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InterconnectionStandards forPVSystems

Wherearewe?Wherearewegoing?
AbrahamEllis SandiaNationalLaboratories aellis@sandia.gov

Cedar Rapids, IA October 2009

GeneratorInterconnection Standards
Establishuniformtechnicalandprocedural requirementsforinterconnectionofgenerationon theelectricgrid Interconnectionstandardsaredrivenby
Safety(peopleandproperty) Gridreliability,performance Costconsiderations Fairness(justandreasonable,andnotunduly discriminatoryorpreferential)

WhatInterconnection StandardsandProceduresApply?
Bulk System Guidelines NERC, FERC IEEE, ANSI, IEC NESC

Plenty of technical and jurisdictional overlap, confusion, contradiction

Distribution System Guidelines IEEE 1547, PUC/PRC IEEE, ANSI, IEC NEC

FederalJurisdictional InterconnectionStandards(FERCOrder)
Applytogenerators,participatinginwholesalemarket, regardlessofsizeandinterconnectionlocation
TSO/DSOfollowproforma proceduresviaOATT

Proceduresandrequirementsgenerallybasedonsize
LargeGeneratingFacilities(>20MW):LGIP/LGIA SmallGeneratingFacilities(SGF)(<20MW):SGIP/SGIA

SGIPhasstreamlinedprocessforsmallerDER
FastTrackProcessforcertaingeneratorsnolargerthan2MW 10kWInverterProcessforcertifiedinverterbasedgeneratorsnolarger than10kW(SGIPAttachment5)

StateJurisdictional InterconnectionStandards(PUC/PRCRule)
Applytogeneratorsuptoacertainsize,connectedto thegrid,butnot participatinginwholesalemarket
NetMetering,PURPAorsimilararrangementforsale of electricitytothehostutilityonly TypicallycoverREandotherDG,allcustomerclasses

Proceduresandstandardsvarybystate
GenerallyconformwithFERCSGIP,butsomehave significantdifferences

Technicalstandardsfocusedonthedistribution systemandDER

StateJurisdictional InterconnectionStandards
www.dsireusa.org / July 2009
WA: 20,000 MT: 50* OR: 25/2,000* SD: 10,000 WY: 25* NV: 20,000 CA: no limit NE: 25* CO: 10,000 KS: 25/200* MN: 10,000 WI: 15,000 MI: no limit IN: no limit IL: 10,000 MO: 100* PA: no limit VT: no limit NH: 100* NY: 2,000 MA: no limit CT: 20,000 NJ: 2,000* MD: 10,000 DC: 10,000

OH: 20,000 KY: 30* VA: 20,000 NC: no limit SC: 20/100* GA: 10/100*

UT: 25/2,000*

NM: 80,000

AR: 25/300*

HI: no limit

TX: 10,000

LA: 25/300* FL: 2,000*

37 states +
DC & PR have adopted an interconnection policy

Notes: Numbers indicate system capacity limit in kW. Some state limits vary by customer type (e.g., residential/non-residential).No limit means that there is no stated maximum size for individual systems. Other limits may apply. Generally, state interconnection standards apply only to investor-owned utilities.

State policy Standard only applies to net-metered systems


PR: no limit

InterconnectionRequirements forSGF(FERCOrder2006)
FastTrackProcessforSGFthatpasscertainscreens
SGFcapacity<2MW SGFmeetscodes,standardsandcertification TotalSGFcapacity<15%ofpeakloadinthecircuit IfconnectingtoSpotNetwork,SGFmustbeinverterbased,not exceeding5%ofmaximumloador50kW TotalSGFfaultcurrent<10%oftotalfaultcurrent AdditionofSGFdoesnotcausedistributionequipmentandprotective devicestoexceed87.5%ofrating Transformerconnectioncompatiblewithutilitycircuit <20kWforsinglephase,<20%imbalanceamongphases

TypicalDERInterconnectionProcess
Example: CPUCRule21 Interconnection Process

Source: California Interconnection Guidebook http://www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/interconnection /guide_book.html

TypicalDERInterconnectionProcess
Example: CPUCRule21Initial TechnicalReview Methodology

Source: http://www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/interconnection /application.html

IEEE1547StandardFamily
(AppliestoDERnolargerthan10MVA)
No. 1547 1547.1 1547.2 1547.3 1547.4 1547.5 1547.6 1547.7 Title StandardforInterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectric Power Systems StandardforConformanceTestsProceduresforEquipment InterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems ApplicationGuideforIEEE1547StandardforInterconnecting DistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems GuideForMonitoring,InformationExchange,andControlofDistributed ResourcesInterconnectedwithElectricPowerSystems DraftGuideforDesign,Operation,andIntegrationofDistributed ResourceIslandSystemswithElectricPowerSystems DraftTechnicalGuidelinesforInterconnectionofElectricPower Sources Greaterthan10MVAtothePowerTransmissionGrid DraftRecommendedPracticeForInterconnectingDistributedResources WithElectricPowerSystemsDistributionSecondaryNetworks DraftGuidetoConductingDistributionImpactStudiesforDistributed ResourceInterconnection Status 2003 2005 2008 2007 Pending Pending Pending Pending

InterconnectionStandards forDistributedEnergyResources
IEEE1547VoltageandFrequencyTolerance
VoltageRange (%Nominal) V<50% 50% V<88% 110%<V<120% V 120% Max.Clearing Time(sec)* 0.16 2.0 1.0 0.16 FrequencyRange (Hz) f>60.5 f<57.0* 59.8<f<57.0** Max.Clearing Time(sec) 0.16 0.16 Adjustable(0.16 and300)

(*)MaximumclearingtimesforDER 30kW; DefaultclearingtimesforDER>30kW

(*)59.3HzifDER 30kW (**)ForDER>30KW

Additionaldisconnectionrequirements
CeasetoenergizeforfaultsontheAreaEPScircuit Ceasetoenergizepriortocircuitreclosure Detectislandconditionandceasetoenergizewithin2seconds oftheformationofanisland(antiislanding)

InterconnectionStandards forDistributedEnergyResources
50% < V > 88% 110% < V > 120%

V < 50%

V > 120%

InterconnectionStandards forDistributedEnergyResources
Otherapplicablecodesandstandards(not Requirement exhaustive)
VoltageRegulation Voltagecontrol Flicker Harmonics PowerFactor MaintainservicevoltagewithinANSIC84RangeA(+/5%) Notpermitted(IEEE1547) MaximumBorderlineofIrritationCurve(IEEE1453) <5%THD;<4%below11th;<2%for11th 15th,<1.5%for17th 21st;0.6%for23rd 33rd;<0.3%for33rd andup(IEEE519) Outputpowerfactor0.85lead/lagorhigher(equipment typicallydesignedforunitypowerfactor) Dedicatedprotection&synchronizationequipmentrequired, exceptsmallersystemswithutilityinteractiveinverters NFPANEC,IEEENESC

DirectCurrentInjection <0.5%currentoffullratedRMSoutputcurrent(IEEE1547) Synchronizationand Protection Safety

InterconnectionStandards forTransmissionConnectedSystems
SomekeydifferencescomparedtoDER
NeedtoconsidersomeoftheseforPVassystemsize&penetrationincrease Requirement VoltageTolerance FrequencyTolerance PowerFactorCapability VoltageControl Synchronization, Protection SCADA/EMSintegration PowerControl Other Ridethrough3phasefaultPOIforupto150ms Basedoninterconnectionrequirements +/ 0.95pf(orhigherdependingonstudyresults) Powerfactor,reactivepowerorvoltagecontrolatthe discretionoftransmissionoperator Dedicatedswitchingandprotectionequipment requiredfortransmissionconnectedsystems Requiredinallcases Emergingforhighpenetrationwind.Mayneedhandle withmarketinstrumentsinsomecases NERCFAC/TPL/MOD/PRC/VARstandards

FrequencyandVoltage ToleranceStandards(BulkSystem)
VoltageTolerance(LVRT)
Tolerateboltedfault(0volts)atPOIfor upto9cycles(150ms) FERCOrder661A:appliestowind generators>20MVA WECCLVRTcriterion:appliestoall generators>10MVA
WECCOffNominalFrequencyTolerance

FrequencyRange (Hz) 59.4 60.5 59.4 58.5or 60.6 61.5 58.4 57.9or 61.6 61.7 57.8 57.4 57.3 56.9 56.8 56.5 <56.4or >61.7

Max.Clearing Time(sec)* N/A 3min 30sec 7.5sec 45cycles 7.2cycles instantaneous

FrequencyTolerance
Forexample,WECCONFstandard, whichappliestoallgenerators

RulesstillevolvingintheUSand elsewhere

FrequencyandVoltage ToleranceStandards(BulkSystem)
Proposed NERCPRC024
Wouldapplytoallgenerators20MVA orlarger,andstationswithmultiple unitswithtotalcapacityof75MVAor more

EmergingPowerControl forHighPenetrationWind
Pkan Pbr

Pkan

Pbr

Absolute power limit


Pkan Pbr

Delta power limit

Power ramp limit Source: Energinet.dk

MediumVoltageStandard inGermany(10kVto110kV)
FaultTolerance
AppliestoPVasof2011 Invertersmustcomplywithboundaryline2 Mustprovidereactivesupportduringfault(voltagecontrol)

Source: E. Troester, New German Grid Codes for Connecting PV to the Medium Voltage Power Grid, 2nd International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Power plant

MediumVoltageStandard inGermany(10kVto110kV)
StaticVoltageSupport
Providecapabilityof+/ 0.95pfatfulloutput(impactsequipmentrating) Dispatchcouldbeconstantpf,constantVar,Var supportbasedon poweroutput(seeexamplebelow)orVar supportbasedonvoltage AppliestoPVasof2010

Source: E. Troester, New German Grid Codes for Connecting PV to the Medium Voltage Power Grid, 2nd International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Power plant

MediumVoltageStandard inGermany(10kVto110kV)
ActivePowerControl
Reducepoweroutputwhenfrequencyisabove50.2Hz AppliestoPVasof2010

Source: E. Troester, New German Grid Codes for Connecting PV to the Medium Voltage Power Grid, 2nd International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Power plant

AFewObservations
WindandPVinterconnectionstandardsondifferenttracks,but converging NorthAmericanapproachtobulksystemstandardstendstobe technologyneutral
Itmakestechnicalsensetoapplydifferentrequirementstodifferent technologies(e.g.,Europeanapproach) Difficulttoreachconsensus,longprocess

IEEE1547providesgreatfoundationforDER Somefuturecapabilitiesshouldbemandatedbystandards; someshouldbeincentivized bymarkets


E.g.,primaryfrequencysupport

WhereareWeGoing?
Reconciledistribution/transmissionstandards
Voltage/frequencytolerance Reactivepowercapability,volt/var control SCADAintegration Power/Frequencycontrol
Specialcases(e.g.,islands)orfuture veryhighpenetration?

Harmonizationisimportantforefficiencyandcost Severalactiveeffortsunderway
IEEE1547.4,1547.5,1547.6,P2030(SmartGrid) (http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547/1547_index.html) US:NERCIVGTF(http://www.nerc.com/filez/ivgtf.html) Europe:Mediumandlowvoltagegridcodes(GR,SP,FR,IT)

QuestionsandDiscussion

Codes&StandardsSpecifictoPV
Source IEEESCC21 StandardsCoordinating CommitteeonFuelCells,Photovoltaics, DispersedGeneration,andEnergy Storage UnderwritersLaboratoriesInc.(UL)PV StandardsTechnicalPanels NFPA ASTME44.09 TechnicalCommitteeon PhotovoltaicElectricPowerConversion IECTC82 Solarphotovoltaicenergy systems Documents IEEE1547series(DERupto10MVA) StandalonePVsystems,batteries(several) P2030(SmartGrid Newinitiative) UL1703(PVmodules) US1741(Inverters,chargecontrollers) NEC,Article690(solarPhotovoltaicSystems) SeveraladdressingPVmoduleandarray testing Severaladdressingmeasurement,safety, testprocedures