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VIBRATION

PROBLEM IN A HYDRO-TURBINE

GENERATOR SET

P.Muthu Vibration Laboratory Corporate Research and Development Division Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Hydetabad-500593 INDIA

ABSTRACT

A large Hydrogenerator with Francis runner was facing forced outages due to cracks appearing at labyrinth seal assembly at turbine guide bearing and also on the blocks supporting the at generator lower pads guide vibrations bearing. The shaft measured at generator bearings were very high. Balancing the machine proved to be effective only for a few The problem was consequently months. be friction induced diagnosed to instability and defective rotor poles. A detailed description of the step by step diagnosis carried out on the machine leading to reduction in vibration levels and enhancing its availability is given in the paper. NOMENCLATURE LGB UGB TGB U/S Ul Lower guide bearing Upper guide bearing Turbine guide bearing Upstream direction Unit 1 direction (Perpendicular to u/s)

paper is a vertical shaft, Francis turbine driven Hydrogenerator with the thrust bearing located on the top There are twcl Of the generator. guide bearings, above and below the generator rotor and one guide bearing for the turbine rotor. The thrust bearing and the guide bearings are of pivoted pad type. All the thrust loads are transmitted to the stator frame and its supports. The generator consists of a rotor construction steel spider to which the laminated rim carrying the poles is attached. The pole attachment is by a projecting key integral with the pole engaging in a similarly shaped slot in the rotor body. The general layout of the machine is shown in figure 1.

1.

INTRODUCTION

station has two The Hydra power identical units of 45 MW. One of the had the problem of forced units outages due to cracks appearing on the pad supporting blocks and turbine labyrinth seal assembly. The machine investigation in the present under

Fig.l:Hydrogenerator

layout.

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The machine follo"s: Kilo Kilo

details

are
45000 56250

as

Table.1 1X (microns/degrees);initial

shaft

vibrations rolling.

Watts Volt Ampere stator voltage stator current Rotor voltage Rotor current NO of rotor poles No of moving vanes NO of guide vanes NO of fixed vanes Maximum head Rated head RPm 2. MEASUREMENTS

11000 2952

volts amps 225 volts 920 amps 36 ::


12 57.0 48.1

Wechanical
rwl Excitation 11 w

212/ 177 70, 15 495/ 153

2OSl 1.21 632, 46 445/ 47

229/ 31 130, 5 42% 7 420, 9

66/ 2 139, 6 110, 354 106, 348

metre metre

Load

3011"

167
Load 45W

4w 50, 155 49 _._..__________.._______________________-.---~--.-.

Since the rpm of the machine was 10" and the brackets supporting the guide bearings were very stiff, absolute shaft vibration measurements were carried out. The shaft vibration measurements were done at TGB and LGB in twcl mutually perpendicular directions, one in the upstream direction and the other in unit-l direction. The measurements at UGB were done in upstream direction only due to limitations in probe mounting. Bently Nevada eddy current proximity probes were mounted on stiff brackets which were rigidly attached to the concrete structures at suitable locations. Bently Nevada optical probe was used for phase reference. Digital Vector Filter-3 was used to CXCZTy out order analysis and balancing of the machine. The vibration measurements were conducted for the following conditions. 1. Mechanical run. 2. 100% generator excitation. 3. Part load conditions. 4. Full load condition. 5. Load throw off and de-excitation. The shaft vibration signals showed mostly running speed component and the unfiltered shaft orbit observed using an oscilloscope also displayed a purely synchronous whirl. Therefore, only 1X shaft vibrations with amplitude in microns and phase in degrees are presented in all the tables referred hereafter.

the initial vibration Table 1 gives levels (amplitude and phase) measured at different locations. From Table 1 it is seen that the vibration levels on the generator guide bearings are quite high compared to the levels at turbine guide bearing. Also, there is a sudden jump in the generator shaft vibration levels, once the poles are excited. Since the unit was required immediately for generation it was decided to balance the machine and to bring down the levels. single plane balancing was carried out due to the availability of only one balancing plane on the generator spider arm. A total weight of 1OOkgs was finally bolted and welded to the spider arms after balancing trials. The measured vibration levels after balancing are given in Table 2. Table.2 1X (microna/degrees);initial shaft vibrations balancing

._______.___________-------.--.~-.--------..---..... Probe locations _____-..___________..---.---.--..---.....


Condition LOB u/s 69/ 190 330/ 140 350/ 142 350/ 143 LOB "I 70/ 90 302, 34 315, 36 315, 3 "GO "1 137/ 32 3551 1 345, 4 340, 6 TGB "I 46/ 352 107, 19 90/ 4 831 5

Mechanical i-U" Excitation 11 K" Load 30 WY

Load

45 Y

1497

The machine was connected to the to study and it was decided generator rotor-stator forms , gap and pole defects during the overhaul.

grid the airnext

Table.4

Bottom

air

gap readings

m,cn __.___
14.0 14.8 14.0 14.3 14.3 14.6 15.0 14.5 13.8 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.7 14.5 14.6 14.3 21 22 :t 25 26 23 :z :: 33 34 14.6 14.7 14.3 14.2 13.7 13.9 14.0 14.0 13.9 13.6 13.5 13.6 14.2 14.1 14.5 14.0 13.9 14.0 deviation = 6.8 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.3 ::i cm

Subsequently the machine was taken for shutdown after 4 months. The stator shifting wae done to correct the generator air gap. The final air gap readings after et&or shifting exercise was done are given in Tables 3 and 4. Table.3 Top air gap readings.
GaPa cm Diemetrical deviation,cn 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.5 1.5 1.6 1.2 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 ::: 1.5 1.2 0.3 = 11.3 cm

15
(6

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

14.2

19

2 14.5 3 15.2 :7 4 15.3 22 5 23 15.3 6 15.0 7 14.9 :: 8 26 14.3 9 13.7 10 :8' 13.3 11 13.6 29 12 13.6 30 13 13.6 14 13.8 :: 15 13.7 33 16 13.5 17 13.6 ; 18 36 13.9 ________._______________________________----------TotaL

14.9 15.0 14.9 14.8 13.8 13.4 13.7 13.6 13.8 13.4 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.9 14.3 15.0 14.8 14.2

1.3 17 14.5 35 14.2 36 ______.____________...-----------~-----------...---Total ____________________---..-~----..-------.---------.

Average

deviation

0.378 28.29

cn co

Average dialnetrical

gap =

Maxi-

deviation

=
=

_______________ x
28.29 2.20%

Cl.O-0.378h100

deviatim

The above parameters for the top and bottom air gaps were slightly higher than the permitted design limits but are acceptable. The machine was boxed up and vibration readings taken with pickups mounted at the same locations. Table 5 shows the vibration levels measured at LGS and TGB.FrOm the table it can be seen that the sudden jump in shaft vibration levels observed on generator bearings earlier is still persisting. It was alSO noticed that the vibration levels keep on increasing with time and when the machine was de-excited high (710 at vibration levels microns ) , the machine did not come back to original mechanical condition in terms of vibration amplitudes.

Average

deviation

Total deviation _-------------no of readinss 0.628 cm

Average

diametrical

gap = 28.28 cm

Max

deviation

(1.6-0.628)x100 ___.___________ 28.28 3.43x

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Table.5 1X (microns/degrees); shifting.

shaft after

vibrations stator

guide bearing was opened and the pad clearances were checked.The bearing clearances were found normal. Table.6 1x shaft (microns/degrees);differentrestarts. vibrations

Mechanical PY" Excitation 1lK" LOad 34w 14.50 "TS Load 34MY 16.00 HrS Load 34 M!J 17.40 Hrs

144, 25 460, 345 475/ 348 550, 348 710, 349

771 284 2051 245 215, 245 253, 245 330, 250

60/ 280 118/ 310 98, 303 91, 290 85, 274 75/ 120

65/ 185 851 220 65, 208 65, 205 63, 155 95, 227

M/C restarted after 1 hour 19.15 Hr* n/c restarted after 3 hours 2.40 hrs 23.00 hrs

375, 17

195, 27

70, 261

75,
155

150, 28

89, 288

60, 280

182

701

164, 32 193 38 235, 47

95, 291 102, 295 120, 302

De-excited 480, 225, Mechanical 10 270 run 18.00 "TE _...___._________...____________________------..---

23.30

hrs

24.00

hrs

The vibration levels were almost three times the original mechanical condition on being de-excited after the machine was on load for 3 hours with phase remaining almost same as the starting mechanical run condition. The increase in vibration levels with time is observed only on the LGB side; the TGB levels remained more or less same. Table 6 shows the vibration levels measured on LGB and TGB when the machine was restarted with two different intervals of time gap. It is seen that the initial mechanical run levels are lower when the machine is restarted after a longer gap of time period. This phenomenon is observed only on LGB location. It is seen that under mechanical run condition also the vibration levels keep on increasing with time at LGB. The bearing temperatures were checked and the pads were found to stabilise under full load conditions around 65'C for the thrust bearing and around 4550C for the guide bearings. The lower

00.30 01.30

hrs

275, 48 300, 50

138, 305 154, 309

hrs

It was informed by the customer that a year back rotor poles 5, 30, 31 were taken out for coil repair. The pole wedges were once again checked for tightness and hammered in.LGB bracket bolts were tightened again. one Of the probes from TGB was removed and mounted on UGB. Table 7 shows the shaft vibration levels after the above checks. Once again the vibration levels showed an increasing tendency but surprisingly this increasing tendency is not seen at UGB. In fact the "GB and TGB vibration levels drop slightly with respect to time when LGB vibration levels increase. Also, when deexcited the UGB levels fall back to original mechanical start up levels unlike LGB levels.

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Table.7 1X (microns/degrees); tightened.

shaft

pole

vibrations wedges __.....__.

Probe

locaticas

Mechanical run 18.30 hrr Load 34 nu 19.00 hrs 19.30 hrs

69/ 70

130, 8

55/ 285

90, 11 550, 11 59% 12 6401 12 406,

3751 270 425/ 271 460, 271 490, 271 300,

370/ 337 3501 334 325/ 335 305/ 333 114,

801 325 7% 316 RI 72 701 302 27/

19.45

hw

20.00

hrr

Fig.2:

Location

of

sealing

felts.

de-excited

20.05 . . . . . . hrs . . . . . . ..ff....-.--~~~~.-........--..--~~~.-

The possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the rotor is rotating with a bow-like shape with LGB increasing deflection nearer with time. Thus the problem was isolated to the shaft system near the LGB. The machine was stopped and the shaft system was checked near the LGB for any abnormality. It was found that the coupling bolts temperatures were around BOOC and quite high, interestingly half of the bolts were hot and the other half were at normal temperature. The shaft above the LGB oil seal assembly also showed the same phenomenon i.e. half of the shaft being hot and other half at hot normal temperature. Both the surfaces were in the same line and matched with the heavy spot position of unbalance. On investigation it was being that the heat was seen generated on the bolts and shaft due to rubbing of sealing felt with the shaft. There was one ring of sealing felt (3 layers) just in line with the coupling bolts and one ring (4 layers) just above the oil sealing system.This is shown in Figure 2.

It was decided to completely remDve the layer-s of felt at both these locations and run the machine. Table B shows the vibration levels with the felt removed with respect to time. Table.8 1X (microns/degrees); removed. shaft felt vibrations layers

____________________~~~..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~~........
Cordirion Probe location* _____..___________._~~--..----.----....LOB LOB u/s 1 W 63 621 322 00 UlS 136/ 9 TO8 u/s 631 305

Mechanical ;:5 hrs

Mechanical run 10.30Ilrs Excitation 10.40 hrs Load 11.30 12.00 34 nv hrs hrs

67/ 63

63/ 322

135, 8

62/ 304

410, 1 405, 3 410, 2 410/ 2

3101 260 312, 260 315, 261 315, 260

370/ 335 375/ 336 375/ 335 370, 333

130, 337 120, 328 120, 328 125/ 326

12.30

hre

1500

It is seen from the above readings that after the removal of felts when there is no rubbing, the vibration levels remained almost same at all locations with time. Since the felts are provided for arresting the escape of oil vapours from the bearings and forming depositions on the stator windings, various trials were carried out by running the machine with one layer of felt removed, two layers of felts removed felt removed, only nearer the coupling etc. But in all the cases the vibrations increased though the rate of increase was slow. Finally, a 0.5 mm clearance was provided all around the shaft from the felt and the machine was balanced with a weight of further 60 kgs . The final vibration levels stabilised around a maximum of 380 microns. The machine was observed for 12 hrs operation and it was cleared for monsoon running as the reservoir was full. It is that thus seen the increase in vibration levels with time at LGB was due to friction induced by felts. After the above rectification a planned shutdown was taken after 4035 hrs of full load generation for the measurement of rotor pole impedances. The static and dynamic impedances of all the poles were first checked by voltage in steps to a applyiw maximum of 440 volts between slip rings and measuring the current. The impedance values are given in Table 9. Table 9 Static and dynamic impedances. __...___________..__----.---.-.~.-------.-----~----Static ilrpedance __._..___________.__--------.--.-------~..----~----VOLtage current 'zzsq (volts, mlpres) 94.8 1.0 94.8 193.4 2.0 96.9 319.8 3.0 103.2 111.0 400.6 3.6 ____....__________._____________________------~-.---

As the above measured values are as per design entire poles taken together decided to test individually pole by applying AC voltage volts rms for a duration of and measuring the current current transformer of 15O:l in current measurements.The of impedance test are given 10. Table individual Static 10. poles.

impedance for the it was each of 70 5 minutes drawn. A was used readings in Table

impedance-

1 2
3

1
6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 :; 18 19 20 21 22 23 2 26 27 28 :,' 31 32 :t 35 36

70.50 70.70 71.05 70.68 70.50 70.83 70.80 70.68 70.80 70.62 70.12 71.56 70.94 70.88 70.68 70.36 70.80 70.25 70.40 70.90 70.65 70.68 49.69 70.38 70.98 70.38 70.38 70.89 70.93 70.34 70.14 70.28 70.20 70.05 70.50

70.80

42.00 36.75 37.50 36.75 39.75 39.00 38.25 39.50 39.00 36.75 36.75 37.50 36.00 39.00 40.50 41.40 39.75 42.00 41.25 39.00 40.50 37.50 39.00 39.00 39.75 39.00 36.00 39.00 39.00 3a.25 37.50 39.00 36.00 38.25 39.00 39.00

1.678 1.923 1.894 1.923 1.773 1.815 1.851 2.052 1.812 1.926 1.921 1.869 I.987 1.818 1.750 1.707 1.770 1.689 1.703 1.805 1.750 I.884 1.812 1.104 1.770 1.820 1.955 1.804 1.817 1.854 1.875 1.798 1.952 1.835 1.796 1.807

seen that poles 1,5, 15 to 21, and 25 have lower impedance values.The above poles were thoroughly cleaned to remove a*Y contaminations from oil vapour,brake dust etc and their resistance values were rechecked.
24

It

is

1501

The above l.Poles

tests

established

that

3.

CONCLUSIONS

21 and 24 are

defective.

2. For poles 15 and 18 if the voltage is increased slowly they withstood 70 volts ac for 5 minutes, but if the voltage is increased in steps current increases beyond 50 amps when 70 volts ac is reached. 3. Pole nos impedance Values average value. 1,16 10 and 19 % below have the

1. The increase in vibration levels at LGB with time is due to friction induced by felts which deteriorate with time, causing instability. 2. The sudden jump in vibration levels has been identified to be caused due to defect in certain poles.These are recommended to be replaced. 4.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Poles 20-24 on the rotor rim are located at the same location of heavy spot as analyzed from the phase reference. The sudden jump in vibration levels experienced on excitation should be due to rotor pole defects. It was recommended to the customer to change the defective poles at the earliest .

The author wishes to thank BHEL management for giving permission to present this paper. The author gratefuly acknowledges the support provided by Hr.Nand Kishore of Services division, BHEL, Nagpur in carrying out the electrical measurements.

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