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Because of the importance of effective leaders to the future of Civil Air patrol and this Nation, leadershiptraining, to be given in the leadershiplaboratory, is prescribedas one of the four major program factors of the CAp Cadet Program. This is fitting and proper. Leadership is a fascinating and challenging art, but it is an art that can be learned with study and practice. By definition, leadership is the art of influencing and directing people in a way that will win their obedience,confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation in achievinga common objective. In addition, it is the responsibilityof Civil Air Patrol to provide its cadet members the opportunity to develop their leadership capabilities to the utmost. This manual contains some of the principles and techniques that, when properly applied,will help achievethis purpose. The leadership laboratory of the CAp cadet program provides for cadet progress through four increasingly challenging categories of responsibility: participant - follower, participant - leader, planner - supervisor, and adviser - counselor. Cadets in Phase I and those in the first three achievements of Phase II have the status of participant-followers in leadershiplaboratory. They are introduced to and acquire a basic knowledge of fundarnentalmilitary drill. As they increasetheir experienceand proficiency during tlie last three achievements in phase II, they become participant-leaders.During the participant-leader phase, cadets assume positions of responsibility and authority in which they instruct both individual members and squads in executing basic facing movements ancl marching movements. In the phase III leadersliip laboratory, cadets are given additional responsibility and authority as plannersupervisors. They develop growing leadership skills through the supervision of subordinate cadets and the application of problem-solving techniques. Phase IV cadets serve as special advisers and counselors and seek to improve the knowledge and proficiency of the entire unit. The following table is to be used in presenting the material in this manual to the participants in the leadershiplaboratory. (Note: Chapter numbers correspond to achievement numbers.)


First Three Achievements Last Three Achievements PHASE III PHASE IV

MustMaster Chapters:

2,3,4 5.6.1 8.9.I0.I I 12,13,14,15

As cadets progress through each phase of the cadet program, they must master the parts of this manual that are prescribedabove for that phase of the leadership laboratory. Not only must they master the required material during each phase of the leadership laboratory, they must also retain mastery ot that material as they go on to ancl through phases. Only in this way can they succeeding lay a firm foundation upon which to improve and increase their leadershipknowledge and skills. To attain - and retain - masterv of the principles and techniques described in this manual, cadets must continually study and practice to become proficient - to improve old skills and to develop new ones. If they do this, they will attain the objectives set for each phase of the program and their leadership growth will be constant and wellfounded.


THE CADET OATH I pledge that I will serve faithfully in the Civil Air Patrol cadet program,and that I will attend meetingsregularly, participate actively in unit activities, obey my officers, wear my uniform properly, and advancemy educationand training rapidly to preparemyself to be of service to my community, state,and nation . In the interestof easier pleaseconstrue reading, each third person,singularreference to "he," "his," "him," or "himself" to mean "he or she," "his or hers," "him or her," or "himself or herself."

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTERI .THE LEADERSHIP LABORATORYTNCIVIL AIR PATROL . . S ectionA - P urposesan d O b je c t iv e s . . . . . . . .I . .. . . . . . 1

LABORATORYOBJECTIVES FOR PHASEII . . . . ., .34 CHAPTER2 -LEADERSHIP S ectionA - Commands ...34 . . . . .. . . . 3 5 S ectionB - Colors CHEPTEN3 -COMMANDS AND THE COMMANDVOICE. . . . S ectionA - Responsibilit ie s th oe f Ca d e t NCO . S ectionB - GivingComma n d s C HA P TE R4-DRILLOFTHEF L I G HT S ectionA - Formationsa n d Ma rc h in g . . . S ectionB - Marching of theGuidon Section C - Manual C HA P TE R 5 -ME THODS OF T RA I NI NG . S ectionA - Drillasa Lead e n h ip L a b T e c h n iq u e S ectionB - InteriorGuard C HA P TE R6-DRILLOFTHES Q UA DRO . N .. Section A - Rulesfor Squadron Drill S ectionB - Formations S ectionC- Raisingand L o we rin g t h e F la . g C HA P TE R T.RE S P ONS IB IL I T I E S O F T HE CA DE T O F F I CE R . , , . . . .42 ....42 .. . . . . 4 3

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CHAPTER I As a cadet member of Civil Air Patrol, you have the privilege of participating in the finest program of its kind in the world. One facet of the CAP cadet program - the leadership laboratory - gives you an unequalled opportunity to develop your leadershipabilities to the fullest. The CAP leadersliiplaboratory is not easy. It will reqttire much hard work, and like everything in life, what you get out of the laboratory will depend on what you put into it. One thing is certian, however. The results that you can attain in the leadershiplaboratory will far exceed the effort you must expend, and when you finish the program you will be better informed, more matute, and more understanding than when you started' SectionA PURPOSEAND OBJECTIVES The purpose of the Civil Air Patrol cadet program is the developrnent of dynamic leaders' The leaderAmericans and aerospace ship laboratory offers a practical method of an indisdeveloping leadership potential pensable element of the ultirnate goal. This manual is intended to provide the necessary tools for such development. It is correlated with the standard meeting schedules and overall objectives of the CAP cadet program, and it is to be used as the basisfor the leadership laboratory program prescribed in CAPM Ilandbook for the Cadet 50-16, "The Leader's Program." I. PURPOSEOF THE LEADERSHIP LABORATORY. The content of the leadership laboratory program factor is designed to provide you with an opportunity to become proficient in the following seven major areas: (l) Leadership Laboratory Methods, (2) Military Drill Techniques and Ceremonies, (3) The CAP Uniform, (4) Customs and Courtesiesin Civil Air Patrol, (5) Security Functions of the Interior Guard, (6) Characteristicsand Principles of Leadership, and (7) Techniques of Leadership. As you progress through the program, your relationship to the required activities changes. During the program, you will participate in the following four increasingly responsibleleadership stages: (l) Participant - Follower, (2) Participant - Leader, (3) Planner - Supervisor, and (4) Adviser -Counselor. 2. THE PURPOSE OF DRILL LEADERSHIP LABORATORY IN THE

In educational terms, a laboratory course is one in which the students gain knowledge of chemical, physical, or human processes from a planned series of problem-solving and direct experience. The CAP assignments leadership laboratory is no exception; however, leadership problems and their solutions cannot be reduced to formulas. Leadershipthe ability to guide or direct the actions of others so as to gain their willing cooperation in doing a job, sometimes a job they neither

want to do nor know how to do - is a human process,and it lends itself to teaching through the laboratory method. Since it is not the sum total of set formulas or rules. it is not possibleto provide you with the kind of laboratory manual used in a chemistry or physics class. Nor is it possible to supply you with standardized materials or with specific answers to the problems you will meet in the leadership laboratory. Nevertheless, as a CAP cadet and a potential leader, you must learn to recognize, analyze,and solve leadershipproblems when they occur. The CAP leadership laboratory will help you do this. A laboratory for the development of leadership could be designed around almost any kind of cooperativeactivity. Drill as the medium for the leadershiplaboratory has numerous advantages. It is relatively easy to teach. It requires close teamwork of small, medium, or large groups. It is a necessary skill for successful membership in Civil Air Patrol and must eventually be learned. When done well, it has a unifying effect that promotes discipline and esprit de corps. However, the most important reason for using drill in the leadershiplaboratory is that it is a means by which you can gradually progressfrom the simple to the difficult. In performing the drill movements, you start with the simple, basic facings, and advanceto the elaboratemaneuvers of a full review. In solving the leadershipproblems that arise during this process, you start with the relatively simple problems of the squad leaders and progress to the complex problems of the cadet commander. The techniques that are the goals of the leadership laboratory are not peculiar to Civil Air Patrol. The manager of a baseballteam and a flight commander use essentially the same techniques of leadership; likewise, the president of a corporation and the commander of a large CAP unit practice much the same leadership. Because of this similarity, many successful CAP leaders move smoothly into positions of leadership in business, government, and the professions. The leadership laboratory must not be limited to the drill field. Leadershipis an integral part of all CAP activities, and the concepts and methods of the laboratory must be applied

in the classrooms, offices, and operational facilities of the unit as well as on the drill field. You cannot become a leader - proficient in wearing the uniform, in military courtesy, in military discipline - in one laboratory, or in one meeting, or in one phase. You must study and practice over a period of time, and you must receive frequent, repetitive training from patient, understanding, skilled instructors.

3. OVERVIEW OF OBJECTIVES Certain objectives,all interdependent, have been assignedto the leadership laboratory for each phase of the program. Several objectives overlap or are repeatedin later phases. There is a sound reason for this - what you learn and then practice in succeedingmonths and years will take on new meaning and importance as time goes by and as you and the conditions that surround you change. As you advance through the leadership laboratory program, you must know what you will be expected to do, and then learn to do it. To instruct well, you must know more than the students you teach. To supervise properly, you must know what is expected of the instructors. To give wise counsel,your combined experience, skills, and knowledge must be broad enough for you to solve the varied problems you may encounter. Much of your success as a cadet in Phases I and II will depend on the kind of supervision and leadership you receive from advanced cadets. And when you become an advanced cadet, much of the successof those in your charge will depend on how well you superviseand lead them. As you progress through the program and become increasingly proficient in exercising leadership skills, you will be given corresponding responsible assignments. You will acquire the ability to handle this increased responsibility in stages, which, in general, corresponds with the four phasesof the cadet program. 4. LEADERSHIP LABORATORY OBJECTIVES FOR PHASE I As a cadet in the PhaseI leadership laboratory, you acquire a basic knowledge of the fundamentals of militarv drill and ceremonies

and an understandingof the importance of these skills. You are also introducedto CAP customsand courtesies.For satisfactory completion of the PhaseI leadership laboratory, you must attain the following specificobjectives: (l) Understandthe role of leadership laboratory activities in the CAP cadet program and in preparing each cadet for leadership responsibilities in both civilian and CAP positions. (2) Understand the necessityfor correct personal appearanceand proper wearing of the CAP uniform. (3) Perform competently in the basic fundamentals of military drill and be able to move with a military unit in a military manner. (4) Understandthe purpose of, and your responsibilities with respect to, attitude and discipline in Civil Air Patrol. (5) Understand and follow the customs and courtesies of CAP.

SectionB THE CAP UNIFORM One of the proud traditions of the cadet programis the CAP cadetuniform. It is possible to participate in the cadet program through the Motivation Phase and Phase I without wearing the uniform. However, all cadets are authorized to wear the CAP uniform if they meet the grooming standards. If they do wear the uniform they areobligated to wear it properly and proudly. It is important, therefore,that you learn about the origin and nature of the CAP uniform early in your membershipso that you will always wear it in a mannerthat bringscredit to you and your unit. 7. HISTORYOF THE UNIFORM The uniform is a symbol of dignity, pride, and honor in the tradition of military service. The modern military uniform is a standardized, distinctivedressprescribed by a country for wear by its soldiers,sailors,and airmen. American uniforms. like those of other countries, have evolved gradually over the years with an increasingtrend toward functional simplicity to meet the complexity of modern situations. The uniform of the past tended to be more decorative than practical;today's practical uniform is the product of research andexperience. The presentAir Force uniform is a lineal descendantof the variety of garmentsworn by the colonial fighters during the preRevolutionary period. These first American soldierswore variationsof the Europeanuniforms of the sameperiod, often with borrowings from the Indians and frontiersmen. The basic colors were bright, including vivid red coatslike thoseworn by the British. ln 1776, Congressauthorized Washingtonto raise an army by direct enlistmentand to prescribea uniform. During the greaterpart of the Revolution, the American uniform was officially a light blue coat, a three-cornered hat, a buff vest, and buff breeches and leggings. But as American a matter of practicethe resourceful soldierwore whatevercould be foraged.After the Revolution, the basic uniforrn was a blue coat trimmed with white, with trimmings varyingaccording to states.

5. GUIDE FOR PRESENTING TEXT MATERIAL There are many ways in which the individual subjects in this manual can be taught. Because of the variations in personnel, facilities, and conditions from unit to unit, no rigid sequenceof methods of training can be prescribed. Each unit must, therefore, devise a specific training sequence for its leadershipThe unit training sequence alaboratory. dopted must give each cadet an opportunity to attain the leadership laboratory objectives for the phase (or category) in which the cadet is participating. 6, EVALUATION OF PROGRESS IN THE LEADERSHIP LABORATORY The progresseach cadet makes in the leadership laboratory must be evaluated at least once in each achievement. Procedures for making these evaluations are outlined in Attachment l. Checklists for personal evaluation and self-analysis are found in Attachment2.

In the l9th century, American troops first began to wear uniforms of a common and distinctive type. Through changes of cut and style, light and dark blues have remained the basic colors of the dress uniform. When the increasedrange and accuracy of weapons made bright colors impractical, a khaki-colored service, or field, uniform was introduced. beginning with the Spanish-American War. Olive drab uniforms were first worn in World War I. Since that time, the trend has been toward uniforms of colors that blend easily with the surrounding terrain and toward items that are both serviceable and practical. The present Air Force uniform dates from 1949. Before that time, Air Force personnel wore the Army uniform. When the Air Fbrce became a separate servicein 1947, a new uniform was needed. The CAP uniform is, in all basic essentials,

the same as that worn by a member of the U. S. Air Force. The special CAP insignia set CAP personnel apart as members of the auxiliary of the U. S. Air Force. The Civil Air Patrol is the only volunteer civilian organization permitted to wear the uniform of the United StatesAir Force.

The CAP uniform and the grade insignia it carries are marks of responsibility assignedto its wearer. They are evidence that the CAp member is capable of successfully performing the tasks that such responsibility carries. Every CAP member should wear the uniform properly and proudly. While in uniform, the member's conduct should be exemplary so that it reflects credit upon Civil Air Patrol, the U.S. Air Force. and the member.

Figure l: Basic Male Uniform

8. SOURCES FOR THE CAP UNIFORM You may purchase a CAP uniform at Air Force Base Exchanges. You must present your current membership card to the Exchange personnel as evidence of your eligibility to acquire the uniform. Other persons may not purchaseitems of the uniform for you. If you are in a remote area, or if no Air Force Base Exchange is readily available, you may purchase your uniform by mail. If this check CAP Manual 39-1, should be necessary, "Civil Air Patrol Uniforms" for the current ordering procedures. This topic is covered in paragraph 1-11, "Where to PurchaseUniform Items." It must be rememberedthat CAP uniform items such as buttons, insignia, badges, patches,etc. are not stocked at Air Force Base Exchanges, but are available through the CAP Bookstore.

9. THE BASIC UNIFORM CAP Manual 39-1, "Civil Air Patrol Uniforms," describes in detail the CAP uniform and the various authorized combinations of uniform items. The basic uniform for the male cadet consists of the 1549-1550 shirt-trouser combination, blue web belt, blue flight cap, black plain-toe shoes, black socks and distinctive CAP insignia. The basic uniform of the female cadet consists of the 1549-1550 blouseskirt combination. blue beret, neutral-colored nylon hose, black plain-toe pumps or oxfords, black handbag and distinctive CAP insignia. 10. WHEN TO WEAR THE UNIFORM You should wear your CAP service uniform when you engagein normal duties as a CAP member and when you attend local, area, or national CAP functions, such as: When attending CAP meetings. When making public appearances as a part of CAP groups. When participating in CAP operational missions. When attending official government functions as a representative of CAP. When visiting military installations. When flying in military aircraft. You should not wear the CAP uniform in any public place where the environment may tend to discredit Civil Air Patrol or its members. In addition, you do not wear the uniform: When engagedin political activities. When engaging in paid employment not connected with CAP. When engagingin menial labor. When participating in sports events. When attending social functions having no relation to CAP. 1 1. DRESS AND APPEARANCE Members of the CAP must be well-groomed when in uniform and assurethat their personal appearances at all times reflect credit upon themselvesand the CAP. CAP members will meet the following minimum requirements to be authorized to wear the uniform.

Figure 2: Basic Female Uniform

a. Appearance of Uniform. When uniforms are worn, they must be clean, neat, cor_ rect in design and specification, and in good condition. Uniforms will be kept buttoned and shoes must be shined and in good repair. Metallic insignia, badges, and other metallic devices including the blue service uniform buttons, must be maintained in the proper luster and condition. b. Personal Appearance- Men: ( l) The face will be kept cleanshaven except that a mustache may be worn if neatly trimmed. It may not extend below the upper vermillion part of the lip or be wider than the vermillion corners of the lips. A beard may be worn only when temporarily approved by medical officials for medical reis9ns. Such approval will be limited initially to three months, but may be extended if ionsidered necessary by medical authorities. (2) Hair must be neatly trimmed with a tapered appearance. It may not touch the ears or the collar. The ,,Block,, style is authorized as long as a tapered appearanceis maintained. Sideburnswill be neafly trimmed and will end with a clean shave horizontal line. They may not extend below the bottom of the ear lobe. c. Personal Appearance- Women: ( I ) Hair will be neatly arranged and shaped to present a conservative feminine appearance. Back hair may touch but not fall below the bottom of the collar. Hair styles that prevent the proper wearing of the service hat, or beret are not appropriate. Barrettes, ribbons, and other ornaments, except inconspicuous pins and combs, will not be worn in the hair when the uniform is worn. Hair nets will be worn only when authorized for a specific type of duty. Hair coloring may be used if it looks natural and complementsskin tones. (2) Cosmetics will be conservative and in good taste. (3) Pencils, pens, pins, handkerchiefs, jewelry and will not be wom or carried exposed on the uniform. Wear of earrings is prohibited (healing post may be worn), but rings may be worn. Conservativesunglasses may be worn, except in military formations. 12. HOW TO WEAR THE UNIFORM The items in this checklist must be complied with for proper wearing of the CAp uniform. Do not mix civilian clothing with the CAp uniform. Avoid unauthorized mixing of uniform items. Keep your uniform clean,neat, and pressed. Trim loose strings and frayed seams. Wear your cap whenever you are outdcors. Male cadets do not wear headgearindoors, female cadets follow acceptable ,civilian practices and customs concerning wearing headgearindoors. Place your flight cap on your head so that it is tilted to the right side of the head about I inch above the right eyebrow, or approximately two fingers above the right eyebrow and two fingers above the right ear. Place your insignia correctly. "CAp"

collar insignia are centered between top and bottom edges of the collar, I inch in from the front edge, with the insignia parallel to the top edge of the collar. Wear only authorized insignia and decorations. Have your shoulder sleeveinsignia (patches) sewn on the upper left shoulder so that they are centered Yz inch below the top seam of the sleeve. Be sure your uniform fits properly. The uniform is designed to conform to the body lines but not to fit "skintight." Any alteration which needs to be made should not compromise the design. Enter the belt through the loops on the left and fasten the belt through the buckle so that the entire metal tip shows,with no blue material visible between the metal tip and the buckle. Keep your shirt, coat, or jacket buttoned at all times. Keep your hair neat. Keep your fingernails clean and short. Do not place ties and flight capsunder the shoulderloops. I3. WEARING OF CADET INSIGNIA Military insignia are of more recent development than is the military uniform. lnsignia of grade in their present form are a l9th century development, and minor changesto the officer's service cap insignia were made as late as World War II. Like the Air Force insignia they parallel, CAP insignia ate a visual biography of the CAP member, showing the member's wing, grade, and accomplishments. The following checklist for CAP cadet insignia you in wearingyour insigniaproperly. will assist Service cap insignia (if the cap is authorized in writing by the wing commander to be worn by cadet officers) is centered on the front rise of the caP. Flight cap insignia is placed on the left front curtain of the flight cap, cen: tered from top to bottom, and lYz inches from the top front edge (for malesonly). CAP buttons are worn on all unitorms

instead of U. S. Air Force buttons. Lapel insignia for cadet officers. Cadet airmen wear the metal letters "CAP" on the left lapel and the metal chevronson the right lapel. Collar insignia (the metal letters "CAP") are worn on the left collar of shirts/overblouse when worn as an outer garment (grade insignia worn on right collar). If the member has no grade,the collar insigniais worn on both sidesof the collar. Center insignia between the top and bottom edges of the collar, one inch from the front ccillar edge of shirts and 5/8 inch from the front collar edge of the overblouse, with the insignia parallel to the top edgeof the collar. Shoulder boards: male service uniform combinations I and 4 and female service uniform combinations A and C. Metal chevrons for cadet airmen are worn on the right collar llapel of all uniforms. CAP identification badge is worn resting on top of the right pocket flap of the male servicecoat and Yzinch above the nameplate on the female servicecoat orpantsuit jacket (must be worn with black nameplate). 3-Line nameplate is worn on all other uniform combinations. Males: Worn resting on top of right pocket flap. Females: Aligned with second button on overblouse and top button on field shirt. Shoulder mark insignia worn by cadet officers on the epaulet shirt. Miniature size metal grade insignia is worn on the shoulder mark. Collar insignia is not worn with the shoulder mark insignia. Shoulder patch is worn lz inch below the shoulder seam of the left sleeve of shirts worn as outergarments, jackets, coats,and overcoats. Ribbons awarded in accordance with CAPR 39-3 are worn immediately above the left breast pocket as prescribed in that regulation. CAP aviation badge is worn centered lz inch above the left breast pocket of shirts worn as outergarments, jackets, and coats, if ribbons are worn, the aviation badge is worn Yz inch above

them; only one aviation badge may be (For additional information worn. refer to CAPM 39-1.) 14. AWARDS AND DECORATIONS Since the Purple Heart - first and oldest of American decorations - was first authorized in 1782, extraordinary or outstanding performance in the military service has been honored through awards and decorations. Civil Air Patrol has followed this tradition with the establishment of various awards and decorations to recognize outstanding accomplishments. These CAP decorations and awards are describedin detail in CAPR 39-3. 15. YOUR OBLIGATION IN WEARING THE CAP UNIFORM The alert cadet takes pride in the way the uniform is worn becausethe cadet realizesthat a neat, well-groomed cadet attracts favorable attention wherever seen-at CAP meetings, in the local town, and especiallyin communities in which the uniform is rarely seen. Likewise, a cadet who makes a poor appearance attracts unfavorable attention. There is only one way to wear the uniform and that is the right way. As the name implies, the uniform must be worn in a standard, uniform manner, as established in current directives. The cadet who sets a poor example in wearing his uniform may leave an unfavorable impression in other respects. As in all phases of civilian life, personal appearanceis vitally important. Often, personal appearance and the manner in which uniforms are worn are the chief means by which the casual observer evaluatesthe unit and its members. Uniform violations should be corrected on the spot to insure that high standards of appearanceare maintained. Unit commanders are responsible for the appearanceof the members of their units. Section C CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES IN CAP

important part in all activities of the organization, and that they contribute greatly to CAP's unique character. Only a fine line separates customs from courtesies, and each is rooted in the same source: respect between individuals for each other. The technical difference is that observance of courtesies is officially required, while observance of customs stems from tradition. Both. however, are unfailingly practiced by all members of Civil Air Patrol.


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16. WHAT IS MILITARY COURTESY? Courtesy which is simply politeness, civility, respect, and personal recognition of the rights and dignity of others - has always guided the lives of respectable individuals. In Civil Air Patrol, where individuals are required to work together closely and where cooperative effort is essential, courtesy is vitally important in promoting coordination and in developing esprit de corps. Military courtesy is simply the extension to the military sphere of the ordinary courtesies that enrich and enhance everyday living. Further, it is the continuing mutual recognition of the role of the individual as a part of a close-knit organization. Acts of courtesy and civility are not marks of inferiority or servility. Rather, they are indications that one individual appreciatesthe position and rights of another. Courtesies denote a feeling of pride, respect, and comradeship between individuals, and they express a high state of unit or organizational pride and individual self-respect. As in the courtesies of everyday civilian life, military courtesy is a two-way street for both juniors and seniors. The courtesy paid a senior is a recognition of the basic principles of command and organization; it is the respect shown to every leader or commander as acknowledgement of the responsibility and authority of the position. Courtesy shown to juniors acknowledges the essential part they play as membersof the team. The courtesies which have always marked military life and which have been adopted by Civil Air Patrol have a profound meaning. A salute to the flag is a declaration of loyalty to the United States and to the principles of liberty and justice upon which the nation was founded. When a member of the armed services presents arms or salutes a senior, the member is recognizing the organized authority of the nation as represented by the armed services, which are charged with its protection. When a member of Civil Air Patrol salutes a senior officer, the member is continuing this tradition of military courtesy. Thus, the simplest expression of military courtesy is chargedwith larger significance.











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CAP members realize that military courtesy develops pride and discipline in the individual and the group, and they practice it within their organization and when associating with Air Force personnel on Air Force bases. To have meaning, these courtesies must be more than stereotyped rituals. Unless they expressan inner feeling, they are merely automatic responses. They must be accompanied by a constructive attitude which views them as a living expression of mutual confidence and respect. In a way, they are an application of discipline to the everyday affairs of life, and the observanceof courtesy is usually a sign of good discipline. Courtesy and discipline are so closely related that one necessarilyimplies the other. The military courtesies practiced in Civil Air Patrol are not impersonal and mechanical. The manner in which the courtesies are rendereed can express various shades of feeling: pride, confldence, self-respect, or perhaps contempt. Careful observance usually indicates a high state of individual and unit pride, slovenly observance is usually the mark of consciousor unconsciousdisrespect. The unit with high standards of courtesy and uniform discipline is not automatically the most efficient unit, but it does display the state of mind in which efficiency flourishes. Just as efficiency is achieved in other activities, the way for you to learn the proper way to render the common acts of military courtesy is through training and enforcement. Your training should emphasize both the methods and the meaning. Apart from your unit training, you should think through the whole meaning of military courtesy. If you understand its real purpose and meaning, you will be able to practice it easily and naturally. Enforcement is as important as training for the maintenance of military courtesy. On-the-spot correction is most effective, but it should be administered in private if possible. CAP officers and cadet officers are responsible for supervising and correcting their subordinates in matters of military courtesy, as well as for explaining its real meaning and importance. Many violations of military courtesy are not deliberate but are the unintentional result of ignorance. The purpose of cor-

Figure 5: The Salute

rection is to insure the proper observanceof military courtesy in the future. 17. MILITARY SALUTE Since the beginning of recorded history, the salute has been used as a gesture of greeting and as an expression of mutual trust and respect. Saluting has always been a privilege enjoyed only by soldiers in honorable standing. Centuries ago, slaves were considered unworthy of bearing arms, and hence were forbidden to salute free individuals. Today, becausethey are not in good standing, military prisoners forfeit the right to salute. The custom of saluting with the right hand dates back to the period when all male personnel went armed and all strangerswere possible enemies. In the age of chivalry, mounted knights wore armor that covered them from


head to toe. When two friendly knights met, it was the custom for each to raise the visor with the right hand, while holding the reins with the left hand. This gesture signified friendship and confidence, since it exposed the face and also removed the sword hand from the weapon. Armed individuals other than knights usually wore no visors. On appropriate occasionsthey held up the right hand, palm open. This gesture proved that no weapon was held in the hand and indicated that the meeting was a friendly one. Thus, the history of the military salute can be traced back to the Order of Knighthood, which for centuries furnished the brain and spirit and muscle of Eurooeanarmies. The salute can be described as the basic greeting between military persons - it is the military way of saying "Hello." You display a higher degree of courtesy by saying, "Good m6rning, SitlMu'am" or "Good evening' Sir/ Ma'am," when you salute. Sincethe salute is a greeting,it is proper and courteous for you to greet contemporaries of your own grade by a salute. it is used most frequently, thehand Because salute is the most important of all military courtesies. Civil Air Patrol hasadopted this universal custom of the military, and like every other CAP member, you are obligated to salute properly. You may render the hand salute while in a car, either inside or outside a building, standing or marching, or, if you are an officer acknowledging a salute, while seated. You must never execute the salute in a casual manner or with a pipe, cigar, cigarette, or any other object held in your mouth or in your right hand' Vou rnuy salute only at a halt or a walk. If you are running, you must come to a walk before saluting. The proper way to salute is described in paragraPh46. The following persons are saluted by CAP members in uniform: Officers and warrant officers (male and female) of Civil Air Patrol and the Armed Forces of the United States; Commissioned officers of Allied nations; Officers of friendly foreign countries, when recognizedas such. A salute is returned by all officers entitled to it, unless they are in information. CAP memil

bers below warrant officer grade are not required to exchange salutes' The specific occasions on which salutes are exchanged are listed in paragraph47. 18. REPORTING When reporting to an officer in the individual's office, check to assure your uniform is properly arranged, remove your headdressand leave it outside the office, knock twice and enter upon invitation. (If there is an NCO in charge, you first obtain permission from the NCO to speak with the officer.) On entering the officer's office, halt 2 paces from the officer, salute, and say: "Sir/Ma'am, Cadet . . . reports to Captain . . . ., or "Sir/Ma'am, Cadet requests permission to speak to Captain . . . ." Hold the saluteuntil the completion of the final report, when the officer returns the salute. Remain at attention until given at ease. Carry on your conversation in the first and second penon. When your businessis completed, take I step backward, salute, execute an about face when the salute has been returned, and depart. When reporting outdoors, you follow the same procedures as for reporting indoors except that you do not remove your headdress. 19. HONORS TO THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OR TO THE COLORS Whenever and wherever the national anthem, To the Colors, or Retreat is played, certain honors are accorded the flag. Although these honors are detailed in the next chapter, new cadets should be able to render basic honors as appropriate. These basically are the salute when in uniform out of doors, and the position of attention under all other circumstances. 20. PERSONAL HONORS Distinguished military and civilian officials are entitled to specific salutes and other personal honors, such as honor guards, cer'tain marches played by the band, and ruffles and flourishes played by the field music (durms and trumpets)' A flourish is a brief irumpet fanfare, a ruffle is a roll of the drums given as the flourish is sounded. (In Civil Air Fatrol, appropriate recorded music may be

used if there is no band or field music avail_ able.) When honors are rendered, officers, airmen and cadets present but not in formation will face the person being honored, salute at the first note of music, and hold the salute until the completion of the ruffles and flour_ ishes and the march music. The same pro_ cedure is followed when .,Hail to the Chief' is played to honor the president of the United States. Weapons of all types are prohibited in Civil Air Patrol, and the organization does not use the gun salute. The gun salute, fired at Army and Navy installations, has the same symbolic meaning as the hand salute. In the Air Force, as in Civil Air patrol, gun salutes are usually not fired at ceremonies. 21. COURTESIESTO INDryIDUALS Except as provided in the next paragraph, when an officer enters a room, all officers of lower grade, airmen, and cadets present will stand at attention until the officer directs REST or AT EASE, or leaves the room. When more than one person is present, the first to seethe officer loudly commandsATTENTION. If the commander enters a room containins officers only, it is better form for the officei first seeing the commander to announce, "Ladies and Gentlemen, the commander.', When an officer enters a room used as an office, workshop, recreation room, or class_ room in which class activities are progressing, those at work or play are not requiied io come to attention unlessaddressed by the comman_ der. When addressedby a senior officer, a junior officer comesto attention, except in the conduct of routine business between th. t*o. When accompanyinga senior,a junior rides or walks in step on the senior's left, except during an inspection. This is another courtesy with a long and interesting history. For cen_ turies individuals fought with swords, and because most men were right handed. the heaviest fighting occurred on the right. The shield was carried on the left arm. and the left side became defensive. Individuals and units ..let George ryh9 nryfened to fight rather than to do it," and who were proud of their fighting ability, considered the right of a battle line to be a post of honor. When an officer walks on

your right, this is symbolically filling the post of honor. When entering an automobile, the junior enters first and others follow in inverse order of grade, taking their appropriate seats with the senior on the right. When leaving an automobile, the senior goes first and others follow in order of grade. In the caseof aircraft, the senior usually boards first and departs first. When an enlisted person meets an officer on a staircase or in a narrow hallway, it is an old custom that the airman halt and stand at attention. 22. CIVIL AIR PATROL CUSTOMS Customs are those things which should be done. Customs that evolve, live, and endure represent reasonable, consistent. and universally accepted practices that make life more pleasant or facilitate orderly procedures. Continued for a long period of time, they become socially compulsory and tend to assume the force of law. Observance of the acceptedcustomsof any nation, race, trade, or organizationidentifies the newcomeras a "member of the clan,',and nonobservance setsthe individual asideand requires the individual to prove group loyalty before being accepted. Civil Air Patrol is no exception. The sense of duty well performed, honor in all things, and country above self provide the basis not only for the official acts of all Civil Air Patrol members, but also for the customs which developed within the organization. In observing these customs, you must always remember the following concerning relations between seniorsand juniors: ',The senior will never think of the difference in erade. the junior will never forget it." The resp6nsibilities that go with grade and experienie naturally produce certain rights and privileges. For example, it is customary for juniors to defer to their seniors,but such deferencein no way implies servility on the part of the junior. 23. HISTORY OF CEREMONIAL CUSTOMS You may be interested in the origin of the following military ceremonies: The dress parade was originally intended to impress visiting celebrities with the strength


of the monarch's troops rather than to honor the visitor. Inspecting the guard of honor began with the restoration of Charles II to the throne of England. When one of Cromwell's regiments offered its allegiance,the King carefully scrutinized the face of each soldier in ranks looking for signs of treachery. Convinced of the sincerity, he accepted the regiment as his escort. The "Sound Off in which the band plays the "Three Cheers" and marches down the front of assembled troops stems from the were staCrusades. Those selectedas crusaders tioned at the right of the line of troops, and the band marched past them in dedication, while the people gave three cheers. The "Right of the Line" was the critical side in ancient battle formations and is the unit place of honor in ceremonies. Precedence among units is determined by age, and for that reasonAir Force units usually in parades. follow the older services Raising the right hand in taking the oath stems from ancient days when the taker called upon God as a witnessto the truth and pledged with the sword hand. The white flag of truce may derive from the Truce of God arranged on certain days by Pope Urban V in 1095 between warring medieval barons. The use of the arch of sabers in military weddings recalls the days when the groom's men pledged to protect the wedded couple. 24.CAP GRADES, TITLES. AND INSIGNIA All CAP personnel are addressedby their full titles in official correspondence. They are also addressedby their title's in conversation, but the long titles are shortened as shown in the chart of CAP grade insignia and titles. Insignia of CAP senior member officer grades are gold for majors and second lieutenants, gold with blue enamel for warrant officers, and silver for all other senior member officers. Senior member officers wear their insignia of grade on the shoulder loops of coats and on the shirt collar when a coat is not worn. Cadet officers (Cl2Lt and above) wear grade insignia on shoulder boards. Sometimes the terms "grade" and "rank" are confused. Colonel or captain are examples

of grades, but no two officers in a grade have identical rank - one is always senior to the other. Chaplains are addressedas such, regardless of their grade. A Roman Catholic chaplain as "Father," as may be an may be addressed Eoiscopal chaplain, if preferred. Medical doctors, including veterinarians, are addressedas "Doctor," regardlessof their grade. Airmen are addressed by their grade or last name. Officers of the same grade, when among themselves, may address each other by their given names, but if a junior is present, they should address each other by their titles. Seniors may addressa junior officer either by title or by name, but if an airman is also present,the junior officer should be addressed by title. 25. LINES OF AUTHORITY As stated in its Constitution and Bylaws, Civil Air Patrol is a corporation chartered by Congressand composed of volunteer civilian members. It also servesas an instrumentality of the U.S. on Air Force missions. It is organized along military lines, the organizational rrattern resemblingthat of the U.S. Air Force. It consists of a National Headquarters,eight regions, and 52 wings. The wings are subdivided into groups, squadrons,and, in some instances, flights. Civil Air Patrol is governed by a National Board and a Board of Directors known as the National Executive Council. As an auxiliary of the U.S. Air Force, Civil Air Patrol is supported by the Air Force, principally through USAF-CAP liaison offices which are staffed by Air Force personnel. You may wonder how orders and information get from the top levels of Civil Air Patrol down to the individual member. CAP accomplishes this by the same method used in the Air Force, by following the organizational structure. This method has several names chain of command, command channels, thru channels, channels of approach, lines of authority - but they all refer to the same idea: following the organizational structure through the various levels beginning with the next higher or lower level.





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The lines of authority within Civil Air Patrol, which are depicted in the approved organizational charts, go from the national commander, at the top level, consecutively to the region, wing, group, and squadron comntanders, and from the squadron commander through the various staff and line officers to individual members. Beginning with the new cadet, the next level or link in the chain is the squad leader, then the flight leader, flight commander, cadet executive officer, cadet deputy commander, cadet commander, commandant of cadets(in a composite squadron), squadron commander,group commander,wing commander, region commander, and national commander. Unless specific instructions are given, all CAP orders and communications up and down the line follow this structure. It is important that each CAP member deal first and direct with the immediate superiorofficer. For this reason, and so that the prescribed channels of approach will. be observed, each CAP member must know exactly where one's position is in relation to others in the unit and the wing.

Section D ATTITUDE AND DISCIPLINE 26. MEANING AND SCOPEOF INDTVIDUAL ATTITUDES In Civil Air Patrol you frequently hear that A has a good attitude, or that B has a poor attitude. What exactly does this mean? Why is good attitude emphasized as an essential quality of the effective leader? Granted that the term "attitude" is vague and general, it is the best way to expressa very simple thing - the state of mind which lies behind everything a person does. One of the goals of the leadership laboratory is to help each CAP cadet develop a good attitude, a constructive state of mind in approaching every aspect of life. It is theoretically possible for an individual to operate efficiently with a bad attitude, but in the long run the individual will ultimately hamper to some degree the accomplishment of the mission of the organization. Good or bad attitudes are contagious. They slowly affect the actions of others.


Like everyoneelse,your approachto life is determinedby your attitude. Your day-today actions,whether largeor small,are the reruit of the generalstate of mind you bring to of living. Attitude, then, bear on the business is your personalphilosophy of life as-youexpriss it in your actions. It is the frame of tni.tA in which you view yourself,your work, and other individuals,and it is usuallyjudged by othersthroughYour actions' attitude' Its results You can never escape are observed and experienced everywhere, in many ways' Your perand it is expressed in your eyes, the expression sonal appearance, passing remark or the tone of your voice, a things rethese comment you may make, all the manner, same flect your attitude. In the you job way the your or way you go about salute and wear your uniform indicate your attitude. In one way or another, you constantly displayyour attitude,good or bad, to Others constantly everyone around you. seeexpressed they judgl you by the attitude unconsciously, or i" voui actions.Consciously you expressyour attitude in everythingyou do.

It is especially important for you to have a good attiiude if you are in a leadershipposiThis is because your attitude will be tiJn. reflected by your subordinates, and their responseto you will greatly affect your ability to guide and direct their actions' If you have a good attitude, you will be able to handle your oersonnel so that they do what you want - a prime quality of leadership. Your personnel must feel that you have a good attitude toward them and their work, that you appreciatetheir individual contributions to the mission' You must keep yourself informed on the individual and group attitudes in yourunit, which together form the morale of the unit. Sometimesit may to changean attitude or attitudes be necessary which affect morale. If you permit a poor morale situation to continue, it will result in a less efficient unit, a declinein unit pride, and a breakdown in courtesy and discipline' The unit commander must point the way for changing or improving poor attitudes within the group, but members of the group are obligated to try to improve their attitudes and itrereby exert a favorable influence on those around them. Your initial attitude in life is the result of many factors, such as your education, home 27. PRACTICALAPPLICATION life, health, religion, and so forth. Then, too, each new situation you meet in life introduces The sum of the attitudesof all members indirectly influof the group is the key to unit effectiveness' new factors which directly or new factors these ence your attitude. Often has shown that the best way to Experience that may attitude is to develop result in a new, undesirable insure individual effectiveness or removed is cause not be changed until the u prop., attitude from the very beginningof in Civil Air Patrol' corrected. membership ttre inOivlOual's To be a good leader,you must be able to recognize the causes of undesirable attitudes OF POSITTVE 28. DEVELOPMENT within yourself, within the individual memATTITUDES bers of your unit, and within the unit as a You must constantly promote a whole. How can you developa proper attitude procedures? healthy, constructive attitude for yourself toward CAP requirementsand the and for those You lead. The best way iJ simply to understand

reasonor purposebehind every aspectof CAP operations. To attain a good attitude, you I may have to shift from an "I do it because I because have to" outlook to an "I do it fits it how and why it is necessary understand into a largerpattern" outlook' If so, you can acqui.e ttiis ittituAe by viewing each detail of any situation,not in itself' but as it relates to th! overall purpose and mission,and by subordinatingyour own self-interestto the greater good of the group, when necessary'






The basic function of a CAP unit is to accomplish its mission with maximum effiTo reach this overall goal, all indivili.n.y. jobs duals in the unit must perform their action of unity promptly and correctly' Such requiresdisciPline.


Discipline in Civil Air patrol is simply an extension and special application of the disci_ pline required in any organized society. Al_ though unity of purpose is required in any or_ ganzation, a much higher degree of control is essential in Civil Air patrol becausepublic servicesarc at stake. The entire structure of Civil Air Patrol is dependent upon discipline. It is the cement which binds the unit into a workable force. Without it chaos would result. To some people discipline means either punishment or blind obedience to orders. It is the modern usages of the word, ,.dis_ cipline is training which corrects, molds. streng_thens, or perfects." Discipline within a CAP unit is a state of order characterized, by habitual but reasoned obedience to orders - habitual becausethe success of CAp activities often depends upon immediate responseto commands, and reasonedbecause initiative and understanding on the part of each individual CAp member must be preserved. 30. SELF-DISCPLINE . Real discipline - the selfdiscipline that guides you in your everyday life, iegulating and controlling your conduct and aciions _ can come only from within. your childhood training contributed immeasurably to the self-discipline and control you now have. and as you gain increased experience and matur_ ity, the standards by which you govern your_ self will be continually reinforced. As a CAP cadet and potential leader, you are responsible for developing and per_ fecting within yourself a sense of discipline. No one can do it for you. you will be assisted in this endeavor by the advice and counsel of the leaders in your unit, but, in the final analysis, it is you who must obtain an under_ standing of the importance of discipline so that you can useit properly. 3I.TRAINING FOR GROUP DISCPLINE

groups as though they were a single individual, the group must act as a single unit, and group discipline becomes as important as self-discipline. Leaders must extend their convictions that self-disciplinedetermines their ultimate well-being to the larger premise that group discipline governs the effectiveness of the unit. To developand maintain the required unity of action within the group, CAP leadersmust provide constant and continuous training, but they must always bear in mind this important fact: o'You can never instill a senseof discipline in others through harsh or tyrannical treatment." It is not always easy to explain the necessity for the rules of discipline to the novice. For example, how does one person convince another that a minor failing of one individual can lead to a serioussetbackin accomplishing the mission of a large unit? Or, who can properly describe the importance of conscientious effort by each member of an aircraft ground crew? Often it is difficult to make beginners understand that they must submit to firm control and direction because they are part of an organization which must be capable of effective performance even under difficult or emergencyconditions. But all these things and more-must be clearly explainedto all new members because obedience cannot be expected unlessthere is a desireto obey, and this comesonly through understanding. Cadets must be introduced to discioline as soon as they join Civil Air Patrol, and must be continually impressedwith it throughout their memberships. They must be taught to obey orders and to respect commands. Cadets must be conscientiousand reliable. They must be convinced that their lives, as well as the lives of their associates and those whom they support, may depend on discipline. As a CAp cadet, it is your responsibility to accomplish all these things, and as a leader, it is your responsibility to help others do the same.

Development of self-discipline is not necessarilythe goal of discipline training. The final product sought is group discipline. Civil Air Patrol functions through groups - large and small. Since missions are assigned to





The best way td achieve discipline is through constant practice, and this is the system used in Civil Air Patrol and its leadership laboratory. Throughout your membership you will be regulated in your carriage, your walking, your deportment, and your uniform; in addition, you will be required to be courteous and respectful to your superiors. It is important for you to remember - both when you receive discipline training and later when you give it - that all of this is done to impress the habit of obedienceupon the members of the CAP unit, never to produce robots without a will of their own. Discipline must always be of a standard that is acceptableto the members of the group. It must not simply restrict actions, it must foster well-guided aggressiveness and encourage and recognize initiative' In other words. restrictions imposed must be balancedwith privilegesgranted. to resort At times it may becomenecessary The impunishment discipline. teaching in to portant thing to remember in relation to punishment is that it should result in a better person or a better unit. Punishment is effective when it createsin the individual a desire to obey. Punishment that is administered as does not teach discipline' In fact, vengeance person feels that the sentence punished if the in proportion to the misnot is unjust, or performance will be person's conduct, the disagreewith the If associates diminished. performance of the group will discipline, the may "throw leader The unwise be lessened. to set an example cadet the book" at an unruly does this group, rarely but the for the rest of Group effectiveness results. action achieve must be the guiding factor in the use of punishment. Remember, discipline can never be achievedthrough tyranny or harsh treatment' Section E THE NEED FOR DRILL 33. SCOPE This section describesthe need for drill and introduces the CAP cadet to the terms peculiar to drill and to the methods of drill instruction that can be expected in the leadership

laboratory. In subsequent chapters the movements and procedures for drill, ceremonies, reviews,and paradeswill be discussed. 34. VALUE OF DRILL AND CEREMONIES a. Why are drills and ceremoniesneeded? Every CAP member learns teamwork by participating in drill. On the drill field the individual learns to appreciate the need for discipline - the need to respond to authority, to follow orders promptly and precisely, and to recognize the effect of your actions on the group as a whole. Learning to follow is the beginning of leadership. b. As individuals progress in grade and experience and become drill leaders,they have opportunities to develop confidence, poise, forcefulness, and other characteristics that further their ability to work with people' Group participation stimulates esprit de corps, high morale, and enthusiasticteamwork' These are sound, practical benefits afforded by drills and ceremonies. 35. DRILL COMPETITIONS WITHIN


The special activities establishedfor CAP cadetsmay include drill competitions. 36. INTRODUCTION TO DRILL AND CEREMONIES a. Drill: (l) For the PurPose of drill, CAP organizations are divided into elements,flights, squadrons, groups, and wings. The wing does not drill by direct command. (2\ Drill consists of certain movements by which the flight or squadron is moved in an orderly manner from one formation to another or from one place to another. These movements are executed with order and precision. The task of each person is to learn ihese movements and to do each part exactly as described. Otherwise confusion will result' Individuals also must learn to adapt their own movements to those of the group. That is why such standardsas the 30-inch step, the cadence of 120 steps per minute, distance,and interval have been established. Everyone must move on


commandsmoothly, smartly, and with exact_


37. KEY TO SYMBOLS To avoid repetition, the symbols used throughout this manual are defined and illustratedin figure 12. 38. EXPLANATIONOF TERMS The following drill terms should be thor_ oughlymastered. ?. Adjutant, a ceremonial position oc_ cupiedby the junior memberof the command staff in reviewsand parades, and responsible to the troop or group commander.Adjutant's cadence is 140steps per minute. b. Alignment,dress or cover. c. Base, the element on which a move_ m'ent is planned, regulated, or alined. d. Cadence, the uniform step and rhythm in marching - the number of stepsmarched per minute. e. Center, the middle point of a formation. On an odd-numbered front, the centeris the center person or element. On an evennumberedfront, the centeris the right center person or element, as shown in figure 13. f. Cover, individuals aligning thimselves directly behind the person to their imme_ diate front while maintaining proper dis_ tance. g. Depth, the total spacefiom front to rear of any formation. The depth of an individualis considered to be l2 inches. h. Distance, the prescribed space from front to rear between units. Thi distance betweenindividualsin formation is 40 inches as measured from their cheststo the backsof the personsdirectly in front of them. Flight commanders, guides,and others whose posi_ tions in formation are 4O inchesfrom a rank arethemselves considered a rank. i. Double time, rate of marching lg0 (36 inches steps in length)per minute. j. Dress, alinement of element side bv side or in line maintaining proper intervai. k. Element, the basic formation; the smallestdrill unit, comprised of at leastthree, but usually eight to twelve persons,one of whom is designated the elemenileader. l. File, a singlecolumn of persons placed one behindthe other (figure l4). m. Final line, the line on'which the ad_ jutant forms the front rank of troops for a

(3) CAP cadetsbeginlearningto drill almostassoonasthey become membeis.They are first taught the position of attention; then movementsat the halt, such as facing move_ ments,then movements of their feet and arms and their overallbearing in marching.Whenall members have become familiar with these movementsto thd point where they execute them smartly and automatically, they are grouped with others into a larger unit where they learn other movements. Eventually, elements, flights,and squadrons areperforminj drill movements smoothly and with precision. b. Ceremonies: (l) Ceremoniesare special, formal, group performances conducted by Civil Air Patrol to honor distinguishedpeisonsor to observe nationalholidays. Another purpose of ceremonies is to demonstrate the proficiency and stateof trainingof CAp membeis. (2) Ceremoniesare an extension of drill activities. The precisionmarching,the promptnessin respondingto commandi,and the teamwork developed on the drill field determinethe appearance and performance of the groupin ceremonies. ;"

Figure 12


paradeor review. n. Flank, the extreme right or left (troops right or left) side of a formation in line or in column. o. Flight, two or more elements. p. Foimation, an arrangementof the units in any prescribed manner. q. Front, the space occupied by a unit measuredfrom flank to flank. The front of an indivi<lualis consideredto be 22 inches' r. Guide, the airman designated to regulate the direction and rate of march. s. Head, the leading unit of a column. t. [n column, the arrangement of units side by side with guide and element leaders at the head. u. Inverted column, the arrangement of units side by side with guide and element leadersto the rear. v. In line, the arrangement of units one behind the other with the guide and element leadersto extreme right flank. w. Inverted line, the arrangement of units one behind the other with guide and element leadersto extreme left flank. x. Interval, space between individuals placed side by side. Normal interval is an arm's length. Closeinterval is 4 inches. y. Line of marclt, a line or path followed by the troops as they passin review. z. Mark time, marching in place at the rate of 120 stepsPer minute. aa. Mass formation, the formation of a squadron or group in which the component units are in column, abreast of each other at close interval. bb. Pace, step of 30 inches. This is the length of a full steP in quick time. cc. Post, the correct place for an officer, noncommissioned officer, or airman to stand while in formation. dd. Quick time, the rate of marching at 120 steps (30, 15, ot 12 inches in length) per minute. ee. Rank, a single line of persons placed side by side (figure l4). ff. Ready line, a forming line 20 pacesto the rear of the final line where troops are formed for a parade or review at an established time before adjutant'scall. gg. Reviewing officer, the senior officer participating in a parade or review. hh. Slow time, the rate of marching at 60

stepsper minute, used in funeral ceremonies. ii. Step, the prescribeddistancemeasured from heel to heel between the feet of a marching person. jj. Unit, any portion of a given formation.


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39. DRILL INSTRUCTORS a. The missionof Civil Air Patrol is based on a continuity of disciplineand sense of mission throughout all echelons of command. The use of drill as one meansof instillingdiscipline and accustoming individuals to respond to command is an important duty of all officers, noncommissioned officers. and cadets. All personnel should familiarize themselves with the provisionsof this manual so that uniform instructions rnay be given whenever and wherever required. b. The commandergivesall commandsto the unit except in caseswhere command is delegated to a subordinate for instructional prlrposes. Regardlessof grade, where an instmctor is in chargeof an individual or r.rnit, authority is derived frorn that of the commander and should bear the same authority as that of the commander. c. For purposes of drill instruction and for other formations, every effort should be made to have the ranking CAP mernber present assume a leadership position. Placing persons of higher rank in positions subordinate to the instructor or person in charge of the drill, formation, or activity should be avoidedwheneverpossible. 40. DRILL INSTRUCTIONS a. The following step-by-stepprocedure has proved to be an effectivemeansof teaching drill movements: ( I ) State the name of the movement to be executed and point out its purpose. (2) Give the command to be usedand identify its parts - the preparatory command ancltlte comrnandof execution. (3) Demonstratethe rnovenlentto the tbrmation Lrsing the proper cadenceand comrnands. Also dernonstrateproceduresfor each unit wlrcn thcy vary. (4) State the requirement for the movelnent. (5) Explain and demonstrate the nrovement slowly in detail. (6) Ask questionson the movement, then demonstrate it againas in step(3). (7) Instruct the fonnation on how they will perform (that is, as an individual, flight, elernent,by the numbers,etc.). Have

the formation perform; make on-the-spot corrections. (8) Critique the performance of the movement and review important areasbefore moving on to the next exercise. b. "By the Numbers" is the method by which precision rnovements of two or more counts are demonstrated, practiced, and learned.- one count at a time. (l) This method enablesthe cadet to learn step by step and permits the instructor to make detailed corrections. The instructor commands "By the Numbers" before giving commands for the movements. For "By the Numbers, About, FACE," the first count of the movement is executed on the command, "FACE." The secondcount is executedon the command, "Ready, TWO." (The pivot is the secondcount.) (2) All subsequent commandsare executed by the numbers until the command "Without the Numbers" is given. For example, in teaching right and left face, the command "By the Numbers" would be given at the beginningof the practical exercise. Each facing is repeated severaltimes by the numbers until the instructor gives "Without the Numbers." Subsequent movements are executed in the cadenceof quick time. c. Instructors go wherever their presence is necessary. As instruction progresses, individualsshould be grouped accordingto their proficiency. Those who show a lack of aptitude should be separatedfrom the others and placed under the most experienced instructors. Care should be exercisednot to ridicule slow learners. 4I, DEVELOPING COMMAND VOICE IN CADETS Instructors should help the cadets in developing a command voice. This can be done by setting the example and giving all commands with the correct voice control, distinctness, inflection, cadence,and snap. They should encouragethe cadets to practice giving commands. Further, and very important, cadets should be given every opportunity to command.


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Figure 19



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SectionF IN DIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION 42. POSITIONSAND MOVEMENTS a. Certain basic positions and movements with which cadetsmust be completely familiar are explained jn this section by word and picture. These positions and the correct execution of the movements in every detail should be learned before proceeding to flight drill. b. The explanation of a movement that may be exccuted toward either flank is given in this section for only one flank. To execute the rnovement toward the opposite flank, substitute the word "left" for ',right" or "right" for "left" in the explanation. 43. POSITION OF ATTENTION a. To come to attention, the cadet brings the heels together smartly on the same line. They are held as near each other as the conformation of the body permits. b. Feet are turned out equally, forming an angleof 45 degrees. c. Legs are kept straight without stiffening or locking the knees. d. The body is erect with hips level,chest lifted and arched, and shoulders square and even. e. Arms hang straight down without stiffness,thumbs along the seamsof trousers/ skirts. Backs of the hands are held out with fingers curved, thumbs resting along the first joint of the forefingers, as illustrated in Figures I and2. f. The head is kept erect and is held squarely to the front, with chin drawn in so that the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes are to the front, with the line of sight parallelto the ground. C. The weight of the body rests equally on the heelsand the balls of the feet. h. Silence and immobility are required. 44. RESTS a. All rests are executed frorn the halt and only frorn the position of attention. The commands are "Parade, REST; AT EASE; REST;and FALL OUT." b. At the command "Parade REST." the

letl foot is moved sntartly l2 inchesto the lcl't of the right foot. Legsare kept straightso ilrlt the weight of the body rests cclLrally on both feet. At the same time, with arms iully cxtended, hands are clasped behind the back. The palms are to the rear, thunrb and fiugcrs of the left hand claspingtlie right hancl willr fir-rgersextended and joincd as cletaileclirr Figure 23. The left hand holds the right, antl the claspedhands hang behind naturally. not held up in the small of the back. Silenccanrl imrnobility are required. c. At the comnrand "AT EASE" tlrc right foot is kept in place. Silenceis requircrl but motion is pennitted. d. At the command "REST" the right foot is kept in place. Silenceand immobility are not required. e. At the command "FALL OUT" irrdividuals leave ranks but renrain in the inrmediate area. At the cornmand"FALL lN" former places are resurnedat attention in tltc formation prescribed. f. Being at any of the rests except fall out, to resulnethe position of attention, tlrc command is, for exarnple,"Flight, ATTENTION." At the preiraratoryconrmancl, thc position of parade rest is assumed;at ilrc command "ATTENTION," thc position ol' attentionis assumcd. 45. FACINGS a. All facings are executed front the hall and in quick time. Facings are the first clrill training movernents which consist of urtlr.r. than one count. At this point, it is appropriatc to start using "by the nnmbers" in initill demonstrations and studentpractice. b. To face to the right, the courmancl is "Right, FACE." This is a two-couut urovt'ment. At the command "FACE" the left lree I and right toe are raisecl slightly and a 90 degrr'.., turn is made to the right on the right lree I assistedby a slight pressureon the ball of tlr.' left foot, in one count. The left leg is licltl straigltt without stiffness. On the Se cr)ntl count, the left foot is placedsmartlybesidetlrc right fbot as at attention. (Arnrs are held as ul attention when executing this movenle ltt ) c. "Left, FACE" is executedby turrrirr: on the left heel and ball of the right lirot d. When instructionsare being given lirr


F-ieure 23: Parade. Rest

the conllllallcl"Half 45 clegrcc movell"lents. Right (Left), FACE" nray be trsed. Tlte proas clescribcditl the foregoirtgare Llsed ce'dLrres r:xcept that each persol.lexecrttestltc cottrto tltc right or left. by facing 45 degrees rurand e. In facing to tlle rear. the coltltnaudis "Aboltt, FACE." This is a two-cotlllt lllovcrnent. At the cotlrnratlcl"FACE," tlte irtlnoves the ball of tl-reright foot to a dividr-ral position touchiug the groutrd so that the toe is approxitnately one-half of the foot's length to the rear aud slightly to the left of the left heel. This is tlte first count of the movelnent. The position of the left foot is not changedand the riglrt leg is kept straight without stiffness' Most of the weight of the body is resting ou the heel of the left foot, On the secondcolttlt, the individual shifts the weight of the body to

faccs the ball of the right foot. The inclividttal to the rigltt to tlte rear, turning 180 degrees on the left heel anclthe ball of the right foot. At the coutplctionof the turu, the feet are irt attention position. Artns do t-totswing in the nrovententbrtt mtrst be held as at attetltiotr. 46. HAND SALUTE is "Hand, SALUTE,." It a. The contutatrd is executediu a two-cottttttnovetlent. At tlte the comrnaud"SALUTE." the individualrasies right hand smartly in the tlost direct nlanller touches tlte until the tip of the rniddle fir-rger or forehead,above lower part of the headdress and slightly to the riglit of the right eye. This is cout'tt one of the nlovement. The individual and slightly holds the upper arm horizor-rtally


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forward of the shoulder line. Thurnb and fingers are extended arrd joined. Hand and wrist are held straight with pahn down (figure 15). Count two of the rnoveutentis the return of the hand sntartly in one motion to its normal positionby the side.

47. EXCHANGE OF SALUTES The salute is a courteous exchange of greetings. When returning or renderingan individual salute, the head and eyes are turned toward the colors or person saluted. When in ranks, the position of attention is maintained unless otherwise directed. CAp members in uniform exchangesalutesunder the following conditions, with the junior member saluting first: a. Outdoors, salutesare exchangedupon recognition between officers and warrant officers, and between officers or warrant officers and cadets or enlisted members of the Armed Forces. Saluting "outdoors', means that salutes are exchangedwhen the persons involved are outside of a building. For example, if a person is on/in a porch, a covered sidewalk, a bus stop, a coveredor open entry-

way, or a reviewingstand,etc., the salutewill be exchangerlwith a person on the sidewalk outside of the structure, or with a person approachingon/in the same structure. This applies both on and off military installations. The junior should begin the salute in time to allow the senior officer to return it. To pre_ sr-^ribe an exact distance for all circumstances is not practicable, however, good judgement should indicate when salutes should be ex_ changed. A superior carrying articlesin both hands need not return the salute, although the penon should nod in return or verbally ac_ knowledge the salute. If the junior is carrying articles in both hands, verbal greetingsshould be exchanged. These procedureswill also be used when greeting an officer of a friendlv foreignnation. b. Except for formal reporting, salutesare not required indoors. c. In formation, members do not salute or return salutes, except at the command "Present, ARMS." The individual in charge salutesand acknowledgessalutes for the whole formation. d. In groups,but not in formation, when a seniorofficer approaches, the first individual noticing the officer callsthe group to attention and


an all members salute. If the officer addresses individual or the group, all remain at attention, unless otherwise ordered, until the end of the conversation, at which time they salute the officer. e. In public gatherings, such as sports events, meetings, or when a salute would be inappropriate or impractical, salutes between persons need not be rendered. A member does not salute when engaged in sports or such as when in places of public assemblage, churches, theaters, or public conveyances' f. Exchange of salutes between military pedestrians (including gate sentries) and officers in moving military vehicles is not manare readily datory, but when officer passengers identifiable, the salute will be rendered; for example, officers in appropriately marked vehicles. Vacant military vehicles displaying a flag or commander's plate need not be saluted. Passengersin moving vehicles need not exof other moving change saluteswith passengers vehicles. g. In a work detail, individual workers will not salute. The person in chargewill salute for the entire detail. h. Civilians may be saluted by persons in uniform, but military headgearis not raised as a form of greeting. The President of the United States, as Commander-in{hief of the Armed Forces, is accorded the honor of a salute. i. If the exchange of salutesis otherwise appropriate, it is customary for members in civilian clothes to exchange salutes upon recognition. j. In any case not covered by specific instructions, or in case of reasonable doubt, the salute should be rendered. 48. PRESENT ARMS The command "Present, ARMS" is used when a formation is to salute. At the command "ARMS of Present.ARMS." the cadet executives the first count of the hand salute. The cadet then holds the salute until the command "ARMS of the command Order, ARMS" is given. 49. EYES RIGHT Eyes right may be given at a halt or while marching. The command is "Eyes, RIGHT'"

The preparatory and execution commands are given on the right foot while marching. At the command "RIGHT" all persons except those on the right flank turn heads and eyes smartly 45 degreesto the right. To return heads and eyes to the front, the command "Ready, FRONT" is given as the left foot hits the ground. At the command "FRONT" heads and eyes are turned smartly to the front. The opposite is carriedout for eyesleft. 50. STEPSAND MARCHING a. When executed from a halt, all steps and marchings except right step and close march begin with the left foot. b. Both the preparatory command and the command of execution are given as the foot in the direction of the turn strikes the ground, as figure 29 illustrates. Normally, for units no larger than a flight, the preparatory command is given as the left (right) foot strikes the ground, and the command of execution is given when the left (right) heel next strikes the ground. c. For units larger than a flight, time is allowed for the subordinate commanders to give appropriate supplementary commands. The pause between commands is three paces. 51. FORWARD MARCH AND HALT a. To march forward in quick time from o'Forward,MARCH." a halt. the command is At the command "MARCH," the airman steps off smartly with the left foot, continuing straight forward without stiffness or exaggerated movements, with 3O-inch steps. The arrns are swung easily in their natural arc, 6 inches to the front of the body and 3 inches to the rear. b. To halt from quick time, the command is "Flight, HALT," given as either foot strikes the ground. At the command of execution, one more step is taken and the rear foot is then brought alongside of the stationary foot, as at the position of attention, halting in two counts. 52. DOUBLE TIME The double time movement is controlled. snappy trot at a cadenceof 180 stepsper min-


Figure 26: Eyes Right

ute. The common error is an overlong stdde. a. From a halt or marching in quick time, to march in double time, the command is "Double Time, MARCH." b. At the command "MARCH." the cadet raises the forearms to a horizontal position along the wasitline, closes the fingers with knuckles out, and begins an easy run with coordinated armswing and with the step and cadence of double time. c. When marching in quick time, at the command "Double Time, MARCH," given as either foot strikes the ground, the cadet takes one more step in quick time and then steps off in double time. d. To resume quick time from double time, the command is "Quick Time, MARCH,', with four steps between commands. At the command "MARCH," given as either foot strikes the ground, the cadet advances two more stepsin double time, resumes quick time, and drops the hands by the sides. e. To halt frorn double time, the command is "Flight, HALT," with four steps between commands. The individual takes two more double-timestepsand halts in two counts at quick time. f. The only commands which can be

given when marching at double time are "INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT): euick Time, MARCH," and ..Flight, HALT.,, 53. MARK TIME a. The command is "Mark Time, MARCH." When marching, the command "MARCH" is given as either foot strikes the ground. The cadet advancesand places the other foot, then brings up the foot from the rear, placing it so that both heels are on line. The cadence is continued by alternately raising and lowering each foot. The balls of the feet are raised4 inches above the ground. Normal armswing is maintained wiilrout noticeable bending of the elbows. Dress and cover are maintained. b. At a halt, at the command "MARCH," the left foot is raised and lowered first and then the right. Mark time is executedin quick time only. The halt executed from mark time is similar to a halt from quick tirne. c. The command "Forward, MARCH" is given to resume marching with the 3O-inch step. The cadet takes one more step in place and then steps off with a full step. thi, mand is given as the left foot strikes "o-the ground.


54. HALF STEP a. The command is "Half Step, MARCH," given as either foot strikes the ground. At the command "MARCH," the cadet takes one more 30-inch step followed by l5-inch step in quick time, setting the heel down first. To resume the full 3O-inch step, the command is "Forward, MARCH," given as the left foot At the command strikes the ground. "MARCH," the cadet takes one more l5-inch ' step with the right foot, then begins the full step. b. The halt executed from half step is similar to the halt from the 30-inch step. The half step is not executed from the halt nor are changes of direction made from the half step. The half step is executed only in quick time' Armswing is normal.

cadet takes one more step with the left foot' Then, in one count, placesthe ball of the right foot alongsidethe heel of the left foot, then stepsoff againwith the left foot. 57. TO MARCH TO THE REAR a. The command "To the Rear,MARCH" given as the right foot strikes the ground and is only while marchingin quick time. the command of execution, b. At "MARCH," the cadet takes a lS-inch step with the left foot, placing it in front of the right foot, pivots on the balls of both feet, to the right, and takes the turning 180 degrees in the new direction. The pivot takes a step held the sidesas at the are at full count. Arms position of attetrtion while executing the pivot. 58. FLANKTNG MOVEMENTS To march by the flank while marching,the command is "Rigl'tt (Left) Flank, MARCH." At the command "MARCH" given as the right (left) foot strikes the ground, the cadet takes one step, turns on the ball of the left (right) foot and then steps off with the right (left) foot in the new direction of march. Artns are held at the sides as irt tlte position of attention while tlte pivot is executed. The pivot

a. The command is "Right (Left) Step, MARCH, " given only from the halt and for moving short distances. b. On the command "MARCH," the cadet raises the right (left) leg, keeping it straight without stiffness and only high enough to allow freedom of movement. The individual places the right (left) foot 12 inches to the right of the left (right) foot and then moves the left (right) foot, keeping the left (right) foot as in the position of attention. This movement is continued in quick time, the cadet keeps the arms at the sides, until the command "HALT" is given. c. To halt from the right (left) step, the preparatory command is given when the heels are together, and the command of execution "HALT" is given when the heels are together the next time. The halt from the right (left) step is executed in two counts' On the command "HALT" one more step is taken with the right (left) foot and the left (right) foot is placed alongsidethe right (left) in the position of attention. 56. CHANGE STEP a. The command "ChangeStep, MARCH" is given as the right foot strikes the ground while marching at quick time. b. At the command of execution, the

Fig. 2?: Double Time



F i g u r e 2 8 . R e a r M a r ch .

Figure29: Commonds for Column Lell ond Co/umn Right Movemenfs

and stepoff are executedin one count. This movementis used for a quick movementto the right or left for short distances only.

60. TO MARCH OTHER THAN AT ATTENTION a. The command "Route Step,MARCH" or "At Ease, MARCH" is givenon eitherfoot when marchingat quick time. (Route rhymes with "out.") b. At the command "MARCH" of "Route Step,MARCH," onemorestepis taken and route stepis assumed. Neithersilence nor cadence is required,but prescribed intervaland distance mustbe maintained. c. At the command "MARCH" or ..At Ease,MARCH," one more step is taken and "At Ease," is assumed. Cadence is not required, but silence, prescribedinterval, and distance mustbe maintained. d. These commandsare given only from quick time. The flight must be called to attention beforeother commands may be given.

59. TO FACE IN MARCHINGFROM A HALT a. The facingsin marchingare important parts of suchmovements as taking a new post, aliging or inspecting troops, and executing from a halt. columnmovements b. To face to the right or left in marching from a halt, the command is "Right (Left) Flank,MARCH." The turn is madeon the ball of the right foot and, at the sametime, steps off with the left foot in the new direction. The pivot and the step are executedin one count.

LEADERSHIP LABORATORY OBJECTIVES FOR PHASE II During the leadershiplaboratory periods of the first three achievements of PhaseII, you will acquire a higher level of knowledge and proficiency in basic military skills through continued participation in the status of participant-follower. During the last three achievements,after you have increasedyour experience and proficiency, you will serve as participant-leader. As a participant-leader, you will fill positions of responsibility and authority in which you will teach individuals and scluadshow to execute basic facing and marching movements, how to salute, how to wear the uniform, and how to respond in accordance with CAP customs and courtesies. To serve in this capacity, you must have the necessaryknowledge and experience to perform the fundamentalsin a manner that commands the respect and confidence of those whom you teach. In addition, you must be able to translate this knowledge into terms which individuals and squadswill understand and accept. In so doing, you increaseyour owlt proficiency, poise, self-confidence,and understanding of the fundamentals of drill. For satisfactory completion of the Phase II leadership laboratory, you must attain the following specific obj ectives. (1) Master the fundamentals of military drill techniques and leadership principles presentedin PhaseI and PhaseII. (2) Become proficient in instructing subor_ dinate cadetsin such subjectsas military drill, wearing of the uniform, CAp customs and courtesies, and the fundamentals of disci_ pline (through squadronformations). (3) Understand the purposes of Civil Air Patrol at the squadron, group, wing, and national levels and the functions of commanding officers at these levels. (4) Assume leadership positions at the flight level. Section A COMMANDS 6I. OBJECTIVES As cadets progressthrough the leadership laboratory, they must learn to command on the drill field. Commanding a drill unit involves much more than simply standing in front of a unit and telling it to do something. Commands must be given properly if the unit is to perform properly, with precision and orderliness. If commands are not easily comprehended, the resultant maneuvers will be sloppy and disorganized. For this reason it is important that cadets develop a good command voice and learn to command correctlv.

To give good commands, you must meet three basic requirements: (l) you must de-


velop and use a good command voice, (2) you must know the commandsand word them properly, and (3) you must give the command at the right time. In other words, a good command depends on how you give it, what you give, and when you give it. Proficiency in commands and the cornmand voice depend largely on practice. If you will remember this and devote as much time as possible to practicing the principles and techniques in this section, you will increaseyour proficiency in giving commands. 62. TYPES OF COMMANDS a. A drill command is an oral order. Most drill commands have two parts known as the preparatory command and the command of execution. In this manual, the preparatory cornmand is printed in capital and lower case letters and underlined ("Squadron"). The command of execution is printed in all-capital letters and underlines(ATTENTION). (l) The preparatory command tells what the movement is to be. When calling a unit to attention or in halting a unit's march, the preparatory command includes the unit designation. In the command "Forward, MARCH," "Forward" is the preparatory command. (2) The command of execution follows the preparatory command. The command of execution tells when the movement is to be carried out. In "Forward, March," the command of execution is "MARCH." (3) In certain commands,the preparatory command and the command of execution are combined, for example: "FALL IN, AT EASE," and "REST." These commands are given at a uniformly high pitch and loudness comparable to that for a normal command of execution. b. Supplementary commands are given when one element of the unit must execute a movement different from the other units or the same movement at a different time. Examples: "CONTINUE THE MARCH" and ..STAND FAST." c. Informational commands have no preparatory command or command of execution and are not supplementary, exarnples are: "PREPARE FOR INSPECTION" and "DISMISS THE SQUADRON."

d. Mass commandsare practicecommands given in unison by all membersof a formation. Section B COLORS 63. USE OF FLAGS IN CTVIL AIR PATROL The types of flags authorized for use in Civil Air Patrol, which are described in detail in CAPR 900-2, include the all-purposeU.S. flag, the organizational U.S. flag, the CAP national flag, the CAP region and wing flags, and the CAP group and squadron flags. 64. EXPLANATION TO FLAGS OF 'TERMS RELATING

Four generalnamesare usedto refer to the flag of the United States: flag, color, standard, and ensign. a. Usually the term "flag" is applicable, regardless of sizeand use. b. A color, as used in Civil Air Patrol, is either the U.S. all-purpose flag or the U.S. otganizational flag. The term "wing color," "group color," etc., refers to CAP flags carried in ceremonies by the corresponding otganization. The term "colors" refers to both the U.S. and the CAP flags when they are carried in ceremonies by the color guard. The term "color guard" refers to the individuals who handle the colors in a ceremony. c. A standard is a flag carried by motorized or other mounted units. d. An ensign is a flag flown on ships, srnallboats,and airships. e. A guidon is a swallow-tailed organizational flag carried by smaller units, such as squadrons. f. A pennant is a triangular flag used primarily for parademarkers,etc. 65. HISTORY OF THE U.S. FLAG The flag of the United Statesis a symbol of its people, its land, and its democraticideal. It is a symbol all should honor. a. The first American flag using the stars and stripes was authorized by Congress on June 14, 1777, the date now observedas Flag Day. The designfeatured l3 alternatered and white strilresand l3 starsin a blue field for the


Thirteen Original States. The original plan was to add another star and stripe for each additional state, and when Vermont and Kentucky were admitted to the Union the number of stars and stripes was raised to 15. As other states came into the Union, it becameevident that the number of stripes must be limited. In l8 l8 Congress reduced the number of stripes to 13 to honor the Thirteen Original States and declared.that only a star would be added for each new state. b. Only a year younger than the Union itself, the flag was first unfurled at Fort Stanwix, on the site of the present city of Rome, New York, on August 3, 1777, and first came under fire three days later in the Battle of Oriskany, August 6, 1777. American troops first carried it into battle at the Battle of Brandywine, September ll, 1717, and it has been serving ever since as the rallying point for American accomplishmentin peaceand in war. Some of the namesalone can evoke the triumphs it has seen: Saratoga and Yorktown, HorseshoeBend and New Orleans,Pala Alto, Gettysburg, Manila Bay, Chateau-Thierryand Belleau Wood, Iwo Jima and the Bulge, and Inchon. These are the triumphs of war, but ever increasingly the American flag stands sentinel in the far-flung battle for world peace. Today for countless millions, Americans and non-Americans alike, it represents the triumph and strength of an idea, a democratic idea in which individual's natural idealism and yearning for liberty have found their most fruitful and permanent expression. 66. COURTESIESTO THE UNITED STATES FLAG a. CAP personnel passing an uncased U.S. flag salute six paces before reaching the flag and hold the salute until they have passed six paces beyond it. Likewise, when an uncased U.S. Ceremonial or U.S. organizational flag passes by, the salute is renderedsix paces before the flag is even with the individual and held until the flag has passed six paces beyond him. b. Flags flown from stationary flagstaffs on basesare saluted only at reveille, retreat, and special occasions. Small flags and flags on halfstaffs are not saluted. Cased and folded flags are not saluted.


a. The U.S. flag is symbolic of the United States and the principles for which it stands. The national anthem is a declaration of reverence and loyalty to the United States, with the flag as an emblem. b. On certain occasions,such as during inclement weather or when a band is not present for a retreat ceremony, To the Colors is played instead of the national anthem. To the Colors is a bugle call sounded as a salute to the flag and symbolizesrespect to the nation and the flag in the same manner as does the national anthem. The flag and the United Statesare thought of as being the same,therefore, any time the national anthem or To the Colors is played, the proper courtesy as prescribed in the following paragraphsmust be rendered. c. When in uniform in formation, but not a part of a ceremony, the unit commander commands "Present, ARMS," when the national anthem or To the Colors is played. The unit should be faced toward the flag before beinggiven presentarms. d. When in uniform but not in formation: (l) Outdoors,at any ceremonywhere the U.S. flag is present,come to attention, face the flag in the ceremony,and salute. At sports events, if the flag is visible, face the l1agand salute. If the flag is not visible, face the band and salute in its direction. If the music is recorded, face the front and salute. At all other outdoor occasions, the same principle is followed: Come to attention and salute,facing the flag if visible, otherwise facing the music. (2) Indoors, when the national anthem or To the Colors is being played at the beginning or end of a program or sports activity, face the flag if it is presentand take the position of attention. If no flag is present, take the position of attention facing the music. Do not saluteunlessunder arms. When listening to a radio or watching a television prograln. take no action. e. When in civilian or athletic clothing outdoors, take the same action as when in uniform except that the ntanner of saluting is different. Men remove the headdress with the right hand and hold the headdress at the left


shoulder with the right hand over the heart. Men without hats, and women salute by standing at attention and placing the right hand over the heart. f. When in civilian or athletic clothing indoors, render the civilian salute by standing at attention and placing the right hand over the heart. g. In vehicles during a flag ceremony, the driver brings the moving vehicle to a stop at the first note of the national anthem or To the Colors. Personnel in vehicles, including the driver, remain seatedat attention. h. Air Force photographers and camera operators render appropriate honors outlined in these paragraphs, except when they are specifically assigned to photograph others rendering honors. 68. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG a. In military formations and ceremonies, the Pledge of Allegiance shall not be recited. b. At protocol functions' social, and sporting events which include civilian participants, military personnel should: (l) When in uniform outdoors, stand at attention. remain silent, face the flag' and render the hand salute. (2) When in uniform indoors, stand at attention, remain silent, and face the flag. The hand salute is not rendered. Where the participants are primarily civilians or in civilian attire, ieciting the pledge is optional for those in uniform. (3) When in civilian attire, render the pledge while standing at attention, facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. Men should remove headdresswith the right hand and hold it over the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. 69. ARMY OR NAVY GUN SALUTES a. When gun salutes are fired at Army or Navy installations to honor a living person, all individuals in the ceremonial party salute and spectators stand at attention. When gun salutes are fired on Independence Day and Memorial Day, all people present salute, facing the flag when visible or the site of the sal-

uting guns if the flag is not visible. b. In Civil Air Patrol, gun salutes are not fired at a ceremony including reveille and retreat. 70. DISPLAY OF THE UNITED STATES FLAG a. The flag of the United States represents the nation, the union (blue field and stars) being the honor point. The right is the place of honor. The edge which is toward the staff is the right edge. The union and the flag itself are always given the place of honor. b. The flag of the United States is never dipped in salute, nor is it ever permitted to touch the ground. Soiled,tom, or badly faded flags should not be displayed but should be The flag destroyed privately by burning. should never be used as a costume or dress, nor on a vehicle or float except attached to a staff, nor as drapery in any form. For draping and decoration in general, bunting of the national colors may be used, with the blue uppermost. No lettering or object of any kind should be placedon the flag of the United States, nor should it be used in any form of advertising. c. Specific rules goveming the use of the flag are listed in CAPR 9OO-2. 71. COLOR GUARD a. The color guard consists of two noncommissioned officer cadets who are the flag bearersand two experiencedcadetsbelow the grade of cadet staff sergeant who are the guards. The carrying of the United States flag and the Civil Air Patrol flag in ceremoniesis an honor bestowed only upon responsiblenonWherever possible, commissioned officers. guards have had exwho flag bearers and periencein this function should be selected. If experienced personnel are not available, those selected should be thoroughly trained in the manual of the colors and made fully aware of The senior flag the honor of their duty. bearer carries the U.S. flag, commands the color guard, and givesthe necessarycommands for the movements and for rendering the honors. The junior flag bearer carriesthe CAP flag. The CAP flag is always placed on the marching left of the U.S. flag in whatever


Figure 30: Position of the Flag at Order

direction they face. When only the U.S. flag is carried, the color guard is composed of one flag bearer and two guards. b. The color guard is formed and marched in one rank at close interval with the flag bearers in the center. The color guard does not execute to the rear, march or about face. When the unit to which it is attached executesa facing movement (right, left, or about), the color guard, at the command of the senior flag bearer, executes a right or left about. After the new direction has been obtained, the guard should be halted by the command, ..Color Guard, HALT." When the unit to which it is attached marches to the flank column, the color guard executes half right (left) about. When the unit moves in a new direction for short distances, the about movement is executed and the guard halts in its proper place. The base or pivot person is the guard toward which the movement is directed. Each member turns (without pivot) around this point and maintains dress until the new direction is established. c. At the command of the senior flag bearer, the guards of the color guard present arrns upon receiving and parting with the U.S. flag. After having parted with the U.S. flag, the guard is brought to order arms by command of the senior remainingmember who is the right flank person of the guard. d. Having received the U.S. flag, the sen-

Figure 3l: Position of the Flag at Carry

ior flag bearer conducts the color guard to its proper position in the center of the color squadron. After securing the U.S. flag, the color guard is dismissed by the senioi flag bearer. e. At drills and ceremonies in which the U.S. flag and CAP flag are to participate, except escort of the U.S. flag, the U.S. flag and CAP flags are received by the color squadron before the formation of the command. f. The color squadron, formed with 12 paces interval between flights and with its commander facing the front, receivesthe colors in the following manner: The color guard, conducted by the senior flag bearer, approaches from the front and halts at a distance of 12 paces from the squadron commander. The squadron commander then faces the squadron and brings it to present arms, faces the U.S. flag and salutes, and again faces the squadron and brings it to order arms. The guards of the color guard execute present and order arms with the color squadron. The senior flag bearer then marchesthe color guard directly to its post. The color guard takes its position in the center when the squadron is in line or column and on the left when the squadron is in mass. When the color squadron joins the formation, the color.guard tikes its post on the final line.


c. When in formation, the color guard executes at easeand rest with the color squadron, keeping the staffs of the U.S. and CAP flags vertical. h. Wlien it is desired to dismissthe color guard at the conclusionof a drill or ceremony in which the U.S. and CAP flags have participated, it proceedsfrom its position arld haits cotnmander in front of and facesthe scluadron of the color squadron. The squadron presents arrns. The color guard then escorts the U.S. and CAP flags to the commander'soffice or other depository of flags. The color guard is dismissed from organizations smaller tltan a squadron (funeral escort) in a sirnilar lnal"lner. 72. CIVTL AIR PATROL MANUAL OF THE COLORS a. Position of the Flag at the Order. At tlte order, the ferrule of the staff rests on the ground on line witl-r and touching the toe of the rigl-rtshoe. The riglit hand, at a couvctrtent place on the staff, claspsit with thc tlturnb, back of the hand to the right, and holds it in a vertical position, as illustrated in Figure 30. b. Position of the Flag at the Carry. At the carry, the terrule of the staff rests in the socket of the sling. The right hand graspstlte staff at the height of the shoulder. The lcft hand should be used only to steady the staff in a strong wind. The staff is inclined slightly to tl-refront. The bearer comes to carry when the adjutant directs "Give Your Groups Present Arms." SeeFieure31.

c. Position of the Flag at Parade Rest. Parade rest with the flag is similar to parade rest with the individual cadet, except the staff is kept vertical as shown in Figure 32. The order is resumed at the command "ATTENTION." The order and parade rest are with the color squadron. executecl 73. ESCORTOF THE UNITED STATES FLAG a. Escort of the U.S. flag maY be executed in the following circumstances: ( 1) During the ceremony for a patade when it is clesiredthat the group or wing formally receive the U.S. flag as a part of that ceremony. Q) Before the ceremonYfor a Parade when the troops are formed as a unit on a separate parade area and marched to the area. designated b. When the ceremony or escort of the U.S. tlag is to take place, the color guard obtains thc CAP flag and takes its post with the cerenronialcolor squadron prior to the group beingformed. This is done informally. c. The wing bcing in line and the entire color guard irt position with the wing CAP flag, but rvithout the U.S. flag, the group com-


32: Position

of the Flag at Parade


F i eur e 33: Pos i ti on of the C AP

F l as at the Sal ute


nlander details a squadron, other than the ceremonial color squadron, to receive and escort the U.S. flag to its place. During the ceremony, the wing CAP color guard is at its post with the wing. d. The band moves straight to its front until clear of the line of group commanders, changes direction, if necessary, and halts. The designatedsquadron forms a column of flights, 18 pacesin rear of the band (if a band is participating), with the ceremonial flag bearer in rear of the leading flight. e. The escort then marches without music to the wing (group) commander's office and forms in line facing the entrance. f. The U.S. Flag bearer,precededby the senior flight commander of the escort squadron and followed by a designatednoncommissioned officer of the escort squadron, obtains the U.S. flag. g. When the U.S. flag bearer returns, followed by the flight commander and the noncommissioned officer, the flag bearer halts before the entrance,facing the escortsquadron. The flight commander takes a position on the right and the noncommissioned officer on the left of the U.S. flagbearer. The escortsquadron is then brought to present arms and the band (or record) plays the national anthem or To the Colors. The flight commanderandthe noncommissionedofficer saluteat the command of the squadroncommander. h. At the last note of the music, the squadron commander brings the squadron to order arms. The flight commander and the noncommissionedofficer end their salute and return to their posts in the squadron. The squadron is formed in column, the bank taking position to the center in the rear of the center flight. The escort squadron then marches in quick time back to the parade area with the band playing. It enters from the right of the troops and then moves parallel to their front, arriving at a point 24 paces in front of the commanderof troops. i. When the U.S. flag arrives opposite the center of the wing (group), the escort squadron and band are formed in line facing the wing (group). The U.S. flag bearer,passing between the flights, advances and halts six paces in front of the wing (group) commander at this post in front of the center of the wing (group).

j. The U.S. flag bearer having halted, the wing (group) commander faces about and commands "Present, ARMS." The commanding officer of the center (or right center) group (squadron),commands "Present,ARMS." The other group (squadron) commanderscontinue simultaneously toward both flanks, and the escort squadron commander brings the units to present arms. The wing (group) commander then faces to the front and salutes. The national anthem or To the Colors is played, and organizational CAP flags salute while the music is being played. k. The wing (group) commander then faces about and brings the wing (group) to order arms, and the U.S. flag bearer moves to his post on the right of the wing (group) CAP flag. 1. After the escort squadron executes order arms, at the command of its commander, it faces to the right, and precededby the band, if one is participating, marches to its place in line, to the right of the colors, passingaround the left flank and rear of the troops. m. The music plays until the escort squadron passes the left of the line. It then returns to its post on the right, passingin rear of the wing (group). n. The wing (group) may be given the command "REST," when the escort squadron passes to the left of the line. 74. SALUTES BY FLAGS a. The CAP flag salutesby being dipped in all military ceremonieswhile the national anthem or To the Colors is being played and when rendering honors. ln marching, the CAP flag salutes when six paces from the front of the person entitled to the salute. It resumes the carry when six paces beyond that person. in review,the color guardexeb. In passing cutes eyes right at the prescribedsaluting distance at the command of the senior flag bearer who commands"Eyes, RIGHT" and "Ready, FRONT." When the grade of the reviewing officer entitles the officer to the honor, the CAP flag salutesat the command"RIGHT" and resumesthe carry at the command "FRONT." All except the individual on the right flank of the color guard executeeyesright. c. The U. S. flag is neverdipped in salute.




E ffiIII



l'igure 3{

\\'llcrt lhf llr! i\ Llirnl1111,1 ILrt.eillrft ll()rrlonlitll\ or rcrlitrlly.rtrt r lvrll or rn a ui[tl0$. llte Ltnion (rrr blLrc lielti ) :lrorrlrl br Ltpttr,Io\t rnrl lo llle llirg s rtrvtr ri{llt ( t() tltc olrren.r,r.s lr'lt \\'lt!'n ltrtirrq llre llrrr). \\'lrcrl lll. 1l!r i\ tlir|r1111",1 h l()rl r \lrll Ifoiectins l-[)l] ll winllow sill. hrlcon]. or lhrrrl rtl rt hLtilrlins. l lre Lrnion sl(rLrltl he rl lltr \lrll s l)cJk (unl.\\ tltc llrg is lo bc rlislrlrvetl rt lrrll \lJll i \\'llctl sttrIetltleri r!r()\\ r \ttcct. llrc llrq rlrrlrltl l). \.rlidrl. witll thf uni()n l{) lllc rt()r lll ilr xI eit:t-\e\l slIcfl. ()r l() lltc (,r\l in it D()rllt soUllt slract WltcI strsIciltlrtl ll.orD lr loIc I).ls!-ll rr lttrtNc rrrltl ir Iole rt llre etlse ol r sitlervrlk. thc llag slt0rrld be rrisctl otrl lroD) lllc lrIil(lin! l()\\]hl lllc pole union lir\t. \\rltctl tlisrrlrtrerl Nllll irrlotllef llrc Ironr erossetl slrll-s. tlt('Natiortrl llrg shtrLrlLl t bc on its oq rr ri!lrt. \\illl t1\ \lirll iI llt)r)t ol lll. \trll ol lltc ()lllrr lhs Ll \\rllctl olllt'r llltrs rle !li\l)lirverl l-roilr \lrll\ \!illl tlre Nxlionrl llJc. il10 lrttct sl)orril I)0 irl ()r rl lllr llirtll!,\t tllc.enlfr. l)oiDl ol tlle !roLl|. ()f otlrr'r llrrl: rfe Il(r\!n ()n tlt. \illIe ltrlyrrrl witlt lltc \rtioDrl r Wlt.I |].Ir]lnl\ l.lng. lllf lilllef sltrttrlrl :tlwrrrs hr rrl lltc pr'rrk Olll tltc IlN ltcrclrltrrrtcrs or lltc cl]1rflt I)rnlltlt tlrrriDtscrri.t,:ill \ait lltit\ lrr llrrsI irlxrre tlla \rlionrl llrg. l \\ lttn Iltf llrr\ ol l\\o or Itorc lllli()lt\ lrre tlisIlirverl. tllc\ \ltoul(l bc llos.D l.roIt scIrrute \lrll\ 0t tltc 5ilIc ltci!1t1. g Whcn tltc Nrrtionlrl llrg i: errrlL'Ll in J lil. ()l lllg\ jrr or r I,roecssion |rrrtle. it \ltoul(l l)c on tlrr Itrreltiilu rigltl It. \\ ltcn artrric(l \\'itll .i linr ol otlt.f Ilitgs. tllc Nrtional llrg sltoulti rlrvrys bc crrrictl in lfonl ol lllc crnlcr ol ll)itt lrrrc \nt tlnte llte \rlionrl llrr is beiDg eurricil it \ltould l.lv rloli lnd lf.e ne\er lrcltl l'lrrt rtr lt()ril()nlrll\. i Wlltn ltsctl oD I sDcakrr's plitlli,rrrr. llrr ll.r!. rl 'lirpl.rrr,l ll,rl. \ltoul(l l)c displayc(l rho\e rnrl beltintl lltc sncrkcr \\'ltrrr tlisPlrvctl front r \1rl1 in r cltrrrclr or l)ul)ltc au(litorillln. tlrc (Ji llrs tlr0 Unitrrl Strtcs ol,\ltcrifit sltoLrld lrolrl tlrc Iitrilion oi \Lrl)error l)ro,l)ltfnuu. ln rd\lnre. ol-tlrc rLrtlicncr. llt{l in lllr l)()sitiol ()l ltoltor itt llle clcrry.s or \l)crkcr's rigltl ts tllL'slcrkcr luccs lltr rLrrlrrnec. ,\il\ ,rtllut fl,rc sti rirsIl.rrrrl slrou[j ltc l]laccd on tl]c lrli ol tlt0 clcrgl'or sDerkcr or to lltr'riultt ol tltc rLldicrcr,. \ \'he. ir is to be llown rr lrrlr:slirl'1. th. rl"s is first raiscci lo tlre i. r)cak rnrl thcn lowcred to tltf ltrll:\lJll'nosition. \VlrcI lreIrg lowcrcri lirr thc daV. it Shoill(l l'irs1 l)c rrised to the l)crk. k. \ \'ltcrt lhc tlrs is Llse(l 1o eorft r erskct. it sltoul(l be lrhc(i so thr. union is Jt tlle ltcrd llld o\tr lllt leit sltlritltlrr. Iltt l'lrr slroulLl nol trc lowcred ilto tlrc gra\c nor bc rllo*cri to touclr tlta gf()u|(1.




.;:':.r. 1 .:::\::':'


COMMANDS AND THE COMMAND VOICE Section A RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CADET NCO To perform satisfactorily in the leadership you positioni you will fill as a CAP member' the must have a thorough understanding of Patrol' Air Civil in NCO the' of responsibifities firsi, so that you yourself can serve in these gradesand, later, so that you can work closely ivittr cadet NCO's to accomplish the various cadet assignments you may be given as a officer. 75. THE ROLE OF THE NCO The noncommissioned officer is a wellgood trained, experienced person, capable of NCO the rule, a As initiative. :uOg.*.nt and about knowle-dge of great deal iccumulates a fi.ld, io*.uer, the role.of the NCo ;'il;;t"l The extends beyond technical proficiency' non-commiisioned officer must be a leader' job itre NCO's capabilitieshave to go beyond proficiency to include influencing and directing subordinates. " When you become a cadet NCO you will have received your grade becauseyou fulfilled CAP ..ituln pr.."rib.d iequirements of the include cadet program. These requirements that you demonstrateyour ability to lead and influence other cadets. With your cadet NCO grade you assume a continuous obligation to iduun.L individual and group proficiency' discipline,morale' and esprit de corps' As an NCO You will be close to other cadets, particularly the new members, a position in which you will be able to influence their decisions and have a marked effect on the quality of their work. For example, you .un i-pt..s upon subordinates the meaning of CAP's traditions and customs' and thus foster a high state of morale, discipline, and esprit de corps in your unit. You can make clear to new cadets the importance of their jobs and the advantagesof membership in -Ciuit ,q.it Patrol. You can help them adjust to the requirementsof being a CAP cadet' As an NCO you will, of course,be the logical person to exbrcise detailed supervision over assigned tasks. OF THE NCO 76. RESPONSIBTLTTIES To properly fulfill your role as an NCO in Civit Aii Patroi, you are expected to be profibut cient not only in your specialassignments planner, manager' also, to some extent, as a and teacher. You should know enough about human relations and the customs and courtesiesof Civil Air Patrol to be able to create a high degree of proficiency, discipline,morale, and esprit in your unit. To fulfill this obligation, you must assumecertain responsibilities, includingthe following: (l) IJnderstandand practicethe techniques of leadershipand personnelmanagementto the extent calledfor by your position' (2) Know your job and have a high level of personal proficiency. In a sense, as an NCO you arb a buffer between your subor-


dinates and your superiors. This callsfor strict loyalty in both directions. (3) Relieve your superiors of routine details and problems. (4) Execute all your duties promptly, without continuous supervision. (5 ) Use initiative and resourcefulness, know when to handle matters yourself and whc'n to refer them to your superior, but in all cases, keep your superiorin mind. (6) Insure that good housekeeping and adrninistrative procedures are followed. (7) Conduct drill and cerernonial proceduresapplicableto a flight leader. (8) Plan, supervise, and conduct individual and team on-the-job training in technical and rnilitary subjects. (9) Maintain a high standard of behavior, including individual conduct, courtesy, and pcrsonal alrpearance. ( 10) Assist, supervise, and correct subordinates in matters pertaining to duty performance, individual conduct, courtesy, and personal appearance. Section B GIVING COMMANDS THE COMMAND VOICE 77. GENERAL RULES FOR GIVING COMMANDS When giving commands,the leaderis at the position of attention. Cadets in formation notice the postureof their leader. If the posture is unmilitary (relaxed, slouched, still, or uneasy) that of the cadets will be sirnilar. Good military bearing is necessaryfor good leadership. While marching in transit, the leader must be in step with tlte formation at all times, except when making corrections. a. The commander facesthe troops when giving commands except when the element is a part of a largerdrill element or when relaying commandsin ceremonies. b. When a command requires an element to execute a movement different from the other elements, or the same movements at a different time, the subordinate commander gives a supplementary command over the shoulder. Supplementarycommandsare given between the preparatory command and command of execution of the unit commander.

When the squadron commander'spreparatory command is "Squadron," the flight commander's preparatory command is "Flight." c. When the flights of the squadron are to execute a movement in order, such as a column movement, the flight commander of "A" Flight repeatsthe squadron commander's preparatory command. The commanders of the other flights give a supplemental contmand such as "CONTINUE THE MARCH." When the squadron commandergivesthe contmand of execution, "A" Flight executesthe movement at the same point and in the sante manneruas "A" Flight, at the command of the appropriateflight commander. d. A commanderusesthe command .,AS YOU WERE" to revoke preparatory cornmands. After the command of executionhas been given and the movement has already be.gun, other appropriate commands are given to bring the element to the desired position. e. In giving commands,flight commanders may add the letter of their flight to the command as "A" Flight, HALT" or .,B', Flight, Forward, MARCH." Whenevercommandsare given to a squadronin which one flieht stands fast or continues the march. the flight commander commands "STAND FAST" or gives the supplementary command ,,CONTINUE THE MARCH.'' f. The preparatory command and the command of execution are given as the heel of the foot, corresponding to the direction of the movement,strikesthe ground.

78. VOICE CHARACTERISTICS The precision with which a command is executed is influenced by the voice in which it is given. A correctly delivered command is loud and distinct enough to be clearly understood by everyonein the unit. It is given in a tone, cadence,and with a snap that demands willing, correct, and immediate response. A voice with the right qualities of loudness, projection, distinctness, inflection, and snap enables a commander to obtain effective results. a. Loudness is the volume used in giving a command. It should be adjusted to distance and the number of individuals in the forma-


methods' alternate are "Ah" u"a "iirt; t i o n . T h e co m m a ndertakesapositioninthe p ro nounc in g a lo ud thevo we ls a n d p ra c t t c rn g iaying tt#'utu and the of voice firm ctt"ting in a.full' front of and to the center tij^ ;ffi;: at a uniform cadence'profacing ttre unit ,"-it,"t the voice speaks Erect nt"""u'"i]ii i' *iui1t'g are goodexercises' -t:;mands the syllables' ull of th. individuals'Volume Ionging th"";;; and to throat' po't"13'-n!*il ;:1111*-:"t"*"u excessiveexertion is harmful h;;;; t"" trying voice' of the in projecting chords. A typicar resuu optn or ilr.-ni.t whether tightenilg u,r.orr"io* -outtriio fill'quatity.oetermines almost the iii p-ir"", tonal rti, Good is clear or muffled' musclesto force out sound. t-L"-"t.-"';d sound of and-*;#';i an effectivecombination strain, hoatseness,';t-th';tt' irJ;;i from the Slltrlis tttotOt and resonance and;;;J-rorno, ttt""uJtui indistinct f'o^m all, by produced througli J";; is ease It u"a-lhroat" clear commands. R.t i"u. poor with to"tttt-# volume and iTln:'i"tt' is ctt'^"'tonJ-tttla' If there oostute, proper breathing' mouth is no-t clear' If thereis and s9'u1o throat the of iustment -""'"tt' the sound does i::::i:;'--trre volume' *ittt- titttt (1) The most important -u'Jit"'"td targe, ttre i"*; :T:T:;;' in breathingis the diaphragm, t^fffrrf*r"fit "$'"TlJ".r:i?l':trtl:: cauitii;;

Tl the separates that rulmuscre "r.,rst. autolwo diaphragm .uuiii.'"ih;

the abdommur

,;" ;ll",'#lf*l'*; ;'";y1iffi::'ff1"1;' r::,q5J:i:l:i ilfifrfu*t:,i:"-Tsl'

of a word and souncts usedto form the separate ( 2 ) De e pbreathingexercisesdev e lo p t o g'oupJfto"to ' n O t t o f o Inclistinct rmwo rd scommands ' Dis t in c t tirtttiut' ton''t'uio''u'tt rloov' entire tne be corcan ,.rr.rr-r unJcommands All the diaplrrogr tonfution' "i,,onounttcl U"utiting will develop :1i::' without loss of eftect' The following exercise re.ctly ie ;k;; st',outO. breat' deep A o' proper enunciatiou ptu..d ir for commands: uir'-in-'ii. lurr ..nlni*.ir tt.,. rnakes 111" hording mouitr, enunciation il'u'. througrr tne .d*ill' ;;;


withrelaxJilh;;;ffi.;;, lungs. "Ha" shouldbe-ruiou' shortlv^ ?"ttil'it'

19';1i.i^"$' of tti,l;ri".i,t"lrt';tlttJ:;:'lX; use

voice which the or '-'ii command' "'dh.;;;;"'r'ung" ;|?['i,T,Ttr,,''lJ"Ty":bffi The ;n,$l*i ihe waist around 'preparatory muscle the moveiht uni diaplrrag. that announces tl-re

,r,' in pitch

is ttle commanclwith a nstng be used. when this is oont, u'ol'tintt shoulcl ment' should be pronounced completion' can be muscles abdominat its the of of movement o. ui the encl innection"neo, -inshouldbe practic-ei fert. This exercise syltatile' The most desirable "ft;, iasi u.uuriv"tr.. u. .-.," volur-re and effort a preparatory result, beginning and as a pitct-r'oivtice, wi-ten naturar are the natural they of *ntil level .ri,-,.tion.. creased .orr-,.u'no'"lr-'''t"u'the and deveroping for with drill fault exc"tteni Anothcr ,p.utiig--uoi... A c31mon "xeicise oi'th.- diu*ull, commuscular the preparatorY strengthc.ing i"tt'uti"ott is to start the :S.. nsrng Rig.,re illustraieJi,'t is employing phragrn rrigh that' after 'a *u'i-.o (3) rn".Jriii.r-6i trr. tlro.at,mouth, to a higher prtcn lor the passage inn."tion, giu. ruun"ri ^of help and -to"t*and and noseact asamplifiers execution is impossible t*" the voice' to projection and (resonance.; without unduestrain' ttttp yotrr when (4) To obtain resonance' g""O.rule to remember jaw, andopen lower the loosen ."-i;;-; relaxed, throat vowel ueginnii!'a::.;a19tt+?;t::t":tt**HiTi;

the prol'ong yourmouth.vJ'-t"" trren


to projectthe voiceto whatever a persorl


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e. Snap is that extra quality in a command that demands immediate response. It expressesconfidence, alertness.and decisiveness. It indicatescomplete control of one's self and the situation. To achievethis quality, you rnust have a knowledgeof commandsand the ability to voice them effectively. Give the command of execution at the precise instant tlte heel of the proper foot strikes the ground while marching. Achieve snap in giving com-

mands by standing erect, breathing without effort, and speaking clearly with a rising inflection on the preparatory command and a relatively high pitch on the command of execution. Snap out the command of execution at tlie expected instant with the sarneeffect as the starter's "GO!"



meansthe a. The cadenceof a command and the uniform and rhythmic flow of language but are,givensharply a ;;;;'are execute ';i.;tlu, not shouied, p."p* ti*ing. A flieht is unable to number distinctlv' each separating ffi *--". accurately unless in the movement siven movement smaitly and tud"tttt In'counting ""ii ilt" itoi"iJuals in ranks understand the preis given on the ONE of iount "Right Step," the know when to exPect and ;;t;;il-;;mmana the right foot is moved first' a flight When ;;?^;;.;;ince execution' of by the comih" d. Unlessspecrficallyordered at one interval "ornrnund brief very a uses commander counting from mander (or instructor), iadence at another' this interval prolonged a una ii*. the ranks is Prohibited' individuals and take them bv ;;;;t i. "onf.rr. surprise. "-';. pro81. MASS COMMANDS In general, the interval which resulting effects in movements Ou"J. tfte U"est develop confi a. Mass commands help given is that commands the f.". il..,fv and enthus! 0.n.", self-reliance' assertiveness' step between one of taking the *fti.ft'uffo*s recall' give and irt"--Uv *.f.ing the individual the command and command preparatory comthe the proper commands' Mass the instances' other in Ho*"u"r, moveoi-.*".ution. "*..uf. are usually confined to simple ;;;Jt enough to perand int.*"f should be lengthened ments with short preparatory -commands the. movement of understanding pioptt executed are *ii--Ue' which commands of execution be mease*ecuteO. The interval should of the unit' io elements all UV simultaneously drill cadence' thc beats^of the in give com**e"tty to. u-r.O moveb. Each person is required c. Utve commands for executtng that though as the mands in unison with others tL tne right when marching when entire f9r moveperson alone were giving.lhtT i?,ihe -.,rt, tignt foot strikes the ground' 3nd combined voices the strikes foot element. The voh'rri' oi tht to the left whenlhe left ;;;i. the moveperform or more every person to encourages ground. In commandscontainingtwo on the last rnent with snaPand Precision' ivords, place the point of emphasis to conduct "flank" Flank' c. When the initructor wants For example,in Right word. is: command the the. ground ' drill by mass commands' is given as the rigirt foot . hits and exercise .,At each For your Co*runJ." the ind. For a squadion or a larger unit' announces the instructor comthe group A.ifr, or .ui!*" terval between the squadron commandsthe and commovement to be executed mander's preparatory command and "'e then give Personnel. "COMMAND'" enough to ;;;A of execution should be long unison' in them "i"t""t, three commands and execute the the marching elements to take ;ib; examPles: d- The following are stepsbetween commands' the "At Your Command,Call Instructor: Flignt to Attention,COM80. COUNTING CADENCE to aca. The instructor counts cadence When rhythm' quuint new cadetswith cadence either instructor the cadetsget out of step' the the halts or .orr".t. them by counting cadence step' in off them element and then moves coordination Counting cadencehelps to teach encourage step.' in and rhyihm. To help keep the watch and up a cadet to keep the head in directly person the ft"ua unO shoul'ders of couuting' cadence Avoid excessive iront. to count b. The command for the element Give the COUNT'" is "Count Cadence, cadetrce strikes foot left the as co-mand of execution

left foot strikes the ground. The next time the for the group counts cadence' i^rr"lio""o, as follows: ONE, TW-O'-THREE' FouR' The "'i*tt,i*p., ;'6ti,-"di'{E,Two, THREE,

Mass: inli.u.tor, Mass: Instructor:

MAND'' "Flight'ATTENTION" "Haie the Flieht- -S1lndut Pa'ade Rest' COMMAND"

"Parade,REST" "Mar"h the Flight Forward' COMMAND'' "Forward, MARCH" Mass: "Halt the Flight, COMInstructor: MAND'' "Flight, HALT" Mass: commands' e. When desiring"to end mass Command'" My the instructor cautilns: "At



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of drill involves teaching . The first phase lher cadet the basic rnove,mcllts, facings, ancl pclsi_ tions, either as an inclividual o. ur-o-rlrber of an element. The seconclphaseof Ailit ,r.rg., the individual with othcri to form u ttigtlt in which base formations and ,ro..trl,.,g, are learned. This chapter is concerned with the flight, which is composed of two or more elements. This formation has been found to 9"...,h.. most practical drill group-.- in flight drill, the positions of the nlgfrtl"r.ander, flight sergeant, and the guio" ;;r;;" im_ portance. The drill instructor may assume any tifles and positionsfor tlie purpor., of ,".^l-,n"r... rnsrructron. When in column, Uic ilignt is size.d. according to height ana wittr-1he tattest individuals to the front and dht.^ Every et_ fort should be made to retaiJindiviJuats of highest rank in positions o..rpiJ Uy'ite,o.nt leaders and guicles. 83. RULES FOR THE GUIDE: a. The guide sets the direction . and ca_ dence of the march. The leadinf-pJron in each file is responsibtefor rhe i;t"e;;i. rtr. guide of rhe leading flighr of , ,lrJro,, i,, column sets the ctirection u"J ;;;;;.. of. march for thc squaclron.

comnrand for the movernent. The clrcssis alwaysto the base element. e. When in colutntr ancl it is clesiredto guide left, the conrmanct ..GUIDE LEFT,, is givcn. At this commancl, the guide and the flight commanclerexchangep"rlii"r, by pass_ ing right shoulder to righishbrfcfei.--io rerlrnl the guide to the normal position, l.CUtOp RIGHT" is given. ffre guiAe anJ"nignt .oIrr_ mander return to their-no.nrot poriiious by again passingright shoulclcrto riJtrt"stroulder. rrrc movemc'ntcan be nrade either at a halt or while marchinc. f. Whcn n tlignt in column is given the command to form a singlc file, tlie Jui,l., on the preparatorycomtnan,l,tuk.s the"position

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the guide executes thc,.,.,ou.,,.,",.,1. Tlie retativc position of the guicledocs not ctrriigewithin the.flight except ,rat whcn tl-r" fl;;,i is'alted "guidc in line in such a mannerthat thc is not abreastof thc front rarrk, then the fri,l. ,.,.,ou., to a position abreast of the front rait . d. Unlessotherwiscunnou,r..J, the guiclc of a flight in line or in colurnnr, in nror.hingor at a.halt, is right. Whcn it is desircclio change the base fbr a ntc

b. Whcn a f)ight in line is givcn the corrr_ rnand "Right, FACE," the guicle-cxecutes right facc with the flight. Tii;;;"guicte inr_ nrediatelyfaccs to thc right in'inarctringand nrarchcs to a position in fiont of tli" right file, halts.and executesleft face. c. When a tlight nrarchingin column is given thc comrnand ,.Rig|t " l.ft; Flalk, f ..T9


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NORMAT INTERVAI: I'ENGTH ARAAS Figure 36r Flight in Columns

of the file that will movefirst' in ' "' front a flight in column is giver,the gi.""Witentwos' the conr"mandto form a column of takesthe command' preparatory suide.on the column the of file right tnt ;;ri,i;; il front br first' that will move of 'h. -When "^ t*ot in a column.offours re-forming of twos' the guide totutin from a file or . the'moveoostsin the normal positionwhen ment "'--i. is comPleted' with the Normallythe flight is marched of the head the guide at elementleadersand column.

(2) The individualson the left flank to the turn theii headsand eyes 45 degrees 37)' .igftt Uut do not extend their arms(Figure been has interval proper the As soon as ". the individuils drop their. arms to oUtaineO, and turn their heads it.it tia.r, simultaneously reand i; the front without command' ;* mainat attention. form in the rearof d. The other elements the leading element at a 4O-inch-distance' arms tvtrtU.tt oT th. rearelementextendtheir cover but intervals, to oUtuintheir approximate of the premembers corresponding on the elements. ceeding --"fnOividual members of a flight are .. line and 84. FORMATION OF THE FLIGHT numberedfrom right to left when in (Figure from front to reai when in colutnn' elmore or two in a. The flight forms the flight in column') 38 shows in line (Figure36') form at close interval' -the comements To f. the IN"' "FALL FALL IN.'' At the Interval, .U At the command mand is "At Close s-ergeant's flight is exthe to takesthe position suide aoarnunO"FALL [N," the'movement -J]i.;iin fall will except element irtf teoaing i.f, as prescribedin the foregoing ;i;J the flight .."t.*A on and three pacesfrom. intervalis observed' Obtain close ifrut arm left the extends "tot. Each individual ;;;;;;;t UV placing the heel of the left hand int.*ui of palm the with height ai shoulJer finiers and thumb extended' i;;.ily on tft" ftip, 'poiniing and extended dngttt downward' Hold the the hand down and and ;i"A and head the turns 39)' The j;itJ. Each individual ;l;-"; in Hnewith tlie bodv (Fieuretwo are There right' flight is the the to fves +S degrees onty .otnrnandsto be givenwhile Dress excePtions: in ittit formation are "A.t CloseInterval' -'-- ' flank right the on EASE; individuals (l) The FRoNL-Ar ReadY, 'Zia,- 3rd, and 4th.element leaders) nd;i; oRnss, ANdDISMISSED''' (guide, bUT, FALL AfTENTTON, ahead' extend their arms but look straight 48





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g. The flight ordinarily is formed and dismissed by the drill instructor or by the flight sergeant. At the command "DISMISSED," the cadets leave ranks and the area. 85. TO ALINE THE FLIGHT a. When in line at a halt, the commands are "Dress Right (Left), DRESS; Ready, FRONT." At the command "DRESS," the leading element forms as prescribed for forming the flight. At the command "Dress Left, DRESS," the proceduresare the sameas dress right except that the head is turned to the left. Members of the rear elements extend their arms to obtain their approximate interval but cover on the correspondingmembers of the precedingelements. b. When the flight is at close interval, it may be alined by the command "At Close Interval, Dress Right, DRESS." The above procedure is followed except that close interval is used. c. The flight commander, moving by the most direct route, takes the position on the flank of the flight toward which the dress is made, one pace from and in prolongation of the front rank, and faces down the line. From this position, the flight commander verifies the alinement of the front rank. If necessarv.

individuals are called to move forward or backward by name or number. A military bearing is maintained, and instead of weaving from side to side short side steps are taken to verify alinement. The flight commander then facesto the left (right) in marching, halts on the prolongation of each succeedingrank, executes right (left) face, and alines the rank. After verifying the alinement of the ranks, the flight commander faces to the right (left) in marching, moves three paces beyond the front rank, halts, faces to the left (right) and commands: "Ready, FRONT." The flight commander takes the normal position by the most direct route in front of the flight, executing a minimum of movements. d. When in column, (inverted column) the command to aline the flight is "COVER." At this command, each individual stands directly behind the person in front and alines him/her self to the right (left). Individuals in the base file assumetheir distance. e. "At Close Interval, DressRight (Left), DRESS" is not given to a flight at normal interval. f. "Dress Right (Left), DRESS" is not given to a flight at close interval.



Figure 38: Normal Interval

Figure 39: Close Intrval

a. To opcn ranks when in line, the comnrand is "Open Ranks,MARC[{." At the coln"MARCH." the last rank stands lurand last and autornaticallyexecutesdress right at normal interrlal. Eacl-r succeedingrank in front of them takes one, two, or three pacesforwarcl , halts, and automatically executesdressright. E,ach persoll covers on the person directly in front. proceedsas in b. The flight cornmancler alining the flight. If the flight is to be inspectcd,the flight commandertakes one step forwarcl and f'acesto the right, in a position in front of the guidc. The commaltd to open ranks is givcn to a formation when in line at rtclrrnul intcrvalonly.

88. INDIVIDUALS TO LEAVE RANKS a. In line formation, when calling individuals out of ranks, tlie command is Cadet "FRONT AND ,(pause) CENTER." Upon hearing one's name, the individual assumes the position of attention. At the command "FRONT AND CENTER." the individual takes one step backward.(witlr coordinated armswing)facesto the left or right and proceeds to the closestflank and then to the front of the formation by the most clirect route, halts one pace in front of and facing the flight cornmanderor person in charge,salutes, and reportsasdirected. b. To direct the individual'sreturn, the command is "RETURN TO RANKS." The individual salutes,facesabout and returns by the same route to the sameposition in ranks.

89. TO COUNT OFF 87. TO CLOSE RANKS WHEN AT OPEN RANKS. To close ranks,when at open ranks, the command is "Close Ranks, MARCH." The front rank stands fast, the second rank takes one pace forward and halts. Each succeedinu rank takes two and three paces forward rel spectively and halts. Eaclt person covers olt the persondirectly in front. a. When in line, the command is "Count, OFF." At the command of execution,all airnren except the element leadersand guide turn their heads and eyes 45 degreesto the right and the elementleaders call out "ONE." After tlte element leader calls out "ONE," the next person to the left of the element leader calls out "TWO," after turning the head and eyes to the front. The numbers are counted in the cadence of quick time in succession. All


Figure 40: Counting Ofl


movemellts are lnade in a precise manner. b. In coluntn, the command is ,,Count, OFF." The elementleaders turn their heads to the right at the contmand "OFF," call out the number "ONE" sharply over their right shoulders, and turn their heads back to the front as illustratedin Figure 40. Eacli succeeding cadet turns the head to the right, calling out the subsequent number. Then the heaclis turned sntartly back to the front. Each rank soundsoff with its number in unison. c. For drill purposes, counting off is executed only from right to left in line and from front to rear in column or lrass. Flight commanders and guides do not cour.rtoff in line, columll, or nlass. SectionB MARCHING 90. FLIGHT FORMATION WHILE MARCHING a. The nornralforntationfor rnarching is a colunrn of two or lnore elenre nts abreast.The eleme nt leadersrnarch at the head of their elelnents. b. The flight urarchesin linc only tor minor changes of position. c. Wherrever commandsare givcr.r iuvolv-

ing movements in which all elernents in the flight do not execute the same moverne nt simultaneously, the elemcnt leaders give supplementarycolnmandsfor the movement of their elements. d. CAP policy dictates the use of road guarcls as protection against motor vehicle trafflc. Road guards stop traffic at intersectionsand other placcswhere neededto insure the safety of tl-re nrarchingflight. 9I.TO CHANGE INTERVAL COLUMN WHILE IN

a. When in column at norntalintervalat a halt or in march at quick time, to obtain closc .intervalbetweenfiles, the conrrnatrd is "Close. MARCH.'' ( l) At the halt, ol-l the courrland "MARCH." tlte baseelcrnentstandsflst. The othcr cleutentsolrtain closciutcrval by taking two, four, and six side stclts rcspectively towarcl thc basc element ancl cover on their elcnrcntlcaclers. (2) Whcrt rnarching. the comrnand "Closc, MARCI{" is givcn on the right fbot whcn thc basc elerncntis ou thc right anclor.r the left foot whcn the baseclcnrentis on thc lefl. At the conrurand"MARCI{." thc basc element takcs Lrp thc ltall- stcp. Thc othcr clerrents obtain close intcrval by cxecutiltg
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right (left) in marching without changing the interval. When they are abreastof the pivot, they execute a second right (left) 45 degree pivot and conform to the step of the right (left) flank individual as they come abreastof that individual. c. The ranks in rear of the leading rank execute the movement on the same ground and in the same manner as the rank in front of them. d. As soon as the flight has changeddirection and interval and distance are reestablished, the commander orders "Forward, MARCH." On the command "MARCH," the 3O-inchstep is resumed. In turning to the left on a moving pivot, each rank dresses left until forward march is given. The dress becomes left at the preparatory command. e. The guide and flight commander execute the movement on the command of execution and then pivot 45 degreesto their original positions in front of the column. f. When column movements are executed from a halt column, procedures are similar to those in the foregoing explanation with two exceptions: At the command of execution, element leaders start the movement by executing a face in marching for a column left on a column right, element leaders take one pace forward and then execute thc movement-

a 45 degree right (left) pivot and take one, three, and five steps respectively'toward the baseelement. The original direction of march is resumed and the half step taken up when close interval is obtained. At the command "Forward, MARCH," all elementsresumethe 30-inchstep. b. To obtain normal interval between files when the flight is in column at close interval, at a ltalt or in march at quick time, the cornmand is "Extend, MARCH." This movenre nt is cxccutedthe sameas closemarch but in the oppositedirection. 92.TO CHANGE DIRECTION IN A COLUMN a. The command is "Column Right (Left). MARCH." T5e command "MARCH" is given as the right (left) foot strikes the ground. The leading individual (the guide and flight commanderexcepted)of the right (left) flank advances one pace, pivots on the ball of the left (right) foot and advances another full 30-inch step. The individual then takes up the half step. Refer to Figures 4l and 42. illr-rstrating column right at norntal interval and column riglit at close interval. respectively. b. In the meantime,the other individuals of the leading rank pivot 45 degreesto the




a. To change the directiotrof a column by 45 degrees,the command is "Coluurn Half Rigltt (Left), MARCH." Tlie conrmandof execution is givcn as the foot in the direction of the turn strikcs the ground. The leading individual (the guide and flight conrrnancler exceptcd) of the right (left) flank advances onc full step, pivots 45 degrees on the ball of the left (right) foot, and advanccs anothcr iull 3O-inchstep. The individualthen takesup thc half step as does each elementmember in the rank until the last individual is in place and abreast of the rest, they all resume the full step. b. In the rleantime,thc other individuals of thc leaclingrank pivot 45 degrecsto the right (lerft) without changing the interval. When they are abreast of the pivot, they confbrm to thc step of the right (left) flank individual. c. The flight commander and guide execute the movenrenton the command of execution and then pivot 45 degreesto thcir original positions in liont of the column. d. The ranks in the rear of the leading rank cxecute thc rnovertrenton the same grouncl and in the sarne lnanner as the rank in front of thern. e. When colurnn half right (left) is executed fronr a halt in column, the procedures are the same as describedin the foregoing explanation with this exception: At the command of execution,the element leadersstart the nrovcment by executing a f-ace in marching to the indicateddirection. f. To executea slightchange of direction, the corttrnand "INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT)" is given. The guide or guiding element movesin the indicateddirection and the rest of the elementfollows. There is no pivot in this movement. 95. TO FORM A SINGLE FILE AND RE-FORM a. This is not a precisemovement but-is practiced in clrill so that when necessary the tnovement is executedsntoothly and without delay. Thcse rnovernentsare executed only frorn the halt. b. To fonn a single file when in a colurnn

of two or more elements, the command is "Coluntn of Files frorn the Right (Left), Forward, MARCH." At the prcparatory contmand, the guide takes a position in front of the filc that will movc first. The element leader of the right (left) elementturns the head 45 degreesto the right (left) and commands "Forward:" the rernainingclcmcnt leadcrs tunr their heads45 degrcesto the right (left) aud conrmand"STAND F'AST." E,achkeeps tltc head to the right (left) until the elerrent steps off. At tlie comtnand "MARCH," thc leading elemcnt steps off. The element leaders of the remaining clenents cournrancl "Forward, MARCH" and then they inclineto the rigltt (left) to causcthcir elemcntsto fbllow the leading elementsin successive order (Figure43).

Figure 43. Forming a Filefroma Colurnn of'Twos. c. To form a column of two or lttore files when in a single file, the command is "Coluntn of Twos (Fours) to the Left (Rigltt), MARCH." At the preparatorycommaud,the leading elenrent lcacler cotnmands"STAND behind the lcadFAST." the element leaders "Column Half Left ing elcment conrmand (Right)." "MARCH," command On the the leading element stands fast, and the remaining elemeuts step off to colulnn half left (right) simultaneously and incline to form to the lelt (right) of the leadiug element. Each elernentis halted by its elentent leader so as to be abreast of the eletnent to its right or left (Figure 44).
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Figure 44. Forming a Column of Twosfrom a File. d. In conjunction with forming single files, columu ntovementsmay be executed at the sametime. The commands are "Column of Files Frorn the Right (Left), Column Right


(Left) MARCH." At the preparatory command, tlie guide takes a position in front of the file that will move first. The element leader of the right (left) element commands "Column Right (Left);" the remaining element leaders command "STAND FAST." At the command "MARCH," the element leader and the guide execute a face in marching to the right (left) and the element leader continues marching in the new direction with 30-inch steps. The guicle pivots in front of 45 degreesto a position 40 incl-res the element leacler. The eletnent leadersarc base for this movemetrt. The remaining individuals in the base file march forward on the corntnandof execution and pivot on the sarne ground as thcir clettlent leader atrd maintain the 4O-inchdistance. The element clements coml.nand leaders of the retnainit-tg "Column Right (Left), MARC'H," to cause their elemeutsto follow the leadingolcmctrts ordcr. Tlte commands"('olurtln in successivc of Files from the Lcft, Colttrrin Rigltt, MARCH" are not given. 96.TO FORM A COLUMN OF TWOS FROM A SINGLE FILE a. When at a ltalt anclin colutltn,the command is "Coluntn of Twos to thc Left (Right), MARCH.'' b. At thc commatrd "MARCH," the leadingindividualstandsfast. The airnlanwlto (whett in would be the center of the erlcment (right) in rnarchitrg, line) faces to tlie half lcft takcs one step, faces to the half right (lcft) in marching. and movcs r,rpuntil abreastof and at nonnal intcrval fronr the leading irtdividual. A11airmen exccutethc pivot on thc who are required sameground. All individuals to move do so simultancously.

b. When in a column of fours at a halt, to form a column of twos the command is "Column of Twos from the Right (Left), Forward. MARCH." At the preparatorycommand,the 4th Qnd) element leader turns the head 45 degrees to the right (left) and contmatrds "Forward." the 2nd (4th) elemetrt leader left (right) and comturns the head 45 degrees mands "STAND FAST;" Each keepstlie head to the right (left) until the element steps off. At thc command "MARCH," the two lcading elements step off and tl-retwo rcmairting elements incline in bchind the two leadingclements at the command "Forward, MARCFI" by the 2nd (4th) element leader. Distatrce (Figure45). n elctncnts is threc paces betwee

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45. C ol umnof Tw os from a C ol umnof Four s' Fi gure

c. When in a colurnnof twos at a halt. to fornt a column of'fours the conrrnand is "Colutnn of Fours to thc Lcft (Right), MAR('t{." At thc preparatorycornrland, thc 4th (lncl) elernent lcaclcr conrmancls "STAND FAST." "Colthe 2ncl (4th) clemcnt lcader conrnrand umn FIalf Lcft (Right)." At the conrnrancl "MARCf I," thc lcading clenrents stand lust anclthc renraining elenrcnts stcp off to colunrn half' lcft (right) and inclir-rc to lorru to the (Figr-rre left (right) of the lcading elenrents 46).

97.TO FORM A COLUMN OF TWOS FROM A COLUMN OF FOURS AND RE-FORM a. This is not a precisemovement,but is practiced in drill so that when necessary the movement is executedsmoothly and without delay. These movements are executed fror"n the halt only.

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Figure 49 Parade Rest

Flgure 48 Carry Guidon


Figure 50 Double Time


SectionC MANUAL OF THE GUIDON 98. THE GUIDON The guidoti is carried at ceremoniesand at other tirnes when prescribed by the comInander. It is displayedat the squadronheadquarters. The guidon bearer is a specially selected cadet designated by the squadron cornmander. 99. ORDER GUIDON

The staff is graspedin the left hand opposite the junction of the neck and left shoulder. g. When executing column movements and turns, the guidon bearer executes the movement on the command of executionand then obliques to his position in front of the leadingrank. h. When the squadron is in column with the squadron commander on the left flank, the guidon bearer'sposition is five paces in front of and centeredon the front rank of the leading flight. IO1. TO EXECUTE ORDER GUIDON WHILE AT CARRY GUIDON

Order guidon is the positionof attentionas shown in Figure 47 . The ferrule is kept on the ground tor"rching the outsideof the right shoe oppositethc toe of the right foot. The staff is held in thc right liand in the "V" formed by the tingers extended and joined and by the thunrb. The right hand and amr are kept behind the staff with thc ann bent naturally. The staff is rested aqainst the hollow of the shor-rlder. IOO. CARRY GUIDON

The staff is permitted to slide through the right hand until the ferrule is on the ground in line with and touching the toe of the right shoe. Then the staff is regrasped with the hand as at the carry position. TO2. TO EXECUTE CARRY GUIDON WHTLEAT ORDER GUIDON

a. Carry guidon is the position in which the ferrule is approxirnately six inches frorn the ground. Refer to Figure48. b. Facings,alinements,or formal marchings require guidon. The staff is kept in a vertical position throughout the movements. It is brought to carry guidon on the preparatory commandfor the movernent. c. When marching at route step or at ease,the bearermay hold the guidon in either hand at the carry position. d. Carry guidon is executed at all preparatory commands while at the halt except parade rest, present arms, order arms, or attention. e. Parade rest is executed by sliding the hand up the staff and inclining the staff of the guidon forward at arm's length with the hand at belt level. Figure 49 lurther illustrates this position. f. At double time, the guidon is held diagonally across the body as in Figure 50. The staff is graspedwith the right hand at the position used at the carry with the right forearm horizontal and the elbow near the body.

The staff is regraspedwith the left hand, while, at the same time, the grip of the right hand is loosenedon the staff. The guidon is raised vertically with the left hand, the staff sliding through the right hand until the ferrule is six inches from the ground. The staff is then regraspedwith the right hand. The left hand is cut awav smartlv to the left side. IO3. TO EXECUTE PRESENT GUIDON WHEN AT CARRY OR ORDER GUIDON

To execute present guidon when at carry or order guidon while marching or at a halt, at the preparatory command "Prgsent" or "Eyes," the guidon is raisedvertically until the right arm is fully extended. At the sametime, the left hand is brought smartly across the chest to guide the staff as shown in Figure 5 l At the command of execution "ARMS" or "RIGHT," the guidon is lowered straight to the front with the right arm extended and the staff resting in the pit of the right arm. The left hand is cut away smartly to the left side. At the command "RIGHT of Eyes, RIGHT,"


the guidon bearer turns the head and eyesin the same manner prescribedfor other individualsin the formation. At the commandof executiveof "Ready, FRONT"' the guidon bearer turns the head and eyesto the front. 104. TO EXECUTE CARRY GUDION GUIDON WHENAT PRESENT

in Carry gudion is executedas prescribed paragraph except that, when the the preceding guidon is brought to the carry position, the staff is permitted to slide through the right with the left hand hand. The staff is steadied until the guidon is in the position of order gudion, and then the left hand is cut smartly to the left side. 106. INDIVIDUAL SALUTE BY GUIDON BEARER WHENNOT IN FORMATION


On the preparatorycommand,the staff is raisedto the verticalposition and at the same the time the left arm is brought smartlyacross chest in order for the left hand to guide the staff. On the commandof execution,the left hand is lowered, retaining its grasp on the staff to the right side. The left hand steadies six the staff until the ferrule is approximately inchesfrom the ground. The left handis then cut smartlyto the left side. IO5. TO EXECUTEORDER GUIDON GUIDON WHENAT PRESENT

When at order guidon, the salute is executed with the left hand in a two-countmovement. On the first count, the left arm is moved the body with forearmand horizontally across and wrist straight,fingersand thumb extended joined with palm down. The first joint of the forefingertouchesthe staff as shownin Figure 52. On the secondcount, the left hand is cut smartlyawayto the side.


METHODS OF TRAINING SectionA DRILL AS A LEADERSHIPLAB TECHNIQUE of all One of the continuingresponsibilities CAP mernbersis to teach and assist otherswith lessexperience and skill. The leadership laboratory program itself should include the use of all methods of instruction - the lecture, demonstration - perfbrmance, discussion,problenr solving. etc. Frequent evaluations of progress sl'rould include written and performance tests. Traditional patterns of instruction in drill should be used only when theseare the bestmeansavailable to achieve the desired objective. Thesc objectives should always be related to the individual,aswell as to the unit. As drill instruction progresses, cadets should be grouped according to their proficiency. Those who show a lack of aptitude from the others and placed should be separated under the most experiencedinstructors. Care should be exerciscd not to ridicule slow learners. ro7. TECHNTQUES FOR TEACHTNG DRILL Demonstration- Performance To teach by this method, it is not necessary to rnemorizeeach word of the explanations for the variousclrill nrovements, but yotr - the instructor- must be surethat your conlmands are correctly worded and easilyundcrstood. You should practicein private,chccking againstthe manual,until you have a clear, complete explanation in mind. The demonstration-performance method of instrr,rcting consists of the followingsteps; (l) Give the name of the rnovementor exerciseand its practicaluse to the individutl unit. (2) Give the command to be used for thc movenrent or exercise, and explain its clcntents - the preparatory command ancl tlrc commandof cxecution. (3) Explain the movement and the cornmand so that the student can understantl the demonstration. (4) Demonstrate the movement ()r exercise. If the movementhas ntore than ouc count, demonstrateit by the numbers onc count at a time. (5) Ask if there are any questions. (6) Give the student an opportunity to try the movement.

You will find the following techniquesuseful in teaching drill exercises.


(7) Give practical work by the numbers and talk through the movements or exercise. (8) Make occur. corrections whenever errors

graph I l5 are effective training techniques. Individual Commands Having individuals in the ranks give cominterest and mands is another way of increasing skill in some skill. After the unit has acquired giving mass comin executing commands and individuals designate can mands, the instructor and without leaving in ranks who, in succession give and execute them will commands ranks, startsgiving group. individual next The with the prearranged basis, either on a commands on the preor after instructor signal from the given of number a certain has ceding individual commands. Competitive Drill Exercises The use of these exercisesbetween individuals or units is anotlter way of increasitlg and skill. drill knowledge Section B INTERIOR GUARD The mission of Civil Air Patrol includes providing assistatrce during local and tlational tltis mission, emergencics. Iu accottrplishing will be callcdupon uucloubtedly CAP rnernbers to display knowledgeof, or perfbrtlrfutlctiotrs sirnilar to, thc rnilitary's intcrior guard when arld wlten participatingilt cute rgcttcy missions altcl bivouacs. Metuattenclingeltcantplreltts bers, tltcretbre, sltottlclbecome larniliar with aud workingsof the interior guard. the pr.rrposc When guard details are required by CAP units fbr intcrior gtrard and for special purposes,tltey should be orgauizedin generalas describedin this cltaper. "It must be renrembered, however, that arms are prohibited in Civil Air Patrol, and auy reference to arms for"rnd in any ptrblished rnaterial concerning the interior guard is r-rotapplicableto CAP or its activitics." "CAP membersmay not use force, or the of force, in thc execution of any apl)earance guardduties." The extent to which CAP membersmay agencooperate lvith civilianlaw etrforcement cics is outlirlcd in CAPR 900-3, "Civil Air to Law EnforcenlentOfficers Patrol Assistance and Agctrcies." A1l CAP membcrs associated 60

(9) Repeat with the numbers until the desiredproficiency is achieved. By tlre Numbers This is the technique by which precision movementsof two or more counts are demonstrated, practiced, and learned - one step at a the student to learn time. This method enables step by step and permits the instructor to make detailed corrections. It can be used with marching movementsas well as with those performed at a halt. In some of tlie more complicated movements, such as column right (for a flight) from a halt, use of the numbersis the only effective way to catch and correct errors. The stepsyou should follow in teaching below. by this method are descirbed ( I ) In marching movements by the numbers, the instructor counts through the desired number of counts before terminatingthe exerciseby having the student bring up the trailing foot to the normal halt position. (2) The instructor commands "By tlte Numbcrs" before giving commandsfor tlte rnovements. For "By the Numbers, About, FACE,," the first count of the movenretrt is cxecuted on thc command of execution. "FACE." The second coutrt is executcd on the cornmand"Ready, TWO." (The pivot is the sccondcount.) (3) All subsequent cotrnrands are execr-rtcdby the nurnbers until the cotntrand "Without thc Nunrbers"is givcn. For cxantple, in teaching right ancl left face, the cotnnrand "By the Numbers"would be givcnat the beginning of the practicalexercise. E,achfacing is repeated sevcraltimes by the uumbers until the instructor gives "Without the Nuntbers." are executed in the Subscquentnroventents nce of quick time. cade MassCommands trainirtg havean excellent Thesecommancls valueand shouldbe usedfrequently. All of tlte ihree tvpes of commands described in para-


with the guard must be familiar with the provisionsof this regulation. Members acting in the name of Civil Air Patrol may cooperate with and assistlaw enforcement officers engaged in benevolent activities such as disaster relief, searchesfor missing persons, search ancl rescue activities, . evacuation missions,or mercy missions. Thev may also, under direction of the senior CAi, member present and at the specific request of the FederalAviaitionAdministrationor mil_ itary authorities,provide crashsite surveillance and assistance, suchas:



The interior guard preserves order, protects property, and insures compliance with pertinent directives. Thc CAp interior guard consistsof two elements: the main guard and the special guard. In general, these groups maintain a system of fixed posts and regular patrols. They are responsiblefor being familiar with the general orders pertaining to the interior guard and any special orders ilrat may havebeenissued.

IO9. OFFICER OF THE DAY (l) Givcdirections. (2) Inform the public the areais restricted. a. The officer of the day (OD) is respon(3) Advise individuals whom to contact sible for the proper performance of duty by for ar.rtl-rority to enter a rcstrictedarea. the main guard and other guards when speci_ Notify proper ar-rthorities if unlr,rthor_ fically directed. This officir is charged with . .(4) tzeo pcrsons are observed entering the re_ the execution of all ordersof the coimander strictedarca. relating to interior guard duty. (5) Carry messages. b. The OD's actual tour begins on the (6) Other sirnilar f unctions. instructions of the commandei and ends It nrust be clearly unclerstood that nrern_ when relieved by the same authority. In bers rnust bc sure that their activitiesdo rrot the performance of these duties, the OD violate any of the restrictiorrs set out in the takes .orders only from the commander, ex_ next paragraph,ancl neithcr ,.directly nor in_ cept that in caseof an alarmof any kind and directly involvethe useof force.,' at a time of great danger the senlor officer CAP nternbers acting in the name of Civil Air Patrol lnay not cngage in any fbrmof law ( I ) Inspects the guard and sentinels enforccrnent.(NOTE: Dclcgatiori of authority at such times during the day and night as front a law cnfbrccme nt agency (clepLrtiza_ considerednecessary. At an encampmentor tion) does not change or cancelthis restriction: similar activity, inspects ilre guard at least an individual nray not act concurreutly as a once betweenmidniglit and claylight. mernberof Civil Air patrol anclas a cleputyof a law enforcernentagency.) CAp nicrnbers (2) Prescribes visits of inspection to lnay not: be made by officers and noncommissioned ( I ) Assist law enforcement officers officers of the guard whenever necessary. to executeor enforcethe laws. (2) Assist law enforceurentofficers when (3) In case of an alarmof any kind, such assistance ntight result in punitivc action takes stepsat once to protect life and piop.rty against an individual. and to preserveorder, using the guard for this (3) U-seCAP property, such as vehicles, purpose. . . in law enforcement. (4) Enter on private property without (4) Keeps the guard informed as to permission, exceptin emergencies to savelives the OD's location. or personalproperty. (5) Restrict access to wreckage or re_ (5) Signsthe guard report, and entr:rs stricted areasby meansof force. any comments. The guard report iS submitted (6) Carry or usearms of anv kind. to the commander or designatedrepresenta_ (7) Exercise any authoriiy other than tive by the officer of the day in the iollowine that they have as private citizens. manner. On representingthemselvesto thi


commander, the old and new OD's both salute. The old OD, standing on the right of the new, then says to the commander, "Sir/ Madam, I report as old officer of the day," and present the guard report. As soon as the commander relievesthe old officer of the day, the latter salutesand retires.



a. The commander of the guard (COG) is the commanderof the relief on duty. The COG primarily responsiblefor the instruction, discipline, and performanceof duty of the guard. b. The COG receivesand obeys the orders of the commander and officer of the day, and reports to the OD all orders given to the guard that are not receivedfrom the OD. The COG transmits to the successor all instructions and information relating to these duties. This individual seesthat all members of the guard are correctly instructed in their orders and duties and that they understandand properly perform them. The COG questions the noncommissionedofficers and sentinelson the instructions they may have received. Also, the COG sees that patrols perform their duties properly and that visits of inspectionare made as directed by the officer of the day. Further, the COG seesthat the specialorders for each post and each member of the guard are disolayed in the appropriateplace. c. The commander of the guard inspects the guard at such times as may be necessary to insure that their duties are properly carriedout and that their equipmentis in propercondition. I I I. SERGEANTOF THE GUARD

c. This individual is resoonsible for the property under the chargeof the noncommissioned officers and seesthat it is properly cared for. If it is neglectedor misused, reports the facts to the commanderof the guard. d. The SG preparesduplicate lists of the officers and airnamesof the noncommissioned (or guard, the reshowing the men cadets) of liefs, and posts the duties of each. e. Makes inspectionsand seesthat other noncommissionedofficers of the guard make such inspections and patrols as may be prescribedby superiorauthority. f. Reports to the officer of the guard or, if there is none, to the officer of the day, any suspicious or unusual occurrences that come to the SG's attention. II2. MEMBERS OF THE GUARD

a. Members of the guard are assignedto reliefs by the commander of the guard and to specific posts by the sergeant of their reliefs. Members are not changed from one relief to another except by proper authority. b. Members of the guard must be familiar with the general orders for sentinels and with the special orders applying to their particular posts. 113. COLOR SENTINELS

Guards may be furnished for the colors which are unfurled and posted out of doors. For this purpose guards are detailed and governed by the same regulations that apply to other membersof the main guard. II4. INSPECTIONOF THE GUARDS

officer of a. The senior noncommissioned the shift on duty, whatever the grade, is officially known as the sergeant of the guard (SG). If there is no officer of the guard, the SG performs the duties prescribedfor the commander of the guard. b. The sergeantof the guard has general supervision over the other noncommissioned officers and airmen (or cadets) of the guard and must be familiar with all their orders and dr.rties.

area, a. Having reported to the designated guard "FALL IN." orders the sergeantof the guard order, has with this When the complied the SG dressesthe guard into three ranks, returns to a position 6 pacesin front of the center file of the guard, and facing the COG salutes and reports, "Sir/Ma'am, the guard is formed." The sergeantof the guard does an about face and has the guard open ranks. The the guard. commanderof the guardthen inspects b. Upon completion of the inspection,the COG returns to the post, and the SG halts at a position 6 paces to the front. They


exchange salutes, and the COG directs, "Take charge and post the guard," or simply, "Post the guard." The.SG then salutes, faces the guard, and has it close ranks. The SG then posts the guard in the usual manner. 115. POSTING OF RELIEFS

a. At an appropriate time before the sentinels are due to go on post, the sergeant assembles them; checks their appearance,fitness for duty, and condition of equipment; and determines that they understand their instructions. When the relief is large, it may be more convenient to form the relief, call the roll, and inspect the sentinelsin ranks. The sergeantthen reports to the commanderof the guard that the relief is ready to be posted or, if directed, sends the sentinels to the posts by the direct order "Cadet Jones, Cadet Smith, TAKE YOUR POSTS," or if the roll has been called, "TAKE YOUR POSTS." Each sentinel will then proceedto post. One sentinelrelieves another by meeting at a particular point at a prearranged time. The sentinel on post at the expiration of the tour will remain on post within view of the prearranged relieving point, and when relieved by the sentinel,will report immediately to the sergeantof the old relief. The last sentinel on duty on a night post will report to the sergeant of the old relief at a designated time. b. The sergeantrecords the names of the sentinels,the numbers of their posts, the time and date they are posted, and the time they reported upon relief. This record is kept on file by the commanderof the guard. c. Sentinels mounted on vehicles are posted and relieved in accordance with the sameprinciples. 116. GENERALORDERS

serving everything that takes place within sight or hearing. (3) To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce. (4) To repeat all calls from other posts. (5) To quit my post only when properly relieved. (6) To receive,obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves me, all orders from the commander, officer of the day, and officer and noncommissioned officers of the guard. (7) To talk to no one except in the line of duty. (8) To give alarm in case of fire or disorder. (9) To call the sergeant of the guard in any casenot covered by instructions. ( 10) To salute all officers and all colors and standards not encased. ( I I ) To be especially watchful at night and, during the time for challenging, to challenge all personson or near the post. (12) To use no force, or show of force, in the execution of my duties. II7. METHOD OF CHALLENGING

a. All sentinels are required to know and perform the general orders that pertain to the interior guard. b. The general orders that pertain to the interior guard are: ( I ) To take charge of this post and all designatedproperty in view. (2) To walk the post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and ob-

a. During challenging hours, if a sentinel seesanyone on or near the post, the sentinel should advance toward the person or party. When within about 30 paces, request the person or party to stop and be identified by challenging, "Halt! Who is there?" The sentinel may continue to advance while challenging, or halt if circumstances required. After challenging, attains the most advantageous position to determine whether the person or party should be passed. b. If the person or party is mounted or in a vehicle, the sentinel should proceed as when the personor party challenged is on foot. c. The sentinel should permit only one of a party (the senior member in the group) to approach for the purpose of being recognized. d. The sentinel should establish beyond a reasonable doubt that those challenged are what they represent themselvesto be and that they have a right to pass. If the sentinelis


not satisfied , make a call to the sergeantof the guard. In Civil Air Patrol, it is not necessary for the sentinel to individually challenge each member of a party. When the senior member of a party is recognized, this person vouches for all other membersof the party. e. When a party approaches,the sentinel, on receiving an answer that indicates the party is authorized to pass, says, "Advance,. . . .," repeating the answer to the challenge. Thus, if the answer to the question "Who is there?" is "Patrol," "Frinds," etc., the sentinel says, "Advance one to be recognized." Then when that person is recognized, the sentinel says, "Advance, Patrol (Friends,etc)." f. If a personapproaches alone,the person shouldbe requested to advance to be recognized. When recognized, the individual should be advanced as indicated above for one of a party. Thus, if the answeris "Friend," "Officer of the Day," etc., the sentinelsays,"Advance, Friend (Officer of the Day, etc.), to be recognized." After recognition, the sentinel says,"Advance, Friend (Officer of the Day, etc)." g. If two or more persons or parties approach the sentinel's post at the same time from different directions, they should be challenged in tum and asked to halt and remain halted until advanced. The senior is advanced first in accordance with the foregoing guides.

h. If a person is already advanced and in conversation with a sentinel the sentinel challenges any other pemon or party that may approach. If a person or party challenged is senior to the one alreadyon post, the sentinel advancesthe senior. If the person already advanced is senior to the new arrival, the sentinel advancesno one until the senior leaves. The sentinel then advancesthe senior of those waiting. i. The following order of precedence govems a sentinel in advancing different persons or parties approaching the post: commander, officer of the day, officer of the guard, officers, patrols, relief, noncommissioned officers of the guard in order of grade, and friends. j. A sentinel should avoid being surorised. On rare occations when the circumstances warrant it, a pass that is offered for identification may be laid on the ground, 6 paces from the sentinel. The bearer may then retreat 6 paces for the sentinel to examine the pass. k. Confusing or misleading answers to a sentinel's challenge are prohibited. The use of such an answer as "Friends" by officers or patrols is not consideredto be misleadingwhen the purpose of their visit makes it desirable that their official capacity should not be announced.



order, such execute a movement in successive as a column movement while marching, the comrnander of Flight A repeats the squadron commander's preparatory command, and the commanders of the other flights give a supplementarycommand such as "CONTINUE of the THE MARCH." The flight commanders commander's other flights repeat the squadron preparatory command and command of execution so that their flights execute the movement on the same ground as the first flight. b. If the squadron in column is at the halt and the squadron commander commands "Column Right," the leading flight commander's preparatory command is "Column Right," succeeding flight commanders comthe command mand "Forward." At "MARCH," given by the squadron commander, the leading flight executes column right and other flights march forward and execute the column movement at the cotnmand of their appropriate flight commanders. Each flight executes the movement at the same point and in the samemanner as the first flieht. c. To open tanks, the squadron commander givesan informational command to the flight commanders, !'PREPARE FOR INSPECTION." The flieht commanders, from order, command their right to left in successive flights, "Open Ranks, MARCH." They aline their flights and give the command "Ready, FRONT.'' d. When the squadron is in column and it

a. A squadron consists of two or more flights. Only such formations as are necessary for marches, drills, and ceremonies are prescribed for the squadron in this chapter. The squadron forms in line with flights in line. When in mass formation, the squadron is sized according to height, with the tallest individuals to the front and right. b. The squadron does not execute marchings in line except for minor changes in position. c. When changes of formation involve changesof post, the new post is taken by the most direct route and as soon as possibleafter the command of execution. II9. COMMANDS

a. In squadron drill (except in mass formation) when the individuals in the unit are to execute a movement together, the flight commanders repeat the preparatory commandsof the squadron commander for facings, steps, and marchings except when the preparatory command of the squadron commander is "Squadron." In this case, the flight commanders glve the preparatory command "Flight." When flights of the squadron are to


is desired to obtain the correct distance between flights (such as column from standard mass formation), the command is'.CLOSE ON LEADING FLIGHT." At this command, the leading flight commander commands the flight to take up the half step. Each succeeding flight, as soon as the correct distance has been obtained, takes up the half step at its commander's command. When all flights have obtained the correct distance,the squadroncommander gives "Forward, MARCH." and all flights step off with the normal 3O-inchsteo. e. Whenever commands are given in which one flight is to stand fast or to continue the march while other flights do not, its flight commander commands "STAND FAST" or ..CONTINUE THE MARCH." f. In giving commands, the flight commandersmay state the letter of their flights, as "A" Flight, HALT," or "B" Flight, Forward." The flight commanders do not repeat the squadron commander's combined commands. Section B FORMATIONS



d. The flight sergeants then command "REPORT." Remaining in position, the element leaders in successionfrom front to rear of each flight salute and report: present" or " all --"Element, -Element, (number) persons absent." The flight sergeants faceabout. e. At the command "REPORT," given by the first sergeant, the flight sergeants,beginning with the right flight, successivelysalute and report: " Flight, all present or accounted for" or " Flight, (number) persons absent." - All flights having reported, the first sergeantcommands "POST." The flight sergeantsface about and move by the most direct routes to their positionsin the ranks. The squadron commander takes a center position 12 paces in front of and facing the squadron to receive the report of the first sergeant. The guidon bearer assumed a position with the commander. The first sergeant then faces the squadron commander, salutes, and reports. "Sir/Ma'am, all present or accounted for" or "(number) persons absent." Without command, the first sergeant faces about and moves by the most direct route to the appropriate position. f. The flight commanders immediately take their posts after the first sergeanthas reported (Figure 54). g. In forming the squadron, any individual required to make a report saluteswhile reporting and holds the saluteuntil it is returned. The individual receiving the report does not return the salute until the report is completed.

a. The squadron is formed in line with flights in line by the first sergeant,who takes an initial post nine pacesin front of the point where the center of the squadron is to be, faces that point, and commands "FALL IN.', At the command "FALL IN," the squadron forms in two or more flights with normal interval between individuals (unless close interval is directed) and three-pace intervals between flights. Figure 53 indicates key positions. b. While positioning units in an area or fbrmation, the command is "paces -Forward, MARCH" or _"Steps Backward, MARCH." (In backward march, the cadets take l5-inch steps backward starting with the left foot, and maintains normal armswing). These commands are used for short distancesonly, four paces(steps) or less. c. Each flight sergeant takes a post three paces in front of the flight and centered on it. The flights then form as prescribed under the supervision of the flight sergeants. The left flank of the flight is squared as nearly as possible.



a. To aline the squadron formed in line at a halt, the squadron commander orders "DRESS FLIGHT TO THE RIGHT." At this command, the flight commandersface about and the flight commander of the base flight dresses the flight immediately by the commands "Dress Right, DRESS; Ready, FRONT." Flights are dressedas describedin flight drill. Each flight commander's flight is dressedto the right as soon as the preceding flight commander halts and faces down line of the first element. When not adjacent to the base flight, the flight commander's flight is dressed on the next flight toward the base flight.


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Figure 53.

F o r m in g th e Sq u a d r o n in L in e .

b. To aline the squadronwhen in a squadron formation at a halt, the commandsare "At Close Interval, Dress Right, DRESS; Ready, At the command "DRESS," the FRONT." squadron dressesat close interval. The base flight commander promptly verifies the alinement of ranks. When the flight commander resumes the post, the squadron commander commands "Ready, FRONT, and COVER." 122. INSPECTION OF THE SQUADRON

a. The squadron is formed in line. The squadron commander commands "PREPARE FOR INSPECTION." At this command. the

flight commanders face about and order ranks to be opened. (See flight drill for opening ranks.) After the command "Ready, FRONT," flight commanderscommand "Parade,REST." b. When all flights are at parade rest, the squadron commander beginsby inspectingthe guidon bearer. The guidon bearer may assume the position of parade rest after being inspected. c. The first sergeant joins the squadron commander if so directed and takes notes during the inspection. As the squadron commander approaches eachflight, the commander brings the flight to attention, salutes, and reports: "Sir/Ma'am, Flight is prepared -


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Sq u a d r o n in L in e .




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for inspection." Aftcr being inspected,the flight cornmander accornpanicsthe scluaclron comntandcr throughout the inspectionof thc flight. The flight cornntande:r's position is to the right rear of the inspectingofficer so as to walk in the letrclas in a showing capacity. Refer to Figure 53 for the irositionof the inspectingofTicer. Siuglc lllc betlveert ranks is observedwith the flight commanderin the lead followed by the inspectingofficer ancl in turn by the first sergeant,as reqr"rired.The scluadron commander, beginning at the head of the column or right of the line, makesa minute inspection of the equipment, dress, and ap-

pearance o1'the cadets. d. The inspection is uraclefronr right to lett in front ancl fl'om left to right in rear of eachrank. e. The flight cornmanderuray give parade rest to elenrents uot being inspected. The element leacler callsthe elenrentto attentionjust betore the inspectingofficer conrpletesthe inspectionof the precedingelernent. Likcwisc, the element leader may give the elenrent paraderest after it has been inspected. f. On completion of the inspection of each flight, the flight commander moves three pace's beyond the front rank, halts, facesdown



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FI.IGH TB FI.IGH TA i IN TE R V A I: 4 IN C H E S I D IS TA N C E T40 IN C H E S Figure 56. Squadron in Column.

the line, and callsthe flight to attention. The then takesone paceforward, flight commander from comments facesto the right, and receives commander the inspectingofficer. The flight salutesthe inspectingofficer upon departure and then facesdown the line and commands "Close Ranks, MARCH." The flight commander then commands "Parade, REST, is appropriate, AT EASE;or REST,"whichever post in front of the flight and centered takesa the same position as the on it, and assumes flight. 123. THE SQUADRONIN COLUMN

Fi gure 57. S quadron i n Mass Formati on.



The squadron moves from one place to anotherin a column flight, as shown in Figure 56. The guidon beareris one paceto the rear comand two pacesto the left of the squadron mander. To view and control the squadron, may take a position the squadroncommander on the flank. When this occurs,the guidon is at the headof the column. bearer 69

a. When the squadron is at a halt, the commandis "SquadronMassLeft, MARCH." At the preparatory command, the leading flight commander gives the command of "STAND FAST." The flight commanders flight give "Column Half Left." the succeeding b. At the command'.MARCH," the leading flight standsfast. Each rear flight in turn exscutes a column half left, then column half right to move to the new position at a 4-inch interval alongside the flight it was following. Each flight commanderhalts the flight when its leadingrank is on line with the leading rank of the flight already on line. This placesthe squadronin masswith 4-inch intervals between all the individualsin rank (Figure57).

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c. The squadron being in march, the commands by the squadron commander are the same. The A Flight commandergives ,.CONTINUE THE MARCH," flight commanders of succeeding flights give "Column Half Left." After the command "MARCH," the commander of the leading flight (A Flight) halts the flight and the other flights move to the new positions in the same manner as before. d. To change direction when in mass formation and the squadron is at the halt or in march, the command is "Right (Left) Turn, MARCH." The right (left) flank individual of the line of guides and flight commanders is the pivot for this movement. At the command "Right Turn, MARCH" the individual takes one pace forward, executes a full pivot to the right, advances one 3O-inch step, and takes up the half step. At the command "Left Turn, MARCH," the individual faces to the left in marching, advances one 30-inch step, and takes up the half step. Other front rank individuals do a right (left) 45 degree pivot, advance until opposite their paces in line, do a second right (left) 45 degree pivot and upon

arriving abreast of the pivot individual, take up the half step. See Figure 58 for the proper number of stepsbetween pivots. e. Each succeeding rank makes the movement on the same ground and in the same manner as the rank in front of them. All continue marching at the half step until the command "Forward, MARCH" is given. This command is given after the entire squadron has changed direction and interval and distance has been reestablished. f. In turning to the left on a moving pivot, each rank dressesleft at the preparatory command and continues to dress left until the command "Forward, MARCH;" after that, the dress is right unless otherwise announced. g. The squadron commander faces the squadron and marches backward until the change in direction has been completed. 125. COLUMN OF FLIGHTS FROM SQUADRON MASS FORMATTON

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a. The extended mass fonnation is used when a more impressive appearance for drill is desired(Figure 59). and ceremonies b. The commands are "Squadron Mass (number) PacesLeft, MARCH." At the command "MARCH," the movement is executed as described in paragraph l25b except that the rear flights execute a column half left and a column half right to move to the new position beside the leading flight at the interval ordered. Each flight is halted when its leading rank is on line with the leading rank of the flight already on line. c. In extended mass formation, the squadron drills in the same manner as for mass formation, maintaining the interval between flights. 127. TO DISMISSTHE SQUADRON






Figure 59.

Sq u a d r o n in Exte n d e d M a ss F o r mati on.

MARCH." At the preparatory command, the right flight commander commands "Forward" and the other flight commanders command the command "STAND FAST." At "MARCH," the right flight marches forward. Each of the remaining flights follows in column in its normal formation, executing column half right and column half left upon the commandsof its commander. b. When in march, the squadron commander gives the same commands as in the previous movement except that double time is given instead of forward, and commanders of flights other than the right flight command "CONTINUE THE MARCH." On the command "MARCH," the right flight marches out in double time. At the appropriate time, other flight commanders give "Double Time, MARCH," and "INCLINE TO THE RIGHT" and "INCLINE TO THE LEFT" to bring their flishts into the column.

The squadron, being in line at attention, as follows: will be dismissed a. The squadron commander directs the first sergeant to dismiss the squadron. The (pause)DISMISS command is "First Sergeant, THE SQUADRON." With the squadron in line at a halt, at the command "First Sergeant," the most direct route is taken by the first sergeant to a point three paces from the squadron commander (nine pacesin front of the center of the squadron). The first sergeant halts, and renders the salute. The squadron commander returns the salute and commands "DISMISS THE SQUADRON'" The first sergeantsalutes;the squadron commander returns the salute and falls out. At the same time, the other officers of the squadron and the guidon bearer fall out. The first sergeants take their posts three pacesin front of the center of their fliehts. b. The first sergeantthen orders the flight sergeantsto dismisstheir flights by giving them the command "DISMISS YOUR FLIGHTS'" The first sergeant then falls out. The flight sergeants then face about and dismiss their flights. Section C RAISING AND LOWER.ING THE FLAG




a. Reveille is the signal for the start of the official duty day. The time for the start of the duty day varies at different Air Force bases; therefore, the commander designates the specified time fqr reveille. If the base commander desires, a reveille ceremony may accompany the raising of the flag. This ceremony takes place in the vicinity of the base flagstaff and is held after daylight. b. In the unit area, reveille normally is held using the formation of squadron in line. This formation is used when a reveille ceremony is not held at the baseflagstaff. 129. EVENTS ACCOMPANYING FLAG RAISING AT REVEILLE CEREMONY

a. Shortly before the specified time for reveille, cadets are marched to a predesignated position near the base flagstaff, halted, faced toward the flagstaff, and dressed. The flag security detail arrives at the flagstaff at this time and remains at attention. b. The unit commander commands o'Parade, REST." c. At the specified time for reveille the unit commander "SOUND commands REVEILLE." The flag detail moves to the flagstaff and attaches the flag to the halyards. d. After reveille has been played the unit commander commands"Present ARMS," then faces the flagstaff and executes present arms. Upon this signal the national anthem or To the Colors is sounded. e. On the first note of the national anthem or To the Colors, the flag security detail begins to raise the flag briskly. The senior member of the detail holds the flag to keep it from touching the ground. f. The unit commander holds the salute until the last note of the music, then, executes order arms, faces about, and commands "Order. ARMS." The cadets are then marched back to the dismissalarea. I3O. RAISING THE FLAG

b. The detail is formed in line with the cadet noncommissioned officer carrying the flag in the center. The detail then is marched to the flagstaff and halted, and the flag is attached to the halyards. The flag is always raised and lowered from the leeward side of the flagstaff. The two cadets attend the halyards, taking position facing the staff to hoist the flag without entangling the halyards. The cadet noncommissioned officer continues to hold the flag until it is hoisted clear of the grasp, taking particular care that no portion of it touches the ground. When the flag is clear of the grasp, the cadet noncommissioned officer comes to attention and executespresent arms. c. The flag is hoisted briskly at the first note of To the Colors or the national anthem, if music is played. It may be hoisted at a predetermined time without music. As soon as the flag has been hoisted to the staffhead, the cadets hold it there, grasping the halyards with their left hands, and without moving from their positions, they execute present arms. d. On the last note of the music or after the flag has been hoisted to the staffhead, all members of the detail execute order arms at the command of the senior member. The halyards are then secured to the cleat of the staff (or if appropriate, the flag is lowered to half-staff and the halyard secured). The detail is formed again and marched to the dismissal area. I3I. RETREATCEREMONY

a. When practicable, a detail consistingof a cadet noncommissioned officer and two cadetshoists the flag.

a. The retreat ceremony serves a twofold purpose. It signals the end of the official duty day and serves as a ceremony for paying respect to the flag. The time for the end of the duty day varies at Air Force bases, therefore, the base commander designates the specific time for the retreat ceremony. b. The retreat ceremony may take place at the squadron area,the baseparade ground, or in the vicinity of the flagstaff. If conducted at the base parade ground, retreat is a part of the parade ceremony. If conducted within the squadron area, it is usually a ceremony not involving a parade. If the retreat ceremony is conducted at the flagstaff, the units participating may be formed in line or may be massed,depending upon the size and


number of units and the space available. 132. EVENTSACCOMPANYING RETREAT CEREMONY AT FLAGSTAFF

a. Shortly before the specified time for retreat, the band and the cadets participating in the cerernbny are positioned facing the flagstaff, and dressed. If marching to and from the flagstaff, the band precedes the cadets participating in the ceremony. b. If the band and cadets march to the flagstaff, a flag security detail also marches to the flagstaff, halts, and is given the command "Parade, REST" by the senior member. (See para 7-28a for composition of the flag security detail.) c. As soon as the cadets are dressed.the comrnander commands "Parade, REST." The commander then faces the flagstaff, assumes the position of the cadets, and waits for the specified time for retreat. d. The commander orders the band leader to sound retreat at the specifiedtime by commanding,"SOUND RETREAT." e. The band plays retreat. (If a band is not present, recorded music may be played over the base public addresssystem.) During the playing of retreat, the two junior members of the flag security detail arrange the halyards on the flagstaff for proper lowering of the flag. f. After the band completes playing retreat, the commander faces about and commands, "Squadron (Group, etc.) ATTENTION." g. The commander then commands"Present, ARMS." As soon as the troops execute present arrns, the commander faces to the front and also assumes present arms. The members of the flag security detail execute present arms upon command by the commander. h. The band plays the national anthernor the bugler plays To the Colors, and the junior members of the flag security detail lower the flag slowly and with dignity. i. The commander executes order arms when the last note of the music is played and the flag has been securely grasped. The commander faces about and gives the cadets "Order. ARMS." and again facesto the front.

j. The flag security detail folds the flag. The senior cadet of the detail remains at attention while the flag is being folded unless neededto control the flag. k. When the flag is folded, the flag security detail, with the senior cadet on the right and the flag bearer in the center, marchesto a position three paces from the commander (in an informal ceremony three paces from the officer of the day). The senior cadet salutes and reports: "Sir/Ma'am, the flag is secured." The commanderreturns the salute, and the flag security detail marches away. The cadets then are marched to their areasand dismissed. 133. LOWERING THE FLAG

a. When practical, the personnelrequired to lower the flag are a cadet noncommissioned officer and three cadetsfor the all-purposeflag officer and five and a cadet noncommissioned cadetsfor the base flag. The detail is formed, marched to the flagstaff, and the halyards are detached and attended from the leeward side. On the first note of the national anthem or, if no band is present,on the first note of To the
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Colors, the noncommissioned cadetand members of the detail not lowering the flag execute presentarms. The lowerineof the flag is coordinatedwith the playing of the music so that the two are completed simultaneously. officer commands The cadetnoncommissioned the detail, "Order, ARMS," when the flag is low enoughto be received.(If at half*taff, the while retreat is flag is hoistedto the staffhead being sounded and then lowered at the first note of the national anthemor To the Colon.) from the halyards b. The flag is detached and folded. The halvardsare securedto the staff.

c. Folding instructions are as follows: (SeeFigure60 for steps.) (l) In steps A and B, with the flag held waist high, the lower striped sectionof the flag is folded overthe blue field. (2) In stepC, the folded else(the edge nearestthe readerin B) is then folded over to meetthe openedge. (3) In step D, a triangular fold is started by bringing the striped corner of the foldededgeto the openedge. (4) In step E, the outer point is turned inward, parallel with the open edge, to form a second triangle.




RESPONSIBILITIESOF THE CADET OFFICER abilities,you In developingyour leadership must learn what will be expected of you when you become an officer. It is true that eachjob in Civil Air Patrol has certain special responsibilities these you learn when you servein the position or make a staff duty analysisof it. It is also true, however, that there are certain general responsibilities common to all CAP officers in all positions. These are the responin this section. As a potensibilities discussed tial leaderyou must becomefamiliar with these general responsibilities so that you can fulfill them properly when you become a cadet officer. 134. KNOWLEDGE OF MISSION

Your next step is to detertninejust how your job fits into the accomplishment of the unit mission. You must be alert to do this; you must ask questions. Questions are expected and encouraged. The effectiveness of an officer often hinges upon the officer's ability and willingnessto ask discerning,pertinent questions.

Every CAP member is responsible for acquiring a knowledge and appreciation of the organization. Each unit in Civil Air Patrol has a mission to accomplish. Your first task as a potential leader is to become thoroughly familiar with the assignedmission of your unit and understand how it relates to the mission of other CAP units and the organization as a whole. To become mission-conscious-to recognize that the mission is of paramount importance is the first step toward becoming an effective officer.

Getting to know any job is not an overnight task. Systematic study of regulations, standing operating procedure, and established policies will give you a good foundation. Questions addressed to subordinates and superiors, as well as a cooperative attitude, will help round out your knowledge. Finally, you must learn from experience. This is not an automatic process, but one which requires constant perserverance and personalevaluation, a consciouseffort for self-improvement. Although you must constantly bear in mind the mission of your section, you must not lose sight of the other sections in your unit. Sometimes personnel and materiel are hoarded by someoneeagerto do the job well. The purpose may be commendable, but the approach may cause other sections to suffer. Your outlook must always include the overall


rnission,and the functioning of your unit must be geared to that prlrpose. Cooperation with other sectionsand units is absolutelyessential. I36. OFFICER.UNITRELATIONSHIP

This first responsibility of a CAP officer - understandingthe mission and your part in accomplishingthat mission - is related to the second responsibility-gaining the respect of the individuals who work with and foryou. Surveys have shown that ability in an officer is the characteristic most likely to gain the respectof the subordinates. Most individuals pret-era strict officer who knows the job to a lenient, good-natr.rred officer who does not know the prefer an impartial officer. They also .iob. It is not likely that your first assignrnent as an officer will be a command position. Probably, you will be placed in chargeof a rather small group of cadets. Whatever the situation. however,you must be familiar with the techniclues of handlingpeopleto make the greatest uscof their abilities. Gctting others to enjoy working for you rccluiresthe applicationof a delicatebalance of discipline, tact, and justice. It calls for continuous effort to learn about individuals, their virtuesand faults, their likesand dislikes. thcir mental and physical strengths and weaknesses. Your subordinates will not all be highly qualifiedor experienced. You must placethem in positions where they will do the most good most of the time. You must instill in them a spirit of cooperation,mold them into a team, and encouragethem to work for you and with one another. As an officer in the CAP cadet program you must be able to adapt yourself to meet the various conditions and the changing needs of the individuals under your chargeand the units as a whole. 137. OFFICER-AIRMAN RELATIONSHIP

familiarity. This does not rnean you should be aloof and unapproachable. Nor should you flaunt your grade or assume an air of superiority. Maintain a deep interest in the welfare of your subordinates. Give them a feeling that they can depend on you to help them in time of need. Always be ready to listen to their problerns or suggestions, ready to suggest solutions. Your relationship must be close, cordial, and sympathetic. Take the middle colrrseand let prevail. common sense I38. OFFICER.NCORELATIONSHIP

The proper officer-noncommissionedofficer relationship deserves special mention. You will quickly discclverthat the NCO is an essentialperson in Civil Air Patrol. In some respects, it is the NCO who keeps the wheels of routine and detail running. But the NCO's effectivenessdepends to a great extent upon the support receivedfrom superiors. The noncommissionedofficer is usually a leader with much knowledgeand experience in a special field. As an officer it is your responsibility to use this knowledge and experience as effectively as possible. Consider the NCO as an assistant,not as a novice. Recognize and respect the NCO's grade and experience, br-rt always remember that the basic for the job is yours. responsibility I39. EVALUATION OF SUBORDINATES

The officer-airman relationship is also imnortant. The efficiency of a unit may depencl on it. The tendency to become overfamiliar with subordinates must be curbed. New officers often believethey can obtain cooperation, unity, and spirit through personalpopularity with their subordinates.But prestige is an important factor in leadership. Few officers can maintain their prestigeby fostering over-

Periodically you may be required to analyze and record the effectivenessof your subordinates. The evaluation of a subordinateshould be a continuousprocess. If you wait until the end of the rating period before you begin to evaluate the subordinate, you make your task more difficult and limit the qr"rality of your report. When you are rcsponsible for rating another person, adopt a system of making frequent notes of your impressionsduring the rreriod of observation. You will then have a factual basis for analyzing the development of the individual being rated, a measure of imorovement or regression, and an aid for the preparation of your report. tilhen the time comes to make the evaltration, all you have to do is summarize vour separateim-


pressions. A continuous system of evaluation discloses weaknessesprior to the time for submitting the rating report. In fairness to the individual being rated, you should discuss shortcomings and establish a climate for improvement before a report is required. Further, you should discuss each completed report with the individual being rated before you forward it for approval. Dispite individual natural reluctance to discussone's faults, the discerningsubordinate will always value a fair appraisalof the individual's performance. Be honest and open with the individual. Suggest ways to overcome shortcomings. Give the individual a chanceto improve. Above all, do not allow rumors of your impressionsto reach subordinatesfrom sources. secondhand I40. CAP-MILITARY-CryIL RELATIONSHIP

In Civil Air Patrol you have certain responsibilities which in other organizatior-rs would be of no concern to your superiors.As an officer in CAP, however,if you become an object of criticisrn, all of Civil Air Patrol is adverse'lyaffected. If you behave in an irreresponsible manner, you may placethe entire organizationin disfavor. On the other hand, if you behave in a manncr that fostersgood CAP-military-civilian relationships,you can greatly enhancethe image and usefulnessof Civil Air Patrol. By taking part in civic affairs, by honestly trying to understandthc problemsfacing your colnmunity, and by demonstrating high attributes of character, you can advance the cause of Civil Air Patrol and. at the sametinre. add to your personal development. When you joined CAP, you were not released front your responsibilities as a citizen. If anything, your citizenship responsibilitiesto your community and your nation were increasedby your membership in Civil Air Patrol. I4I. MORALE

average member with respect to the mission of the unit. If this averagestate of mind is one of confidence, courage, determination, and enthusiasm, morale is high. If the average state of mind is one of pessimism, dissatisfaction, despondence,and anxiety, morale is low. Practically every facet of every CAP activity affects, and is affected by, morale. It is often a decisive factor with respect to the mission of the unit. Although morale itself is not tangible, it is a highly observable factor. By being alert and sensitive to the mental state of the members of your unit, you can gage their morale level and take any remedial steps that may be required. Among the symptoms of low morale you will find such things as poor job performance, excessive absenteeism, poor bearing, and even decreasing membership or high membership turnover. A high level of morale, on the other hand, will show itself in increased job performance, good discipline and conduct, cheerfulness,good attendance, and increasing membership. As an officer in Civil Air Patrol, it is your responsibility to watch for these signs and act according to their dictates. Know the members of your unit and how they feel, and time your words and actions so as to build their morale to as high a level as possible. Remember, it is easy, by thoughtlessdeedsand careless words, to destroy the morale of a unit. It is a far more difficult thing to build morale back once it has broken down than it is to keep it at peak level. To have high morale in a unit, it is not necessaryto pamper the members, but it is necessary to do the best you can for them and to make them believe it is the best you, or anyone, could do. As their leader,you expect the best efforts of the members of your unit; as their leader, they have a right to expect your best. The greatest underlying force from which high morale stems is confidence - confidence in Civil Air Patrol, in its objectives, its programs,its methods, and its leadersat all levels. If the members of your unit are convinced that the cause for which they are working is worth all their efforts, if they believethat they can accomplish the mission with the meansat hand, and if they are satisfied that their pro-


you will One of the major responsibilities have as a CAP officer is to maintain high morale in your unit or section at all times. The morale of a unit is the state of mind of the 11

spects for the future are the very best, your unit will havehigh morale. 142. ESPRITDE CORPS To developesprit in your unit you must, first of all, have a sincerebelief in your organization and confidence in its capability. Your attitude must say, more plainly than words, that your unit and its membersare the bestin you must seeto it Civil Air Patrol. Secondly, that the members of the unit have a good opinion of themselves and their unit. This is not as difficult as it sounds,beingmore a matter of technique than anything else,for any group alwayswants to think well of itself. At the sametime, esprit is a tender growth, and you must be alert for factions,accidents, and contests that will injure it. 143. EFFICIENCY

It is also your responsibility as a CAP officer to develop esprit de corps within your unit. Esprit de corps is group morale reinforced by feelingsof pride in being members of an important group. Unit spirit is the magic which brings an organizationto life. substance Although quite intangible,it will make two otherwise identical units differ in their performance as night from day. This spirit stems largely from the pride and confidencein their unit that is sharedby all the members.It does not matter that this is largely opinion; the important thing is that all the membersthink they belongto the bestunit in Civil Air Patrol. It is the unit with esprit de corps that perwhen the need forms the so-called impossible arises. on three Esprit de corpsin a unit depends ingredients : essential ( I ) The unit must be different from other respect. units in somefavorable (2) The unit must be famous for something. (3) The unit must be effective.

Each officer in Civil Air Patrol is also responsiblefor the operating efficiency of the unit or section. Unit efficiencyis the ability to accomplish successfully an assignedtask in the shortestpossibletime, with minimum expenditures in manpower and materials,and with the leastpossible confusion. Whendiscipline, morale, and esprit de corps are good, efficiency is increased. You can build efficiency in your unit through good leadership, sound training, and effective administration.

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