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U.F.R.

SCIENTIFIQUES UNIVERSITE DE METZ ANGLAIS


I. CONSTRUCTION

Notions de Base n 9

LES MODAUX

Les modaux sont des AUXILIAIRES: pour la construction des formes interrogative et ngative voir NB 1. Lorsquil y a plusieurs auxiliaires LE MODAL EST TOUJOURS LE PREMIER. Les modaux NEXISTENT PAS A TOUTES LES FORMES ET A TOUS LES TEMPS. Ils nont : - PAS DINFINITIF - PAS DE FORME EN ING - PAS DE S A LA 3 PERSONNE DU SINGULIER DU PRESENT - PAS DE PARTICIPE PASSE Ils sont SUIVIS DUNE BASE VERBALE (= infinitif sans to). Ils sont INCOMPATIBLES ENTRE EUX. Cest--dire quun modal ne peut pas tre suivi dun autre modal. II. SENS La plupart des modaux ont PLUSIEURS SENS que lon peut regrouper sous DEUX GRANDES CATEGORIES. Dune part la CONTRAINTE ou la LATITUDE (on impose, on permet, on a la capacit physique ou matrielle) et dautre part la PROBABILITE (on donne son avis sur les chances de ralisation dune action). II.1. CONTRAINTE / LATITUDE OBLIGATION INTERDICTION il faut, on doit MUST MUSTNT CANT NEEDNT NEEDNT HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE MAY You must stop at red traffic lights. You mustnt park on a double yellow line. You cant park here! Look at the double yellow line! The sun is shining. You neednt take your umbrella. The sun was shining. You neednt have taken your umbrella. You may vote now that you are over eighteen.

en gnral il ne faut pas, on ne doit pas particulire une situation on ne peut pas car cest interdit on nest pas oblig, ce nest pas la peine AU PASSE :

ABSENCE DOBLIGATION

PERMISSION

on a ou on demande lautorisation permission formelle, langue officielle demande de permission : 3 degrs de politesse du plus poli au moins poli

MAY COULD CAN CAN COULD COULD HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE CAN SHOULD ou OUGHT TO

May I help you? Could I have your address, please? Can I have a drink? Tom can run very fast. He can play the piano. Jim could swim when he was six. You could have won the race if youd wanted to. From my window, I can see the river. Youre coughing a lot! You should give up smoking.

CAPACITE

on peut, on est capable, AU PASSE : on pouvait on pouvait mais on ne la pas fait avec les verbes de perception (ne se traduit pas en franais) on devrait on aurait d

on sait

CONSEIL REGRET ou CRITIQUE

It was your fault! You should have been more SHOULD HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE ou careful. OUGHT TO HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE

II.2. PROBABILITE QUASI CERTITUDE on en est sr AU PASSE : MUST MUST HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE CANT CANT HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE SHOULD ou OUGHT TO Look at all this snow! It must be cold outside. They worked all day and all night. They must have been tired. I dont believe it. Its impossible! It cant be that expensive. I dont believe it. Its impossible! They cant have left yesterday. Its 8.20. The news should be on TV.

NEGATION on est sr que non AU PASSE : on est sr que cela ne stait pas pass normalement, en principe cela devrait ASPECT FINI par rapport au prsent ou au pass. Normalement, en principe, cela devrait tre fini maintenant, ou avant une date future AU PASSE : normalement, en principe, cela aurait d, mais ce ntait pas le cas on ne sait pas, peut-tre AU PASSE :

DEDUCTION LOGIQUE

The train should have arrived by now. SHOULD HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE ou OUGHT TO HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE

INCERTITUDE

It was 8.20. The news should have been on TV. SHOULD HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE ou OUGHT TO HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE It may rain tomorrow. MAY MAY HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE MIGHT ou COULD We dont know what happened. The driver may have fallen asleep. We might win the jackpot, you never know.

FAIBLE PROBABILITE

il y a peu de chances, on ny croit pas trop AU PASSE :

CARACTERISTIQUE POTENTIELLE

susceptible de

I suppose everything is possible. He might have been MIGHT HAVE+ PARTICIPE PASSE ou asleep at the time. COULD HAVE + PARTICIPE PASSE Smoking can cause cancer. CAN Lions can be dangerous.

II.3. WILL, WOULD ET SHALL : PRESENTATION SIMPLIFIEE WILL Auxiliaire du futur (cf NB 5) Vrit permanente ou scientifique Bon vouloir, acceptation Invitation (forme interrogative) Ordre attnu (forme interrogative) Auxiliaire du conditionnel (cf NB 5) Forme frquentative (actions passes habituelles) Invitation polie, ordre attnu (forme interrogative) Volont attnue, politesse accrue Obligation (langue lgale ou biblique) Forme interrogative la 1ere personne du singulier ou du pluriel. On propose de faire quelque chose We will have the results tomorrow. Oil will float on water. (ne se traduit pas en franais) Will you take Mary as your lawful wedded wife? Yes, I will. Will you have lunch with us? Will you open that window? If I were you, I would buy a new car. She would wait for him every evening. Would you open that window? I would like to meet her. You shall obey! Shall we go out tonight? Lets go out tonight, shall we?

WOULD

SHALL

II.4. EXPRESSIONS EQUIVALENTES Pour exprimer une modalit un temps ou une forme que ne possde pas lauxiliaire modal correspondant, on a recours une expression quivalente dont le verbe peut se conjuguer tous les temps. Ces expressions ne sont pas des auxiliaires modaux! OBLIGATION INTERDICTION ABSENCE DOBLIGATION PERMISSION CAPACITE HAVE TO BE FORBIDDEN (TO) NOT / HAVE TO BE ALLOWED (TO) BE ABLE TO I had to do as he said. It was forbidden for visitors to feed the animals. Dont worry! You wouldnt have to pay for it. The students were allowed to use a dictionary. Fortunately, they were able to fix my microscope.