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Submitted fort the partial fulfillment of the Award Of Bachelor of Business Administration Degree From Ch. Charan Singh university, meerut (Session 2010-2013) Submitted To: Submitted By:

Department of Management

KISHAN INSTITUTE OF TEACHERS EDUCATIONS, (Affiliated to Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut)



I, Aprana Sagar, student of BBA (2010-13) at KITE, MEERUT hereby declare that the research work presented in this project report entitled HR APLANNING AT HCL CDC LTD for fulfillment of the award of Bachelor of Business Administration from Chodhary Charan Singh University, Meerut is based on my work during the summer training in HCL CDC LTD. The project embodies the result of original work and studies carried out by me and the contents of the project do not form the bases for the award of any other degree to me or any body else.


Table of index
Declaration Certificate Acknowledgement Preface Objectives Company Profile Literature Review Scope Research Methodology Data Interpretation Conclusion and Result Recommendation and Suggestion Bibliography 2 3 4 7 9 27 49 64 75 80 90 92 93


In modern Industrial system, production is result of the joint effort of all the factor of production, which are land, labour, capital, organization and entrepreneur. Out of all these, the labour factor is most active. It controls the other factor in order to get the maximum output at minimum cost. The HR Process is very important term for any organization. All type of industry like IT industry and other all type of manufacturing industry have to need the right person to perform the work. Without skilled employee any organization cannot do progress. So in this term the recruitment and selection process perform very important role. In the HCL it is more important because the organization have to need the excellent and skilled employee for increase the productivity. Manpower are the backbone of the any organization, therefore it becomes necessary to right. Without it no any organization can smoothly run. For smoothly and efficiently running of the organization the management has to need the skilled and prospective employee.

For me it was a great opportunity to have study on such an important aspect of any manufacturing concern. I found it very interesting to see recruitment and selection measures so closely. I observed that recruitment and selection are among some of the very important function of Human Resource department. It was the main reason that compel me to choose this topic for the summer training project. The human resource is the only resource, which produces an output greater than its input, it is the only resources which have feeling and improve its skill and efficiency through experience and with the passage of time. Thus it is very necessary to seek the cooperation of the human force, to get the maximum benefits out of the efforts.


The main objective of the study is as follows:

To know the recruitment & selection procedures adopted in this company.

To improve training and development programs used in the company.

To know how the performance of the employees is being appraised.

To provide better employee welfare.

To increase the labor productivity.

HCL Ltd. Policy on Human Rights

HCL believes that all its employees must live with social and economic dignity and freedom, regardless of nationality, gender, race, economic status or religion. In the management of its businesses and operations therefore, HCL ensures that it upholds the spirit of human rights as enshrined in existing international standards such as the Universal Declaration and the Fundamental Human Rights

Conventions of the ILO.

HCL upholds international human rights standards, does not condone human rights abuses, and creates and nurtures a working environment where human rights are respected without prejudice.

The Corporate Human Resources function of HCL is responsible for the Human Rights Policy design, implementation and updation. The policy is implemented at all locations of HCL through a set of separate policies and procedures covering each of the main constituents of human rights applicable at the workplaces.

The assessment procedures for different constituents of this policy are defined against each specific policy.

Consideration of Human Rights Impacts Across the Supply Chain

As a large and multi-product enterprise whose products are benchmarked nationally and internationally, HCL's main supply chains can be grouped as follows: 1. For all its operations, technology, machinery and equipment are sourced from reputed and globally benchmarked

suppliers/vendors who are expected to follow internationally accepted norms and standards on human rights. 2. HCL's major businesses are vertically integrated across several Divisions. A substantial part of the supply chain is therefore internal through strategic backward linkages. Common values relating to human rights performance are shared across this supply chain.


3. Being a major agri-based company, the agriculture sector is a major supplier of inputs for its operations. The bulk of agricultural commodities are procured from state controlled trading platforms and the open market. A very small proportion of HCL's business consists of supply chains comprising local vendors and suppliers. The policy framework for such entities is enunciated separately in 'Policy to Ensure Respect for Human Rights across the Supply Chain'.

Policy to Prevent Discrimination at Workplace

HCL acknowledges that every individual brings a different and unique set of perspectives and capabilities to the team. A discrimination-free workplace for employees provides the environment in which diverse talents can bloom and be nurtured. This is achieved by ensuring that a non-discrimination policy and practice is embedded across the Company in line with corporate principles and benchmarked business practices.


HCL's approach to its human resources is premised on the fundamental belief in fostering meritocracy in the organisation which, pari passu, promotes diversity and offers equality of opportunity to all employees. HCL does not engage in or support direct or indirect discrimination in recruitment, compensation, access to training, promotion, termination or retirement based on caste, religion, disability, gender, age, race, colour, ancestry, marital status or affiliation with a political, religious, or union organization or minority group.

The policy is communicated to all employees through induction programmes, policy manuals and intranet portals. The custodian of this policy is the head of each operational unit and Divisional Chief Executives of the respective business. HCL's complaints resolution procedure is premised on the freedom of employees to approach higher officials beyond his/her immediate superior.


For the unionised employees, compliance of the policy is ensured through a robust grievance handling procedure and the presence of a union that brings violations to the notice of the unit HR head.

The accountability for the application of the non-discrimination employment policy rests with the Unit Head who reviews antidiscriminatory complaints annually or on a case-by-case basis. The Corporate Human Resources function conducts nondiscrimination reviews annually on a sample basis with unit heads and through on-site assessments


HCL's Core Values are aimed at developing a customerfocused, high-performance organization which creates value for all its stakeholders: Trusteeship
As professional managers, we are conscious that HCL has been given to us in "trust" by all our stakeholders. We will actualise stakeholder value and interest on a long term sustainable basis.

Customer Focus
We are always customer focused and will deliver what the customer needs in terms of value, quality and satisfaction.

Respect For People

We are result oriented, setting high performance standards for ourselves as individuals and teams. We will simultaneously respect and value people and uphold humanness and human dignity. We acknowledge that every individual brings different perspectives and capabilities to the team and that a strong team is founded on a variety of perspectives. We want individuals to dream, value differences, create and experiment in pursuit of opportunities and achieve leadership through teamwork.


HCL respects the employees' right to organize themselves into interest groups as initiatives of the workers, independent from supervision by the management. In keeping with the spirit of this Policy, employees are not discriminated against for exercising this right.

The policy is communicated to all employees through induction programmes, policy manuals and intranet portals. The custodian of this policy is the HR head of each operational unit who reports directly to Unit Head on such issues. The actualisation of this policy is evident from the joint agreements and minutes that are signed between the union and the management.

Monitoring & Audit

Each HCL Unit has appropriate systems and checks to ensure compliance with the Policy and statutory provisions, including means for filing of grievances, collective bargaining agreements and minutes from worker meetings.

Compliance with the Policy is regularly monitored by Divisional and Corporate HR.


Policy Prohibiting Child Labour and Preventing Forced Labour from Workplace
The foundation of HCL's "No Child or Forced Labour policy" is based on the Company's commitment to find practical, meaningful and culturally appropriate responses to support the elimination of such labour practices. It thus endorses the need for appropriate initiatives to progressively eliminate these abuses.

HCL does not employ any person below the age of eighteen years in the workplace. HCL prohibits the use of forced or compulsory labour at all its units. No employee is made to work against his/her will or work as bonded/forced labour, or subject to corporal punishment or coercion of any type related to work.

This policy is publicly available throughout the Company and clearly communicated to all employees in a manner in which it can be understood through induction programmes, policy manuals and intranet portals.


The responsibility for the implementation of the policy rests with the Units HR Department and the security staff who do not permit underage persons to enter the factory as workers. Employment contracts and other records documenting all relevant details of the employees, including age, are maintained at all units and are open to verification by any authorized personnel or relevant statutory body. Compliance with the policy is evident in the transparent system of recruitment and the policy of exit interviews which are undertaken by a manager not directly connected with the employee. For the unionised employees, compliance is also ensured through a robust grievance handling procedure and the presence of a union that brings violations to the notice of the unit HR head.

Monitoring & Audit

Sample checks of the records are undertaken annually by Corporate Human Resources function. Audit and assessment is undertaken annually by Corporate Internal Audit and the Environment, Occupation Health and Safety function.


Policy on Information and Consultation on Changes

HCL's core values support an employee engagement process that aligns its employees with a shared vision and purpose of the Company in the belief that every individual brings a different perspective and capability to the team. HCL thus harnesses the creative potential of all its employees by promoting a culture of partnerships to unleash relevant synergies between different groups of employees.

All major changes in operations involving work processes, manning norms and other productivity linked issues are carried out after discussions with the employees and the recognized unions at each location.

Business plans are shared with employees at all units through a series of formal communication meetings, and through the intranet portals. Unionised employees at the concerned units are informed of all major changes well in advance through their representatives. The responsibility for the implementation of the policy rests with the Unit's HR Department in the case of unionized employees and with


the concerned Divisional Management Committees for other employees. The employees are given enough time to consider the implications of change and an opportunity to discuss their apprehensions, if any, with the management. The Policy is actualised through consultative meetings with representatives of employees, culminating in joint


Monitoring & Auditing

Compliance with the Policy is regularly monitored by the Unit Head.

HIV/AIDS: Policy Guidelines Background

HCL is committed to providing a safe and healthy work environment to all its employees. These policy guidelines on HIV/AIDS are an endorsement of this commitment and, in particular, of the Company's commitment to specific programmes and actions in response to the HIV epidemic.


The Company's position is based on scientific and epidemiological evidence that people with HIV/AIDS do not pose a risk of transmission of the virus to co-workers by casual, non-sexual contact in the normal work setting.

Policy Guidelines

The Company's policies on HIV/AIDS with regard to its employees will, at a minimum, comply with all relevant Central and State legislation and the Company will implement all policies and directions of the Government regarding HIV/AIDS whenever issued.

1. Prevention through Awareness

The Company will provide to all its employees sensitive, accurate and the latest information about risk reduction strategies in their personal lives, with the objectives of reducing the stigma of HIV/AIDS, encouraging safe behaviour and improving understanding of treatment.


2. Safe and Healthy Workplace

The Company is committed to providing a safe and healthy workplace to all its employees. It is the Company's objective that employees will have access to health services to prevent and manage HIV/AIDS. 3. Non-discrimination The Company will not discriminate against any employee infected by HIV/AIDS with regard to promotions, training and other privileges and benefits as applicable to all employees. i. A HIV positive employee will be allowed to continue to work in his/her job unless Medical conditions interfere with the specific job being done, in which case reasonable alternative working arrangements will be made; or The employee is incapacitated to perform his/her duties and is declared medically unfit by a medical doctor, in which case the


employee will be assisted to rehabilitate himself/herself outside the Company. ii. The Company will not make pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening mandatory as part of its fitness to work assessment. Screening of this kind refers to direct methods (HIV testing), indirect methods (assessment of risk behaviour), and questions about HIV tests already taken. iii. HIV/AIDS test will not be part of the annual health check-ups unless specifically requested for by an employee.

4. Confidentiality
Voluntary testing for HIV/AIDS when requested for by the employee, will be carried out by private or community health services and not at the workplace. There will no obligation on the part of the employees to inform the Company about their clinical status in relation to HIV/AIDS. Information on clinical diagnosis of an employees' status in terms of his/her HIV/AIDS status if advised to the Company, will be kept strictly confidential.


Management Approach Policy: The Company's commitment in the area of economic

performance is encapsulated in its Vision statement, which is 'to sustain HCL's position as one of India's most valuable corporations through world-class performance, creating growing value for the Indian economy and the Company's stakeholders'. HCL's Mission is 'to enhance the wealth generating capability of the enterprise in a globalising environment delivering superior and sustainable

stakeholder value'. The Company's strategy is to ensure that each of its businesses is world-class and internationally competitive in the Indian global market in the first instance, and progressively in the offshore global markets. HCL, as a premier 'Indian' enterprise, consciously exercises the strategic choice of contributing to and securing the competitiveness of the entire value chain of which it is a part. This philosophy has shaped the Company's approach to business into 'a commitment beyond the market'.


Goals and Performance: At the enterprise level the Company's

goals include:

Sustaining HCL's position as one of India's most valuable corporations

Achieving leadership in each of the business segments within a reasonable time frame

Achieving a Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) in excess of the Company's cost of capital, at all times

Amongst listed companies in the private sector, HCL ranked 4th in terms of Gross Turnover and 3rd in terms of pre-tax profits for the financial year ended 31st March 2006. The Company ranked 6th by market capitalisation amongst listed private sector companies in the country, as at 31st March 2006. The Company has consistently achieved a ROCE well in excess of its cost of capital. Of the Rs.10,325 crores of 'value added' by the Company during the financial year ended 31st March 2006, 74% represented Contribution to the Exchequer.


Please refer to the 'Report of the Directors and Management Discussion and Analysis' section of the Report and Accounts 2006 (available on HCLportal.com) for a detailed discussion on the Company's market standing in each of the business segments.

Context: Please refer to the 'Report of the Directors and Management

Discussion and Analysis' section of the Report and Accounts 2006 for a detailed discussion on the business environment, opportunities, key challenges, etc. pertaining to each of the Company's businesses (available at www.HCLportal.com).




In 1976, Shiv Nadar, quit an executive job with Delhi Cloth Mills (DCM) along with five of his friends (Arjun Malhotra, Subhash Arora, Badam Kishore Kumar, T.V Bharadwaj & Arun Kumar H) to start a new company, Microcomp Limited. The focus of the company was design and manufacturing of scientific calculators. The venture provided its founders money to start a company that focused on manufacturing computers. The company was renamed as Hindustan Computers Limited (HCL) and received support from the Uttar Pradesh government to setup their manufacturing in Noida. In 1981, NIIT was started to cater to the increasing demand in computer education. By early 2000s, Nadar divested his stake in this venture The HCL Enterprise is one of India's largest electronics, computing and information technology company. Based in Noida, near Delhi, the company comprises two publicly listed Indian companies, HCL Technologies and HCL Infosystems.


HCL was founded in 1976 by Shiv Nadar, Arjun Malhotra, Subhash Arora, Ajai Chowdhry, DS Puri, & Yogesh Vaidya. HCL was focused on addressing the IT hardware market in India for the first two decades of its existence with some sporadic activity in the global market. On termination of the joint venture with HP in 1996, HCL became an enterprise which comprises HCL Technologies (to address the global IT services market) and HCL Infosystems (to address the Indian and APAC IT hardware market). HCL has since then operated as a holding company.



Public BSE: 500179 BSE: 532281 IT Services August 11, 1976 Delhi metropolitan area Noida, India Shiv Nadar, FounderChairman and Chief Strategy Officer, HCL Technologies Roshni Nadar, CEO HCL Corp.[1] Ajai Chowdhry - FounderChairman and CEO, HCL Infosystems , Vineet Nayar - CEO, HCL Technologies. Jagadeshwar Gattu- Vise President of HCL. US$5.0 billion (2009) 62,000+ (2010) HCL.in

Industry Founded Headquarters

Key people

Revenue Employees Website


HCL Technologies is a global IT Services company headquartered

in Noida, a suburb of Delhi, India led by Mr Vineet Nayar, HCL Technologies, along with its subsidiaries, had consolidated revenues of US$ 5 billion, as of 2010, and employed more than 60,000 workers. HCL offers services including software-led IT solutions, remote infrastructure management, Engineering and R&D Services and BPO. The company provides services across industries including Financial Services, Retail & Consumer, Life Sciences & Healthcare, Aerospace & Defense, Automotive, Telecom and Media, Publishing and Entertainment, amongst others. HCLs key services include: Custom Application Services Enterprise Application Services Enterprise Transformation Services Infrastructure Management Engineering and R&D Services Business Processing outsourcing


1976 - HCL (Hindustan Computers Limited) is created.

1977 - Forms distribution alliance with Toshiba for copiers and notebooks

1978 - Developed the first indigenous Microcomputer

1988 - Development of fine-grained multiprocessor Unix operating system

1986 - HCL becomes the largest IT company in India

1989 - HCL America is created with Sanmina SCI as its manufacturing partner.


1991 - Entered into a partnership with HP to form HCL HP Limited. Developed a custom Multiprocessor Unix for HP

1994 - Tied up with Nokia for mobile phone distribution and Ericsson for telephone swHCLh distribution.[3]

1996 - Partnership with HP ends.

1997 - HCL's R&D division is spun off as HCL Technologies [4] 2001 - HCL BPO is created. 2006 - HCL cdc is created


HCL cdc. Dominates the IT space as a leader 58000 gifted professionals, a colossal US $5.0 billion turnover an international


presence in 19 countries,and most impotently, a deep- rooted commitment to innovate makes it a true technology giant. As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind, HCL believes only a leader can transform me into a leader HCLcdc. Is an initiative that enables individuals to be benefit industry ready IT.

Opportunities and beyond:

HCL takes students to the core of IT fundamentals and the most advanced cutting problems. Its course modules are structured to give me the best of both worlds, academic and hands-on. Whether any body are beginner or a working professional, HCLcdc. Can make a difference to our learning curve and there by to our curve.

Empowering students to bring out the best:

As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind (IT), HCL, strongly believes only a leader can transform me into a leader HCLcdc. Is a formalization of this experience and credo which


has been perfected over three decades? it is an initiative that enables aspiring individuals to benefit from HCLs longstanding expertise in the space and become industry ready IT professionals.

Vision statement
To create industry ready professionals

Mission statement

To provide world-class information technology and services in order to enable our customer to serve their customer better.

Core Values

Nothing transforms life like education. I shall honor all commitments I shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and growth. I shall be responsible corporate citizens.

Competitors of HCL cdc


In domestic market HCL cdc has many competitors Some small players also has competition in IT education sector.

These are the competitors of HCL cdc :-

a. b. c. d. e.




HCL Career Development Centre or CDC is an initiative that enables individuals to benefit from HCL expertise in the space and become Industry ready IT professionals. HCL dominates the IT space as a leader. 45,000 gifted professionals, a colossal US $4 Billion turnover, an international presence in 17 countries, and most importantly a deep-rooted commitment to innovate, makes it a true Technology Giant. HCL CDC career program equips a student to meet emerging industry challenges with finesse and ease. Opportunities to grow with HCL CDC are limitless, catapulting a student to high level controlling positions in Mega Corporates. With top HCL professionals as the trainers, customised career programs, hands on experience, state of art infrastructure and world class training program the student's career graph is bound to follow a steep rise.

HCL CDCs provide specially designed courses in high-end software, hardware and networking integration to groom students into industry-


ready professionals. HCL CDCs also offer placement support to all their students who excel in their academics and display a remarkable performance during the course.

As the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC) carries forth a legacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL CDC is an initiative that enables individuals and organisations to benefit from HCL's deep expertise in the IT space.

Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a complete spectrum of quality training programs on software, hardware, networking as well as global certifications in association with leading IT organizations worldwide.

Quality at HCL CDC

"We shall develop and Impart Industry relevant ICT Education to meet the requirement of customers, Industry and society by continually updating technology content and improving our processes"


Certification of quality standards

"In its pursuit of excellence", the company has developed a quality management system in line with ISO 9001:2000 standards.

Business Excellence Initiatives

The organization follows a framework developed by EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management). Organization policies and strategies are aligned with EFQM Model. The "Quest of Excellence" is taken as a mission which drives the quality of Training Delivery and associated services.

Advantage of HCL CDC

At HCL cdc, we pride upon the fact that our training programs provide students with a sustainable competitive edge that not only helps them secure the initial placement but rather remains as an asset throughout t heir career span.


01 Learn industry nitty-gritty from Top HCL professionals 02 Customized and industry specific career program. Hands on experience 03 After HCL CDC certification leave behind your placement worries!

HCL CDC Advantage

HCL HeritEdge=> HCL cdc combines our heritage of excellence with cutting-edge IT expertise across multiple IT domains.

ISO 9001:2000 Certification=> Our students share the benefit of ISO 9001:2000 certified training practices and procedures. Must have a attitude and be a self starter. The right candidate will progress really fast within the organization. Cutting-Edge Courseware=> Our courseware is designed and developed in consultation with seasoned IT professionals and is continuously updated as per the changing industry trends. Global Alliances=> Through partnership with leading technology companies including Microsoft, Oracle and Red Hat, HCL cdc conducts certification programs in software, system and network administration offering you a distinct edge in the job market.


International Recognition=> All our training programs is backed by HCL successful brand image that is well recognized all across the world.

Hands-on Training=> We place major emphasis upon the application and practical training aspect of IT training to make the students industry-ready from day one.

Widespread Network=> HCL cdc has set up premier IT Training centres across the geography of India and the network is growing at a rapid pace with ambitious global expansion plans on the anvil.

100% Placement Record=> Our dedicated team of placement professionals offers employment support through regular interface with the industry. CDC prides upon a 100% placement record with students having been placed in leading organisations in the IT/non-IT space.



How hcl cdc different between other institute?

Undergoing IT education in India has become quite customary. One can find numerous number of IT institutes in the market. With the emerging trend of IT study in the country, IT training centers have been mushrooming in India over the years. IT sector provides the most advanced career option for various job seekers and expert and which is why IT education in India has become an important study option for maximum number of students in the country.

As an IT aspirant, one has to choose the right IT institute of his choice and get enrolled there. When it comes to a particular IT training institute a lot of questions come up upon students minds. What bothers them particularly is whether they will avail of quality training program, placement assistance, hands on training experience etc. HCL CDC as an IT training center caters to all these queries of IT students. The training center has designed and developed a unique IT study program for students who have a key .Interest in IT and computers.

HCL cdc has differentiated itself from other IT training institutes in


India by imparting an exceptional IT training program to its students. HCL cdc students hold a prestigious badge as compared to other students from other IT training institutes. This is because HCL cdc imparts IT study in a much technologically advanced mode. HCL cdc team keeps on updating the latest technology content and tools so that its students avail of the best hands on training experience during their training period. HCL cdc is one of the top computer institutes in India which provides the right and targeted IT study programs to IT aspirants. After getting trained at HCL cdc it is not a tough task for an individual to get a job in any IT or Non IT sector. The cdc also provides facilities for placement assistance to its students. Those students with an exceptional skill or proficiency get offer letters from various blue chip companies even before course completion.

HCL cdc believes in producing only the best IT professionals who can easily fit in any high-ranked IT company. This is the reason why HCL cdc has devised, designed and developed the most relevant IT study program for its students.


HCL cdc team also keeps improving its process so that they suit and adapt well with the changing market scenario. Through continuous efforts and meticulous methodologies HCL cdc has proven itself as one of the most reputed IT training institutes in India which impart the most relevant IT training to the burgeoning number of IT students in the country.


HCL Alliances and Partnerships

To provide world-class solutions and services to all our customers, they formed Alliances and Partnerships with leading IT companies worldwides HCL Info systems has alliances with global technology leaders like Intel, AMD, Microsoft, Bull, Toshiba, Nokia, Sun Microsystems, Ericsson, VIDIA, SAP, Scan soft, SCO, EMC, Veritas, Citrix, CISCO, Oracle, Computer Associates, Red Hat, In focus, Duplo, Samsung and Novell. To provide world-class solutions and services to all our customers, we have formed Alliances and Partnerships with leading IT companies worldwide. HCL Infosystems has alliances with global technology leaders . These alliances on one hand give us access to best technology & products as well as enhancing our understanding of the latest in technology. On the other hand they enhance our product portfolio, and enable us to be one stop shop for our customers




The opposing goals of efficiency and excellent service are both central to call centers. High levels of service are important since the number of completely satisfied customers is one of the few predictors of long-term profitability (Jones & Sasser, 1995). Efficiency is

important since call centers must provide speed of delivery and operate at a low unit cost to remain competitive. In a call center the tension between efficiency and service is more salient than in most service organizations.

To achieve efficiency, call center management has focused on the selection, implementation and use of technology (Mehrotra, 1997, Green, 1996, Tissot, 1995). The technology is used to facilitate the physical concentration of staff, labor scheduling, staff monitoring and high productivity rates. The negative consequences that follow this efficiency goal, such as exhaustion, stress and turnover, are regretted and cause deep concern to management (Taylor & Bain, 1999).


According to the HR literature, excellent service is achieved through the supportive management of employees. To provide a competitive level of service and quality, Lawler (1986) argued that a firms HR strategy should be centered around developing skills and ensuring motivation and commitment. This is especially so when emotional labor is required (Gutek, 1995, Hochschild, 1983). As the employees are critical to service delivery, there is a requirement to have employment security, extensive training and decentralized decision making (Pfeffer, 1998).

However, in some call centers excellent service is delivered through the personal efforts of the front-line and not through managerial interventions. In these centers, the technology is still used to deliver and track productivity gains while the service is assured by the personal commitment of the employees. In this way both service and efficiency are achieved, but at the expense of the physical and psychological well-being of the staff.


This new way of managing the service and efficiency tension results in what we have termed the Sacrificial HR Strategy. It is sacrificial because the enthusiasm and motivation of the front-line are sacrificed by management. It is a strategy because it involves a coherent set of management activities and attitudes, which together solve the efficiency/service conflict. It is new because emotional burnout and high turnover are tolerated, if not encouraged.

The structure of the paper is as follows. The results of an analysis of four call center cases are presented and provide contextual background. The Sacrificial HR Strategy is described in detail. A discussion of the conditions that enable the Sacrificial HR Strategy to work is then given. Finally, managerial implications and issues for further research are raised.


The Study
A multiple-case study of four large call centers in four different organizations was undertaken. A Bank, an Insurance company, a Telecommunications company and an Outsourced Call Center organization were chosen to be in the study. These call centers had participated in a recent international benchmarking exercise (TARP, 1997) and were all assessed to be in the top 10% of the 227 call centers compared in terms of efficiency, customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction. All four call centers were based in Sydney, Australia and had more than 100 employees.

Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted, involving four call center managers, ten team managers and seventeen agents. To eliminate sample bias, the managers were requested to select both male and female employees, with a range of tenure duration (four months to three and a half years).

They were asked to ensure that all of the interviewees had received at least the basic call center induction training and to include employees,


who were regarded as poor performers as well as those who were regarded as better performers. Nineteen of the interviewees were female and twelve were male.








perceptions of the espoused objectives of the call centers as well as management priorities. Individuals were asked about their personal priorities, likes and dislikes in their job. Information about the measurement and reward systems, employee morale and turnover rates were also collected. As well as the

interviews, documentation about strategic objectives, customer satisfaction data and an international Teleservice benchmarking report were consulted.

Each of the interviews was written up within twenty-four hours of completion. Recurring themes were identified across the interviews from within an organization. Each case was then written up separately. Next, recurring themes were identified across the four cases.


Data for each emerging theme were analysed and a full cross case analysis was then performed as is usual in a theory building exercise (Yin, 1981, Eisenhardt, 1989). made. The following observations were

Call Center Management

Tasks Performed
The work in all four Centers was similar. The agents were required to take a high volume of in-bound calls, ranging from 80 to 200 calls per days. They had to complete basic transactions such as providing account balances, answering product queries and activating mobile phones. Also, the agents contributed a significant amount of emotional labor when being helpful, friendly and empathetic to customers as well as when handling complaints. Complaints accounted for as many as 30% of all calls.


Espoused and Perceived Objectives

Of the thirty-one people interviewed, only three believed that there was consistency in the espoused and perceived objectives. Across all four organizations the primary formal written and espoused strategic objective for the call centers was to deliver high levels of customer service and satisfaction. This was reflected in that fact that twenty-three out of the thirty-one people interviewed thought that the espoused objectives were customer satisfaction, based on good service. However, in all four organizations the primary management priority, as perceived by the front-line, was productivity. Twenty-eight out of thirty-one people interviewed perceived the management priorities to be low cost, high call efficiency or sales.

Control Systems
The agents schedule, availability and activity was monitored by the IT system. They had specified targets relating to talk time, wrap up, abandon rates and queue time that they must adhere to. On the service side, agents were regularly monitored by their supervisors and customer satisfaction surveys were conducted either


six monthly or annually.

The Insurance Call Center had slightly

different targets as it had recently moved from a service center to a sales-service center. In this center, all agents had individual sales targets that they were required to meet in addition to the other efficiency targets.

Although the call centers monitored quality and customer satisfaction to varying degrees, they all relied heavily on task-focused management and measurement systems. These included performance objectives and performance management programs weighted towards numerical quotas and targets for efficiency and speed. As one

manager stated: We try and balance out quality and quantity, but its the stats that get drilled down."

Management Style
There was a divergence between managers and subordinates in their perceptions of management style. With heavily task-focused control systems, this type of organization would appear to need supportive supervision to manage employee burnout (Frenkel et al, 1998). Consistent with this observation, the case studies revealed that eleven


out of fourteen of the team leaders and center managers identified themselves as being relations or relations/task-focussed. However, twenty out of the twenty-seven team leaders and agents regarded their direct supervisor as being task-focused.

Some agents noted that an individual's style would change when they were promoted into a management role. When someone who was regarded as relations-focused is appointed a team leader, they become task-focused within a short period of time. One agent said of her team manager: She scares me. Stats are her priority and we are dragged over the coals if we dont make them. We now doubt her sincerity as a people person in the first place.

The productivity focused control systems were seen as being reinforced by managers. The complementary support function

appeared to be absent in the perception of most employees.

Despite the perceived reality of efficiency driven centers, the majority of employees were motivated by a desire to serve the customer: to be effective service providers. Fourteen of the seventeen agents identified their personal priority in their role as providing good service and


customer satisfaction. Only two stated that their priority was call statistics and only one had a sales priority. The aspect they liked most about their job was their interactions with their peers and the customers (fourteen out of seventeen). An agent commented: We were hired for our customer skills, this is the people we are, this is what we want to do, but often we are not allowed to. For some agents (six out of seventeen), the aspect they liked least about the job was the focus on targets.

To summarize, call center management speak about a customer focus, yet the agents perceive a productivity focus. Agents are hired for their relations skills and motivation yet work with a task and quantitative focus. What they like least about their job is the emphasis on

productivity, which is the main focus of management. What they like most is the interaction with their peers and with the customer, which is severely restricted due to the task focus. What was the effect of these tensions on the employees? In the call centers we studied there were high levels of emotional burnout, stress and high staff turnover.


Stress levels in the call centers studied appeared to be high. Agents made unsolicited comments such as, The monotony of the job is frustrating and the numbers of calls we take a day is very tiring. and At the end of the week I am a zombie, the stress is so bad that on the weekends I do not want to talk to anyone.

This evidence of stress supports findings in a recent study by ACA Research (1998) which reported call center agents having a stress profile higher than that of a coal miner. Nearly 25% of the 433 agents surveyed in that study felt that stress in their job is high or very high, 47% reported a medium amount of stress and 80% had requested training in stress management. Over 60% of the agents had not experienced stress symptoms prior to working in a call center. Since working in a call center 70% reported experiencing at least one stress symptom.


Emotional Burnout.
A significant percentage of calls coming into the call centers are customer complaints and four of the agents interviewed nominated this as the aspect they disliked most in their role. In the Outsourced Call Center company, one agent said, There is a girl whos been here for two years and a customer abused her the other day and she cried for 2 hours.

One contributor to emotional burnout may be the inherent lack of supportive elements in the work design. Agents stated that while they seek socio-emotional support from their peers, the structure of the task limited this interaction. One agent said, It once took me six months to finish telling a story to my workmate.

Employee Turnover
The information on employee turnover provided by the call center managers was contradictory. The Bank Call Center reported an

annual attrition rate of 35%, the Outsourced Call Center 20% and the Insurance and the Telecommunications Centers both reported 15% turnover per year. However, managers commented that the average


length of tenure was about eighteen months which would imply a turnover rate of 67%. One manager even stated, We dont want people to stay past 18 months. By that stage they are burnt out and are no good.

While there are difficulties in estimating turnover rates when the workforce is rapidly expanding, other studies have also found high levels of turnover. The ACA Report (1998) referred to earlier found the median stay of agents in call centers to be fifteen months.

In these call centers there was a common approach to the management of the efficiency/service conflict: the Sacrificial HR Strategy.

The Sacrificial HR Strategy

An important aspect of service management is the degree to which efficiency is compromised in order to provide service. If the tradeoff is clear, an appropriate HR strategy can be designed.


When efficiency is more important, the service delivery is standardized and staff have a transactional relationship with the organization. When service is more important, high involvement

strategies are preferred (Lawler, 1986). Staff are developed within the organization and there is commitment on both sides (Lepak & Snell, 1999). When there is an unwillingness to make a tradeoff between efficiency and service, the tensions generated have to be managed.

One way that a service culture can be maintained in a cost focused environment is by management fulfilling two different but complementary roles. One role is to focus on the tasks, with an emphasis on performance and efficiency, the other role is to provide emotional support for the staff (Halpin & Winer, 1957). These roles can be assumed by a single, heroic, manager or they can be distributed across the management team (Benne & Sheats, 1948).

Task-oriented managers organize and structure groups to achieve targets efficiently through actions such as setting up chains of communication and specifying working methods and standards.


They focus on results, aided by the technology and the performance measurement and reward systems.

The relations-oriented manager is concerned both with supporting individuals and maintaining harmonious cooperative relationships among the group. Part of the role of these managers is to reduce role ambiguity and provide feedback in order to prevent burnout (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993) and the consequent loss of enthusiasm. They put systems in place to detect and counsel staff with problems and rotate staff to lessen stress. They provide training to enhance the ability of front-line staff to deal with difficult customers.

However, in the call centers studied, the relations-oriented management was not present. Instead, the management of the

efficiency/service tension was pushed onto the front-line. There was a clear understanding of the savings that could be gained by turning over burnt-out staff rather than investing in programs targeting morale, commitment and enthusiasm.


By deliberately selecting individuals whose intrinsic motivation was service, high service levels were assured and the need for the organization to provide this motivation external to the employee was removed. By accepting burnout and high turnover, there is a reduced need for the organization to manage the emotional labor. We have called this configuration of activities the Sacrificial HR Strategy.

The Sacrificial HR Strategy delivers efficiency and service together by requiring the front-line to absorb the emotional costs. The enthusiasm of the front-line is sacrificed to provide efficient service without the costs the organization would otherwise have borne. The strategy involves a misalignment between the task demands and employee intrinsic motivation that results in employee stress, burnout and turnover. This misalignment is deliberate. In the Sacrificial HR Strategy this misalignment is the solution, not the problem.

Many of the organizational costs of people management and development are eliminated by the Sacrificial HR Strategy.


Rather than relying on expensive management practices such as relations oriented management and development support programs, service effectiveness is ensured by selecting people who are intrinsically motivated to serve the customer. Service performance is thus a function of employee internal characteristics rather than the organizational management processes.



Human resource management is the planning , organizing, directing, and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational, and social objective are accomplished.

Increased competition Emphasis on quality in staff, goods/services Flexibility in operations Willingness to adopt to changing market needs Global Market



Integration of HRM policy with business goals/objectives Attainment of organizational objectives through human capital Creation of flexible work hours/function Creation of a flexible environment to be responsive to market ambience, as per the need of the dizzily fast packed and changing environment. Integration of people related issues with business issues, while bringing people related issues to the fore and advocating primacy of business needs.


HRM is a management function that helps managers recruit, select, train and develops members for an organization obviously HRM is concerned with peoples dimension in organizations


HRM: - It is also a management function concerned with hiring motivating and maintaining people in an organization.

It is a series of integrated decision that from the employment relationship; their quality contributes to the ability of the organization and the employees to achieve their objective. Human resource management is concerned with the people dimension in management. since every organization is make up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skill, motivating them to higher level of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives.


The human resources are the most important assets of organization. The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contribution from people, organization cant progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals and perform the activities of an organization, therefore we need to recruit people with requisite, skills, qualification and experience. While doing so we have to keep the present as well as future requirements of the organization in mind.

To effectively manage the manpower recruitment in coherence with long term and short term manpower planning of the organization through a standard recruitment and selection policy. To proactively and systematically identify the recruitment needs in time. To ensure that all the recruitment are within the manpower budget and as per the laid down policy. The recruited people with required level of skilled and aptitude for learning and growth.



This policy shall apply to all PERMANENT management position in the company including the workmen.


1. Total permanent manpower strength/budget for

organization has been sanctioned by the board of directors. 2. All the recruitment has necessarily to be made within the approved budget/strength only. 3. Vacancies against the sanctioned budget may arise due to: Retirement Turnover Natural Separation

4. whenever a vacancy arise, the concerned department has to fill up the prescribed manpower requisition form clearly indication the job description and specification, time frame and send it to HR department.



HRP is the process of forecasting an organizations future demand for and supply of, the right type of people in the right number. It is only after this that the HRM department can initiate the recruitment and selection process. HRP is the sub-system in the total organizational planning. Organizational planning includes managerial activities that set the companys objective. HRP facilitates the realization of the companys objectives by providing the right type and right number of personnel. HRP then is like materials planning that estimate the type and quality of the materials and supplies needed to facilitate the manufacturing activities of the organization. HRP is variously called manpower planning, personnel planning or employment planning.



The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. On receipt of the Manpower Requisition (MPR) form HR department will initiate action of sourcing the candidates as under:

As a matter of policy, the organization will encourage to fill up the vacancies from within the existing people if they are fulfilling the criteria and found suitable. In order to invite application from internal sources, notice/circular for all such vacancies will be put up on the notice board. In case any permanent employee dies in harness due to accident or any other reason, one depend son of deceased employee may be given preference in employment with the company subject to his fulfilling the eligibility criteria based


qualification and experience as well as suitable vacancy in the company at that time. The conditions fulfilling the requirement may apply against internal notification to HR

department through their department. 2. other sources : Other sources can be tapped for recruitment only when suitable candidates are mot available internally. Other sources may include the following: internal data bank local employment exchange advertisement through newspaper Placement agencies.


Methods Of Recruitment
The following are the most commonly used method of recruiting people. 1. Internal Method 2. Direct Method 3. Indirect Method




HCL Prefer to fill vacancies through promotion or transfers from within wherever possible. Promotion involves movement of an employee from a lower level position to higher level position accompanied by changes in duties, responsibilities, status and value and value. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibility, working conditions, etc., but not necessarily salary. Internal promotions and transfers certainly allow people greater scope to experiment with their career,


kindling ambitions and motivating them to take a shot at something they might otherwise never have considered. The system, of course, works best for young executives who are willing to take risks.


Job position is another way of hiring people from within. In this method, the organization publicizes job openings on bulletin boards, electronic media and similar outlets. Hindustan lever introduced its version open job position in early 2002 and over 40 positions have since been filed through the process. HLL even allows its employee to under take career shifts, for example from technical position system.

Employee referral means using personal contacts to locate job opportunities. It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant. The logic behind employee referral is that it takes one to know one employee working in the organization in this case, are encouraged to recommend the name of their friends working in other organization for a possible vacancy in the near future. In fact, this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive information technology industry now a day.










recommendation are accepted after the routine screening and examining process is over- and job offers extended to the suggested candidates.


Direct Method

Campus Recruitment

It is a method of recruiting by visiting and participating in college campuses and their placement centers. Here the recruiters visits reputed educational institutions such as IITs, IIMs colleges and universities with a view to pickup job aspirants having a requisite technical of professional skills. Job seekers are provided information about the jobs and the recruiters inturen get a snap shot of job seekers through constant interchange of information with respective institutions. A preliminary screening is done within the campus and the short listed students are then subjected to the reminder of the selection process. In view of the growing demand for young managers, most reputed organizations visit regularly and even sponsor certain popular activities with a view to earn goodwill in the job market.


Advantage of this method include: the placement centre helps locate applicants and provides resumes to organization; applicants can be prescreened; applicants will not have to be lured away from a current job and lower salary expectation.


Indirect Method

This includes advertisement in news papers; trade, professionals and technical journals; radio and TV etc. In recent time this medium

became just as colorful lively and imaginative as consumer advertising. The ad generally gives a brief outline of the job responsibilities, compensation package, prospects in the organization etc. This method is appropriate when (a) the organization intends to reach a large target group and (b) the organization wants a fairly good no. of talented people who are geographically spread out.

Head Hunters
There is an influx of executive search agencies also known as head hunters who specialize in selection of professionals for very senior or top posts, where applicants are in short supply and employers have no time to go round in search of the best talents. Such vacancies are fewer and far between and organizations prefer hiring a head hunter who maintains confidentiality of the employer


and are specialize in recruiting the best talent strictly as per the job specification. But, these specialists bodies charges hefty professional fees. However, the high cost is outweighed by the benefit of recruiting the best talent without going through the cumbersome and time consuming process of internal recruitment syste



Screening of Application :
All application received from various sources will be screened by the concerned department and HR based on the job description and specification and the applicant profile. Shorting of prima facile suitable candidates who should be called for test/interview shall be prepared. The ratio between the number of vacancy and the number of candidate to be called for

test/interview should normally be 1:5.


2. TEST: Depending on the requirement of the job if required, management may conduct

written/aptitude/psychometric/physical or any other test as deem fit. Short listed application will be send formal letter for appearing test at least 15 days in advance. Qualifying criteria for the test will be determined by the management depending on the nature and requirement of the job.

All the candidates short listed for interview will be informed through a formal call letter for attending interview at least 15 days in advance. The candidate will be interview by the interview panel.




Recommendation of the interview panel will be put up before the MD by the HR Department for his approval. Candidates for the officer and above after interviewed by the panel will be finally interview by the MD. Selection of candidates will be strictly on the basis of merit. Other things being equal local candidate from state of Bihar will be given preference. Appointment letter will be issued to the finally selected candidates after duly approved by MD. However, in case appointment letter can initially be issued to the candidates and the detailed formal appointment letter can be issued at the time of joining. Before letter of appointment is issued to candidates HR department will ensure the following: 1. Check and verify all the personal details furnished by the candidates. 2. Verify the certificates and other credentials.


3. Make



verifications whenever required.

5. Joining Formalities:
(a) Employees joining shall first report in the HR department will facilitate in completing the joining formalities such as filling of joining report and other necessary forms. (b) HR department will ensure that the candidates will be allowed to join subject to their being found medically.






All progress is the born of inquire. Doubt is often better than overconfidence for its lead to inquiry leads to invention. This is the famous Hudson Maxim statement in context of which the significance of research can well be understood. Increased amount of research makes progress possible. Research Methodology is the way to the systematical solution of the research problem. It focuses on the various steps adopted in studying the research problem along with the logic behind using them.


of The Research

The research work is carried out with the basis objective of determining the effectiveness of recruitment process influence exerted on the companys performance.

During the research, the data regarding the same was collected and analyzed in order to find out whether the recruitment programme were their cost with respect to increasing the companys performance.


The focus was also on determining the ways in which recruitment process can be improved, so that the influence they exert of the output of the company as well as efficiency and effectiveness of employees can be maximized.


Methods of Data Collection

The task of data collection begins after the research problem or the objective of research has been define there are two kind of data that can be collected. One is primary, which is original in character, as it has been collected for the first time. The other one secondary, which was already been collected and need only, be compiled.

For my research, I chose the primary source of data collection. The choice was born to certain facts. Firstly the true position of the company and their performance with regards to recruitment process can be judge only by going to them and making inquires. Studying pre calculated tables regarding the same cannot do this. Secondly, the secondary data may not have provided me with the details and data, I really required.

Moreover, in order to be in position to make suggestions regarding the improvement of these processes. I had to have a first hand knowledge of the complete procedure, reaction and view of the persons involved.



There are lot methods using which primary data can be collected. These are: 1. Under the observation method the information is sought

out by way of investigations own direct observation with asking them to respondents.


Interview Method

The interview method of collection of data involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in term of oral verbal responses. It can be : (a) Personal Interview (b) Telephonic Interview


Questionnaire :
In this method, a questionnaire is sent to the person concerned with the request to answer the question and return the questionnaire. It consist with the number of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms.



Through Schedules :
This method of data collection is very much like. The collection of data through questionnaire, with a little difference, which lies in the fact that schedules are being filed in by the enumerators, who are specially appointed for the purpose.

Sample Design
Sample Design Sample size: Sample Size is 20 Method of sampling: Deliberate Non-probability sampling was used


Data Interpretation

Q1. How long you are working in the organization ?

3 YEAR .5 YEAR .5-2 Yr


Q2. what are the various sources of recruitment in your Organization?

others 2% news paper advertisement 4% references 8%

management 86%


Q3. Are you satisfied with the recruitment process of your company ?

no 32%

yes 68%


Q4. Are you satisfied with your organization salary increment Policy ?

can't say 30%

yes 47%

no 23%


Q5. Are you satisfied with the training procedure given in the Organization ?

no 32%

yes 68%


Q6. Are you getting regular training in your company ?

no 32%

yes 68%


Q7. What methods is used for the performance appraisal system in your organization?

others 11%

forced distribution 17%

ranking 72%


Q8. Are you satisfied with your promotion activities in your Organization?

no 23%

yes 77%


Q9. Does the present performance appraisal system meet your Career advancement?

can't say 28%

no 6%

yes 66%


10.Are you comfortable with the working environment?

no 9%

yes 91%


Conclusions and results

There are the following conclusions come up after the research of the project by filling the questionnaire:

The working environment of the organization is excellent this is reason why employees are doing the work their and they are stable there.

Generally organization appointed the employees through the recommendations that is references even though other sources are there.

The employees are satisfied with the recruitment process of the organization.

Most of the employees consider that the salary increment policy is good.


Generally ranking method is used in the organization for the performance appraisal system and with the promotion activities.

As they accept that the working environment is really good this shows thye are satisfied and the satisfaction of the employees of the organization is very necessary.

And at last I would like to say that satisfied employees contribute more to the organization this is the reason why HCL is growing faster.


Recommendations and suggestions

There are the following suggestions being an HR student I would like to give the organization:

Organization should keep the eyes on the recruitment process they should recruit the employees from outside as well means from where they get the employees they should recruit them.

As the organization is growing faster they should emphasis on the training programs even though their training programs are quite good.

Organization should regularly give the increment on the salary so that who are not satisfied they would become also satisfied.


Organization should analyze the training methods and should adopt those methods which are good for the employees and promotion activities should be good so that employees are satisfied as we know this is the basic requirement of the success.


Personal management: C.B. Mamoria Research Methodology: C.R. Kothari Human Resource Management: David Decenzo and Stephen P. Robbins Designing and Managing Human Resource System: Udai Pareek and T. Rao Training Records of HCL www.google.com