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TSM Concepts


TSM Concepts
Futures of TSM Basic Edition Progressive Backup methodology

The progressive backup feature uses its own relational database to track data wherever it is stored, delivering direct one-step file restore. This eliminates the need for base-plus-incremental tapes, commonly used for restore procedures in other storage management products. Makes sense if used with tape reclamation etc.

Tape resource sharing Network-free rapid recovery Lan-free data transfer Dynamic multithreaded transfer Adaptive difference technology Means byte,block,file level transfers across lan, wan , san & dial-up connections Enterprise administration IBM TSM Extended Edition

1. Disaster Recovery Manager for TSM server 2. NDMP backup for network attached storage. Network data management protocol supports full & differential FS image backup & restore.
IBM TSM for Space Mgmt Provides HSM via ILM policies IBM TSM for SAN LAN-free backups SAN connected tape libraries provide server-free backups IBM TSM for System Backup & Recovery (SysBack) Sysback supports installation image backups, volume group, FS, file or directory, raw logical volume. Supports cloning by allowing installation on system baclup recovering on another similar h/w config server. Central Mgmt & Automation tool Network boot & install futures SysBack uses NIM (network installation module) Offline Mirror Backup option ( mirror copies are splits after sync and allow inactive copies for backup & another mirror copy was allowed access by user & applications. Data Protection Product family

These products interface directly with the applications using their backup-certified utilities and interfaces, simplifying online backup and restore procedures. TSM for application servers, databases, H/W, mail , ERP Chapter 2: Business Requirements

Problems for business are Stroage Consolidation provides mgmt convenience, Data Sharing, Data Protection & Disaster recovery

IBM Storage Network solutions like NAS,SAN, iSCSI products offer storage consolidation and manage it by TSM

Data sharing above SAN via Tivoli SANergy. Chapter 3. Architecture

TSM is client / Server model consists of TSM Server Component, Backup-Archive Client Component & other products. Server does :



TSM Concepts


Manages storage H/w, provide secure env, provide automation, reporting & monitoring futures Implements storage policy. Maintains objects inventory in a RDBMS database Client & Other products does: Backup & recovery. Archival, HSM, Disaster Recovery, TSM Server exploits SAN future can dynamically share a tape library connected to SAN across multiple TSM Servers. Supports various storage devices like tape,disk,DVD,optical etc.

Basic concepts : Backup data protection Archival record retention backed up & original removed. Dont treat this as space mgmt function , since transparent auto recovery not possible in archrivals. TSM allows user to name archives and while recovering from archive u have to search in server repository by using the name.

Therefore, the difference between backup and archive is that backup creates and controls multiple backup versions that are directly attached to the original file; whereas archive creates an additional file that is normally kept for a specific period of time, as in the case of vital records.

IBM TSM offers hierarchical Storage Pools for supporting HSM. TSM offers one more imp future to copy data objects from one storage pool to other on same server instance or another server instance. This is useful in disaster recovery reasons to have 2nd copy of data some other physical location. This is transparent to the client. Collocation: The reorganization of the data and storage media for fast recovery happens completely within the server. For this purpose, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager has implemented functions to relocate data objects from one volume to another and to collocate data objects that belong together, either at the client system level or at the data group level.

The collocation function is designed to optimize the performance of the storage pool for multiple clients. It gives administrators a way to store all of the files belonging to a specific client on a minimal number of sequential access volumes (usually tapes). The collocation option generally would be used in situations where the client requires a fully optimized recovery time. Collocation also makes it possible to avoid conflicts in the restore process, such as when a single tape volume would have to be mounted to restore data for two different clients. When the collocation feature is used, each clients restore can be completed simultaneously and independently. Tape reclamation

Often a particular tape volume will contain files that expire on different dates. As a result, when these files reach their expiry date, virtual empty spaces begin to appear on the tape volume; this fragmentation wastes space on the tapes and slows the restore process because of the time required to skip over empty spaces. Because tapes are sequential media (that is, they can be written only from beginning to end), it is not possible to rewrite new data into the spaces occupied by expired files.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager addresses this challenge with an innovative tape reclamation feature used to free up entire tape (or optical) volumes in sequential storage pools. As individual files get marked for expiration, the amount of space that can be reclaimed on a volume increases over time. After this available space reaches a specified threshold, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager automatically initiates a process to reclaim the volume. Remaining active files on the tape volume are rewritten to other tape volumes, then the original volume is returned to scratch. Security Concepts

To ensure that data can only be accessed from the owning client or an authorized party, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager implements, for authentication purposes, a mutual suspicion algorithm, To do this, all clients have a password, which is stored at the server side as well as at the client side. In the authentication dialog these passwords are used to encrypt the communication. The passwords are not sent over the network, to prevent hackers from intercepting them. A communication session will be established only if both sides are able to decrypt the dialog. If the communication has ended, or if a timeout period without activity is passed, the session will be terminated automatically and a new authentication will be necessary.



TSM Concepts


TSM product highlights

Its database, progressive backup methodology, collocation & tape reclamation

Enterprise administration:

Single console for managing multiple TSM Servers.

Raped recovery.

Instant archive facility creates virtually full backup of client from TSM server to any media. This can be used for rapid recovery of lcient without involving the TSM server while restore.

SAN tape resource sharing LAN- free data transfer

Chapter 4 : Planning Concepts

Planning the environment before implementing the TSM is must. Planning covers H/W, processor size, network connectivity ie bandwidth available (think about Ethernet trunking/ link aggregation ), tape library etc.

1st Understand importance of data . give priories from enterprise view.

Business needs depend on many factors like govt regulations, regional demands, and industry competition. Backup and restoration requirements varies from industry to industry , dept to dept. one-fit-all doesnt suite.

Backups dont matter only restore matters (good,quality,fast) from business view.

TSM manages database of there logical parts. Rules & policies, files & data info and location tracking

*** what u want backup & how long u want to keep it. **** first know ur data (mantra1) Qs about data: how it is created, used, accessed, & what happens it u looses the data, from this u can find how long it takes to recreated data, first of all with the inputs available can we recreate the data with out backup. If it is painful costlier or not possible t hen backup data.

Understanding your customers, your environment, your business, your needs and your requirements are key to success, in storage management as well as business in general Client Architecture Chapter 5 Backup & Restore operations

Issues to be concerned while doing operations on client are backup & restore efficiencies, retention periods, portability, CPU utilization, connection time and network utilization.

Read entire chapter good one. Chapter 6 Backup-archive client

Are machines whose backup we are going to take. It needs some configuration files which specify what are TSM servers it can communicate , authorization options,backup/archive options,schedule options, TSM space Mgmt options.

On unix : 2 files client system options file (dsm.sys)



TSM Concepts


Client options file (dsm.opt)

On other platforms only one file dsm.opt

Min config params are Communication protocol: client & server using the same TSM server address Node/client name: the name by which TSM server knows the client. Node name & passwd are set up on server. They are also added in client options file.

While sending files from client to TSM server for backup group of files are sent as one transaction. Means all files are successfully stored and failed in total. 6.4 backup Adaptive sub-file backup:

Adaptive sub-file backup useful for mobile users using laptops. Since bandwidth issues. In this type of backup first it takes full backup of the file and later on differential backups (delta file) judiciously means if lot of changes happen it does full backup rather than incremental backup.

Journal-based backup Here what to be backedup are maintained in a journal after the last backup by a journal agent. So the backup client need not search though the client FS & TSM server database for already backedup data to find which one have to backup. It improves performance.

Backup Binding How long u keep a backedup file in TSM server is depends on how u set retention policies in Management class. The link process between the file & the management class is called backup binding. Rebinding Since a file bound to 1 single mgmt class, every time u run a new incremental backup server checks to see if the file still bound to same mgmt class. This process is called rebinding.

6.5 Archive The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Archive function stores selected files unconditionally on the server according to the applicable management class limits. Unconditionally means that there is no version limit and they will be retained for the defined time period regardless of whether they are deleted on the client. 6.5.1 Packages Packages are group of files archived together with a common description. That description is used for easy search while retrieving.

Archived files with common description Archive or retrieve complete package Retrieve individual files in package Add files to existing package Delete files from package Package Description Created using unique archive description Default description Archive Date: mm/dd/yyyy Time: hh:mm:ss Retrieve using the GUI client Display archived files hierarchically Grouped by archive descriptions

6.5.2 Client Space Reduction

3. Retention
Archiving is different from file backup in that the user may select from the available management classes to determine the retention. For file backup, the user may not control the management class to which the files are bound.



TSM Concepts


5. Backup Set or Instant Archive IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables you to generate a copy of your clients most recent backup from the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server onto sequential media. This copy of the backup, also called backup set or portable backup, is self-contained and can be used independent from IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to restore the clients data from a locally attached device that can also read this media, such as a CD-ROM. This provides rapid recovery. This rapid recovery still needs TSM client s/w. this doesnt provide bare metal recovery.
However, because each backup set is self-describing, the retention period has no significance to the backup set as long as the backup set volumes have not been reused,

6.6.2 Server/client media support

since media where we have taken backup set is used at client choose such a media set that will work with both the TSM server & client where we r going to recover it.

5. Restore
6.7.2 Point-in-time restore A point-in-time operation restores the specified objects to the state that existed at a specific date/time.

4. Logical Volume Restore

Full backups are allowed for raw logical volumes. File systems built over a logical volume can be backed full as well as preogressive. Raw logical volumes only full backup & full restore.

Part II Server Concepts

Chapter 8 Policy Mgmt

Data storage environment primarily comprises of 3 types of resources Machine, rules & data.

Policy defines the relationship between these resources. Policy domain {policy set {Mgmt Classes {copy groups} } node groups}

Hierarchy is left to right Copy groups have rules used to govern the data. 2 types backup & archive. Copy group destination parameter specifies the storage pool. Copy group bridges data & storage pool Copy group serialization parameter talks about treatment of modified files while doing backup. Backup copy group has 2 logical concepts file & file copy. File is actual file on node. File copy is the point-in-time copy of the file stored in TSM server. A file can be in 2 states, Existing & deleted. Existing means already backed up & still exists on node. Deleted means backed up but deleted on node. Imp for rule building. One more difference, File copy lies in TSM server. File lies in node. File copy has 3 states active, inactive and expired. Active file copy is the most current backed up file. Inactive file copy means previous version or copy of the file and expired file copy means the copy that is going to be removed from TSM server. Backup file copy is set to expire state when it doesnt obey the rules specified in the copy group.



TSM Concepts


File copy life cycle movement active -> inactive -> expired. Expires based on 2 rules no of copies or retention period. No of copies includes active copy also. Retention period applies for inactive file copies only. *** no retention period for active file copies. They exist as long as the file exists on the node. If file exists on the node the 2 parameters of backup copy group are in effect Verexists: no of versions to keep. Retextra : how long to keep inactive copies. ***It starts from the day the file copy becomes inactive, not from the day it is backed up.**** If file is deleted the file copy active become inactive. At this point we have inactive copies only. Verdeleted : no of copies to keep after file has been deleted. Retonly : how long to maintain the last file copy. Applicable to last file copy only.

Backup copy group defines two other attributes to control the way backup to be done: mode & frequency. Mode talks about how files are to be picked for incremental backup. Mode = modified means backup only if the file changes since last baclup. = absolute means backup irrespective of backed up or not frequency talks about how often to allow a file to be backed up. Archive Copy Group. Only one version maintained. Retention period for archive object retver setting. Mode = archive Freq=CMD means on demand Copyserialization = treatment of modified files.

9.4 Management Class & Explicit Binding The management class serves two purposes: it contains copy groups and associates data to them. A management class must contain at least one copy group. This copy group could be for backup or archive, or the management class could contain both a backup and an archive copy group. There is only one for each logical grouping of nodes (policy domain), and it contains the rules that you want used for your data unless you explicitly bind it to another management class. Therefore, there are two ways of binding data to a management class: default and explicit. Unless an object is explicitly defined, the default management class is used.

Backup data is bound to a management class using the include option of the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager clients include-exclude list.

Example 9-1 shows an example of an include statement that assigns the backup file /home/admin/redbook.script to a management class called redbook while allowing the rest of the backup files in /home/admin to go to the default management class. The binding is actually done during the backup operation.

Example 9-1 Include option example

include /home/admin/.../* include /home/admin/redbook.script redbook

Image backups are also bound using the include/exclude list, however, the include.image directive is used. Example 9-2 shows how to bind all image backups to the imageMC management class.

Example 9-2 Image management class example

include.image /.../* imageMC

Archive data is bound to a management class using the archmc command line option as illustrated in Example 9-3 on page 169. The file /home/admin/redbook.doc will be bound to the management class redbookarchive. Without the archmc option, this data would have been bound to the default management class.



TSM Concepts


Example 9-3 Archive management class example

dsmc archive -archmc=redbookarchive /home/admin/redbook.doc

Therefore, the difference between backup and archive is that backup creates and controls multiple backup versions that are directly attached to the original file; where as archive creates an additional file that is normally kept for a specific period of time, as in the case of vital records.

Full: All files that match your selection are included into the backup. Incremental: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last backup. Differential: Only those files will be included which have been changed since the last FULL backup

Policy Management : ***** refer Page 70 of Tivoli concepts & figure 3-12 TSM Concepts

Client systems, or nodes in IBM Tivoli Storage Manager terminology, are grouped together with other nodes with common storage management requirements into a policy domain.

The policy domain links the nodes to a policy set, a collection of storage management rules for different storage management activities. A policy set consists of one or more management classes. A management class contains the rule descriptions called copy groups and links these to the data objects to be managed. A copy group is the place where all the storage management parameters, such as number of stored copies, retention period, storage media,and so on, are defined. When the data is linked to particular rules, it is said to be bound to the management class that contains those rules.

Another way to look at the components that make up a policy is to consider them in the hierarchical fashion in which they are defined; that iss, consider the policy domain containing the policy set, the policy set containing the management classes, and the management classes containing the copy groups and the storage management parameters.

Applying the discipline of storage management, combined with the appropriate technology and a well-crafted set of storage management best practices, can provide significant business value by helping enterprises increase revenues and decrease costs.

think of the database as having three sections, as shown in Figure 4-1 on page 58: rules and policies, files and data information, and location tracking.

The progressive backup feature uses its own relational database to track data wherever it is stored, delivering direct one-step file restore. This eliminates the need for base-plus-incremental tapes, commonly used for restore procedures in other storage management products.

Planning :

Know ur data: what data to be backed up. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager saves changed files; how long it saves those files is determined in the policies you set for each customer. Every end user is a customer and every policy contains the service level agreement that you provide to that customer.

Requesting point-in-time restores allows for automatic selection of all of the files that were present at the selected time and should be restored. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager database selects each file using the data that was backed up closest in time to the request (or using a file that was backed up much sooner but did not change before the point in time requested.



TSM Concepts


Planning for TSM solution should be top down approach. Find what are the deliverables like how fast user wants restore. Multiple copies of the files he wants or not.