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Reflection On Micro Teaching Result of teaching that I have run the macro, I found I was a little less confidence

in the delivery of teaching and learning content. This is due to my lack of skills in speaking English. I have a lot of mistakes especially on grammar and pronunciation while this is a very important aspect and should be addressed. I do not give a chance to the students to interact and give their ideas. Instead, I have to create two-way interaction and actively involve students in teaching and learning so that students are not bored. I also found a clever pupil just the only ones to answer or give an idea while other students just an observer. The activity chosen is a little bit confusing which is pupils cannot understand what they should do. It is because of I was applied constructivism approach which is letting the pupils to figure the answers by them self and the pupils with low level who cannot conduct the activities, they should be guided by the teacher However, our strength is in the micro teaching lesson plans are so complete, systematic and relevant to students. Pupils have experience of the physical properties of the animal, so they do not feel awkward to give their opinion. Our teaching material is also quite interesting with the pictures of the colourful animals.

Reflection On Teaching Listening And Speaking

Reflection On Teaching Grammar Reflection On Teaching Reading Skills Reflection On Teaching Vocabulary, Spelling And Dictation Reflection On Teaching Writing Reflection On Teaching Literature Reflection On Integration Of Language Skills

ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 5.0 THE TEACHING AND ASSESSING OF WRITING SKILLS Writing is the system for interpersonal communication using visible signs or graphic symbols on a flat surface such as paper, cloth n ect. Purpose of writing: - To get thing done - To inform - To persuade - To maintain relationship - To document occurances, events, ect Types of writing: - Narration - Description - Exposition 5.1 PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING WRITING 1. Understand your students reasons for writing. The greatest dissatisfaction with writing instruction comes when the teachers goals do not match the students, or when the teachers goals do not match those of the school or institution in which the student works. It is important to understand both and to convey goals to students in ways that make sense to them. 2. Provide many opportunities for students to write. Writing almost always improves with practice. Evaluate your lesson plans: how much time is spent reading or talking about writing, and how much is spent actually writing? Practice writing should provide students with different types of writing as well. Short responses to a reading, journal entries, letter writing, summaries, poetry, or any type of writing you find useful in your class should be practiced in class. 3. Make feedback helpful and meaningful. Students crave feedback on their writing, yet it doesnt always have the intended

effect. If you write comments on students papers, make sure they understand the vocabulary or symbols you use. Take time to discuss them in class. Be cautious about the tone of your comments. Find one good idea the student has, and make an encouraging comment about it. Find a place where the student wasnt clear, and write a comment that will help her/him clarify it. Identify a grammar problem, and make a comment that will help the student see the problem in other places in the paper. 4. Clarify for yourself, and for your students, how their writing will be evaluated. Students often feel that the evaluation of their writing is completely subjective. Teachers often hear, I just dont understand what you want. One way to combat that feeling is to first develop a statement for yourself about what is valued in student writing, either in your classroom or in your institution as a whole. ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 5.2 WRITING READINESS (1ST STEP) Building Visual Readiness Skills: Visual readiness begins with recognizing shapes and then letters and numbers and finally words. Reading books and signs and pointing out words is helpful. Here we're not concerned that they "read" or recognize the specific words so much as that they begin to understand that "oh, together those letters make a word." Also label, items and pictures along with your child so that you are role modeling identifying items with writing. Building Fine Motor and Eye/Hand Coordination: Many preschool activities that just seem like fun are actually building fine motor skills and eye/hand coordination. Here are 10 examples of good pre-writing activities: Working puzzles Building with blocks Pouring water into cups

Stringing beads Finger painting Bouncing and catching balls Cutting with scissors Drawing Matching shapes Threading "sewing" cards Super Fun Pre-Writing Activity: To build finger strength, fill clean spray bottles with water and let kids spray a surface like a fence or sidewalk. It just seems like a fun activity to them, but the trigger finger action is actually strengthening little fingers. Beginning Writing: When your child is ready to write, start with markers or chalk on a big blank surface such as a board or paper on an easel. Demonstrate the writing of letters without focusing yet on size, hence no lined paper for beginning writers. As young children progress you can offer smaller paper with crayons or felt tip pens. Educator's tip: Many parents begin by teaching young children to write capital letters and they come to kindergarten writing their names in all caps. Start from day one teaching your child to write their name with only the first letter capitalized so that he won't have to relearn how to write his name. 5.3 STAGES IN WRITING LESSON 1. Generating ideas using learners' own ideas can make the writing more memorable and meaningful. Before writing a letter of complaint, learners think about a situation when they have complained about faulty goods or bad service (or have felt like complaining), and tell a partner. As the first stage of preparing to write an essay, I give learners the essay title and pieces of scrap paper. They have 3 minutes to work alone, writing one idea on each ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 piece of paper, before comparing in groups. Each group can then

present their 3 best ideas to the class. It doesn't matter if the ideas aren't used in the final piece of writing, the important thing is to break through the barrier of ' I can't think of anything to write. 2. Focusing ideas This involves thinking about which of the many ideas generated are the most important or relevant, and perhaps taking a particular point of view. As part of the essay-writing process, students in groups put the ideas generated in the previous stage onto a 'mind map'. The teacher then draws a mind-map on the board, using ideas from the different groups. At this stage he / she can also feed in some useful collocations - this gives the learners the tools to better express their own ideas. I tell my students to write individually for about 10 minutes, without stopping and without worrying about grammar or punctuation. If they don't know a particular word, they write it in their L1. This often helps learners to further develop some of the ideas used during the'Generating ideas' stage. Learners then compare together what they have written, and use a dictionary, the teacher or each other to find in English any words or phrases they wrote in their L1. 3. Focus on a model text Once the students have generated their own ideas, and thought about which are the most important or relevant, I try to give them the tools to express those ideas in the most appropriate way. The examination of model texts is often prominent in product or genre approaches to writing, and will help raise learners' awareness of the conventions of typical texts of different genres in English.

I give learners in groups several examples of a genre, and they use a genre analysis form to identify the features and language they have in common. This raises their awareness of the features of the genre and gives them some language 'chunks' they can use in their own writing. Learners identify the function of different paragraphs in a piece of writing. For example, in a job application letter, the functions of the paragraphs might be something like; reason for writing how I found out about the job relevant experience, skills and abilities closing paragraph asking for an interview ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 Learners are given an essay with the topic sentences taken out, and put them back in the right place. This raises their awareness of the organisation of the essay and the importance of topic sentences. 4. Organising ideas Once learners have seen how the ideas are organised in typical examples of the genre, they can go about organising their own ideas in a similar way. Students in groups draft a plan of their work, including how many paragraphs and the main points of each paragraph. These can then be pinned up around the room for comment and comparison. When preparing to write an essay, students group some of the ideas produced earlier into main and supporting statements. 5. Writing In a pure process approach, the writer goes through several drafts before producing a final version. In practical terms, and as part of a

general English course, this is not always possible. Nevertheless, it may be helpful to let students know beforehand if you are going to ask them to write a second draft. Those with access to a word processor can then use it, to facilitate the redrafting process. The writing itself can be done alone, at home or in class, or collaboratively in pairs or groups. 6. Peer evaluation Peer evaluation of writing helps learners to become aware of an audience other then the teacher. If students are to write a second draft, I ask other learners to comment on what they liked / didn't like about the piece of work, or what they found unclear, so that these comments can be incorporated into the second draft. The teacher can also respond at this stage by commenting on the content and the organisation of ideas, without yet giving a grade or correcting details of grammar and spelling. 7. Reviewing When writing a final draft, students should be encouraged to check the details of grammar and spelling, which may have taken a back seat to ideas and organisation in the previous stages. Instead of correcting writing myself, I use codes to help students correct their own writing and learn from their mistakes. 8. Conclusion By going through some or all of these stages, learners use their own ideas to produce a piece of writing that uses the conventions of a genre appropriately and in so doing, they are asked to think about the audience's expectations of a piece of writing of a particular genre, and ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 the impact of their writing on the reader.

5.4 STARATEGIES IN TEACHING WRITING 1. Objectives and Goals The lesson's objectives must be clearly defined and in lined with district and/or state educational standards. 2. Anticipatory Set Before you dig into the meat of your lesson's instruction, set the stage for your students by tapping into their prior knowledge and giving the objectives a context. 3. Direct Instruction When writing your lesson plan, this is the section where you explicitly delineate how you will present the lesson's concepts to your students. 4. Guided Practice Under your supervision, the students are given a chance to practice and apply the skills you taught them through direct instruction. 5. Closure In the Closure section, outline how you will wrap up the lesson by giving the lesson concepts further meaning for your students. 6. Independent Practice Through homework assignments or other independent assignments, your students will demonstrate whether or not they absorbed the lesson's learning goals. 7. Required Materials and Equipment Here, you determine what supplies are required to help your students achieve the stated lesson objectives. 8. Assessment and Follow-Up The lesson doesn't end after your students complete a worksheet. The assessment section is one of the most important parts of all. 5.5 INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES 1. Step-by-step instruction 2. Provision of model 3. The need to teach language (grammar and vocab) appropriate to the writing needs of student 4. Focus on the various stages of the writing (refer pg 142-145)

5.6 ASSESSING WRITING When it comes to writing assessment, there's no better judge of what your students know and are able to do than you. Assessing Writers offers practical methods for gathering information about every writer in your classroom and shows you how to create writing lessons that address the needs of individual students as ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 well as the whole class.In Assessing Writers you'll find out: what you need to know about students to assess them as writers how to uncover and make sense of this information how to make an individualized plan for each student how to use these plans when you confer how to structure units of study to meet classroom-wide needs. With a wealth of smart suggestions, useful charts, reproducible rubrics, and activities for professional reflection, Assessing Writers gives you powerful tools that make assessment simple and effective. 6.0 THE TEACHING AND ASSESSING OF VOCABULARY, SPELLILNG AND DICTATION What is VOCABULARY? The words which make up a language constitute its vocabulary. It can be categorized into 2 groups: Content words Specific meaning, e.g. boy, table. Function words Have little meaning when it used on their own but have grammatical meaning when use in and between sentences. E.g. the, but WORDS AND MEANING 1. Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition." For example, if you look

up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptilesKhaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions." 2. Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotativemeanings of a word exist together with the ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger. 3. Polysemy: word has a single word form but two or more meaning. When we talk of the mouth of the cave, we refer to its opening. Mouth could also be a relation to the opening through which we takes in our food or the palce where a river joins the sea. 4. Hononymy: is the word that written in the same way and sound alike but have different meaning. 6.1 PURPOSE OF TEACHING VOCABULARY, SPELLING AND DICTATION Purpose of teaching vocabulary, spelling and dictation The more vocabulary words students know, the better they are able to comprehend A large vocabulary opens students up to a wider range of reading materials A rich vocabulary also improves students' ability to communicate through speaking, listening, and writing To increase the number of words that students know and can use in a variety of educational, social, and eventually work-related areas.

Principles for Teaching Vocabulary Focus on the most useful vocabulary first Focus on the vocabulary in the most appropriate way Looked at what words to teach and learn Give attention to the high frequency words across the four strands of a course Encourage learners to reflect on and take responsibility for learning. Principle of vocabulary selection 1. Frequency 2. Culture factors 3. Student-related factors (refer pg 250) Strategies of Teaching Vocabularies Use instructional read-aloud events. Provide direct instruction in the meanings of clusters of words and individual words. Systematically teach students the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Link spelling instruction to reading and vocabulary instruction. Teach the effective, efficient, realistic use of dictionaries, ELE3104: COMPILATION Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir thesauruses, and other reference works. Teach, model, and encourage the application of a word-learning strategy. Encourage wide reading. Create a keen awareness of and a deep interest in language and words Planning to teach vocabulary 1. Learners own language 2. Techniques of coveying meanings 3. Learner factors 4. Teacher factors (refer pg 251) 6.2 TECHNIQUES AND ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY, SPELLING AND DICTATION
Techniques & activities
Visual techniques

techniques The use of dictionary Translation

OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 PISMP SEM 6 2012 VISUAL TECHNIQUES Topics such as festivals, occupation or places work Example: Blackboard drawings Wall charts Photographs Static visual stimuli. E.g. gestures, facial expressions and mime Example of activities VERBAL TECHNIQUES Use of synonyms and definitions Use of antonyms and contrasts Use of context Word of part clues Vocabulary groups
Word picture association Using diagrams

ELE3104: COMPILATION Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir Example of activities THE USE OF DICTIONARY Some pointers for the effective use of dictionary: TRANSLATION Effectively convey meaning Save time by quickly dispensing with the explanation of the word 6.3 ASSESSING OF VOCABULARY, SPELLILNG AND DICTATION Assessing vocabulary, spelling and dictation Multiple Choice Completion (write the missing word)

Rhyme games Word building Word classification Text- based

Arrange words in alphabetical order Spell the word they are looking up Identify the meaning for the word in context Say the word aloud using the pronunciation key

OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 PISMP SEM 6 2012 E.g : At last the climbers reached the of the mountain Translation (give the L1 of the underlined word) E.g : They worked at the Matching (match each word with its meaning) Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Questions; E.g: 1) In fact, there are folk songs for many occupations railroading, (following/ mustering/ concentrating/ herding) cattle, and so on. 2) known as the Lost Sea. It is listed in yhe Guinnes Book for World Records as th worlds largest underground body, lake, cave). The Vocabulary Levels Questions (1000-10000 level) E.g : a)The picture looks nice; the colours bl really well. b)Nuts and vegetables are cinsidered who food c)Many companies were manufac computers Non-words Questions E.g: 1) dring 2) modest 3) swithin 4) receipt y mill. (water, ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 5) impatient Synonyms Fill in the Blanks True / False Questions Sentence Writing Questions Association Questions

E.g: Write three words that can fit in the blank Cloze Test E.g: One afternoon, in the _____ (1) of America, Amy discovered beautiful _____ (2) in a vase and a box of delicious _____ (3) on her doorstep 7.0 : THE TEACHING AND ASSESSING OF LITERATURE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS Literature promotes the holistic development of the student in social, moral and aesthetic development. Teacher use student centred approaches when using literature in the language classroom. 7.1 Purpose Of Using Literature In The Language Classroom 1) Language Development Student use literature as model of language to show how vocabulary, grammar and patterns may be used effectively to convey a message, appeal to senses and evoke a response. Literature can be serve as both stimulus and context for language learning activities in the classroom. As a stimulus, teacher can exploit student responses to text to produce language. As context, student through tasks devised assuming roles of character. Through language-based tasks, students explore, understand, evaluate, respond to and perform pieces of literature. 2) Social/Moral Development Literature brings the student into contact with the thoughts, feeling and experiences of people in their surroundings. Task using the content of literature can develop in student an awareness of human issues. ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 3) Aesthetic development The aesthetic experience in literature involves the pleasure we get in reading a novel, hearing a poem or

watching a play. Student will be able to make judgement and appreciate to good literature beginning with nursery rhymes and stories. Such activities will motivate students to learn the language because of its interest value, as well develop an appreciation of the language. The Genres Short stories : folktales, myths, legends, fairy tales Novels : longer fictional works containing story lines or plot Drama : plays with stage directions Poetry : writing characterized by rhythm, metre and stanza, by pithy language and sensory appeal. 7.2 Designing Activities Based On Literary Texts The activities may be stages according to the following three phases: 1. Preparing for the text (Pre-reading stage) Before encounter with text, devised activities which will prepare the student for the text. Such activities: Draw the students into the text Activate any personal language related to the text Relate the text into their personal life Create interest or curiosity in what is to come Introduce key features of text which wil facilitate comprehension Focus on aspects of text and allowing students to express their thought and feelings. Useful vocabulary and sentence patterns can be also made familiar before actual encounters with the text. Example of strategies: Using visuals Exploiting the theme Using the language of the text Using drama or role play 2. Working with the text (While-reading

stage-focus on the language and content of the text) Encounter the text by students read the text either silently or aloud, or listens to it being read. Help the students to sustain their reading and explore the text using a hands-on approaches, interacting with each part of the text as they read, listen to, speak or write about the text. When devising activities, teacher may wish to get students: To recognize information provided in literary text ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 To go beyond the information the writer provided To respond emotionally to the characters, plot, theme , language of the text To relate the content of the literary text to personal experience To reformulate information from text and present it in a variety of forms 3. Encounter with text 1) Reading aloud Reading aloud makes the encounter shared experiences. Reading aloud brings alive the text. The students have to heard literature read aloud well before doing themselves. Before getting students to read aloud, ensure they understand the text as effective reading aloud involves interpretayion of texts. Reading aloud can be carried out individually, in pairs or in groups. The following elements should be consider Phrasing Emphasis Intonation Volume Pitch Rhythm Pause 2) Silent reading Individual activity which allow student to proceed at his own pace. The student is

free to make his own meaning as his experiences and knowledge of the world interact with the text. It done out of class with teacher assigning portion of text to be read at home. 3) Story telling Listening to stories in English is an enjoyable way of learning the language. Effective as story teller and audience are in direct contact-the elements of voice, facial expression, gesture. Teacher allow student to Tune in and remember words and phrases which are new Easily understand the language so not have to concentrate on every word Take part in telling of the story as the language is predictable 4. Exploring text Student need to work with text following some directions to help them make meaning out the reading experience. Teacher help student to work at the content and language of the text and response to it through activities devised. Working with content : a) Plot : Based on the understanding what happened, ask student what they expect to occur next. This can be done through discussion or students could write down their predictions. Predictions can also be acted out. ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012 b) Character : activities focus on heroes, heroin, villains, their action and their relationship with the people. Teacher help student come to grips with characters with sociogram showing the relationship between characters. Write nature of the relationship on the linking lines. c) Events : presented in a variety

of ways by students both orally and in written form. Encourage students to interpret and express their personal response to the events and present them in oral retelling or role play. Working with language : student have to use language to express their views orally or in writing. Activities to sensitize students to the language of text should be considered in explorations of texts. Word webs and cloze exercise are some activities can be use. 5. Working out from the text (The postreading stage-text is used as a springboard for extension activities) Art project : o Get students to create wall displays for the English corner by helping them prepare a mural of key characters and events o Help students construct scenes from nursery rhymes Oral activities o Encourage students to retell stories. o Events in stories and poems can be dramatized students can make their own costumes, props and sets. Writing activities o Encorage students to make their own picture dictionaries based on words they come across in their reading of texts. o Write letters from one character to another about events they have read o Set up a graffiti board in class where they could

be describe the characters they encounter. 7.3 Assessing Literature essay multiple choice reference to context open book unseen poems ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012
TOPIC 8: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR Definition: Rules of language which words are put together to convey meaning in different contexts. Knowledge Required In Grammar a) Word Order(Basic sentence patterns that student should learn) b) Position of word classes(adjective,adverb,preposition) c) Positive& negative version d) Grammatical Facts And Rule e) tense,pluralization of nouns,wordderrivation f) Form&Fuction g) Communicate to persuade,expressagreement,thank,appr eciation h) Use word,phrases,sentences to express function i) Word,structure that we used to do this is called form j) How To Link Ideas In Different Sentences k) Compund,complex sentences,conjunction,logical connecteors,pronouns l) Grammar of Spoken&Written Sentences m) Abbreviations form(im,shes)not allowed in formal writing but necessary in spoken language n) Meaning Od Different Grammatical Option o) Many sentence forms exist to express the same content but the different forms have different meanings. The Importances Of Knowing Language Grammar: a) Understand the grammar items in the syllabus to select appropriate language forms for teaching b) Grade&sequence the grammar item appropriately

c) Integrate grammar with the teaching of language skill (LSRW) d) Select appropriate technique for presenting grammar item e) Identify and analyse student error& provide feedback &correction 8.1 Approaches In Teaching Grammar(overt and covert) A good teacher has several possibilities how to teach grammar. There is a number of techniques for presenting and practicing grammar. According to J.Harmer the grammatical information can be given to students in two major ways. The first one could be extremely covert and the second will be made extremely overt. Over grammar teaching Covert grammar teaching grammatical rules are explicitly given to students students are simply asked to work with new language to absorb grammatical information which will help them to acquire the language as a whole 1) Covert grammar teaching: Covert grammar teaching means that grammatical facts are hidden from the students- even though they are learning the language. Students may be asked to do any activity where a new grammar is presented or introduced, but their attention will be drawn to this activity not to the grammar.

ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012
* Teachers get the pupils involved in using the structure without drawing their attention to grammar rules. * The students attention is focused on the activity&not the grammar rules. * Eg : to teach the structure, Do you like? * Students have to go round asking their friends in order to complete the task. 2) Overt grammar teaching : Overt grammar teaching means that the teacher actually provides the students grammatical rules and explanations-the

information is openly presented. Traditionally there are two option available to teacher : a) Deductive approach (general to specific) Teacher presents rules/pattern/generalization and then goes provide practice in the application of these rules. b) Inductive approaches / Discovery method (specific to general) Students are given a number of sample sentences containing the target forms and the teacher guides the students into deriving the rule for themselves. 8.2 Purpose Of Teaching Grammar 1. It helps to use the language effectively. 2. Knowledge of the underlying rules of grammar is provided. 3. To develop students insight into the structure of English language. 4. To enable the students to assimilate the correct patterns of the language. 5. To teach grammar as a rule governed behaviour. 6. To develop the mental abilities of reasoning and correct observation. Problem In Learning English Grammar Mismatch between form and function Exceptions to the rule -many exception to grammar rules cause difficulty in learning English Interference from the learners own language-differences between English and their own language Lack of motivation to learn grammar-grammar learning is boring because it requires multiple repetition 8.3 Techniques and Activities For Teaching Grammar Features Of Activities That Support Grammar Learning 1. Be meaningful. Relate to students own need and therefore engage them as people. Get to know your students interest, likes, and dislikes. When choosing activities : Can my students relate to this topic?/Do they know anything about it?/Would they like to know more about it? 2. Be purposeful Good learning activities :

ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012
Involve students in doing things with language/Give them some challenge/Catch their interest and attention. 3. Have a social function Give opportunities for interaction so student can: Get a sense of the usefulness of the language Get chance to check and test their understanding 4. Provide plenty of practice Let learners use similar language in different ways(lLSRW)and contexts (poems, stories, songs, games and jokes.) Give plenty of exposure target structures become part of the automatic response and language (habit) 5. Use a multimedia approach Use senses- visual support, auditory support, reading. 6. Provide variety Use all four skill, different contexts, different genres. 7. Encourage active participation. Design tasks that allow student to manipulate the new language and challenge them to think or interact with each other. Stages In Grammar Lesson A)PRESENTATION Purpose: To illustrate how the structure is formed&what it mean&how it is used/lead student to use the structure to talk about themselves/check student understanding Characteristic: Clear,interesting relevant&appropriate/includes an element of personel involvement Typical Activities:Buildup of appropriate situational&linguistic context for new language/listen&initial repetition of new language/use new language to talk about themselves Role Of Teacher: Informant Correction: Necessary to correct to ensure student grasp the correct form Length&place in lesson:short&usually at the beginning Factor for presentation that should consider: Interest & Suitability Approaches: 1. Didactic Approach -teacher explains the rule,give several seed sentences to help the student grasp the

concept&pattern,student apply the rule in drills 2. Discovery Method -student are given several carefully chosen instances of grammatical feature&try to derive the pattern in the given sample for themselves -the rule is explicitly stated by the students or teacher -futher practice is given in applying the rule Eg:usingsituation,tables or texts 3. Story-Comic Approach Technique Used During Presentation:

ELE3104: COMPILATION OF NOTES ELE3104 TOPIC 5-8 Prepared by : Hanis Athirah Rusli and Nuraini Mohd Nasir PISMP SEM 6 2012
- Flashcards - Highlighter - Wall charts - Activity in classroom - Sliding sentence strips - Word cards and pocket charts B)FOCCUSED PRACTICE Purpose: To build student confidence in using new language/enable students to gain control of the structure within controlled framework Characteristic: Controlled to minimize scope for errors/clear&precise/ maximized student talking time Typical Activities:Drills/dialogue/text completion/problem solving/role play Role Of Teacher: Conductor/Corrector Correction: Immediate correction by teacher or peers Length&place in lesson:Depend on students needs&difficulty of the structure/immediately after presentation Teaching and learning materials: -Drills -Substitution Table -Jazz chants -Meaningful drill -Blank-filling -Motor activities -Recombining activities: 1.Use two sentence maker 2.Make sure all the words the students would need are in the second sentence-maker 3.Use appropriate stimuli to ensure the student used the target structure C)COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE Purpose: Give student opportunities to use the new language in freer(terbuka) more purposeful&creative ways/give teacher feedback on the level of mastery Characteristic: Learner-centred/interaction activity/clear instruction from the teacher

Typical Activities: Communicative activities(games&discussion) Role Of Teacher:Monitor&organizer Correction: Without correction but errors-noted Length&place in lesson: Depends on profiency of student&type of activity/ after presentation&practice/within or across lesson Teaching and learning materials: Problem solving Stories Songs and nursery rhymes Using personel experience Games Using visual (eg:picture,maps,diagrams,graph,table s) Poems Role play Quizzes,puzzles&riddles Integrating Grammar With Other Language Skills


Ways Which Integration Of Grammar With (LSRW): 1. Systematized mapping of the grammar syllabus within thematicallyconceived( pendekatan merangkumi) series of units. 2. Unit by unit mapping of grammar. -mapping of grammar that comes after the texts&situations for the four skills have been determined/the grammar slement is then built to support the skills based activities. 3. Through specific ways in which grammar supports&is supported by each language skill Integration of grammar with each skill: a)Listening&Speaking Most grammar presentation&drills are oral Certain sentence structure such as social formulae like Would you mind,Do you think it would.this cannot be explained as grammatical rules because the students would not be able to understand the rule. b)Reading Reading texts can become rich contexts for practice of variety of grammatical forms Structural readers are used for extensive reading can provide the intensive practice necessary for internalization of

grammar rules. c)Writing Provide real&extended contexts for the practice of specific grammar items Editing&creative writing provide context for the sensitive use of grammar in dynamic interaction with other consideration in the communicative process. Adapting Lesson For Mixed Ability Class 1) All student do not need to do all the items or exercises 2) All student do not need to do the same kinds of activity 3) Activities can be designed so that all students can do them minimally,but better students can do them at more sophisticated level,using more complex structures,fitting sturctures appropriately 4) Better students can be given more sophisticated forms and be asked to choose between forms according to situation 5) Poor students need constant practice 8.4 Assessing Grammar