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Orianna Torres AP Physics C Chapter 5 Review Sheet: The Laws of Motion Summary After studying position, velocity, and

acceleration, we delve deeper into the study of mechanics by assessing the sources and the factors that impact motion. This chapter focuses on the influence of the force acting on an object as well as its mass and how they affect motion. We use Newtons three laws of motion to begin our study of dynamics in this unit. Force is the push or pull on an object (with both a magnitude and direction) due to the objects interaction with another object. Forces can be classified as either contact forces or field forces depending on whether physical contact causes the force or if the force acts through empty space. Mass is the measurement of an objects resistance to a change in its velocity. More mass, more inertia. (Note: Mass and weight are different. Weight differs with changes in location and can be measured by evaluating the gravitational force exerted on an object.) Major Topics Newton s First Law: Law of Inertia An objects constant straight-line motion will remain in motion and an object at rest will continue to be at rest if there is no net force acting upon the object (the acceleration would be zero!). Newton s Second Law: The acceleration of an object is dependent on the objects mass (inversely proportional to its acceleration) and the force (directly proportional to its acceleration) exerted on the object modeled by the equation F=ma. Newton s Third Law: Force Pairs When objects interact, they apply an equal and opposite force on each other. Friction is the resistance of to motion based on an objects interactions with its surroundings. Friction can be defined as either static or kinetic depending on whether the force is at rest of is moving, respectively. The magnitude of friction is dependent on the nature of the two forces in contact with each other, indicated by the coefficient of friction ( s or k ) and how hard the two surfaces are being pushed together (the normal force). Formulas

F friction = FNormal or =
Fnet = ma or

FFriction FNormal

NOTE: When using Newtons Second Law, one must set up a free-body diagram. 1) Choose (x,y) coordinate system, 2) Draw vectors of all forces acting on the object, 3) Use F=ma in each coordinate axis (as required to solve), 4) Resolve components into final result.

F = ma

Constants: Acceleration due to gravity = 9.80 m/s


2

Example of a FBD:

Free-Response Problems 1. One of more external forces, large enough to be easily measured, are exerted on each

object enclosed in a dashed box below. Identify the reaction to each of these forces.
[Note: No. 9 from book, not done as homework]

Solution: a) In this spring system, the spring would exert a force to right on the wall. There would also be a force exerted by spring on the hand (person holding on to the spring) is the external force and will be in the left direction. b) In this scenario, the wagon would exert a force down on the Earth; conversely, the Earth would be exerting a force in the opposite direction (upward) on the wagon. Additionally, the wagon would exert a force on its handle in the southwest direction or downward, left direction (opposite to the pull of the woman holding the handle). c) The football would exert a force on the Earth upward (to oppose the gravitation force pulling the football downward). It would also exert a force on the player in the southeast or downward, right direction, opposing the players kick. d) In this field, mass m would exert a force on mass M to the left. e) Within the interaction between the charged particles, the negatively charged particle (-q) would exert a force to the left on the positively charged particle (+Q). f) In this situation, the iron rod would exert a force on the magnet to the left.

2. In the figure below, a 4.50 kg cart slides down a frictionless plane with an inclination of 27 . The block is connected to a hanging mass of 3.00 kg with a mass-less cord and pulley. A) Draw a free-body diagram of the cart and of the hanging mass. B) Find the acceleration of the system.
0

Mass=4.5kg

Mass=3kg Solution: A) Cart:

Angle= 27

Hanging Mass:

Tension

FNormal FTension FGravity


B) Acceleration:
Cart : FX = mc a FT Fll = mc a FT mc g sin = mc a FT = mc g sin + mc a HangingMass : Fy = mh a Fg FT = mh a mh g FT = mh a mh g mc g sin + mc a = mh a mh g mc g sin = a( mc + mh ) m g mc sin a= h mc + mh (3)(9.8) (4.5)sin(27) = (4.5 + 3) = 3.65 m / s2

Gravity

Because the acceleration of the cart and the hanging mass will be the same, we can set up separate force analysis, then use both equations to solve for the acceleration. In order to use both equations simultaneously, we had to solve the force equation for the cart for F and then plug that into the force analysis of the hanging mass. We were then able to generate an acceleration expression that we could plug our values into.
Tension

3. A 9.00-kg hanging object is connected by a light, inextensible cord over a light, frictionless pulley to a 5.00-kg block that is sliding on a flat table (Fig. P5.28). Taking the coefficient of kinetic friction as 0.22, find the tension in the string. [Note: No.45 from book, not done for homework]

Solution: Mass 1: 5.00 kg Mass 2: 9.00 kg

Tension

Normal

F F
Friction

Tension

F F
Gravity

Gravity

Mass1: FX = mc a FT FF = m1a FT FN = m1a a= FT FN m1

HangingMass : Fy = m2 a

Fg FT = m2 a m2 g FT = m2 a

After creating expressions for the forces on both masses, we are able to solve for the acceleration, then use both equations simultaneously in order to solve for the force due to the tension in the cord. In this analysis, we also much account for the friction on the table by using the equation F =uF .
Friction N

FT FN ) m1 m1m2 g + m2FN = m2 FT + m1FT m m g + m2( m2 g) FT = 1 2 m1 + m2 (5)(9)(9.8) + (9)(.2)(9)(9.8) = (5 + 9) = 42.8 N m2 g FT = m2 (