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Cryogenic Cooling by Liquid Nitrogen in the Orthogonal Machining Process

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Abstract Cutting temperature is the determining factor for other machinability indices of material. The conventional cutting fluids are ineffective in controlling the cutting temperature in the cutting zone. Cryogenic cooling is environmental friendly new approach for desirable control of cutting temperature. Current work involved the experimental study of the effect of cryogenic cooling on cutting temperature, cutting force, chip thickness and shear angle in the orthogonal machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy. It has been observed that in cryogenic cooling method, the temperature was reduced to 19% and the cutting force was increased to a maximum of 15% then dry machining of AISI 1045 steel. In machining of Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy, the temperature was reduced to 279% and the cutting force was increased to a maximum of 10%. Keywords: Orthogonal machining, Cryogenic cooling, Cutting temperature, Cutting force.

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I. INTRODUCTION The most emerging needs of the modern metal cutting operation are to increase the material removal rate with better surface finish and high machining accuracy. These objectives can be achieved by reducing cutting temperature in the cutting zone. In metal cutting process, high cutting temperature and its detrimental effects are generally reduced by proper selection of process parameters, proper selection application of cutting fluid and using heat and wear resistance cutting tool materials. The conventional coolants are fails to provide desirable control of cutting temperature in the cutting zone and also it creates some techno-environmental problems such as disposal and dermatological problems to the user. These problems were eradicated using liquid nitrogen as coolant in cryogenic machining due its excellent cooling ability along with environmental friendliness. II. REVIEW cryogenic machining of Ti-6Al-4V. Temperatures in cryogenic machining were compared with conventional dry cutting and emulsion cooling. It was showed that a small amount of liquid nitrogen applied locally to the cutting edge is superior to emulsion cutting in lowering the cutting temperature. have carried out experimental investigation into the role of cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen on friction and cutting force in machining of Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results indicated that cutting force was increased in cryogenic machining. It was also found that the friction coefficient on the tool-chip interface was considerably reduced in cryogenic machining involved experimental investigation of cryogenic cooling on tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation in turning of AISI 4140 steel by two different geometries of carbide inserts. Substantial benefit of cryogenic cooling on tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation was reported and conducted an experiment on cryogenic cooling and stated that benefits of cryogenic cooling are mainly by substantially reducing the cutting temperature, which improves the chip-tool interaction and maintains sharpness of the cutting edge and also shows better surface finish and higher dimensional accuracy as compared to dry and wet machining. investigated the tool wear and tool life of carbide inserts in turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under dry, wet and cryogenic environment. It was found that tool wear

Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride [PCBN] under cryogenic cutting conditions and reported that liquid nitrogen cooling system reduced the cutting tool temperature and tool wear over dry machining. Hong and Ding conducted an experiment with various cooling approaches in

parameters are less in cryogenic environment. Ahmed et al [7] conducted the experiment in cryogenic machining of AISI 4340 steel with modified tool holder. Two different flow outlets were tested for this modified tool holder. It was found that this modified tool holder for cryogenic cooling is more effective when the coolant out flow is directed away from the cutting edge of the carbide insert. Kalyan kumar and Choudhury [8] studied the effect of cryogenic cooling on tool wear and high frequency dynamic cutting forces generated during high speed machining of stainless steel. It was showed that cryogenic cooling was effective in bring down the cutting temperatures that attributed for the substantial reduction of the flank wear. However, more work is needed to explore the potentiality of cryogenic cooling. So the major objective of the present work is to study the effect of cryogenic cooling on cutting temperature, cutting force, chip thickness and shear angle in the orthogonal machining of AISI 1045 steel and

Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy. The effectiveness of cryogenic cooling was compared with that of dry machining. III. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURE The orthogonal cutting experiments were carried out on AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy tubes with the outer diameter of 80mm and the wall thickness of 2mm under dry and cryogenic cutting conditions. The experimental details are given in Table 1. The cryogenic cooling setup is shown in Fig.1. In cryogenic cutting conditions, liquid nitrogen was supplied at the rake face of the cutting tool using a specially designed nozzle. The photographic view of the experimental set up is shown in Fig.2. The temperature was measured using non-contact type Infrared pyrometer with an accuracy of .0 C in all machining conditions. On line measurement of the cutting force was carried out using a kistler type 9257B Piezo-electric three component dynamometer, a Kistler type 5070A12100 multi channel charge amplifier and a PC based data acquisition system (Dynoware).

Table 1. Experimental conditions. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Parameter Group I Group II __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Work material Diameter (mm) Wall thickness (mm) Length (mm) Cutting tool Cutting velocity (m/min) Feed rate (mm/rev) Environment AISI 1045 steel 80 2 250 Multi coated carbide 54 and 193 0.079, 0.119 and 0.159 Dry and Cryogenic (Rake cooling) Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy 80 2 250 Un coated carbide 54 and 193 0.079, 0.119 and 0.159 Dry and Cryogenic (Rake cooling)

Compressor

Drier

Pressure Regulator

Presure relief valve

Insulated stainless steel hose Nozzle

Pneumatic hose

Stainless steel cap

Stainless steel pipe

Stainless steel pipe

Fig.1. Schematic diagram of cryogenic cooling setup.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISSCUSSIONS The present experimental study involves orthogonal machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy tubes were carried out under dry and cryogenic environment. The experimental results of cryogenic cutting temperature, cutting force, chip thickness and shear angle have been compared with dry machining. A. Effect of Cryogenic Cooling on Cutting Temperature Table 2 shows that percentage reduction in cutting temperature due to cryogenic cooling. It is observed that cryogenic cooling using liquid nitrogen reduces cutting temperature by 19-40% depending upon the levels of the cutting parameters (cutting velocity and feed rate). This is because liquid nitrogen was applied in the tool rake face. The result indicates that cryogenic cooling effect slightly decreases with the increase in cutting velocity and feed rate. The cryogenic cooling effect mainly depends on cutting speed and feed rate. Based on the results, the cryogenic cooling effect decreased because of increase the cutting temperature there by changing the chip-tool contact nature.
Table 2. Reduction in cutting temperature due to cryogenic machining. Reduction in cutting temperature (%) Aluminium AISI 1045 6061-T6 steel alloy 27.61 39.05 26.17 37.30 25.20 35.12 22.67 32.64 21.20 30.26 19.57 27.98

The comparison of cutting force for AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy with feed rates for different cutting velocities under dry and cryogenic machining were shown in Figure 3 and 4 respectively. It clearly appears that cutting force increases with the increase in feed rate due to increase in chip load and also cutting force decreases with the increase in cutting speed due to decrease in shearing area. The result indicates that increased cutting force in cryogenic machining over dry machining in all cutting conditions. The purpose of using liquid nitrogen as cooling medium is to lower the cutting temperature in the cutting zone. The workpiece material becomes harder and less sticky at lower temperature and thus resulting in an increased cutting force and reduction in adhesion between chip-tool interface. The influence of cryogenic cooling increases the cutting force to a maximum of 15% and 10% for the machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy respectively.
1200

1000

800 f o rc e ( N ) C u tti ng 400

600

Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Cryogenic)

200

Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Cryogenic)

0 0 0.05 0.1 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0.15 0.2

Fig.3. Comparison of cutting force under dry and cryogenic machining of AISI 1045 steel.
400 350

300

C t t i n g f o r c e (N ) u

250

200

150 Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Dry) 100 Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Cryogenic) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Cryogenic) 0 0 0.0 5 0.1 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0 .1 5 0.2

S.No

Cutting Velocity (m/min)

Feed rate (mm/rev) 0.079 0.119 0.159 0.079 0.119 0.159

50

1 54 2 54 3 54 4 193 5 193 6 193

Fig.4. Comparison of cutting force under dry and cryogenic machining of Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy.

C. Comparison of Chip Thickness Figure 5 and 6 shows the chip thickness for dry and cryogenic machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy respectively. It clearly reveals that increase in chip thickness with the increase in the

B. Comparison of Cutting Force

feed rate and also the decrease in chip thickness with the increase in cutting speed. The reduction in chip thickness was observed to be maximum of 15% and 25% in cryogenic machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6060-T6 alloy respectively. This is because of better lubrication effect produced by the liquid nitrogen at the chip-tool interface due to the formation of fluid cushion. Reduced the chip thickness in cryogenic machining results from the lowered cutting temperature and reduced adhesion between the tool and chip.
0. 6 0. 5

Dry cutting 25

Cryogenic cutting

20 e d eg re ( e)

15

10 S he ar an gl 5 0 0.079 0.119 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0.159

(a)
Dry cutting Cryogenic cutting 30 25 20 15 10 S he ar an g 5 0 0.0 79 0.119 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0.159

0. 4 ic k n e s s ( m m ) 0. 3

C h ip th

Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Cryogenic) 0. 1 Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Cryogenic) 0 0 0.0 5 0 .1 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0 .1 5 0.2

Fig. 5. Variation in chip thickness with feed rates under dry and cryogenic machining of AISI 1045 steel.
0. 6

le (d

0. 2

eg re e)

(b) Fig. 7. Shear angle vs. feed rate at different cutting velocities for AISI 1045 steel (a) 54 m/min (b) 193 m/min.
Dry cutting 25 Cryogenic cutting

0. 5

0. 4 ic k n e s s ( m m ) 0. 3

C h ip th

20

0. 2 Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 54m/min (Cryogenic) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Dry) Cutting velocity - 193m/min (Crrogenic) 0 0 0.0 5 0.1 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0 .1 5 0 .2
5 S a r an l e d eg r e e) he ( g 15

0. 1

10

Fig. 6. Variation in chip thickness with feed rates under dry and cryogenic machining of Aluminium 6061 T6 alloy.

0 .079

0.1 19 Feed rate (mm/rev)

0 .159

(a)

D. Influence of Cryogenic Cooling on Shear Angle The comparisons of shear angle for AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy with feed rates for different cutting velocities under dry and cryogenic cutting were shown in Figures 7(a&b) and 8 (a&b) respectively. When comparing the shear angle under cryogenic machining with dry machining, it was seen that cryogenic machining results in increased shear angle. This is due to the reduction in cutting temperature by cryogenic cooling. The results indicate that the shear angle was increased to a maximum of 15% and 30% in cryogenic machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6060-T6 alloy respectively. The increase in shear angle will reduce the plane of shear there by reducing the chip thickness.

Dry cutting 25

Cryogenic cutting

20

ea a n g l e d egr e e) r ( S h

15

10

0 0 .079 0.1 1 9 Feed rate (mm/rev) 0.159

(b) Fig. 8. Shear angle vs. feed rate at different cutting velocities for Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy (a) 54 m/min (b) 193 m/min.

V. CONCLUSION Experiments on orthogonal cutting of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy were carried out

Reference: under dry and cryogenic conditions. The major conclusions from this investigation can be summarized as follows: 1. Cryogenic cooling reduced the cutting temperature by 19-40% depending upon the level of process parameters and work material. The reduction in temperature using cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen was high at lower level cutting parameters and low at high level cutting parameters. The influence of cryogenic cooling increases the cutting force to a maximum of 15% and 10% for the machining of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy respectively. Cryogenic machining with liquid nitrogen jet reduces the chip thickness up to 25% over dry machining. The shear angle in cryogenic machining was increased up to 30%.
1. Wikipedia.com

2. Cryogenic

heat transfers

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It is evident from that experimental investigation, the machinability characteristics of AISI 1045 steel and Aluminium 6061-T6 alloy have shown better results in cryogenic machining over dry machining.

ADITHYA N R 6th sem mech. A sec SSEC, Anekal. adithyanandhawarr@gmail.com

ARUN U BHAT

6th sem mech A sec SSEC, Anekal. arunbhat@yahoo.com