pattern" from
the Fill tool options.
There are even some typefaces
available on the Internet that feature
images instead of standard letterforms.
These are sometimes known as
"Dingbats". These can be used as a
basis for patterns, by selecting a few
images and arranging them
appropriately. As always, the secret is to
experiment and have fun!
t:L ...

.,...
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. :11.

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=----'

6. Add a few smaller white dots.
and Flatten the image layers. Your
tone is now ready.
SPECI A L EFFE CTS 99
Noonal
Noonal
Darken
Muttij:iy
Color Bum
Uneer Burn
lighten
Screen
Color DodSle

Overill)'
Soft Ugh!
Vivid Light
Unear t.Jght
Pin Ugtrt
Hard Mix
Hard Light
4. Create a new
layer. set to ttle
"Dissolve" layer style.
S . U\rrly rl lnryt, wlllll'
Airbrush. mark an
diagonally down the
centre of ltlf' rrllff9f'
CHAPTER SIX
Creating pages
A compleled manga can be hard work, but with a little
planning you can avoid problems and ensure that your
finished piece looks as good in print as you always
dreamt it would.
tit Planning your pages 102
e Inking pages 104
4lt Using effects 106
4lt Adding tone and colour 108
ft Adding speech and sounds 11 o
ft Concept to completion 112
ft Web comics 114
ft Printing and publ ishing 118










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ATING PAGES

n 1 ng your pages
Once you've come up with your character concepts, the real
work begins. Here are some top tips and techniques for
making the most of your inspiration.
PLANNING YOUR MANGA
You've conceived your characters and tl"ley've taken on lives of their own - at
least in your imagination. So how do you get them from the world inside your
head into the real world for other people to appreciate? Draw a manga, of
course! However: all manga have to start somewhere, whether they're ten-page
vignettes, or one-thousand-page epics. Planning is key. and scripts and
thumbnails are two techniques whereby you can begin to design how your
pa9es wi ll look.
WHAT /\RE THUMBNAILS?
Tllumbnails are small, rough sketches that artists use to plan the layouts and/or
story of tllcir comics. Wlletl1er you're an artist working with a writer or working
.11onP, thumbnflils arc an ideal way of making sense of the script and organizing
yow ideas before you commit yourself to the full-size pencilled pages of the
mmic .
. .
. .
. .
Reading direction
lllP pr1UI-'\ ol lrlfl.-tfll-'\1-' Jlllrli Pd
I Oil Ill \ r ill' lt'r!d Ill lilt' opposite
IIIII 'I I lOll lo Wt'\lt'lll I OrlHC \ i'lre
llll' flrllH'I\ orr l'rlt l l pe1ye. A'::>
lt:XI 1\ ll.'riCl (rum rrgl1l lo
ldl wlrcn wnltcn in columns, it rllm
nrl:tlm 111<11 1!1\ more
r, ll r llhrll l or Jrrprllll'\('
lt'rllkl\ Ill lt'riCI
.. lrom n9t1t lo
lett Western manga
artiSts. however. tend to
produce t11cir work
reading trom left to right.
as Western readers are
fam11rar With this tormat. All
cUHJ t'Xdrnples in thiS
book are from Western artists
working rrom left to right.
.
. .
: TIPS for Better :
Thumbnails
If you are going for large thumbnails,
make them roughly the size that the
printed comic will be. A good size is
148 mm x 210 mm (5.83 in. x
8.27 in.) since these dimensions are
similar to those of a graphic novel or
a self-published comic. This way you
won't be tempted to overfill the
panels w ith too many details.
Know what the last page w ill be. If
you have a precise ending in mind, it
makes getting there a lot easier.
Finish all the thumbnails before you
start drawing the pages. You might
find you need to change your layouts
once you've started work on the real
thing. Make sure you've finalized
everything before the next step.
.

Small thumbnails
Small thumbnails are only about
5 em x 7.5 em (2 in. x 3 in.) in
size. Because they are so tiny.
you can fit the proposed
layouts for several pages onto a
single sheet of A4. But their size
means you will have no space
for speech bubbles or dialogue.
so this method is only
recommended if you are
working from a written script.
DRAWING THUMBNAILS
So you're all ready to draw your layouts, but w here do you
start? Even with a clear image of the story in your head.
you need to Jearn a few basic rules about panels before
you can piece everything together:
Pacing
On a basic level, the size of your panels affects the pace of
your comic. Large, wide panels slow the story down by
lingering on details in the background, or by drawing
attention to an intense, dramatic moment in the story.
These types of panels are also best for setting the scene of
your comic, as they have the most space for creating or
introducing environments. Conversely, smaller panels speed
up the pace. With little detail or room for dialogue, they are
quick to read and can create a more urgent pace. Small
panels are particularly useful for drawing action and battle
sequences. where you can use a lot of small details to
illustrate a much bigger event. Details like these help keep
the action exciting, and more important, make the comic
more coherent for the reader:
Flow
When drawing a comic. you must make sure your panels
read in the correct order. This might sound obvious. but
even some experienced artists make mistakes in their
panel flow. If you find yourself putting arrows on the
pages to direct your readers, your panels are in the
wrong order!
What to draw (or what not to draw!)
Although thumbnails are very important in planning your
comic, that doesn't mean each one has to be a
masterpiece. Putting in too much detail at this stage will
only exhaust your enthusiasm for drawing the final pages.
The most important things to focus on when drawing
thumbnails are expressions, gestures and perspectives.
Advantages of adding dialogue
Adding dialogue to thumbnails is by no means essential;
however, it is an easy way to shorten the planning process.
Rather than basing your thumbnails on a written script you
can instead start drawing from your imagination, adding
dialogue as you go. Doing it all at once gives you more
freedom to adjust the pacing to suit the dialogue. Its also
easier to picture your characters moving and interacting
with their surroundings as they talk. Adding dialogue to
thumbnails gives you an estimate of the size of the speech
bubbles on the fi nished page too. so you can avoid
cluttering tiny panels with too much text, or leaving
yourself too small a bubble for key sections of dialogue.
PLANNING YOUR PAGES 103
1
3
Flow of panels
Can you sec how
awkward the first
1
example looks 2
compared with the
second? In L11c first
example. the flow
moves bi'lck on itself,
creating a confusing
and disjointed read.
Incorrect
3
But wt1y does the exnmple look mmf:' ni'lrLJri'll rhi'ln
the fi rst? Your eye always looks for the longest panel gutter.
and divides the page cJccordingly. Tl1en eacll SL'C.l1un IS lt:cJ<l
in order before going to the next. In this case, rhere Is a
long gutter running down the centre of the grouping
panels I and 2 together, wh1lc <1ho them lrom
panel 3. All comic pages section off and group together
panels like this.
First example
I I
I
II
I
0
I
The gutter
I
II
Another important
thing to consider
(Orrl'rTI
I
I
when planning your
DO
pages is the
placement of the
gutter. Look at the
first example above
and see if you see
something wrong.
Confused? Even though the panels are not necessarily in
the wrong order. impossible to know wt1ich way to read
them. This is because the gutter meets like a crossroad 1n
the middle of four of the panels. But if you take the vertical
gutter and break it up like the second example. the page
suddenly becomes readable. Now its obvious which order
the panels are in. Just keep these examples in mind, and
you should have no problems ensuring your panels flow in
the right diredion.
104 ATING PAGES
ng pages
Inking your pages will be the most important step in making
your artwork look sl ick and pmfessional. Even fiawed artwork
will appear much stronger if you take care and pay attention
1en ink1ng the lines. Here are some of tile techniques
to
line width for depth
ComrclC'r thC'
of lines when producing
your line dll. rdy
dttenuon to the loc.1non
ot rhc rh.1r,xrers. ;md ro
the foc.:1l point uf the
ry tt llrtrtel
line; '" t11e bdckground
w11l 11elp tu
per .1110 tile
rC'I,ltivC' nf
ObJeCts to toreground
I hrlldl 11'1\
HOW TO CREATE COMIC PANELS
&ASILY AND FLEXIBLY
This technique will allow you to adjust and alter the shape
of your qu1t kly, c1s well ndJust the thrckness of
1111.' ..tl ..t
After rre;uing Fl nPW lflyer in Photoshop (set
ro Mrrlrinly). liSP rhe rPct:'lngular selection tool
ro c!Pfine rhP Olltlinf' of ymrr f)<lnel Fill this
wirh fl hrighr colour. such as red (you can
liSP :'l mPdium grey if your file is greyscale).
Repeat this
to define
all your
comic panels.
Blocking in blacks
Using solid black for certain parts of clothing
or costumes can be especially good for
creating definition and contrast within the
page. Take this into consideration when
designing your characters.
also Using effects, pages 1 06-1 0 7./
Cr._ L ..., .t f.'.u-.
:..:ryt..::, -:: .. ,1,
I : l ' "l.) 1
1
t
C . :a L .. ,.J <t
-
_,__
t.--
r--
c--
c--
, .... _-....
c-
-
.. -
-- .
- ,. ,. c.. ..
--
Rrght-cltck on the
layer and choose
Blending Options.
-.. .

Now activate the Stroke option. Choose
"Inside" tor the Position option and raise
tl1e thickness to a value of I 0 to 16 pixels
for a 600 dp1 page (halve this for 300
dpi). Change the stroke colour to black.
and you now have your panel outlines.
THAT SHE DIDNT NEED ANYONE ELSE
Defining your character with a thicker outline
This is a stylized and abstract technique that won't suit every style, or
indeed every panel, but sometimes it can help greatly when
distinguishing one speci fic character from others. It is especially useful
in crowd scenes. where you may need to focus greater attention on
your protagonist. or on a significant character in the scene.
Drawing panels
lr is ofren better to draw your panel outlines
straight onto the computer than to draw
them directly on the page. It ensures the lines
are perfectly straight and properly aligned.
Quick line strokes
These lines are drawn straight
to the page, so they will be
more permanent.
INKING PAGES 105
. .
: \
TIP: Shift Key :
.
.
.
Holding down r11e Shift key will help grmtly when drtlwing
straight lines, such as panel outl ines, onto the p<:tge, It
ensures that your cursor only moves 11orizonrully 0r verric,JIIY,
depending on the direction of the stroke.
.... __ _
---
Wili'IOUt l111.: Sl11ft key
held down
W1ti1 tile S/1111 key
ilcld down
If yn11 hir hf'fnrl'
nt::.ow I HlP, 11 w111 Ji lin .1 1111l-'
IJdWL:l'llllll'l:lld .I ti lL:
Iiiii.: dlld t/ 11.: ul t/11.:
new one .

C.l<'rlll' r l \l'l t:t l ilJJ I.
Right-click on rhe f11!JI"
t ll iU L l lt)U)l: $trukt:.
Chomf" lm1cl!" lor yoiH
LuLciliull upt1w 1, dlld 1
til e thickness to u Vufue of
.
.
.
.
I 0 to I 6 pixels for a 600
dpi p.::tge (halve this tor 300
dpl). Chanqe the colour to
blvck. Click "OK".
You can change and edit
your panels as much as you
like at this stage. The outline
will adjust itself to the new
panel sizes or changes.
If you WISh to make thiS !dyer
permanent. you must merge 1t
with a blank layer.
"Layer > Merge Down" rrorn
the menu. or press Ctrl + E.
Once you are done. fi ll in your panels with
white. or use the Colour Overlay style. You
will also want to tri m the excess lines from
your fine-art layer. or block them out on a
new layer with white.
Alternatively. you can draw the
borders instead of the panels
themselves (as shown in green in
the diagram). Be sure to change the
stroke outline position to "Outside".
106 0 CREATI NG PAGES
ng effects
Adding special effects with screentone or colour will make
your comic appear more dynamic and visually appealing
- as well as help communicate your story and the
chalacters' emotions better to the reader. Just like in
a film. special effects grab our attention and
entertain us - as long as the story is
slrong tool
)PI::l/1\L INKING EFFECTS
I lere are some simple inking techniques to
rc<JIIy get your artwork noriced.
Broken lines
Somet1mes it is
effective to leave
gJps in your line art.
when it IS t1ow the shape is
defined This gives the impression of
ShJn1ng and obscuring the
outline ot the character. but can be
used 111 other instances too. The
tec11n1que commonly used
in stlOUJO comiCS (see Shoujo.
I .7-1 11.
..,. Multiple outlines
Extra outlines qive the image an
extreme or startled look, helping to
exaggerate comical expressions or
moments of fear. The effect is like a
scnbble. but controlled so that it looks
consistent and follows the shape of
the original image.
Sec also Special effects. pages 94--99
..
..
--- - -
._ d
l
J
- .;:::.
"'i ,
..,. Blurring motion lines
To represent movement wi thin
your image. break up the lines
and make them less distinct.
as though the object is
moving too quickly to
be seen clearly - like
a stylized form of
motion blur in
a photograph.
T Simple motion lines
A less extreme form of speed line. drawing
short lines parallel to existing lines helps to
imply small amounts of moti on. This can
also help to define turning or even
shaking motions .
SCREENTONE EFFECTS
.,.. Associating emotions with screentone
If you consistently use a particular screentone when a
specific emotion or conflict is occurring. the presence of
the screentone itself can begin to represent the
emotion. Although this is a subtle effect. and shouldn't
be relied upon to gain the readers understanding. it
can be an effective representation if used well.
T Using appropriate screentone
Make sure you use the appropriate
screentone for the situation.
Applying the wrong screentone will
change the mood of the panel. and
communicate the wrong idea to the
reader. Remember: in manga.
everything on the page is significant
- it's a graphical language - so use
screentone to complement the
action represented by the image.
rather than conflict with it.
J;. Inverting tone and line art
With computer toning. you can swap
the black and white elements of any
screentone to create an eye-catching
effect. You can use the technique for
dramatic purposes. or just to effect a
change in mood. Sometimes inverting
the whole panel. including the line art.
can be especially impressive. Uke most
dramatic techniques. use it only
in moderation.
--0 Using parts of tone
Pattern tones. which have white areas
between design elements. are often more
effective if the whole tone isn't used. Just
grabbing one or two bubbles or deleting
some of the flowers can help complement
the artwork in the panel much better.
Using small
areas of this
tone will
enhance
the artwork
more subtly.
I


--
C:- IoW-

'
USlNG CF F ECTS 107
Nr..,C;b
cc.1M
eot:.r-DU:u CMIl
lot.a.C-
Ib:YGICNI.

....,..._
....... _
---
..............
-
Ctl{\OWlU ltlf'
lnvprr h mninn
will swap the
llidt k drlt) WI lilt:
1n your nrtwork
Use your imagination!
By using small sections of very large tones.
you can change their appearance to make
the patterns seem interesting and original In
certi1in instances. For this grri:S bikini top, For
example. a pattern was needed to irnply a
design on the garment. Using a sheet of
large "vortex" design tone. and inverting tile
colours. some very small areas of it could be
used. and the effect was very different From
the original tone (so the reader did not sc.>e 1t
as screentone). The final result was this stylisl1
bikini design.
This large print looks
different when small
parts are used.
1 08 C {:AT I N G P A G E S
i ng tone and colour
Tone and colour are as vital to tile success of your artwork as
being a master of line and form. So what are the essential
c on.:,icJerations for adding these elements to your manga?
When adding colour or tone to a page. you need to
com1der both the impact of the whole page and its
composition. Your colour usage on each panel affects tt1e
overall of fJoth the page and the comic as a
whc >iP . 1nrJ you Gin control balance and emotion witll
your usc ot black and wllite and different tones.
Worl<lng with contrast
Not every panel needs heavy shading
The use of detailed shading in a panel or short sequence of
panels is as much of a storytelling device as your line art or
dialogue - it is one of the best ways of drawing attention
to some aspect of a characters personality. or a pivotal
Wl1en pmdurinq rnrtnCjd il is helpful to make creative use of
rrucJ Lones 111 the torm of scrccntone. However, it is also
1mrort;,nr to maintain a f1igl1 level of contrast between your
.\elec 11om to ilCTC'ntumc composition. and the flow of the
paqe. Tlli.) will ..1l.)u emure Lh.::t t the essential details and
evenr in the story.
However, it is a bad idea
to pay every character
the same amount of
attention: allow your
reader to focus on
particular characters and
events. Too much detail
means that no
character gets the
fUldl po1nts ot your i1rtwork ;,rC" vivid. and leave the reader
1n no <1o11hr ;,s ro what is happening on the page.
Dramatic lighting
LlqtlllrKJ w1Lt11n the p;:mels need not be entirely renlisric in
C'Vl''ry /\h \ lr or ernot1ve use of light
help communic.:l te the mood <1nd iltmmphcrc of each
VC'IY c -ffc ri ivt'ly
T Shading out the eyes
r1 IJolcJ
unplyuHJ ,,,cJrW\\ or
'' c II J\lon in rhl' rh:'lr:'lrrer.
or 1 .::t n
rl.-111 Jrl' I rhPW' rechnlques
no mnrP rh:'ln nnrP nr twice
In your comic to mi:linti:llll
lilCII iJUll:IIC. y.
focus he or she
needs. as well as
making the panels
themselves more
difficult to follow.
Expressive lighting
Tone and colour can be
used in 'In expressive way
ro convey the atmosphere of
a scene.
..,. Bright eyes
One useful arL1stic device is
showing a characters eyes lit
when the rest of tl1e panel is
unlit or dark. Although this is
obviously nor naturalistic. it
can be highly expressive and
help readers identify with a
particular moment in the story.

.. ..
' TIP: Blaclcing '
.
.
Out
Black out a
character that is
standing against a
tone background.
This creates a
striking presence
wi thout focusing
on details .
..................................................
WORKING WITH COLOUR
Producing comics in colour is in many ways much more
difficult than producing them in black and white. especially
when working with the many abstract methods that are
typical of manga style. Most artists don't use colour at all.
but many of the same principles of black and white manga
can be applied to colour works.
a palette
Try to keep your tonal
ranges and colour choices
consistent throughout the
scene. giving the reader a
strong sensation of
Familiarity of the location.
A limited palette will make
the comic much easier to
read and help express the
mood of your story.
ADDING TONE AND COLOUR l09
A Abstraction
If you treat your colours like a spccii'll effect. you filn
actlieve results With block tones. Using
these to represent presence or abstract moods
can help to underline tt1e ltlemes of your story.
Colour considerations
Bear in mind that working in colour will rnr1ke it difficult for
you to print your comic cheaply. i'lncJ the cost per com1c
will often be too high to sell. However, colour comics work
great on the Internet, and there are no production cost
differences between them and greyscale comics. If you
keep your original artwork layerecl (in Photoshop), it will
allow you to adjust your toning at a later stage. should you
wish to produce a black-and-white version for pnnt. or;
conversely, to remove the screentone and redo the pages
in colour. You can also colour your screentone layer - with
the Colourize option from Photoshop:S Hue/Saturation
toolset, for example.
See al so Printing and publishing, pages 11 8-123
110 CR-EATING PAGES
ing speech and sounds
Speech bubbles and graphical representations of sounds are
vital elements to get right. They add to the visual appeal of
your work, and aid its comprehension.
I HINGS TO AVOID
Because introducing dialogue and sound effects into your comic is an important
part of designing each page. it is worth giving them plenty of time and
attention. They have a huge effect on how the reader will enjoy your work. and
every speech bubble is as much a focal point as your painstakingly drawn
.=trtwork. Here are some important things to look out for.
II>- Crossed bubbles
Avoid
d5 the flow Will
Urlfld[LII dl dnd diffiCUl t tO
rnlluw ldedlly. the
should be designed wirl1 rile
f lcl rtL'I flow {tnllucJtnq
di"logue flow) in mind before
qotnq alle<Jd and drawing
the bubbles.
T II>- Interjections
Avoid interjections wit111n t1 prtrll'l. II IJe
c\vtry tor"' ch:'lr<'lcter to speak twice within the same
p.:mel. otl1er ti1.:Jn durinq cJ nuturdl btedk wttl un t11e
ut<.JIU<.JUl:. l o ll,IW i-1 r hi-lri-lrter speak. anorher
r h:'lr and then the first cll.:Jr.:Jcter reply
.:Jq.Jin ncq.:Jtes mucll or ti le cmottondl tmpd<J ot lhe
c onvcC\,IIIC)n. c-rt-'iitin0 ;mmher panel ro contain me
re.:Jction works mucll mote dfccttvcly.
I'M PURSUING MY
DREAM OF BEING
A MANGA
ARTIST!
...... IIMICS
Outllna for bubblel
The OUIIJne far lhe bubblll
sl'loUidrlt CMII'pOWII' the

mall IIIII I the dallr and
loaiiiOndlaCI.
I J./ATE
YOU SO
MUCJ.I!
Font issues
Because of the informal nature of text
placement within comics. most writers
prefer to capitalize their text. This helps
the individual letters fit the shape of a
speech bubble without looki ng weak.
However. some artists do prefer not to
capitalize their text. Experiment and
decide which is the most appropriate
approach for your title.
Try to stick to a regular font size for
your comics main text. This makes it
easier to read. and goes some way
towards making your work look more
professional. It also allows you to
create more impact when you do
decide to use large or small text.
ADDING SPEECH AND SOUNDS 111
Background t ext
Using small text in the background of a panel
is a common device in manga. Almost always
used for comedy. 1t suggests the idea of a
character muttering something under his or
her breath. or someone saying sornelhing in
the background. The comic will read fine
without it. but these extra elements provide a
light-hearted edge. or help to express t11e
behaviour of characters in the background.
BLOCKING OUT BUBBLES
You can block out speech bubbles 1n Phol oshop w1ttl the
same technique you use for panels. but us1ng the I:JhpiiC "''
selection Instead. (See Inking Pages. page I 04.) HowPVer.
these can look too synthetic and clash w1th your nrtwnrk
Experiment and see which tcchmque your style
HOW TO PLACE TEXT IN PHOTOSHOP
Choose the Text
tool from the
Photoshop toolbar.
SEE YOU
IOMORROVV!I
Method 1:
basic t ext
Click on the image
where you want to
place the text. If you
want to start a new
line of text. hit the
Enter key.
OTHER FORMS OF TEXT IN BUBBLES
Symbols or punctuation marks can be used in speech
bubbles. as a simple and effective way to communicate
what is happening to the characters.
The skull and
crossbones implies
that the character
has been poisoned.
' l(E);L:lY
OUGHT TO
EAO HOME
NOW!
*
SEE YOU
: TOMORROW!!
Method 2:
text area
CliLk on tr1e spot
wt1e1e you we:tnt the
text box to IJeq111
i'lnd hold c-lown t11e
burton ro
drag our <1 box.
IS <1 tC'xt which
will ddine tt1e dt ea
within which the
text will fdll.
,; ............ .., ......... - #-------- -

One common
techn1que 1n
manga is 10 use
three dots co
represent a

silence. This can
be useful to
demonstrate
when a ch<lracter
is expected to
talk. but says
nothing at all.
'(ee also Special effects. pages 94- 99 ./
AI lNG PAGES
cept to completion
Here are all the main stages in taking the world of
tile imaginc1lion to the realm of the printed
or Wet) page. Enjoy tile journey!
.A. Step one
When you've cor1C.c1vcd
yo1 11 \ I ory: skerch our
cllJrJcter dcsiqns
(rrl lOVPJ \0 thiit thf'rP a
feel for they w ill
luuk llkl:. Wrll1 >orl
\ lorr<'\ 111' imrnrr:'lnr
m r1PvPinr rhese
dcsiqns . .:1s llll:
<..11,11 c.JLll:l Will only n>r>ke
rl IJrrtl rtppPii riinr P,
t11Jr wirh
more designs
Jrc y.
.A. Ste p two
Sketch out the pages as
"thumbnails" w ith very rough
artwork. These can be changed
and adjusted easily until the story
flows nicely. before you produce
( 0; final ink versions.
i:Q
,c,;;. _}
three
After drawing out neat line art in
pencils, apply your inks. In this
example, the speech bubbles are
going to be added by computer.
so the artist has left them off the
original lines.
_,
I
.,. Step four
A combination of flat. grey tones and pattern
tones have been used here to add shade and
definition to the artwork. Speech bubbles have
also been added to the image. paying attention
to the original sketches for their placement in
relation to the artwork. The page is now finished.
and ready to go ro print. Try this approach and
see if it works for you.
.6. St ep five
The final prinled vers1on. primed in
Sweatdrop Stud1os' anthology Love.
Sweat & Tears You can see it here
with another page from the comic.
working as part of the whole.
..
TIPS for Completing
Comics
Completing your comic can be very
difficult. as it is easy to feel that more
could be done to improve the overall
piece. The step between almost finishing
a comic and actually finishing it can be
gigantic. and it helps to have the
motivation to wrap up the project.
Deadlines are actually a good thing.
It is much easier to prepare a comic for a
particular date, whether it's for an event
like a convention, or merely a self-
imposed deadline. Set a completion date
and try your hardest to get it done in
timel In professional manga illustration.
artists always work to strict deadlines - it's
part of the job!
Be realistic about what you can
achieve. and you' re more likely to be able
to complete it. Working on short. single-
issue comics before trying to tackle an
epic will give you a solid foundation in
writing comics. which you can apply to
more ambitious projects in due course.
Avoid overworking your comic. There's
only so much you can do to each page.
so once it is complete. just move
on to the next one. Keeping note
of how many pages are complete
is a helpful incentive towards
finishing each one.
Don't worry about
striving for perfection
on every single panel.
Comics work as a
whole. not as a sum of
parts. and often a page
will look great even if
there are small errors in
the artwork.
Finally, sacrifice! Be
prepared to give up
enough time to work on
your comic, which can eat
up a Jot of hours. You may
have to pass up on some lVI
Comics take time. and while they are
great fun. they are also hard work.
Try your best, work hard and create
great mangal
.

CONCEPT TO COMPLETI ON 113
..
.6. Seeing your work In print
Reaching the stage of having a finished
and printed comic isn't easy. but finishing
the comic g1vcs you a huge sense or
satisfaaion and
114 CREATING PAG ES
b comtcs

These days, comics are no longer limited to paper and print: your
imaginary creations can thrive in the virtual world of the Internet.
Tile Internet has become a wonderful means of exposure for comic
<:1rtisLs, both amateur and professional. The international popularity of
rnanga-style comics, combined wi th the convenience of reading
comics online, has allowed even beginners to have a global audience
for their artwork and stories.
SAVING FOR THE WEB
Before saving your artwork for the Internet, be sure to
flatten your image in Photoshop or Ptlotoshop Elements
(coltapse tt1e separate layers into a single layer). and then
resi7e the imnge to the desired resolution. Always save a
backup of your original layered and high-resolution digital
Save For Web
Using the Save For Web leature alfords you a
III!.Jii dcurt c nl c nnlrnl wl wn images
ror usc online.
2-up
This allows you to view
LJUlllltrt: urryrndl image
and the lower quality
Wt:b wlliCh
is usefUl for direct
compcJrison.
Exported file
information
st rows you how
large (in terms of file size)
the imiJgc will be when
saved to disk. as well as
an estimate of the
download time.
files. as once an image has been flattened. you can't go
back and edit the separate components. as they are now alt
on the same layer.
WEBCOMI CS 115
EJic g_ct.t '!low !!<> !oclo !:!dP
(hiOttp:/t,.,...,...,.rabid..nonkeY' .Conl/l'ldex.J*lP?IR-oo4a v 3 0 Go

File sizes
When saving images to be viewed on
the Internet, the size of the file is very
important. This is measured in kb.
short for kilobytes. The larger the size,
the longer the image will take to
download - especially over slow dial-
up connections. With the Internet
always design for the slowest system;
don't assume your reader has
the fastest computer and a
broadband connection.
File options
These controls allow you to choose the file
format. as well as which compression options
you wish to employ to make the file size as
small as possible for swift download. As
always with the Internet. there is a trade-off
between image quality and file size.
lmageReady
You can make a number of further. more
sophisticated adjustments to images intended
for the Internet in Photoshops companion
application, lmageReady (which comes
with Photoshop).

t tlpdahl I
FILE FORMATS
JPEG
" Funnies
Short-strip "g,,g"
cnmi< ' - <"
- \IIJHI,u In It lOSe In
Ill ' work
Pt:l f<..:t lly on ltw
Internet. In fuct.
Uld!UljU<..:-llrl\( '( J
tlurnour ;:mrl
pane/ IJyOLits WOI k
bCllCI Ull
It lrlll Ill Jllllll
JPEG compression is a "lossy" compression method,
meaning that the image will lose some of the image
quality every t1me the file is saved. This file rormat is great
for photographs or fulkolour comiCs, as it can keep the
file sizes low. However, It suffers from "JPEG artefacts". a
form of Image corrosion often evident around line art <md
flat areas of colour.
PNG
PNG is the most recent of the popular Internet file for!Tktts,
and offers a good compromise between compression
file size. PNG images do not suffer from artefacting like
JPEGs do, so the of the 1mage IS much higher; but
the file size will be larger as a result. Unfortunately. some
old Web browsers don't support PNGs, so using format
may cause inconvenience to a small percentage of readers_
GIF
GIFs have been mostly superseded by PNGs 1n terms of
how useful they are. However. they offer some options for
simple animation. as well as transparency. They are also
supported by more (older) browsers than PNGs are. so
despite the extra file size, they are sometimes worth
considering for line art and graphics (they are far from
ideal for photographs).
CREATING PAGES
Cutting costs
Web comics . : ~ r e .:1
qrc.:Jt w.:Jy to
prmJ1 J\f' rolo1 1r
comics. without
UlC drdwbilCk:. or
printing com.
Resolution
When saving a file intended for display on the Internet. it is
important to pay attention to the size of the image.
Different people use different sizes and resolutions of
screen. so ensure that most will be able to read varying
sizes of comic page comfortably. People usually save their
image relative to the width of the page. so sizes such as
600 to 750 pixels wide are popular: Be sure to look at other
Web comics and decide what pixel width you like best.
Simple colouring
Working in colour is
just as easy as
greyscale when it
comes to Web comics.
Experimenting with
ways of colouring
your comics can give
your pages more life -
and a distinctive look.
Costs
Web comics cost almost nothing to post online. Free Web
hosting for Web comics is available, and even paying for
your own hosting is very inexpensive. Web comics are a
low-cost risk compared to printing, and diminish all those
worries about not making back the printing costs!
Feedback
One of the advantages of Web comics is that you can get
immediate feedback from fans of your comic. However; if
people dislike your comic for any reason you also have to
WEBCOMICS 11 7
be prepared for negative criticism. Focus on the comic irself
more than the feedback, and persevere with the production
of the story you intend to write.
Professionalism
It is very easy to put pages of mangr1 on the Internet. but
this has encouraged some artists to be sloppier with
work they do for online comics. Not inking the or
using bad, handwritten text m.1kes their pages an
Try your best to make each paqe as good as it c,ln be.
v Co Ul1s
A wider audience
Some artists choose
to put their printed
comics on the
Internet Some
people enjoy the
comic on the Web
so much that they
will buy the printed
edition to keep.
sweat<lropWebcomics: Fantastic Cat I"
j FantasficCat vj - --------------------------
fontaslic Cal
1
I Page 004 vI
Buy this corrlc!
- tasueot
- Issue 02
- Issue 03
- Issue 0'
- tnueOS
fantastic Cat
Flyitg csl s ond who rol
rrom the sky!- Oskar loses his
memcry, b<rt gains some mends.
l"s shome IMy're just a Iitie
stra.nge ..
I ssue 04 :: Page 004 !Fil;.q I I.VTJ l h.FV] :: JI.t:;..i]
I ssue 04 :: Page 004 I FRST I:: ( LAST I [ P!;EV I :: [ llEXT I
118 CREATING PAGES
ting and publishing
Now comes lhe time for you to bring your work to the
public - ils time to print and, with luck, publish, adding
your rnanga to the brilliant comics you admire in the
sllops and online.
PRCPARING YOUR
If you'rt> going for tri'lditional paper-based publishing. when
your pages are complete and you have finished lettering
you arc ready to prepare your pages for print.
CMYK in Photoshop
Photoshop will display an
alert i f a chosen on-screen
colour won't print
accurately in CMYK inks.
Press the T symbol to
adjust the
chosen colour.
Self-pul>li)hiny ctn excellent means for independent
;:md Jmatcur Jrti sts alike to procJuce their own comics. It
gives you total creative freedom over what you produce -
per h11p:-. yredl.er freedom Lhan even professional artists
enjoy! lnL1cpcndcnt artists can produce every part of their
nol comic itself, but also the cover
arx1 layouts. and any additionCJI design work within the
w miL. If yuLI pay lo have copies made at a local print shop,
ur even d wnvenliondl colour or black-and-white
pt lULULupier. yuu Ldrl produce a printed comic with solid
prod union villi
think "CMYK!") Converting the document
from RGB. used by computer monitors. to
CMYK will often change the appearance of
However, w11cr11cr you Jre publishing your work without
Jny outs1de help or getting 1t prinled prufe)siondlly. il is
II I l jJUI ldrll lu pcly cl llCnliOn tO printing SpCCifi C<'l tiOnS.
FIC'Itten your C'lrtwork
RC"fnn"' Jhmirring your ilrtWork for print, fi Jtten the layers.
I t w1/l retlule lt 1e )ILe or lhe fil e. ancl make il less likely
thJt there will be any errors in the print process. But before
you <'Jo tllis, remember to copy the original. unflattened file
first, ,"H1t1 only fli'lttcn the copy. Retain the original layered
filr m you rrlll go bc1Ck nnd edit the separate components
l;rltY if yotJ nt"'Ct1 to. With lnyered artWork, you 11ave the
frt n Jom 1 n rccnlour: ,1dd screentone or alter the text
r lllrl dirriO!Jtlr'- yotJ (rln't dO this on the flattened Version
Wlltloul gu1ng to grecrl c.Jecil of lroullle!
Colour printing and CMYK colours
Colour pages are pnnted using the CMYK process (short for
cyan. magenta. yellow and black) inks. These four inks
combine on p<1per to the spectrum but struggle to
represent some tones accurately.
Photoshop allows you to specify whether to make your
document in CMYK or RGB (red, green. blue) modes. but
you should always convert to CMYK for print. (For "comic"
results will be.
Colours such as purple
will sometimes print
slightly differently than
you expect. Use the
CYMK picker tool to help
accurately choose print
colours in Photoshop.
PRI NTING AND PUBLISHI N G 119
PRINTING FROM HOME
It is possible to print your own comics at
home with a laser printer. The inks used in
laser printers are similar to those used in
a photocopier - high quality and
waterproof - but can struggle with
large areas of black. Although
significantly cheaper to buy, Inkjet
printers are not suitable for creating
sellable comics, as the inks will smudge
when the pages are handled. Check
Peripherals on pages 46-4 7 for more
information.
PRI NTING WITH PHOTOCOPIERS
With self-publishing. it is important to be
able to print small runs of comics, as it is
likely they will only sell slowly - quantities ot
50 or 1 00 are common, with extra copies printed only if
the first batch sells out. The most popular choice for self-
printing is to use a conventional photocopying service.
Photocopies work well for comics. as the ink is waterproof
and doesn't smudge. Check with your print s11op to see
if there is a discount for a certain number of copies (for
example. for more than 1 00 copied pages), as this can
affect how many you choose to print, and also the
overall pricing.
Be very specific when you approac11
a printing firm. Tell them exactly what
you want. including sizes. which
pages will be colour (for example,
"only the outside cover"), and
whether you need "bleed" (see
page 123).
Taking charge
Self-publishing allows you total
freedom about what size of comic
you wish to produce.
.6. Experimentation
I r he:-tp Sl'rvirl'r.
such Js pl1otocopyinq
rll lr:.L\ lo lcil'r l\<'
strange and
lllll:llltll WUI b .
ThP<.P rwn rnmir<. :'lrP
coik:cl rom ur tylt
paqe comic strips.
artWork. ancl previews
of upr nrTHrt!J cor
CREATI NG PAG ES
PRI CING
Consider the price of your comic
in relation to other comics that
rtrc The lower you price
the comrc, the more copies you will
However: il is important to cover
yot Jr cml \, wt-'11 r:t s 10 mr:tke some
extra profit - even if it is just enougtr to
cover some of your other expenses. If your
comic is to be distributed or sold by another
flt-'1\0fl or wmpdny, lyJ.JiG1IIy they will take 20 to
'JCJ p<'r cc>nt of the cover pncc. so ttlke this into
c orl\idt-'rdlror1, too. I h.:1t s<ud, avoid overpricing your
wmiL. dldryiny Loo rnucll for il will seriously reduce
pcorlc will ro your hard work.
Free copies
ANALUGUI::
Some ilrtisrs even choose ro give
their photocopied comics away for
rree, but only print a limited
numher. Tl1is c;,n be greilt publicity
and help sell other titles by the
S<l me llrliSI.
1\ c c u niL r nctc.Je wilh dl of pet per
li1it1 rog('tll('r, 'ri1pl('c1 i1nc1 folc1('c1, rt set of
Lor photocopyrng a comrc you
will nr' C'ci In rrcrll (' t1 mnstcr copy with lhe prtgcs in the
pu!.rlron, bearrng rn mrnd which pages will be
fll'inl rd nn llll' '\rlllll' piC'Cl' of paper.
12 9
cat
........................ .
.
.
A simple dummy
copy is made
quickly ro help
lay out the
master spreads.
Dummy copy
One of the easiest ways to see what
needs to be on each spread of a
comic is to make a dummy copy. By
making a small book from folded
paper. and then numbering and
marking the pages, you can easily
see which pages should be printed
on rhe same piece of paper.
. .

.
.
DIGITAL PRINTING SERVICES
Many printing companies now allow for
digital printing. This means that they will take
computer files and print pages directly from the
data. rather than replicating artwork from a
piece of paper: This offers much
greater flexibility and control over
the production process.
FILE FORMATS
TIFF files
TIFFs (Tagged Image File Format) are one of the most
popular file formats for transferring pages and artwork.
They have the advantage of strong image compression
without lowering image quality. Always choose "lZW'
compression when saving with TIFF; this will ensure that
the file is small on disk but readable on different types
of machine.
PDF files
PDF (Portable Document Format) is a format that has made
it much easier to produce comics with digital printers. There
are no discrepancies when it comes to reading PDF files,
and printers often find them easier to deal with. Always use
ZIP compression with PDF files, as JPEG compression
damages your images and lowers output quality. If your
software gives you the option. always choose the earliest
version of PDF compatibility. This causes less problems
when processing. Photoshop saves files like this as default.
FILE FORMATS TO AVOID
BMP files
BMP artwork is uncompressed and slow to process, with file
sizes becoming huge on disk.
JPEG files
The artwork is compressed. and tiny inaccuracies will
appear in the tones. Although these may not be
immediately visible on screen, a printer can recognize these
subtle flaws and draw extra grain around your lines
depending upon its calibration.
GIF files
This file format has no information about DPI stored in the
file, so the printer may not know how large it should be.
File sizes with GIF are no smaller than TIFF.
PR I NTI N G AND PUBLI SHING 121
Creating books
Professionally primed books can be put
together from collections ot stories or
collections of comic issues.
CHECKUST TO ....... IIIIFORII
SAVING FILES FOR suaMISIICJNs
jft RateriH your ..
IVty text that is stiR "'ive" and edifable wiH cause
problems dUring prinllng, with comprK:abOnl In CllnWIS
or roms and smau Changes or size You shaUICJ
your text to pixels before saving 1he me. lhls ......
any problems.
..
jft Flatten ,..... layers
Multiple layers Increase the fife as weiM ,...,
more difficult ror the prinller te work_,. _.
* COftv4U't to , .,....
Converting ................. .,...,
smaller than If you rea. fl' M Gllll:u:
jft CheCk,_... BPI ...a,.. illllt
You can adjuSt DPIIillllhOCIIt.....,":J::
setting alf other -
CREATING PAGES
GENERAL PRINT FIRM ADVICE
An unfortunate fact when dealing with
printing is that you can't always predict
the results. The artwork may appear
slightly lighter or darker than you
intended. Getting a proof is important
so tl1at tl1e printer knows in advance if
you are happy with the quality of the
printing. and any errors can be spotted
bt'forc. it is too late.
witl1 tl1e printing company as
much ds possiiJie. If you make your print job
e<Jsier to deal with, staff at the print fi rm will
be more likely to help you if problems occur.
If you make It difficult or get angry wi th them,
it will be harder to get the results you want.
........ IWOd:. i:iW
$ ..... ,.... f'IIIM. ptlane
_,......., 4llddl.s 01\
1M CD IIIC VIMIIuWI'IIIIMtf
... priJII;J:Ib. this ..........
__ ..,...110 ecwaa.,.,.r ..
a,......., ancf.,..thiiCD
Qlldngft&
.. ,pcillllt- induellf.a ..............
the CD ...... 1hls lhllt.tifniltulte
c:onllllcC dllllllls ............. tJI
What sonhCO.
fit NtMiyG,W ..

NCm!: ellowJau.,
.............
,,. .. .....,.

.. whit
:!....., NAf11 oF CoM/(;
llfdng
...
JOHN DO


Comic series
When creating a series of comics. it is
important to unifY the front cover designs.
Try using the same layout but with different
characters on each issue: or use similar
design work. but different colours.
Check for "additional costs"
Check to see whether the printer charges a fee for
converting the files into a particular format. Savings can be
made if you check to see which file formats and format
types are most convenient for the printer. saving you
unnecessary expense.
Check prices of quantities
If you ask for quotes for different quantities, sometimes it
will turn out that ordering more units of the book will cost
less. For example, printing more than 1 000 "page copies"
might save you money. If a comic has 1 4 sides, printing 7 2
copies would amount to 1 008 sides, and would qualify for
a discount. You should also always ask for round numbers
when asking for quantities. Ask for quantities of 50, 1 00,
1 50, 200, 300, or similar; otherwise it becomes awkward
for the printer to summarize the costs involved.
FULL-BLEED PAGES
When using a professional printer. the comic is often printed larger than the
intended final size and then trimmed down. As a result. this allows the inks on
the paper to go up to the very edge of the page - something you can
incorporate into your design.
Full bleed
This allows panels ro drift
off the edges of the
page, suggesting a
larger event beyond the
scope of the image.
Bleed area
This area will be trimmed
off by the printer. and
should be expected ro
be missing in the
final print.
Trim area
This margin area should
only contain simple
artwork, as this will be
drifting off the edge of
the paper.
Safety area
It is recommended that
text should not be
placed in the safety area.
in case of any radical
printing shifts, and also
to avoid text being
trapped in the
centrefold of the book.
PR I NTING AND PUBLISHING 123
<) ~ <>
124 ~
Resources
MANGA CREATOR SITES
Hayden Scott-Baron: www.deadpanda.com
Sweatdrop Studios: www.sweatdrop.com
Selina Dean: www.noddingcat.net
Emma Vieceli: emma.sweatdrop.com
Laura Watton: www.laurawatton.co.uk
Viz: www.viz.com
Tokyopop: www.tokyopop.com
Dark Horse: www.darkhorse.com
Iron Cat: www.ironcat.com
CM.X: www.dccomics.com/cmx/
ADV Manga: www.advfilms.com/ manga.asp
CPM Manga: www.cpmmanga.com
Broccoli Books: www.broccolibooks.com
Seven Seas Entertai nment: www.gomanga.com
GoiComi: www.gocomi.com
+Q ART PRODUCT MANUFACTURERS
f ~ Letraset: www.letraset.com
Deleter: www.deleter.com
Copic: www.copicmarl<er.com
COMIC FONTS
Blambot: www.blambot.com
Comic Book Fonts: www.comicbookfonts.com
Ban ComicSans: www.bancomicsans.com/fonts.html
.f) /\RT SUPPLIES ONLINE SHOPS
c::J Akadot: www.akadotreta il.com
Dinkybox: www.dinkybox.com
Blue Line Pro: www.bluelinepro.com
Anime Garners: www.animegamersusa.com
<>

Adobe Photoshop: www.adobe.com
Corel Painter: www.corel.com
Paint Shop Pro: www.jasc.com
Deleter Comicworks: www.comic-worl<s.com
OpenCanvas: www.portalgraphics.net
GIMP: www.gimp.org
Deleter CG lllust: www.cgillust.com
Corel Photopaint: www.corel.com
Macromedia xRes2: www.macromedia.com
IMAGE HOSTING GALLERIES
Art Club: www.sheezyart.com
Dev Art: www.deviantart.com
Elfwood Fantasy Art: http://elfwood.lysator.liu.se
Manga Workshop: mangaworl<shop.net
Digital Art and Design: http://digitalart.org/
Artist and Image Database: www.artwanted.com
Online Art Gallery: http://www.side7 .com/
Forum for Artists: http://www.shadowness.com/
Virtual Gallery: http://www.vladartgallery.com/
WEB COMIC HOSTING
Keenspace: www.keenspace.com
DrunkDuck: www.drunkduck.com
ART COMMUNITIES
Dream-grafix: www.dream-grafix. be
Sweatdrop Forum:
www.sweatdrop.com/forum
Artist Cafe: forums. firefly.nu
Pendako: pendako.syste.ms/bbs
Gaia Online: www.gaiaonline.com
Cgtalk: www.cgtalk.com
RESOURCES 125
126
Index
A
absrr dCLiurr I 09
acccssoncs 4 I
.1rrylic ,rylt-' R I
dltiUfl: !>CCflCS 18- 1 c;
rn shouncn I 4
(1191tal 14- 77
o111i11 1.1Jo.. \trpJlOI 3 7.
38-39
amagonrsr 32- 33, 34
.1li.1,ir1q '19. r; I. (J2
.-lf'lli-llt-'rtJ ?fl
B
tl;JCklrqhllng I I
black.: solitj I 04
in w..:rlcrwluur flO
hl,yt nnt1 wliirc to
wluur 6!3- (J9
ro '>f,
hl.lck rl/"111 whirt' invtY<;inn
101
l>l,lckrng our I
L>r u!.t 1/l>rt JSt1 Jif'n '1H
c
( .1), .1nwnrk nn I 77
rrrr...1qe 10 1.:3
lint"IC'i'i 8/
tl l..tr,itltr. lclr.IC' III It' 1(>. 41
G.i[Jiys[ .:3"1 J)
U1rld J6 J /
comic 10 )I
temJie in mole role
one-<:1imcmioml 7'1
prmngnni-;1, ferT1rrh ?r1-/l
Ill I II&JUIIr;[. II Idle
!>upporung 31. :Hi 39
Leer ktSjt: L;oy JH J'-1
rccnaqc girl 30- 31
vrllarn 32- 33
children: < lltili.l< ler!> 36-3 I
of I 3
CMYK colours 48. I 18
resolution 53
coar<><" ron<" 89
colour: to add I 09
backqrotHld 62
to chdnge 73. 77
CMYK 118
011 lnte1net I 16
and lightinq 69
Ji.::tleue I 09
theory 69
51
rones 72. 7.1
colour prinring I I 8
colour scl1emes 41
colourinq: black and whirc
ourlrnes 68-6')
eel-style 70-73
grf'y'>rJIP or Jrline'> 66-A l
comedy 20-21
comic I 22
Corn reworks 1 '7
to roldte rmvge rn 60
81::1. '70
lUI llfJietiurt I I 2-1 I 3
cor rtputel ; . per ipt ter
16-'17
6. 18-'1'7
rnnlrasl I 08
I I I . ILO. 112
rno;rumr: cnnrrrnpnr<11y 74,
D
?r1. ?n. JO. 32. 31
40- 4 I
16. I 7. 2S. 2 I. 29.
J I. J2. 36. 40
t JJ
science ticrion 25. 27. 29.
17.40
deadlrncs I I 3
drgrwl parming packages 49
digital pr inl ing services
171-123
dingbats 99
DPJ (dors per incll) 53
to adjust I 21
dummy copy I 20
F
fantasy I 6- 1 7
female character 27. 31
male character 25. 27
villain 32
world. to create 42-43
file forrni:ilS I I 5. I 21
fi le I I 5
nneliner inking 59
fnnl I I I
tunnies I I 5
G
geometric tones 89
gods/ deities 4 3
tones 89
g1apllics packages 48
gr<tphics tabler 6. 4 7. 60
grey layers. to keep 90
greyscale image: to colour
66- 67
line art 62
nion 53
to scan
gutter 103
H
hair colour 4 I . 72
hJifrone 88
historical sources I 7
Hokusai 6
hypc?rqylizalion I 0. I I . 21
iconography: shoujo I 3
shounen 15
idealization 14
inking: digital 60-61
pages I 04-1 05
special effects I 06
traditional 58-59
Jnrernet: colour on I I 6
feedback on I I 7
manga on 6. I I 4-1 I 5
resolution I I 6
to save work for 114-115
L
layers 51. 52
to nanen 52. 114. 118
to mask 52
LED optical mouse 46
lighting 69. I 08
line art: black and white 63
digiral 62-63
greyscale 62
to scan 56. 57
line width 59. I 04
lines. coloured 8 7
lineweight I 4
LPJ (Jines per inch) 88
M
magical powers 42. 43
manga: for boys (shounen)
14-15
developmenr of 6
for girls (shoujo) I 2- 1 3.
97, 106
on Internet 6. I I 4-1 I 7
themes I 6- 1 7
master copy 1 20
minimalism I 0
moire 88
motion blur I 06
N
natural media. to simulate
78-81
nib inking 59
noise rones 89
INDFX 127
0 R
speed lines II/, I 5, I 06
oil paint style 78- 80 races and creatures 4 3
spirit signs 4 3
Open Canvas 49 realism style, lineless 85-8 7
splic1ng 1mages 57
resolution 53. 57
styles: acrylic 81
p
on internet I I 6
airbrush 74-77
pacing I 03 robots 15
70
pages: full-bleed 123 rotating the image 60
eel 70-73
to ink I 04-105
I 7
to plan I 02-1 03 5
illleless 82-87
Painter 49 scanner. flatbed 6. 46
011 pa1nr 78-80
natural media styles in 80. scanning 56-57
shOLljO 1 3
81 science fiction I 6
shouncn IS
to rotate image in 60 male character 25. 29
watcrcolour 80
Paintshop Pro 48 female character 27. 31 stylization I 0
panels: to adjust I 04-1 05 villain 32
to group I 03 screentones I I. 49. 88-89
T
outlines I OS to apply 90-9 3
teenager fcmnlc 30- 3 I
size I 03 to colour I 09
male 28-29
pencil work 59 software 90
text: background I I I
to scan 57 special effects I 07
to I 21
photocopying I I 9 self-publishing I 18-1 23
thumbnails 1 07-1 03
Photoshop 48 setting. to create 42-4 3
clia/ogue in I 03
airbrush 74 shading I 08
tone. ro add I 08
basics 50-51 airbrush-style 7 4- 77
Lone fedlt 1ering 89
Elements 48 eel-style 70
Layers 52 shadows 70 u
print colours I /8 shift key 1 05
Ukiyo-E <'lrt 6
Lo rotate image in 60 shoujo manga 12- 13. 97.
screentones 88 106
v
special effects 94 shounen manga I 4-1 5
visual absLracnon I 7.
tools 50-51 show through. to avoid 57
visual I 0- 1 I . 70
pixels 53. 62 sketching. digital 6/
pricing 120. 122 skin tones 41. 72
w
printers 46. I I 9 special effects: emotional
watcrcolot u \lyle 80
printing I I 8-1 I 9 wisps 98
professional I 2 1- 1 23 foundations 94
protagonist: female 26-27 gritty angst 98
male 14. 24-25 impact swirl 96
in shounen I 4 impact zoom 95. 96
teenage boy 28-29 inking I 06
teenage girl 30-3 1 screentone I 07
sentimental pattern 99
shoujo sparkles 13. ?7
speech bubbles I I 0
128
Credits
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I'd like to Sclinc1. Ernma and Laura for their wonderful
il/usrriltiom and support throughout this project; lhe editors
c1t Ot r,lrlo ror their 1J2llience and and
P.veryonc al Swmlclrop Studios for producing amazing
mlnga and proving that anytlling can be achieved
with teamwork.
PICl UR[ CREDITS:
Ou.:Jrto would like to and acknowledge the
followinq artrsts ror- supplying images reproduced in
this book:
(Kc 'Y: I i<'rl. r rigr1t. c centre. t lop. b bottom)
S.-rrn Rr own I I 9br; Selina I I 3bl. I 3bc. I Stc. I Str,
I/, 10, L I, 771. 2'71. 31 r: 331. 35b, 361, 38L 39tl. 40br: 42t.
SR. 5'7. 66tr, 0 It. 81 br: 82r: 84b. 87br: SSbr, I 09b, I I 7.
I I ':Jbl, 120L 120tll; Sonia I eong 122t; Fahed Said and Shari
He<, I 15t. I 16b; SweCJtdrop SrucJios I 13b; Emma Vieceli 61,
IL, UJ, /'il. /7r. /'7r. 33r: 34, 36r, -'i OL 41 br, 4/b. 4 3b. 69br:
'75b. 99br, I 06ll, I ORr. I 09tl. I 0'7tr: I I Obi, I I Obr, I I m;;
l rltrr,orW,:rtton I . 6t. 1'1, 30. 38b. 3'7tr. 41t. 7Sr.
I O'lll, I 061r. I I Oll
1\/1 ort1er illu\ lr rs and photographs are the copyright of
Quarto 1-'t rl>li<ihir iJIC While every effort has been made to
c fC'dit contributors, we rlfJOIOQiLe Should there /lave been
any omrssrom or-
781845 661731

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