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Book:

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Torque / Moment of a force / Moment.

When

Rotate About A Point that is not on the line of action of the force

A force is applied to the handle of the wrench it will tend to turn the bolt about point O (or the z-axis) Magnitude of the moment is directly proportional to the magnitude of F and the Perpendicular Distance or Moment Arm d

Larger the Force or the longer the Moment Arm, the greater the Moment or Turning Effect

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Torque / Moment of a force / Moment..contd...

will be more difficult to turn the bolt since the moment arm d = dsin will be smaller than d

arm will be zero since the line of action of F will intersect point O (the z axis the moment of F about O is also zero and no turning can occur

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Torque / Moment of a force / Moment..contd...

through O and perpendicular to the plane, is a Vector Quantity since it has a specified Magnitude and Direction

Magnitude Mo is:

d = Moment arm or Perpendicular Distance from the axis at point O to the line of action of the force Units of Moment: N.m or lb.ft

Direction:

o

Direction of Mo is defined by its Moment Axis perpendicular to the plane that contains the force F and its moment arm d

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Torque / Moment of a force / Moment..contd...

o

Natural Curl of the fingers of the Right Hand, as drawn towards the palm, represent the tendency for rotation caused by the Moment Thumb of the Right Hand will give the directional sense of Mo In 3D: Moment Vector is represented by a Curl around an arrow In 2D: Moment Vector is represented only by a Curl

o o

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Torque / Moment of a force / Moment..contd...

Resultant Moment

o

For 2D-problems, the resultant moment about point O (the z axis) can be determined by finding the algebraic sum of the moments caused by all the forces in the system

Counterclockwise are taken as Positive Moments they are directed along the positive z-axis (out of the page) o Clockwise are taken as Negative Moments

If the numerical result of this sum is a Positive Scalar, (MR)owill be a counterclockwise moment (Out of the Page); and if the result is Negative, (MR)owill be a clockwise moment (Into the Page)

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 6

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Example 4.1

For each case illustrated in Fig., determine the moment of the force about point O.

(a)

(d)

(c)

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 7

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Example 4.2

Determine the resultant moment of the four forces acting on the rod shown in Fig. about point O.

Moment of a ForceScalar Formulation

Ability to remove the nail will require the moment of FH about point O > Moment of the force FN about O that is needed to pull the nail out

oMoment of a force does not always cause a rotation oForce F tends to rotate the beam clockwise about its support at A with a

moment F.dA oActual rotation would occur if the support at B were removed.

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 9

Cross Product

Cross Product is used to find the moment of force Cross Product of two vectors A and B yields the vector C

C equals A cross B

and the sine of the angle between their tails :

Direction

o

Vector C has a direction perpendicular (or Orthogonal) to the plane containing A and B, such that C is specified by the Right-hand Rule

Right-hand Rule: Curling the fingers of the right hand from vector A (cross) to vector B

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 10

Cross Product

Laws of Operation

Cross product BA yields a vector that has the same magnitude but acts in the opposite direction to C

magnitude of the resultant |a|ABsin vector and its direction are the same in each case

11

Cross Product

Cartesian Vector Formulation

=

resultant vector points in the +k direction

o Crossing o Crossing

two unit vectors in a Counterclockwise Fashion around the circle yields the Positive Third Unit Vector two unit vectors in a Clockwise Fashion around the circle yields the Negative Third Unit Vector

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 12

Cross Product

Cartesian Vector Formulationcontd--

To find the Cross Product of any two Cartesian vectors A and B, expand a determinant whose first row of elements consists of the unit vectors i, j, and k and whose second and third rows represent the x, y, z components of the two vectors A and B, respectively

13

Moment of a ForceVector Formulation

using the vector cross product

r represents a position vector directed from O to any point on the line of action of F

Magnitude

angle is measured between the tails of r and F

Curling the Right-hand Fingers from r toward F (r cross F) the Thumb is directed upward or perpendicular to the plane containing r and F and this is in the same direction as Mo

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 14

Moment of a ForceVector Formulation

Principle of Transmissibility

Any position vector r measured from point O to any point on the line of action of

the force F

Since F can be applied at any point along its line of action and still create this same moment about point O F can be considered a Sliding Vector

This property is called the principle of Transmissibility of a Force

15

Moment of a ForceVector Formulation

Cartesian Vector Formulation

position vector r and force F can be expressed as Cartesian Vectors

Represent x, y, z components of the Position Vector drawn from point O to any point on the line of action of the force represent the x, y, z components of the Force Vector

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 16

Moment of a ForceVector Formulation

Resultant Moment of a System of Forces

Resultant

forces

about

17

Moment of a ForceVector Formulation

Example 4.3

Determine the moment produced by the force F in Fig. about point O. Express the result as a Cartesian vector.

18

Principle of Moments

Principle of Moments----Verignons Theorem

moments of the components of the force about the point

o consider

the Moments of the Force F and two of its components about point O

Since,

be used by resolving the force into its Rectangular Components and then determine the moment using a scalar analysis

19

Principle of Moments

Moment of the applied force F about point O is easy to determine if we use the principle of moments

20

Example 4.4 Determine the moment of the force in Fig. about point O.

21

Example 4.5

Determine the angle (0o 180o) of the force F so that it produces a maximum moment and a minimum moment about point A. Also, what are the magnitudes of these maximum and minimum moments?

22

Example 4.6 Serious neck injuries can occur when a football player is struck in the face guard of his helmet in the manner shown. Determine the

lb about point A. What would be the magnitude of the neck force F

so

that

it

gives

the

23

Example 4.5 In order to raise the lamp post from the position

counterclockwise moment of 1500 lb.ft about point A. Determine the magnitude of F that must be

24

Example 4.7 Determine the resultant moment produced by forces FB and FC about point O. Express the result as a Cartesian Vector.

25

Moment of a Couple

the same magnitude, but opposite directions, and are separated by a perpendicular distance d

couple is to produce a rotation or tendency of rotation in a specified direction E.g, Steering Wheel of a Car

Couple

26

Moment of a Couple

Value

of Couple Moment can be determined by finding the sum of the moments of both couple forces about any arbitrary point

Couple Moment is a free vector, i.e., it can act at any point since M depends only upon the position vector r directed between the forces and not the position vectors rA and rB directed from the arbitrary point O to the forces

27

Moment of a Couple

Scalar Formulation

F = Magnitude of one of the forces d = Perpendicular Distance or Moment Arm between the forces

Direction

and Sense of the couple moment are determined by the Right-hand Rule

o Thumb

indicates this direction when the Fingers are curled with the sense of rotation caused by the Couple Forces

28

Moment of a Couple

Vector Formulation

F is zero about this point, and the moment of F is defined as M = r F

29

Moment of a Couple

Equivalent Couples

If two couples produce a moment with the same magnitude and direction, then

these two couples are Equivalent

o Larger

forces are required in the second case to create the same turning effect because the hands are placed closer together

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 30

Moment of a Couple

Resultant Couple Moment

Moments are vectors, their resultant can be determined by Vector Addition Consider the couple moments M1 and M2 acting on the pipe Since each couple moment is a Free Vector, their

tails cab be joined at any arbitrary point to find the resultant couple moment

form of the vector resultant is:

31

Example 4.8

Determine the resultant couple moment of the three couples acting on the plate in Fig.

32

Example 4.9 Determine the couple moment acting on the pipe shown in Fig. 432. Segment AB is directed 30 below the xy plane.

33

Example 4.10 Replace the two couples acting on the pipe column in Fig. by a resultant couple moment.

34

Example 4.10 If F = 200 lb, determine the resultant couple moment.

35

Example 4.11

If M1 = 180 ld.ft, M2 = 90 lb.ft, and M3 = 120 lb.ft, determine the magnitude and coordinate direction angles of the resultant couple moment.

36

Simplification of a Force and Couple System

Sometimes it is convenient to reduce a system of forces and couple moments Equivalent System: A system is Equivalent if the External Effects it produces on

a body are the same as those caused by the original force and couple moment system body if the body is free to move, or it refers to the Reactive Forces at the supports if the body is held fixed

acting on a body to a simpler form by replacing it with an Equivalent System consisting of a Single Resultant Force acting at a specific point and a Resultant Couple Moment

External Effects of a system refer to the Translating and Rotating motion of the

Force F is moved from A to B without modifying its external effects on the stick; i.e., reaction at the grip remains same

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 37

Simplification of a Force and Couple System

Force can be moved to a point that is not on the line of action of the force

o F is applied perpendicular to the stick, o then we can attach a pair of equal but opposite

forces F and F

o Force

F is now applied at B, and the other two forces, F at A and F at B, form a Couple that produces the Couple Moment force F can be moved from A to B provided a couple moment M is added to maintain an Equivalent System

o In

both cases the systems are equivalent which causes a Downward Force F and Clockwise Couple Moment M= Fd to be felt at the grip

38

Simplification of a Force and Couple System

System of Forces and Couple Moments

can be moved to point O provided a couple moment M1 = r1 F1 is added to the body

the body when we move F2 to point O

Since

the Couple Moment M is a free vector, it can just be moved to point O System is now obtained, which produces the same external effects on the body as that of the original Force and Couple System

Equivalent

=

39

Simplification of a Force and Couple System

Resultant Force = FR = F1 + F2 Resultant Couple Moment = (MR)O = M + M1 + M2

Couple System to an Equivalent System is represented using following Equations:

Resultant Force FR of the system is equivalent to the sum of all the forces Resultant Couple Moment (MR)o of the system is equivalent to the sum of all the couple moments M plus the moments of all the forces MO

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 40

Simplification of a Force and Couple System

Weights of these traffic lights can be replaced by their equivalent resultant force: WR = W1 + W2, and a couple moment (MR)O = W1d1 + W2d2 at the support, O In both cases the Support must provide the same resistance to Translation and Rotation in order to keep the member in the Horizontal Position

Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 41

Example 4.12 Replace the force and couple system acting on the member in Fig. by an equivalent resultant force and couple moment acting at point O.

42

Example 4.13 The structural member is subjected to a couple moment M and forces F1 and F2 and shown in Fig. Replace this system by an equivalent resultant force and couple moment acting at its base, point O.

43

Example 4.13 The slab is to be hoisted using the three slings shown. Replace the system of forces acting on slings by an equivalent force and couple moment at point O. The force F1 is vertical.

44

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