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y y A force is a push or a pull. It is a vector quantity measured in Newtons. (N=kgm/s2) There are 4 fundamental forces o Force of Gravity is the force of attraction between all objects o Electromagnetic force is caused by electric charges o Strong Nuclear Force holds protons and neutrons together in an atoms nucleus o Weak Nuclear Force is responsible for the interactions between elementary particles 3 common contact forces include o Normal Force is the force perpendicular to the surfaces of objects in contact. o Friction is the force between objects in contact that runs parallel to the surface of contact. o Tension is the force exerted by strings, ropes, etc. A system diagram is a sketch of all objects in a situation, whereas a free body diagram shows only the object and all the forces acting on it.


y y y Inertia is the property of matter that causes a body to resist changes in its state of motion. This is what causes inept bus riders to fall over. Net force is the vector sum of all the forces acting on an object. If the net force on an object is zero, the object will maintain its state of rest or constant velocity. o If the velocity is changing, there must be a net external force on the object.


y If the net force on an object is not zero, the object accelerates in the direction of that force. The magnitude of the acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the net force and the mass of the object is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the net force.


y y y For every action force, there is a reaction force opposite in direction and equal in magnitude. This law always involves two objects. Action reaction pairs are applicable to many situations. Example: Apple hanging from tree. The downwards force of the apple on the stem is equal to the force of the stem on the apple, and the downwards force of gravity is equal to the upwards force of the apple.


y Gravitational field strength is the amount of force per unit mass acting on objects in the gravitational field, the space surrounding an object in which an object exerts a force on other objects placed in the space. It is dependent on the proximity of the object to the centre of the gravitational field. Earth bulges out slightly at the equator, and so the gravitational field strength is less there. On Earth, the gravitational field strength is 9.8 N/kg, on the moon it is 1.6 N/kg. Mass is the quantity of matter in an object Weight is the force of gravity on the object. (Fg=mg) If an object is travelling at a high enough speed, it will fall at the same rate as the surface of the Earth curves, and so will stay in orbit around earth in constant free fall.

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These equations are only valid for two spheres, for two objects whose sizes are much smaller than the distance between them, or for a particle and a sphere. The moon is kept in its orbit around Earth by gravity, the reaction force of the moon on the Earth results in the Earths tides.



y y y Static Friction is the force that prevents an object from starting to move Kinetic Friction is the force that acts against an objects motion in a direction opposite to the direction of motion. For an object to maintain a constant velocity, the net force must be zero, and so the applied horizontal force must be equal to the frictional force.


y y y The coefficient of Friction is the ratio of the magnitude of the force of friction to the magnitude of the normal force between tow surfaces in contact. They can be experimentally determined using a controlled experiment in which horizontal applied force is used to move an object with constant velocity across a horizontal surface. Kinetic Friction:


y y y Waves are disturbances that transfer energy over a distance Periodic motion in a pattern of motion repeater over and over again over the same time interval each time. A transverse vibration occurs when an object vibrates perpendicular to its axis

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A longitudinal vibration occurs when it vibrates parallel to its axis A torsional vibration occurs when an object twists around its axis. Oscillation=vibration One complete vibration=1 cycle #cycles/s is called frequency Period is the number of seconds it takes to complete one cycle. Objects are vibrating in phase when the have the same period and pass through the rest position at the same time The amplitude is the distance from the axis to the maximum displacement The formula was used historically to calculate the acceleration due to gravity (for a pendulum)


y y y y y Periodic waves originate from periodic vibrations in which the motion is continuous and continually repeated at the same time interval A transverse wave consists of alternating crests and troughs, whereas a longitudinal wave consists of alternate compressions and rarefactions. One wavelength is the distance between equivalent points (two crests/troughs, or two compressions/rarefactions) The speed of the wave is not affected by changes in the frequency or amplitude of the vibrating source. Likewise, they are not affected by changes in speed. The source alone determines the frequency of the wave


y Universal Wave Equation  


y The speed of a wave changes abruptly at the junction between two different springs, which corresponds to a wavelength change. Since the frequency is constant,  , and this same relationship gives 

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If a wave goes from a light rope to a heavy rope, the wave slows down and the wavelength decreases, and the opposite is true if a wave goes from a heavy rope to a light rope. Pulses reflected from a fixed end are inverted Pulses reflecting from a free end are not inverted. In both types of reflection there is no change in the frequency, speed, or wavelength. As a wave changes mediums, at the boundary between media the speed and wavelength change, and partial reflection occurs. Some of the energy continues on, whereas some is reflected back. When a pulse enters a new medium, it is not inverted. When a wave goes from a slow medium to a fast medium, the fast medium behaves as a free end, and the wavelength and speed increase When a wave goes from a fast medium to a slow medium, the slow medium behaves as a rigid wall, and the reflected wave is inverted, although the transmitted wave is not. The wavelength and speed decrease.


y y y y y y y Waves travelling into shallow water (slower medium) have a slower speed and a shorter wavelength. If a wave hits a straight barrier obliquely, the leading edge of the wave (wavefront) is reflected at an angle to the barrier. In this scenario, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Wave rays are straight lines drawn perpendicular to a wavefront that indicate the direction of transmission. The normal is a straight line drawn perpendicular to the barrier. The angles of incidence and reflection a measured relative to it. Straight waves can be reflected by a parabolic receptor to a focal point. If a wave crosses the boundary between mediums at an angle, the angle of travel changes, which is known as refraction. Diffraction is the bending effect on a waves direction as it passes through an opening or by an obstacle.


y y y y Wave interference occurs when two waves act simultaneously on the same particles. For transverse waves, destructive interference occurs when a crest meets a trough, and the amplitude is less than it would have been for either one of the interfering waves acting alone. Constructive interference occurs when a crest meets a crest, or trough/trough, as the waves are building each other up so that the medium has larger amplitude. The principle of superposition states that at any point the resulting amplitude of two interfering waves in the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves.


y Resonance is the response of an object that is free to vibrate to a periodic force with the same natural frequency of the object. The phenomenon is known as mechanical resonance is there is physical contact between the periodic force and the vibrating object. A sympathetic vibration is the response to a vibration with the same natural frequency. These phenomena must be taken into account when designing various structures. For example, marching soldiers once caused a bridge to vibrate at its natural frequency, and their force was high enough that the amplitude of the vibration was too big and the bridge collapsed. The same phenomenon is evident when an opera singer causes a wineglass to break.

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y y y Standing waves result from situations when waves travelling in opposite directions have the same amplitude and wavelength. In this situation, there are points that remain at rest because of the interference of the pulses. These are called nodes. Midway between the nodes are supercrests/supertroughs which are known as antinodes. Reflected waves can interfere with incident waves to create standing waves. Only certain wavelengths are capable of maintaining the standing wave interference patter because the reflecting end must be a node and the free end must be an antinode. The distance between successive nodes or antinodes in a medium is the wavelength of interfering waves.


The interference patter between to point sources vibrating in phase is a symmetrical pattern of alternative areas of destructive and constructive interference radiating out.


y y Sound is a form of energy, produced by rapidly vibrating objects, that can be heard by the Human ear Human range= 20Hz-20000Hz, beneath range=infrasonic, above range=ultrasonic


y y y y y Sound needs a material medium for its transmission. A tuning fork makes noise because it alternately compresses air pressures and then allows them to expand outwards. The amplitude describes the displacement of air form rest position. Higher Amplitude=louder sound Pitch-Human perception of highness/lowness of a sound, primarily dependent on frequency but still subjective

y y y Sound travels slower than light, example thunderstorm.

Sound fastest in solids, followed by liquids, gases, because the particles are closest together so sound can be transmitted quickest.


y y y y y y Power of sound is measured in W/m 2 Decibels are units used to measure sound intensity level. They are on a logarithmic scale, ex 10 = 20 dB Humans perceive loudness based on intensity, but we respond to frequencies differently, so its really dependent on both. Most sensitive to 1000-5000. Sounds hurt if they are above 13 dB. More distance=lower sound intensity.


y y y y y y The Pinna/external ear is shaped to receive sounds, which then travel down the auditory canal. Eardrum is forced to vibrate by compressions/rarefactions, causing vibrations with same frequency as source of sound wave Hammer/stirrup/anvil magnify pressure variations by 18. Inner ear receives vibration at inner window, causes pressure waves inside cochlea, which cause hairs to vibrate. Mechanical energy of hairs converted into electrical signal which is transmitted to the brain by the auditory nerve Semi-circular canals inside inner ear transmit brain signals for balance

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Loud sounds may rip away hair cells causing damage Hearing aids amplify sounds


y y y y y y Angle of reflection=angle of incidence Echoes occur when sound bounces off hard surface T= over .1 second, distance must be greater than 17 m Sonar is a system that transmits underwater sounds and tracks reflections to locate objects/determine their proximity. Dolphins, whales, bats use sonar-echolocation Ultrasound waves consist on transmitter and receptor to transmit and record data.

y y Longer wavelengths diffract more (low frequency) Voices carry further at night because cool air closer to the surface causes sound to refract downwards, during the day opposite occurs because cool air on top.


y Noise cancellation headphones send a wave out of phase with incoming noise and uses destructive interference so that the incoming wave is inaudible.


y y y Beats are periodic changes in sound intensity caused by interference between two nearly identical sound waves. Beat frequency is the number of beats per second. (number of maximum intensity pts per second) Beat frequency = absolute value of the higher frequency minus the lower one


y y y y y y The Doppler Effect is an effect in which as the source of sound approaches an observer, the observed frequency increases, and decreases as the source move away. This is the result of shorter wavelengths if you are closer and larger wavelengths if you are further. , vs is speed of source through medium, v=speed of sound through medium. You add if the source is moving away, subtract if moving towards. Doppler shift applies to all waves, not just sound waves Short range radar devices are used by police. The waves emitted come back at a slightly higher frequency, and cause beats when combined with the original wave. The transmitter converts the number of beats per second into km/h, as well as correct for the movement of the car. Speeds slower than the speed of sound are subsonic, those above is are supersonic. Mach number refers to the ration between the speed of the object and the speed of sound. When an object moves at high speeds, wavefronts in front of the object build up, producing an area of high pressure which objects need high thrust to break through.

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When objects travel supersonically they leaves spheres of sound waves behind them, which interfere with each other creating a cone of intense acoustic pressure that is referred to as a sonic boom because it is heard as two large cracks. Sonic booms create disturbances for humans and animals.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Music is sound that originates from a source with one or more constant frequencies. Noise originates from a source where the frequencies are constantly changing randomly. While pitch is highly dependent on frequency, it is still subjective to the listener. A pure tone is a sound consisting of one frequency. Consonance: Combinations of sounds that sound pleasing, often the frequencies are in a simple ratio. Dissonance is the opposite. An octave has sounds with double the frequency. The scientifical musical scale is based on 256 Hz, the musical one on 440Hz. The frequency of a string is inversely proportional to its length, its diameter, and the root of its density. It is proportional to the square root of its tension. In the fundamental mode, the string vibrates in one segment, producing its lowest, fundamental frequency. Overtones occur when the string vibrates in more than one segment. Harmonics are whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency The quality of a musical note is dependent upon the number and intensity of any overtones it produces along with the fundamental. In a closed air column, resonance first occurs when the column is 1/4, since then one node is formed. In an open air column, resonance first occurs when the column is 1/2. Stringed instruments consist of the vibrator (string) and the resonator, a hollow chamber which vibrates in resonance with the string. Wind instruments contain either open or closed air columns in which either the players lips or a reed is the vibrator. Percussion instruments involve striking one object to cause it to vibrate. The human voice is another instrument. Air from lungs passes by vocal cords, which act as a double reed. Loudness is controlled by the amount of air forced upwards, and pitch is caused by tension as well as the size of the vibrating parts. The pharynx, mouth, and nasal cavity control the quality of the sound, as they act as resonating cavities. Electrical instruments amplify and alter vibrations so that they may be reproduced by loudspeakers, which reproduce the full range of human hearing. Digital sound recordings record sound in binary, not as waves. Acoustics are the total effect of sound produced in an enclosed space. They are dependent no the shape of the area as well as its composition. Reverberation time is the time required for the intensity of the sound to drop to 10-6 or its original value or until the sound becomes inaudible. This is the most important acoustic property of a concert hall. Various sound reflectors can be strategically placed to determine a rooms acoustical properties.

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The Speed of light in a vacuum is c=3.00X10 m/s.

For any ray directed towards a plane mirror, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. These angles are measured between the incident ray or the reflected ray, and the normal, respectively. The normal is the line drawn from the point of incidence at 90 to the surface of the optical device. The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal all lie in the same plane.

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes from one medium into another of differing density. Often, in a phenomenon called partial reflection and refraction of light, the light will be split into two rays. When light goes from a slow medium to a fast medium (dense to less dense) it bends away from the normal, whereas when light goes from a fast medium to a slow medium, it bends towards the normal. A ray directed along a normal does not refract as it changes media.

The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given material is the index of refraction of the material. An optically dense medium has a high index of refraction and the higher the index of refraction, the slower the speed of light, and the smaller the angle of refraction.

Snells Law states that , where 1 represents the incident ray and 2 represents the refracted ray. When light passes through something such as a window pane, it goes in through air, refracts inside the window, and then refracts back as it re-enters the air, resulting in an emergent ray parallel to the incident ray but no longer on the same path. This sideways shifting is called lateral displacement.


When light travels from one medium to another in which its speed changes, light undergoes partial reflection and refraction. As the angle of incidence increases, the intensity of the reflected ray becomes stronger and stronger, whereas the intensity of the refracted ray becomes increasingly weak. As the angle of incidence increases, so too does the angle of refraction, reaching a maximum of 90. After this point, the entire incident light is reflected at the boundary. This phenomenon, called total internal reflection, only occurs when light rays travel from an optically denser medium into a medium in which the speed of light increases (so that the angle of refraction will be greater than the angle of incidence). When the angle of refraction in 90, the incident ray creating this ray is known as the critical ray. Total internal reflection can be applied in mirrors and prisms as well as fibre optic cables. Rays can be sent in at the critical angle so that they will reflect 90 (with mirrors and prisms, this occurs in binoculars) or sent in at greater than the critical angle so that there is no refraction, which occurs in fibre optic

cables. Within fibre optic cables, there is cladding (which has a lower refractive index than the glass core) to ensure that the rays are travelling from a slow medium to a fast medium, and thus total internal reflection can occur. Effects such as mirages result from air refracting through increasingly hot air until the incident angle passes the critical angle and the light is totally internally reflected back upwards.

Parabolic Mirrors have 3 predictable rays- If the ray comes in parallel to the principal axis, it will reflect out through the focal point. If the ray comes in through the focal point, it will leave parallel to the principal axis. If it goes in along the diameter, it will leave along the same diameter. There are 3 scenarios for converging mirrors. 1. 2. 3. If the object is behind the center, its image will be diminished, inverted, and real. If the object is between the centre and the focal point, the image will be enlarged, inverted, and real. If the object is between the focal point and the mirror, the image will be enlarged, erect, and virtual.

For a diverging mirror, the image will be diminished, erect, and virtual. There are several mirror/lens equations:

There are several conventions when working with these equations. f is negative when the mirror is diverging. di is negative when the image is virtual (behind the mirror). hi is negative when the image is inverted.

Rules for rays in a converging Lens: y y y A light ray travelling parallel to the principal axis refracts through the principle focus. A light ray passing through the secondary focus refracts parallel to the principal axis. A light ray travelling through the optical centre does not refract, it goes straight through.

Rules for rays in a diverging lens y They are the same as above, however in this scenario, the principal focus in on the same side as the object, and the secondary principal focus in on the other side. The opposite is true for a converging lens.

Sign Conventions y y Image distances are positive if they are on the opposite side of the lens form which the light is coming, if on the same side, it is negative. (- for virtual images) Image height is negative when the attitude is inverted.


When you look at an object, the image must be reduced to fit onto the retina, the light from the object must focus at the surface of the retina, and the image must be curved to match the surface of the retina. These 3 feats are accomplished by the eyes lens. Its shape, and thus its focal length, is controlled by the ciliary muscles Within the retina, there are two types of light sensitive cells called rod cells and cone cells. Rod cells act as low light sensors at night, whereas the cone cells function in greater light intensities and detect colour. Cone cells are most sensitive to either red, blue, or green light- All have light sensitive pigment molecules (rhidopsin) which break up and release electrical energy when they absorb sufficient amounts of light, and then subsequently the pigment reforms to be used again. Myopia is an eye defect in which distant objects cannot be seen clearly. When light rays come into the eye form a far away object, they are almost parallel, and the eye focuses them too strongly, so that the rays actually cross before reaching the retina. This can be corrected by making the eyeball shorter and the cornea flatter (laser eye surgery) or by wearing diverging lenses. Hyperopia is an eye defect in which close objects cannot be seen clearly. The rays coming from close objects converge behind the surface of the retina. This condition can be corrected by wearing converging lenses, so that the rays of light converge earlier, or by undergoing surgery to make the eyeball longer and rounder. Presbyopia is a condition in which your eye lenses lose some of their elasticity, and so they cannot accommodate as well, resulting in hyperopia- As distance vision is generally unaffected, typically people wear bifocals with converging lenses in the bottom half. Astigmatism occurs when either the cornea or the lens of the eye is not perfectly spherical, and so the eye has different focal points on different planes. Glaucoma is damage to the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss. A cataract is an opaque, cloudy area that develops in the clear lens of the eye which reduces vision as it blocks incoming light. The power of a lens is measured in diopters. It is equivalent to 1/focal length (in metres).


Opposite magnetic poles attract, similar magnetic poles repel. This is caused by their magnetic fields of force-the space around a magnet in which magnetic forces are exerted. On a magnet, magnetic field lines run from the North Pole to the South Pole.

Ferromagnetic substances are substances that can become magnetized by placing them in a magnetic field. Atoms of ferromagnetic substances are like tiny magnets, each with opposite poles. These dipoles, as they are known, line up with their neighbors so that their magnetic axes are in the same direction, forming a magnetic domain. Un unmagnetized ferromagnetic substance contains millions of magnetic domains, but they are pointing in random directions and so as a whole the substance remains unmagnetized. However, when placed in a magnetic field, the dipoles turn so that all the domains have the same direction, causing one end to have a north pole, and the other to have a south pole, creating flowing charge. Materials which, when removed from a magnetic field, revert to random alignment instantly are known as soft ferromagnetic materials, whereas when iron is alloyed with other materials, such as aluminum and silicon, these added metals keep the dipoles in line even when removed from the magnetic field, thereby forming a permanent magnet. These alloys are referred to as hard ferromagnetic materials.

The basic principle of electromagnetism, Oersteds discovery, is that whenever electric current moves through a conductor, a magnetic field is created in the region of a conductor. If a straight conductor is held in the right hand with the right thumb pointing in the direction of the electric current, the curled fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field lines. (Note: in a diagram x denotes moving into the page, a dot represents moving out of the page.) The magnetic field around a straight conductor can be intensified by bending the wire into a loop, even more so by bending it into a coil (also known as a solenoid), which can be further increased by the presence of an iron core inside the coops of the solenoid. If a coil is grasped in the right hand with the curled fingers representing the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the direction of the magnetic field inside the coil. The magnetic field strength of a coil increases with more current, more loops, and a core material with higher relative magnetic permeability.

Faraday discovered that when a current carrying conductor cuts across an external magnetic field, it experiences a force perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the direction of electric current. If the fingers of the open right hand point in the direction of the external magnetic field, and the thumb represents the direction of current, then the force will be in the direction in which the palm faces. The motor principle can be applied to moving-coil loudspeakers, galvanometers, and the electric motor.


Michael Faraday discovered the basic principle of electromagnetic induction. His law of magnetic induction states that an electric current is induced in a conductor whenever the magnetic field in the region of the conductor changes.


For a current induced in a coil by a changing magnetic field, the electric current is in such a direction that its own magnetic field opposes the charge that produced it.


The factors affecting the magnitude of the induced current are the number of turns on the inducting coil, the rate of change of the inducing magnetic field, and the strength of the inducing magnetic field.

, where V is potential difference (in volts) and R is resistance (in ohms)