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IMPERFECTPEACE FranciscoA.Muoz InstitutodelaPazylosConflictosoftheUniversidaddeGranada(Spain) Ibelievethat peace canbeconsideredasaprimaryrealitythroughoutallhuman, psychological, sociological, anthropological, political and historical periods. It is a conditionthathasbeenanintegralpartofhumanitysincetimeimmemorial.

memorial. Peaceenables ustoidentifyourselvesashumans;peacecanberegardedasahumaninvention;ourown peace is then mimetically projected towards all other animals, Mother Nature and the cosmos.Contrarytowhatwemaythinkonmanyoccasions,peaceiswhatmakesusfear, define,identifyandfleefromviolence. Theconceptof imperfectpeace,asweexplainintheprologueofourbook,has gradually become forged, it is an answer to practical, epistemological and ontological debates.Itiscertainlytruethatwecouldgoonspeakingonlyof Peace,aswhatweare doinghereisjusttoplacecertainconditionsonit.Byusingtheadjective imperfect,Iam abletorevealthemeaningsofPeaceinsomeway.Althoughitisanadjectiveofnegation which,bytheway,IgreatlydislikeapplyingtotheconceptofPeace,whichIstrivetofree fromthatparticularorientationitcanalsobeunderstoodetymologicallyas"unfinished", "procedural",andthisshouldbetakenasitscoremeaning. Ineffectiveterms,whenfacedwiththatwhichisperfect,complete,theaimfulfilled, all far removed from our human condition, we embrace all the circumstances that "humanise"us,thatallowustoidentifyourselveswithourownconditionsofexistenceand thatopenuprealpossibilitiesbasedontherealitiesthatweexperienceofthoughtand action as incomplete processes, immersed in the uncertainty of the complexity of the cosmos.Throughtheworkpresentedherein,weshalladdresstherecognitionof peace,the causes behindconfliction,putforwarda proposalfor imperfectpeace andexplicate its consequences,dealwithpowerfromtheperspectiveofconflictand,lastly,attempttorelate theentireissuewithintheframeworksofglobalisation,complexityandthefuture. There are three transversal, underlying issues to be addressed that I regard as essentialinsuchdebates.OurdesireforPeaceleadsustoproducetheoriesonpeace,yet theirepistemologicalbaseliesin theoriesonconflicts, makingitnecessarytoredesign (recognise,criticise,deconstructandconstruct)autonomoustheoriesonpeace(notdirectly dependentonviolence)and,ultimately,addresstheissueof powerasanindividual,social andpubliccapacitytotransformrealityintomorepeacefulconditions. 1.RECOGNITIONOFPEACE Oneofourgreatestadvantagesisthatpeacecanbefelt,perceivedandcontemplated frommanydifferentpoints,spacesandambits.Indeed,fromreligiouspeopletopolitical activists, as well as all manner of altruists and philanthropists, NGO volunteers, peace researchers,politicalleaders,groupsandpeople,culturesetc.,nearlyallhaveaconceptof peacebasedondifferentexperiencesandacquiredindifferentways.Inotherwords, we

haveanenormouspotentialforbuildingpeace.1However,itisnotalwayspossibletotake advantageofthishugepotentialforthenoblecauseofpeace.Firstly,becausetheinitial assumptions are dissimilar and, secondly, because there is no "commonly recognised theoreticalfield"wheresuchissuescanbediscussed.Oneofthegreatestobstaclesinmy view,thegreatestobstaclethatweallcomeupagainstasagentsinvolved,inonewayor another,inthebuildingofPeaceisthesystemoforganisingandarticulatingtheinformation atourdisposalonthesubject.Alargepartofthisdifficulty,atleastwithinwesternJudaic Christian(Islamic)thinking,liesinanegativeperspectiveofourspecies. It is as if, inspiteof the secularisationof thought,the "originalsin" werestill present in our reflections, upholding a negative ontological model, leading us take an exaggeratedviewofourviolentelements 2 and,evenworse,endsupdeformingourown researchstrategies.Wepresupposethatinordertocomprehendandadvancealongtheroad to peace we must study violence in all its facets and complexities, thus leading to an assumption,throughanepistemic,almostcircensianpirouette,ofan"automatic"capacityto embracepeace. However,ithasbeenlefttopacifisticvolunteerstorebuildpeacewithoutallthe necessaryintellectualtools andtobecapableof applyingittotheirdifferentareas of activity.Naivetyturnsintoacertainprimitivistmessianism,inwhichallthatisneededisto relay a simple, morally charged message in order for it to connect and mobilise our conscience. Peace Research that is intended to organise pacifistic thinking through "scientific" assumptionshasalsobeensomewhatconditionedbythis tendency.Agreat efforthasbeenmadesincethe1950's,allofwhichhasaffordedthehumancommunityin generalandthescientificcommunityinparticular,anextensivelegacyinwhosecourse anddiscoursewewishtoplaceourselves.Yetithasfailedtoriditselfoftheprevious "paradigmoftheoriginalsin".Afteryearsandyearsofresearchintothecausesbehindthis warandthatwar;countingandrecountingnuclearwarheadsandmissiles;ethnicconflicts; conflictsbetweenreligions;hunger;poverty;economicexploitation;marginalisation;one form of violence and another; it can be saidthat we have a greater comprehension of violencethanofpeace.Therefore,ouroriginalpreoccupationforviolencearisingfroma clear recognition of what peace means has been perversely inverted, thus making it necessaryforitnowtobe"reinverted". This"violentlogical"perspectiveisnotexemptfromacertaincognitivediscord, sometimesborderingonschizophrenia,giventhatpeaceismoredesired,soughtafterand valued,yetcontemplatedintermsofviolence,whicheventuallyafteracorruptprocess leadstotheviewwherebyitissomehowclearerthanpeaceitself.Therefore,manyofthe 1.Cf.GALTUNG,Johan(1985)Sobrelapaz,Barcelona;RAPOPORT,Anatol(1992)Peace.AnIdeaWhose
TimeHasCome,AnnArbor;PANIKKAR,Raimon(1993)Pazydesarmecultural,Santander;ELIAS,Robert TURPIN,Jennifer(eds.)(1994)RethinkingPeace,Boulder;FISAS,Vienc(1998)Culturadepazygestin de conflictos, Barcelona, 1824; MARTNEZ GUZMN, Vicent (2001) Filosofa para hacer las paces, Barcelona;LPEZMARTNEZ,Mario(2005)(coord.)EnciclopediadePazyConflictos,Granada,2vols. 2.CfDAWSON.Doyne(1996)"TheoriginsofWar:BiologicalanAnthropologicalTheories",Historyand Theory;studiesinthePhilosophyofHistory35(1),l28.Themythregardingtheoriginalsincouldbeviewed asaconsequenceofthesomaticmentalcultural"confliction".However,therestrictedandnegativeviewof this dilemma has a pernicious ontological importance. Cf. "Delimitar los modelos antropolcos y ontolgicos",inInvestigation...,pp.5178.

"prejudices" with which peace is perceived depend not only on the initial ethical and axiologicalassumptions,butalsoonthemethodologiesemployedtoapproachthesubject, aswellastheepistemologicalandontologicalpostulatesthatsustainthem. Idofeel,however,thatthephenomenologyofpeaceispotentiallymoretransparent andevidentthaneverbeforeandthatitspractical,semantic,conceptualandimaginary realityisincrediblyprofound.3Thiswouldeventuallyallowustoinverttheearliestsenseof the expression: si vis pacem para pacem. Below, we shall be addressing such presuppositions,forwhichweshallmakeuseoftheknowledgethatPeaceResearchhas accumulatedaswellasacriticalapproachtosomeitsproposals,contributionsfromHuman andSocialSciences,andsuggestionsfromscientistsandthinkersfromdifferentfields.4 Weshallbeginbyrecognisingpeaceasaconstitutiveelementofsocialrealities.Its origins can be associated to the very origins of humanity, and its evolution can be associatedtohumanity'shistory.Indeed,socialisation,learning,collectivisation,theactof sharing,association,cooperation,altruism,etc.areallfactorsthatformpartoftheoriginof ourspecies.Suchqualitiesaredeterminantsintheriseand"success"ofhominidaeand, subsequently,ofpresentdayhumans(hornosapienssapiens). Alongsimilarlines,proposalsputforwardbypsychology,discursivephilosophyand other sciences and disciplines allow us to consider that the experiential, cultural and scientific"assumption"asregardspeacehascertainhistoricandculturalminimums,which weshalllaterbereasoningoutanduponwhichweshallbeabletoestablishthediscourse onimperfectpeace. 1.1.Historyofpeace5 Withalmosttotalcertainty,theconceptofpeacedidnotexistduringtheearliest years,centuriesandmillenniaofHumanity'shistory.Throughoutthelanguagedevelopment process,theearliestconceptsmusthavebeenthoseessentialfordailylife,forsurvival.The conceptofpeaceimpliesthepreexistenceofasocialandsymboliccomplexitythathadyet notbeenreached.Aswehavestatedonpreviousoccasions,Mankindprobablyonly livedin peace.So,insimpleterms,wecansaythattheconceptofpeacewasunnecessaryasitwas notyetevenclosetobecomingapreoccupation. Associetiesindifferentareasandmomentsofhistoryreachedacertainlevelof differentiationand"complexity",thismusthavebeenaccompaniedbytheemergenceof explicativecategoriesforsuchphenomena.Thuspeaceasaconceptgraduallyemerged, gavecoherencetosocialpractisesandhasbeenwithuseversince. Subsequently, following the Second World War, Peace became the object of scientificstudy.Manyapproacheshavebeenappliedtoitsstudy,alongwithcontributions fromotherdisciplinesthathaveenrichedtheoverallperspectiveonhumanbehaviour. 3. Despitethedifficultiesthatmayarisefromrecognisingsuchstatements: Cf.GREGOR,Thomas(1996) "Introduction",GREGOR.Thomas(ed.)Anaturalhistoryofpeace,ixxxiii.NashvilleandLondon. 4.Inasimilarsense,aswellasthecontent,IalsolikethetitleofoneofJohanGaltung'smorerecentbooks,
PeacebyPeacefulMeans(1996,London).Seeespeciallypages265275. 5.See:MUOZ,FranciscoA.LPEZMARTNEZ,Mario(eds.)(2000)HistoriadelaPaz,Granada.

Asfaraswecandeducefromwrittensources,itappearsthattheemergenceofthe conceptof peacewascloselytiedtothatofwar,asbothconceptsappearedatalmostthe sametime.Duringtheearlystagesofhumansocieties,itispossiblethatneithertheconcept ofpeacenorthatofwarexisted,mainlybecausethesocialrealitywhichsuchconcepts woulddefinewerenotpresent:war,becauseithadnotyetappearedonthescene,and peace,becauseitwasnotnecessaryasaconcept.Conceptuallyspeaking,whenWardoes notexist,neitherdoesPeace,sotheconceptofPeacecomplieswiththeneedtoputastopto Warwhenitappearsinpractiseand,probably,asaconcept.Thehorrorsofwarneededto beexplainedandalsorelatedtoahorizonofhopewherewarwouldnotexist. Thus Peace, as with many other historical and social circumstances, becomes reflectedinlanguagewhenevertheyaremotivesforsocialconcern.Duringthehistoric momentstowhichwerefer,wehavenoevidenceofconceptualisationbecausetherewas eithernoconcernorawarenessoftheproblem,orinsufficienttimehadpassedforittohave becomeanissue.Likewise,untilrecently,wehadneverusedtheconceptof"ecological safety"(mainlybecauseitdidnotexistorbecauseweweresimplyunawareoftheriskofa biosphericcatastrophe).Moreover,accordingtomanyauthors,averyhighpercentage,well overninetypercentthepercentagedoesnothaveamathematicalexactness,butisstill useful to gain a certain insight into the magnitude of the reality of all communities throughouthumanhistoryhaveneverhadtofacethisissue. Continuingwithourpreviousreasoning,duringasecondphaseconnectedinmost casestotheappearanceofthenationstate,wheneverwarsspreadduetomultiplecausesthe needandtheyearningforpeacestartstobecomeevident.Suchcircumstancesundoubtedly ledtotheemergenceofPeaceasaconcept,asaconceptualandanalyticalfieldinwhichit was possible to recognise peaceful relationships and regulations between groups and individuals.Nevertheless,thisconceptualisationwasstillofaweak,theoreticalarticulation and,inmostcases,dependantontheconceptualisationofwar.Duringthisphase,whatwe couldcall ideologiesofpeace werecreated.Undersuchcircumstances, peace established links with religions and expanded both towards and with them, their rites and their ceremonies,evenbecomingdeified,asacredrefugeorhaven.6 This concept of peace was not just a theoretical, intellectual construction quite the opposite.Itwastheexpressionofavalue,anethicalassumptionthatwasnecessaryinorder to guide societies, which is precisely why it has been present in moral, religious and philosophicaldiscourses.Hencethestrongnormativecharacter of PeaceResearch that, whileaspiringtobeobjectivescientificknowledge,takesonthisambivalencewithallits advantagesconsideredgreateranddisadvantages. 1.2.Negativepeace Thefinalphaseinthegenerationofideasandconceptualisationsofpeacecoincided withthemostvirulentwarstohavescourgedHumanitytheFirstandSecondWorldWars andthepotentialnuclearholocaustwhenworkbeganonafarmoreindepth,coherentand 6. Cf. MUOZ,FranciscoA,andMOLINARUEDA,Beatriz(eds.) (1998) Cosmovisionesdepazenel
Mediterraneoantiguoymedieval,Granada.

complextheoryonpeace.Toalargeextent,itdependeduponadvancesinsocialsciences duringthe19thand20thcenturies,aswellastheheavyemotionalimpactoftheWorld Wars,sothatthefulldepthoftheepistemologicalproblemofpeacecouldbeaddressedina theoreticalandarticulatedmanner.ItwaspreciselyduringthisphasethatPeaceResearch wasborn,incorporatingsuchperspectivesandinterestsintoscientificandresearchcircles andforums(Universities,Institutes,Centresandthescientificcommunityingeneral). Justas peace hasbeenandwillcontinuetobeoneofthemostcreativewaysto construct history, Peace Research has had the virtue of widening the epistemological horizonsofthesciences,aswellasendowingthemwithnewandinterdisciplinarytoolsto enableamajoradvanceinthetreatmentandsolutionstomankind'sexperiential,realand, hence,intellectualproblems. Likewise,PeaceResearchhasnotbeenunaffectedbytheinterestsofhistoriographic debatessurroundingthe"engines"circumstancesthatinitiallydynamiseormobiliseof History. Ithascontributedtowardsthegenerationofnewanalysisperspectives andthe addition of scorned or neglected variables to the reconstruction of History, such as pacifism,thepeacecultureornonviolence. Duringtheearlystages,followingtheParispeacetreatyandsuccessiveagreements thatmarkedtheendofthetwoWorldWars,PeaceResearchgaverisetotheneedtofinda moralandscientificequivalenttowarandthusputanendtoit.Hence,thepedagogyof peace was born, studying violent and aggressive behaviour in humans and promoting differentformsofsocialisationandeducationtoenablepeopletobecomemoreresponsible andcreative,aswellashavingmorefreedom.Pedagogicalmovementsinthebetweenwars worldemployedamoredemocraticapproachtoeducationandtraining,which,alongwith thevariousnonviolentmovements,enabledPeaceResearchtotakeitsfirststepsforward. Nevertheless,researchwasalwaysmoresubjecttoexplainingtheconceptsofviolenceand warinarelativelyconcisemanner.Somuchsothat,fromtheverystart,PeaceResearch consentedtodeveloppolemologytoafargreaterextentthanirenology,mainlybecausethe actual phenomenon of war and all things associated with it needed to be explained rationally,logicallyandscientificallyinorder,alsobasedonthesepremises,tonotonly diagnosebutavoiditsphenomenology:inordertobeabolished,itneededtobeunderstood andstudied.Theconceptofpeacewasthusdevelopedasanabsenceofwarorasanonwar situation. It was negative peace. During the 1950's, polemology spread significantly, poweredbyboththeconventionalandthenucleararmsraceandunderthepatronageof international relations influenced by the neoimperialism of the cold war. Its evolution spanned the study of the different kinds of arms through to additional implications explainedbyotherhumanbehavioursciences,suchaspsychoanalysis,socialpsychologyor anthropology. 1.3.Positivepeace However,asfromthelate60's,PeaceResearchgraduallyunfoldedasafieldofstudy withitsownidentity.Thekeyconceptsbecamepositivepeaceandstructuralviolence.The firstreferredtoaclearovercomingofthelimitsofpeaceconsideredasbeingtheabsenceof war or of manifestations of direct violence, as regards harm to people's physical and

externalintegrity.Thus, positivepeace wastheresultofaconsciousbuildingofapeace basedonjustice,ageneratorofpositiveandlastingvalues,capableofintegratingboth politicallyandsocially,ofgeneratingexpectationsandofcontemplatingthefulfilmentof humanneeds.ThisdesiretofulfillandsatisfywouldconferPeaceResearchwiththechance toworkwithinthehugefieldofHumanSciences,inquiringintothebestproposalsfor avoidingconflictsorregulatingtheminamoresuitablemanner. Asregardsthesecondconcept,structuralviolence,whichcouldbeconsideredasa typeofviolencethatispresentwithinsocialinjustice,aswellasothercircumstancesthat supportit,ithasallowedthehidden,staticformsofviolencetoberevealed,theviolenceof thesystems(misery,dependence,hunger,inequalitiesofgender,etc)andofthepossible interactionsbetweenthem.AswellasincorporatingthevaluesofPeaceandJustice,it allowedPeaceResearchtomakeconsiderableadvancesinthestudyoffieldsthatwere thoughttobeeithercompletelyexhaustedordisseminatedthroughallthesocialsciences such as development and underdevelopment, democracy, forms of participation and exclusion,etc.7 Thoughprobablynotitsoriginalintent,positivepeacehasoftenbeenregardedasa utopia,desiringandseekingbetterworlds,justasChristianityorMarxism,tocitesome examplesofideologiesortheorieswithwhichPeaceResearchhassharedintellectualareas. Thus, positivepeace couldbeidentifiedasanintended"total"or"perfect"peacewhere therewouldbenoviolenceorprobablyevenmanifestedconflicts.Furthermore,thisutopian horizoncould,ontheonehand,besomewhatunrealisticandfrustratingand,ontheother,a source of justified violence for reaching the highly desired, yet incredibly difficult, objective.8 Followinglittlemorethanfiftyyearsofdevelopment,PeaceResearchhasfacilitated asubstantialstepforwardnotonly inthis crossdisciplinaryfield,butalsoinallother SocialandHumanSciences.Indeed,theconceptsof positivepeace,structuralviolence, negativepeace,oranopenconceptionofconflict,havepromotedtherenewalofstudiesin suchfieldsaspolitology,sociologyorinternationalrelations,causingthemtofocusonthe values and epistemes relating to peace andhumanwellbeing;it has contributedtothe declineofideologiesconcerningscientificneutralityandcreatedanawarenessregarding thepossiblerepressiveusesandmanipulationsofitsresearch;andcertainly,amongmany other aspects, it has encouraged interdisciplinary cooperation among researchers from socialandhumansciencesaswellasothernaturalsciences. 1.4.PhenomenologiesofPeace9 7.Theconceptofstructuralviolencewasdevelopedinthe1960'sduetotheneedtoexplaintheinteractions

ofviolentpractisesindifferentsocialambits.Forinstance,MartinLutherKinghintsatthisinsomeofhis writings.However,JohanGALTUNGmadesomeof the greatest contributions towards its difussion.Cf. (1985)pp.2772. 8.Concerningcriticismsofutopiascf.POPPER,KarlRaimund(1963)"Utopiaandviolence",Conjectures andrefutations:Thegrowthofscientificknowledge,BuenosAires,pp.425435.Suchapproachesshouldnot meanabandoningthefuture,butratherappropriatingitthroughmoresuitablemethods,suchasForecastingor FutureStudies.

Oneofthefirststepstowardsrescuingtherealities,or"phenomena",ofpeacecould wellbetorecogniseallthoseactionsinwhichpeaceispresent,allthepredispositions individual, subjective, social and structural that are related to peace in our speech, thoughts,feelingsandactions.Onewayofseekingthe"idea"ofpeacecouldbetoapproach itthroughthemeaningsthatitacquiresatdifferentindividual,socialandculturalmoments andspaces.Toacertainextent,wehavealreadybegunthistaskinthepreviousepigraphs. The appearance of similar meanings in diverse cultures, the more than likely universality of the concept of peace, may be the first indication of certain minimum commonfactorsonthesubject.Itisnowaquestionoffindingoutwhichprocessesenabled them to become established. In this sense, peace can be regarded as a symbol of interpretationandactioninvolvingnetworksofemotionsalongwithbothsubjectiveand intersubjective cognitions. Its roots can be traced to causes of a phylogenetic, psychogenetic, sociogenetic and ontogenic nature that have been forged throughout our historyassocialanimalsforwhomlearningandsocialisationhaveplayedavitalroleforas longaswehaveexistedasaspecies.Therefore,withinourcognitiveemotionalsystem,we can recognise "peace" associated with tendencies towards pleasure and kindness, from which imaginary concepts were, and continue to be, developed that functioned, and continuetofunction,asvitalandepistemicguidelinesforourbehaviour.Suchdispositions would leadustosearchfor goodandavoidevil,pleasure insteadof pain,common as opposedtoindividualinterests:allbeingaspectsthatdespitethefactthatinadifferent contexttheywouldrequireanindepthdebateastotheirverysignificancewecanuse hereintounderstandtheconstructionofan"originaldiscourse"onpeace.10 Consequently,basedontheseemotivecognitivenetworks,onecouldconstructan epistemologythattookintoaccountthepsychicandexistentialrealities,aswellasthe imaginary horizon that Man creates to uphold them.11 We could say that, from this perspective, we recognise how humans live in interconnected worlds where peace is introducedandbecomesareality:bothrealworlds(emotions,mentalrepresentationsthat areprojectedandmediatedbytheintersubjective)andvirtualworlds(virtualandimaginary motivations,aspirationsandrepresentations). Therefore,aswellasemotivecognitiveandevaluativeconsciousness, peace and "peacefulness" are also intentional objects (with mental content) and thus appear cognitively within our consciousness in the form of beliefs, thoughts, intentions and opinions.Theendresultisthatdeepwithinhumanconsciousness,withinitscollective consciousness, as we have already pointed out above, resides the idea that peace is necessary,thatwecannotlivewithoutit,thatwithoutpeacewewouldneverhavesurvived orevolved,andthatitissomethingthatmustbesafeguarded.Thus,inordertoclassifythis phenomenological,axiologicalandepistemologicalversatilityofpeace,thereexistmultiple 9.Inthissection,whichistoacertainextentessentialfortakinganopenapproach,Ihavemadeuseofthe
excellent notes of my colleague Jos Manuel Martin Morillas, cf. (2004) Los sentidos de la violencia, Granada. 10.Cf."Humansinthefaceofcomplexity"inInvestigation...,pp.3341. 11.Thisideaallowsustovisualisethecomplex"network"ofcircumstancesthatmakeupourbeingsocialor individualandtheinterrelationshipsthatsustainit.EdgarMorinemploysthewordcomplexustonotonly expressthisidea,butalsotodirectlyrelateittocomplexity.Cf.(1995)Introduccinalpensamientocomplejo, Barcelona,32ss.

searchscenariosthatshowusitspolysemyandwhich,toacertaindegree,areindicativeof itswidespreadexistence.12 Whenaskingourselvesexactlywhat peace is,wemobiliseresourcesfromvarious humanphenomenaandanthropogenicactions.Weareawarethatpeace exists,thatitisa realphenomenonthatpermeateslifeandthatwearecapableofcreatingit,performingit andenjoyingit;wearelikewiseawarethatwehaveaword,peace,whichdescribessucha reality.Weareawareofanentitythatdemandsourattentionanduponwhichweaimour intentionalsights.Italsoassumestheroleofsymbolicmediationoftheintentionalobject, i.e.thepresentationofsaidintentionalobjecttotheconsciousnessbywayofsymbolsand concepts.Finally,italsotransformsintoaselfawarenessoftheverysamereflexiveactof questioning. Wearelikewiseawarethat,epistemicallyassociatedtothosewords,wehaveaseries ofemotions,ideas,stereotypesandconceptsthataretoagreaterorlesserdegreespecificor abstract,subjectiveorintersubjective,personalorcultural,andwhichallowustothink aboutpeace(rememberit,recogniseit,deviseit,imagineitorabstractit),talkaboutit (defineit,describeit,narrateit,expressitorcommunicateit),andfeelit(getexcitedabout it, evoke it or react to it). We are equally aware that behind our questioning lies the motivationtounderstanditsorigin,itsrationale,itsconsequences,thewaysinwhichit presentsitselfandconcealsitself,itsproblematicity(includingits(in)solubility). Eventsreachthehumanconsciousnessthroughasymbolicorconceptualmediation. Wordsandconceptsdonotoperatewithinavacuumofourconsciousness.Weinterpret eventsbywayofassumptions,schemasorsymbols.Inacertainsense,therearenoevents assuch,justsymbolicallymeasuredinterpretations.Thisdoesnotmeanthattheyareall merelyopinions,thatthereisnochanceofcriteriafortruthorthateverythingisrelative, butratherthatevenallobjectiveandreliabletruthistheresultofajudgementassociated withaninterpretativeact,anepistemicactwherebytheverifiabilityandtheevidenceare based on intersubjective schemas sometimes governed by previous ideas, notional pre judgements,values,knowledge,emotionsorinterests. Consequently,peacepartakesinthatwhichisreal,yetitoverlapsthatwhichisreal; itpartakesinthesubject,yetitdeterminesthesubjectanditisthesubjectwhoappliesand enjoysit.Itisreflectedinlanguageandisconstitutedbylanguage.Itisaculturalinstitution andculturesbothestablishanddisestablishit.And,consequently,itcanandshouldbe viewed from a "praxis" that takes on practical dimensions reformed from emotional, cognitiveandtheoreticinternalisation. Thus,farfromdiscoveringpreciselywhicharetherealitiesofpeace,wehaveboth broadenedandopenedupitsexistence,whichinitselfisimportantasitenablesusto understandthatitsrealityismoreprofoundthanwecouldinitiallyhavebelieved.Onthe other hand, its leaves a wide field of research ahead of us. Hence the importance of performing a phenomenological analysis of peace that inquires into its symbolic interactions and mediations. This all implies the need for a multi, inter and cross disciplinary approach, i.e. a look at the ways of valuingtalkingfeelingthinking about 12. Theconceptofhabitus createdbyPierreBOURDIEU,as aseriesofdispositions thatarerelatedto
practises,mightwellberelevantfortheseissues. Cf(2000) Poderderechoyclasessociales,Bilbao.Cf. Investigation...,pp.140152.

peace from the different disciplines (language, semiotics, developmental psychology, epistemology, emotional psychology, biology, clinical and therapeutic psychology, psychoanalysis,ethology,anthropology,sociology,socialpsychology,historyorpolitics) fromwhichweapproachour knowledge.Anintersubjective,conversedandcooperative approachtowhatwecallthecrossdisciplinefieldofpeace.13 2.ORIGINSOFCONFLICTION Moderndayscienceoffersvisionsofthecosmosinwhichdisorderanduncertainty arepresent,ratherthanasimpleorder,aswehadpreviouslytendedtointerpretit.Guided byagrowingcomplexity,theinteractionsbetweenthedifferentelementsandagentsarenot exempt from a certain "confliction" that seems to be expressed through increasingly commonplaceterms:controversy,dispute,collision,combat,antagonism,rivalry,struggle, opposition, fight, debate, friction, fluctuations, chance, randomness, likelihood... Such conceptsarenecessaryinordertodescribethroughhumanknowledgethecosmic,natural, physical,chemical,biologicalandsocialrealities. Thismeansthatinordertodefinesuchrealitieswehavetoresorttotheseconcepts or,moredirectly,thatsuchconceptionsareconstitutiveofrealityoftheexplanationthat wehumansgivetoit.Itthusappearsasif"conflict",takeninabroadersense,asproposals, tendencies or "interests" that show themselves in the ongoing relationships of the constitutive elements of physical, chemical, biological or social systems, were forever present.Inotherwords,"conflict"formspartoftheuniverse,alltherealitiesofwhichitis comprisedandtherelationshipsthatbecomeestablishedbetweenthem. 2.1.Auniverseinconflict WecouldconsidertheEarthasbeingcontinuallysubjectedtothetensionsofthose elementsofwhichitiscomprised.Ifthisisalreadyevidentfromthepointofviewofthe physicsoftheuniverse,itbecomesevenmoreapparentwhenweintroducethevariablesof livingbeings:inreferencetosuchbeings,itmayevenbemoreappropriatetoemploythe term"conflict"astheremaybedifferentinterestsamongthemasregardsthedevelopment oftheirpotentialities.Wewouldalmostdaretosaythat"conflict"isacharacteristicof livingbeingswho,intheirattempttoperpetuateasindividualsinthefaceofdeathand asaspeciesinthefaceofextinctionseektobenefitfromtheresourcesandenergy availableintheirenvirons. Fortunately,weareperfectlyawarethatenergyisneithercreatednordestroyed,but ratheritbecomestransformedanddegraded,whichispreciselywhatentropydealswith; namely, measuring the disorder within a system. All living beings are subject to this increaseinthedegradationofenergyandoftheresourcesthatweneedforoursubsistence. Wehumansareinnowayanexceptiontothisruleandaswithalllivingcreatureswe
13.Cf."UnamatrizcomprensivaeintegradoradelcampotransdisciplinardelaPazylosDerechos Humanos",Investigations...,pp.124129.

manage to survive by creating even more disorder in the medium in which we live. However,suchapropensityislimitedbythelogicaltendencytoaccommodateinternal ordertotheconditionsimposedbytherealityofourenvirons.14 Toputitanotherway,whereastheuniverseasawholetendstobemoredisordered, entitiestendtobemoredegradedwhichorientatestheunfoldingof"cosmictime"and welivingbeingsrepresentaresistancetosuchapostulate.Thus, welivingbeingsarein "conflict"withtheuniverseandsuchtensionhasrepercussionsontherelationshipthatwe establishwithallthingsphysical,withtheresourcesofnature,onourbiologicalbehaviour patterns,onourinteractionswithotherlivingbeings,ontheobtainingofresources,...and, ofcourse,onculture.Theoriesonevolution,inthosethatincludethe"randomness"of changesandthe"need"tomaintainlifeinthefaceofthesecondlawofthermodynamics(as opposedtovitalismandanimism)justlyplaceuswithinthesurvivalofthespecies,and particularlythehumanspecies,withinthecontextofcosmicconfliction.15 2.l.Aconflictivespecies16 Thehumanraceisaparticipantintheaforementionedconflictionoftheuniverse and shares the same physical and constitutive parameters, united by a greater level of complexitydeterminedbytheemergenceofculturethatstrivestoovercomeandcoexist withitsmaterialandbiologicalconditionsoflife.Weshallthereforeconsiderconflictnow initalicstomean"contrastofinterestsand/orperceptions",everpresentinallhuman societiesandactivities.Furthermore,itspresencecanbeprojectedontoallofhumantime and space; ever since "culture" made us human, it has helped us to progress in the "dominion"ofnature.Atthesametime,inasmuchasitpowersthesearchforsolutions,it couldberegardedasasourceofcreativityandcontinualrenewal.Thenotionof conflict opensupmajorpossibilitiesforanalysisduetoitsrelationshipwiththeneeds,desires, emotions,etc.thatformpartoftheentiresocialnetwork. Indeed,Man'simmensecapacitytofeel,express,thinkandact,theevolutionand changesexperiencedatthislevel,basedonMan'sbiologicalpredeterminationsandcultural adaptationsgreatlyincreasethechancesofbeingfacedwithnewsituationsthatmaybe "desired"and/or"created"individuallyorcollectively.Thus,therangeofpossibilitiesto theeffectthattheremaybenoncoincidingproposalsissubstantiallywidened,thoughwe shouldalsobeawarethatthesubstratumofcommonsocialisationfacilitatescoordinated proposals,projectsandsolutions.Thus,such"conflictive"stagesthatsocietiesface,become 14.Theprofusionofsmalllifeformsisoneoftheconsequencesoflivingbeingsadaptingtotheenvironmentin
whichwehumansareimmersed.Thisaddsacertaindegreeoftensiontooursurvivalinaworldteemingwith bacteria,insects,reptilesandothercreaturesthatare,withveryfewexceptions,allsmallerthanus. 15. Cf.DENNETT.DanielC.(2000) Darwin'sDangerousIdea,Barcelona. Asopposedtowhatmaybe deducedfromDarwin'sinitialideas,inthenewtheoriesonevolutionsolidarityandcooperationplayamajor roletowardsensuringthesurvivalofthespecies. 16. Basedonthisepigraph,weshalluse conflict, initalics,whenrefferingtothishumancharacteristic,as opposedto"conflict",ininvertedcommas,aswehavedoneuptonowwhenreferringtotheuniverseand livingbeings.Youcanfindasomewhatmoredevelopedversionoftheideaspresentedhereinbyreading MUOZ.FranciscoA."Qusonlosconflictos"(Whatareconflicts)inManual,pp.142170.

ongoingandpermanent.Thevariabilityandwealthofsuchsituationsmeanthat,aboveall else,conflictcanbeconsideredasasourceofcreativity. Likewise, and as a consequence, conflict forms part of the process of social interaction in which the interests of individuals and groups interact, are regulated, transformedorresolvedonoccasions.Wecouldevensaythatitisanessentialpartofthe complex unfolding of socialisation that all human entities experience in their social evolution.Ofcourse,thisprocess,inwhoseframeworkmultipleandcomplexcollisionsand coalitionsmustoccurthatcanbenefitfutureformsofmutualrecognition(assimilatehuman varietyandotherness),understandtheperceptionsofothers(theinexistenceofasingle truth,asinglevisionofreality,etc.),merecoexistence(atleastanegativetolerance),or eventheemergenceofnewformsofcollaboration,coexistenceandinterracialbreeding and,onoccasions,canproducedestructiveandobliterativeresults. This has forced each society to formulate proposals for the transformation, management, regulation or prevention of conflicts, systems of rules: proposals that are learnt individually and socially, in the different cultures, institutions or forms of organisation,experientiallyandexperimentally,consciouslyandsubconsciously.Also,in theirpeacefuldimension(peace)theyareaguaranteeforthesurvivalofindividuals,groups andthespecies.Inconclusion,wecouldsaythatwithoutconflict,therewouldbenohistory ofMankind;conflictcontributestowardsestablishingthedynamicsofsocieties. 3.IMPERFECTPEACE17 Wehavebeengraduallyincorporatingcontenttothe"imperfect"senseofourquest. Wehavebeenabletoappreciatehowpeacedoesnotrevealitselfpalpably,butstealthilyI wouldevenpresumetosayjealously,likeafabuloustreasurecapturedwithinaninfinite numberofminoreventsthatoften,througherroneouscriteria,arenotevenworthyofbeing shown.Wehavealsobeenabletoappreciatehowallofthesesmallorlargepeacesform aninexorableandindispensablepartofourculturalandexistentialheritage. Alloftheexperiencesandconceptionsthatwehavepreviouslyreviewedwhenwe wishedtorecognisepeacenegativepeaces,positivepeaces,phenomenologiesofpeace can nowhelpustotakeanewperspective,onewhichshouldincludeallthedifferent experiencesofpeacefromaperspectiveofconflict:everythingthatwillleadustoconsider therelationshipsbetweenthedifferentambitsandscalesofpeaceand,subsequently,to consider readapting our methodological, epistemological and, perhaps, axiological and ontologicalassumptions.Ifwetakeourstartingpointasbeingtoidentifytheabundant realitiesofpeace,thefistthingweneedtodoistoinvestigateitsrelationships,thenifthat werepossibleorderthemandthenranktheminaccordancewithhowsomemaycondition 17.Ifwelookattheetymologyandlatinoriginsofthewordperfect,weseethatitcomesfromper(intensive)
facio [ficio](do/make/perform): doverywell,finish,perfect,...Perfectiveverbsareemployedinthesame sensefinishedactions.Byaddingtheprefixin(not)wenegatesuchdefinitions.Wewouldthereforebe dealingwithanunfinishedsituation,onethathasnotbeensatisfactorilycompleted,imperfect.Wecouldhave chosenadifferentword,perhapsamorepositiveone,whichwouldimbuepeacewithitssoughtaftermeaning but,inallhonesty,wesimplyhavenotbeenabletofindone.

theothers,toultimatelyconsiderthemasawhole.Thiswouldallowustoanalysethe realitiesand,ifpossible,bothpredictanddesignthemwithinaprospectivework. Underthedenominationimperfectpeace,wecouldgrouptogethersuchexperiences andstatesinwhichconflictshavebeenregulatedpeacefully;i.e.wherehumanindividuals and/orgroupshaveoptedtohelpfulfiltheneedsofothers,withouttherehavingbeenany causebeyondtheirwillthatimpededthis.18 Canimperfectpeaceberegardedasaprocess between negative peace and positive peace, between the absence of violence and the preeminence of justice? Or even interactions of smallscale, positive peaces? Yes, to a certaindegreeitcan,butitisalsosomewhatmoretranscendental,asweshallseebelow. 3.1.Causalrelationshipsandfeedback Wewishtobringtolightandstudyallthepossiblerelationshipsanddecisionsthat mayexistinthoseactionswherebyconflictsareresolvedpeacefullyandonepartyhas chosentosatisfytheneedsoftheother.Namely,whenapersonorgroupactstosatisfythe needsofothers,towhatextentdoesthisactionimitateorconditionsothatsimilarevents occur.Withinthisconceptualisation,wewouldincludethecausalrelationshipsbetweenthe differentstates,regardlessoftheirquantity,quality,directionorintensity,suchas peace (those situations in which the needs are satisfied); scales of peaceful regulations (individual/group: socialisation, charity, affection, tenderness, solidarity, cooperation or mutualhelp;regional/state:agreements,negotiation,exchanges;international/worldwide: pacts,agreements,treaties,internationalbodies,exchanges,NGOs);verticalrelationships amongelementsofdifferentscalesandhorizontalrelationshipsamongelementsofthe samescale. Fromsuchaviewpoint,itwouldbemoreappropriatetospeakof"imperfectpeaces" astherearemanyareaswherepeacefulregulationsofconflictsoccur.Thisasseveration furtheremphasisestheneedtoacknowledgethecontributionsfromeachhumanentityin thisrespectandparticularlyfromeachculture.Whetherconsciouslyornot,alltheactors fromhumansocietieshaveknowledgeoftheirinteractionsandinterdependencies,aswellas thesuccessofpeacefulsolutionsand,consequently,strivetomakesuchoutcomesoccuras a way of ensuring the reproduction of their very conditions of existence. All things personal,socialandhumandependonthecontinuityoftheparts.19 Chancecouldrevealitselfindifferentlinealways,whenonepeacefulactiondirectly givesrisetoanother;retroactive,wherebyonepeaceful,ongoingactioninteractshaving performedacircularcourse;orrecursive,wherebytheactionistheproducerofthatwhich producesit.Apeacefulsocietyisagoodexampleofthis,asitencouragestherelationship ofitscomprisingindividualsthroughtheprocessesofsocialisation(kindness,language, 18. We should alsoinclude,as has infact been consideredon manyoccassions within Peace Research,
personalpeaceinthesenseofthepeacefulregulationoftheinternalconflictsthatapersonexperiences.Cf.In thesameoriginalvolume,theproposalsofAlfonsoFernndezHerrerabasedontranspersonalpsycology. 19. Interactions, just as we are shown by many theories, such as the Systems Theory, are essential for understandingthemakeupanddynamicsofsocialrealities.Cf."Causalrelationshipsandfeedback"and"A relationalmethodology",inInvestigation...,pp.826and1106respectively.

education,etc.),whichcanalsohaverepercussionsbothonothergroupsandinternationally, whointurninteractwitheachothertocreateapeacefulsociety. Aholographicvisionofsociety,suchasthatproposedbyEdgardMorin,according to which the lesser point e.g. an individual contains virtually the totality of the informationregardingtheobjectrepresentede.g.society,maybeawayofexplainingthe chance interactions between the peaceful attitudes and practices developed in some particularareasandthoseupheldbythesocialsystemasawhole.Theoppositeisalsotrue, asnotonlyistheparttheindividualwithinthewholesociety,butthewholeiswithin thepart;i.e.thesocialproposalsforthepeacefulregulationofconflictshavetheircorrelate inbothgroupsandindividuals.20 Inanycase,asweshallseebelow,imperfectpeaceismorethanjustthesumofall thesepeaces:itisapracticalandtheoreticaltoolthatenablesustorecognisethem,promote themandinterrelatethem. 3.2.Someexamples Ineverylanguage,wecanfindanendlessnumberofwordsthatcouldhelpusto recomposesocialpracticesthroughtheirsemanticandconceptualfields.Wecanusethe synonymsof peaceasanindicationofitssocialpresence:concord,tranquillity,harmony, wellbeing,calm,serenity,quietude,sedateness,etc.,whichinthemselvesshowusthedepth of the matter. However, we should also consider other, complementary words, without attemptingtoproduceanexhaustivelist,21whichhelptodefinepeacefulregulations,such as: negotiation, mediation, arbitration, hospitality, compassion, charity, conciliation, reconciliation,forgiveness,helpfulness,mercy,aid,friendship,love,tenderness,altruism, philanthropy, solidarity, cooperation, alliance, pact, agreement, impartiality, devotion, diplomacy,dialogue,etc.Weshouldbearinmindthatwhatallofthisdefinesisavery broad experiential and experimental field regarding human relationships that we must consider both as accumulated knowledge and as patrimony for the recognition, reconstruction,growthanddevelopmentofpeace.Inaddition,Iemploythetermsgrowth anddevelopmenttofurtheremphasisetheneedtoworkwiththepositiveaspectsthatwe possess. Examplesofsuchactionscanbefoundinmomentsclassifiedaspeaceful,whereit is easy to foretell the presence of peace, as the whole period in question has been cataloguedassuch.Suchactions,however,canalsobefoundinthosemomentsclassifiedas "violent",betweenwarsandaggressions.Oneonlyneedstohaveexperiencedorhaddirect contactwithanyofthesesituationstounderstandhowthegenericappellativedoesnot representtheentirereality. IamthinkingofColombiawhere,despitethedeepconflictbetweenguerrillaforces andthestate,aswellasparamilitaryforces,mafias,streetviolence,corruptionandpoverty, allofwhichpaintsadecidedbleakpicture,therearemanypeaceinitiativesinplace.Infact, 20. Cf. (1982) Cienciaconconciencia, Barcelona;(1995);and"Causalrelationshipsandfeedback"and
"Conscience",inInvestigation....,pp.8691. 21.Cf.MUOZ,FranciscoA,andMOLINARUEDA,Beatriz(eds.)(1998).

comparativelyspeaking,probablymoresuchinitiativesexistinColombiathaninanyother countryintheworld.Bywayofexample,weonlyneedlookattheMandatociudadanopor lapaz,lavidaylalibertad(Citizens'mandateforpeace,lifeandfreedom),promotedby over four hundred social organisations in which almost ten million Colombians participate.22 In short, we choose to employ the term imperfect peace to describe the "analyticalcategory"thatdefinesthepreviouscontents.Firstly,inordertobreakawayfrom thepreviousconceptionsinwhichpeaceappearsassomethingperfect,infallible,utopian, finished,distant,unachievableintheshortterm.Achievableintheotherworld,inglory,in heaven,throughthemediationoftheGods,farremovedfrommundaneissues,beyondthe reachofhumansalone.Secondly,justaswehavebeenaffirming,animperfectpeacehelps torecognisepeacefulpracticeswherevertheyoccur,revealingsuchmilestonesasformsof supportforagreaterandmoreextensivepeace.Thirdly,animperfectpeacehelpsustoplan forconflictiveandeverincompletefutures.23 3.3.Anunfinishedprocess Thisapproachalsoallowsustoconsiderpeaceasa process, anunfinishedroad. ThatishowonecouldinterpretGandhiwhenhesaidthat thereisnoroadtopeace,peace istheroad. Itcouldbenootherway:socialandenvironmentalrealitiesarecontinually "evolving",asaretheformsofconfliction.Suchpeaceisnotateleologicalobjective,but rather a presupposition that is both recognised and built from day to day.24 This understandingoftheproceduralnatureofpeace,initselfimportantfortheadvancementof thepacifisticpraxis,isalsoupheldbytheoreticalandepistemologicalapproachesasregards ourunderstandingofthedynamicsofnatureandlivingbeings. Ontheotherhand,acceptingthe"imperfect"aspectsofourspeciesthatlivesin continuousconflictbetweenthediverseindividualandsocialpossibilitiesthatarepossible andavailableaffordedbyitsculturalbiologicalcondition,itshistoryoritscapacitytofeel, imagine, desire, communicate, think or act. Accepting these determinants and the limitations of our biological, individual, social and cultural entity, imperfect would be equivalent to conflictive, while also revealing to us, based on the recognition of our parametersofexistence,anenormouscapacityforproductiveaction. However,asfaraspossible,wewouldliketoavoidthenegativesensethattheterm imperfectbringswithit.Itisnotaquestionofnegatingaformof"doing",ofnondoing.It ismoreademandtoact,create,engender,influence,carryout,work,operate,practise, 22.Thevotetookplaceon26October1997.Muchhashappenedsincethen,butitwasbyfarthemoststriking
dislayoftheexistingrealitiesofpeaceinthecountry.Cf.MANDATOCIUDADANOPORLAPAZ(1998) Eclipsedelaguerra,SantafdeBogot. 23.Wearefortunateenoughthat,sincetheoriginalarticlewasfirstpublishedin2001,manyresearchprojects, doctoralthesesanddiversepublicationshavegreatlyexpandedtheareasofinterpretationof imperfectpeace. Toquotejustafew:sanFrancisco,sanJuandelaCruz,theBasqueCountry,Melilla,Morocco,Colombia, EducationforPeace,SocialWork,IndicesofHumanDevelopment,... 24.ThePresocraticphilosopherHeraclitusisoneoftheearliestreferencesforsuchconceptionsthankstohis famousinsighttotheeffectthateverythingflows.

proceed,performinasenseofpositive,propositionaltransformationofchangetowards, ofregulationofconflicts. Thisapproachenablesustoachievevariousobjectives.Firstly,itaffordsusaglobal notfractionedunderstandingofpeace.Secondly,itfacilitatesaccesstoallitsrealities. Thirdly,itopensupbetterandgreaterresearchpossibilities:itexplicatesthem,explains themandgivesthemgreaterrelevance;itmakesthemmoreaccessible.Fourthly,itallowsa greaterpromotionofideas,values,attitudesandconductsof peace. Lastbutnotleast,it servesasaguideonthepractiseofpeace,itsenhancementandtheadvanceofitspower. Therearealsomanyaddedvalues:italtershowweperceiveourselves,asitenables us to recognise that historically speaking the majority of our experiences have been peaceful;itcreateshope;ithasamobilisingeffect;oritbringstogetherthemanydifferent peace workersbyrelatingtheiractivities.Farremovedfromsimplisticinterpretationsof "goodies and baddies", it allows us and obliges us to recognise realities (experiences, values, attitudes, etc.) of peace in the actors involved in conflicts. And, lastly, "imperfection" allowsus toapproachthehumane,wherepositiveandnegativeaspects, alongwithsuccessesanderrors,cancoexist. Finally,webelievethat imperfectpeace couldbeausefulinstrumentforallowing peaceresearcherstojointhedebateandtheconstructionofnewparadigmsthroughwhich to comprehend and construct more peaceful, just and enduring worlds. We shall be readdressing this issue in the final epigraph of this work. Human societies, in their relationshipswiththelawsofnature,areopen,unbalancedsystems,whichleadsthemto establishrelationshipswiththeexteriorenvironments,thusbothallowingandguidingthem tobecontinuouslyimmersedinprocessesofselforganisation.This,inturn,forcesusintoa seriesofongoinglearningpaths,newbehaviourpatternsandprocessesofdevelopmentand evolutionwithwhichwemustcoexist,detectwithintheircomplexityandimplementinthe mostjustsenseoftheiressence. Afurtherwaytounderstandthisproceduralsenseofpeaceistocompareittothe signsthatillustratethefulfilmentofneeds.Suchacomparisonwould,toacertainextent, showusthelevelof peace thatexistsineacharea.DifferentUNagencies,international bodiesandNGOsareworkingonsuchindicesofhumandevelopmentintheirquesttolearn aspreciselyaspossibletheconditionsunderwhichourbasicneedsaremet.25 Thesebecomegraduallymorecomplex,takingintoaccounttheinitial incomeper capitainmonetaryterms,andagreaternumberofsignificantvariablesisnowconsidered in order toproducea final amount aimedatrepresenting abalancedevaluation of the tendenciesthatexistwithinallsocietiesasregardsthefulfillingofsuchneedsandthat,if wesochoose,wecouldregardastheweightingofneedlesstosayimperfectpeace. 3.4.Innovatingtheepistemologies Wewouldnotbeabletoconsidersomeofthepresuppositionsthatwehaveseen thusfariftherewerenocritiqueconcerningtheepistemologiesthatwecouldcall"violent", andifnonewapproachesandperspectivesareincorporatedthat,aswehaveseen,allow
25.Cf."Delimitarlosmodelosantropolgicosyontolgicos",inInvestigation...,pp.5178.

greater access to the recognition of peace. Such aspects as complexity, chance and contingency and need, the teleology within nature, the formation of the cosmos, the evolutionoflivingbeingsandthehumanrace,Mankind'sroleinnature,"supernatural" forces,themind(spirit)/brainrelationship,therolesofgenderortheuniversalityofhuman needs are all theories that can condition our visions concerning peace, conflicts and violence. However, the discordant fascination that we have had with violence has conditionednotonlyourperceptionsthathavemadeusovervalueitsrole,buthasalso simplified and focused research more towards violent actions and their causes. Our preoccupationforviolenceshouldnotleadustoconfuseitspathologieswithitssymptoms ortosimplifyanddecontextualizeitscausesanditssolutions.26 On the other hand, a certain tendency, displayed on many occasions, to overemphasise structural violence leads to an above all partial deformation of our appreciationandevaluationofreality.Thistendencyalsoconnectsdirectlyandproducesa curiosfeedbacktovisionsupheldbyculturalandreligioustraditions,suchasMazdaism, Judaism,Christianity,Islam,andtheirimaginarynegativesregardingthehumanrace(lost paradises,originalsins,burdens,crucifixion,purgatories,hells,etc.)that,whileweawait "apocalyptic salvation", incapacitates and immobilises us in our quest for solutions to conflicts. Furthermore,ifwereducethepossibilitiesforperceivingandconsideringpeaceto those approaches that we can take based on positive peace, this could become an unreachableutopianhorizon,giventherequisitesthatitwouldpotentiallyhavetomeet (inexistence of wars and violence, social justice ...). What is more, this reason greatly hinderstheincorporationofthosecontributions,fromexperiencesand"pacific"cultures, presentinmanycultures,amongothersinalllargeandsmallreligions,widelyrecognised oroflimitedimplantation,despitethefactthattheythemselvesmayhavebeenunableto connecttomoreglobalisingapproaches.Wethusbelievethatitisnecessarytoemploya conceptualisationofpeacethatallowsustoovercomethesedifficultiesandclearstheway foramorepeacefulworld,basingourselvesoneachandeverypeacefulattitudeandconduct thatarisewithinthecommonexperienceofourspecies. Itmaynotbepossibletoadoptanalternativeperspectiveifwedonotperformwhat wecoulddefineasanaboutturnor,inthiscaseanepistemologicalinversion,inthesense ofadoptingadifferentstartingpoint,otherpresuppositionsinwhichtheconceptof Peace notonlyhasgreaterpresence,withadifferentiatedstartingposition,butalsohasadifferent qualitativefocusthatallowsitto gaingreater relevanceandcatalyticpotential,inboth theoretical and practical aspects, in debates surrounding peace. Our proposal is that imperfectpeacecouldmakeacontributiontowardsthisfreshapproach. In addition,suchaconceptwouldaffordus anew capacityfor mobilisation by providing us with connections to individual peaceful and conflictive experiences and realities,linksandpossibilitiesnotonlytheoretical,butalsoreal.Likewise,theycould undoubtedlybeprojectedtowardsthehorizonofpositivepeace,whichwouldthustakeon new dimensions. Epistemologically, the concept of imperfection whether yet to be 26. See GALTUNG. Johan (1996). especially "Part 1: Peace Theory". 969. On this issue, I regard as

inappropriatethoseinterpretationsthatcan"alienate""culturalviolence"fromstructuralviolence,becausein thiswaythelatterlosespartofitsexplicativepotentiality.

constructed or already under construction distances us from "objective", closed and dogmaticvisionsandbringsuscloserto"intersubjective"conflictivejustlikethevery subjectsoftheperception,open,debatableandmuchneededvisionsofcommunication. 3.5.Openingupdialectics IwouldliketousethetermdialecticinitsoriginalGreeketymologicalmeaning. Theprefix"dia"meansthrough",inacommunicativesense.Therefore,itwassimilarto theterm dialogue inasmuchasitexpressedcommunicationbetweentwoormoreparties, whichisimportantifwebearinmindthatinitsoriginsitallowedforthepossibilitythat theremaybemorethantwointerlocutors.Thosetakingpartinthedialoguewouldlistento theargumentsputforwardbytheothersandrespondtotheminanongoingprocessto searchforthetruth(onecouldalsoconsiderthatifthetruthexists,itiswithinthissearch process).Hence dialectics canberegardedasbeingtherelationshipsthatexistbetween variouselementsinthesearchtocomprehendreality.27 Finally,thisperspectivereinforcesthepathtowardstheconstructionofadialectic thatovercomestheantagonisticdualismbetweenpeacefulandviolent,goodandevil,by acceptingthatthereareendlessintermediatesituationssubjecttodiversedynamics.28 Todoso,inaccordancewiththeaforementionedrealtiesofpeaceandconflicts,itis necessary to adapt, promote and speculate with new open dialectics inasmuch as they consider that multiple actors and multiple motivations can intervene in the realities of conflicts;holisticdialectics,inasfarastheyconsiderallthepossibleinteractionsandthe factofbelongingtoaglobaluniverse;possibilistdialectics,inasmuchastheyadapttothe realityofthepossiblewithoutforgettingthedesirable,connecttheindividualrealitiesof peacetothecollective,regionalandglobalrealities,aswellasallowingustobeactorsof peacebasedonourrealitiesandourconflicts;pragmaticdialectics,duetotheir"realistic" descriptionoftheworldforpromotingjustice;reformistdialectics,inasfarastheyattempt to capture reality just as it is and, on that basis, transform it as much as possible; negotiatorydialectics, becausetheyacknowledgetherealitiesandpotentialitiesofeach actorinvolvedinconflictsand,onthatbasis,attemptstoestablishinterrelationshipsthat improvethestartingconditions;etc. Fromthisperspective,wewouldattempttoovercometheapproacharisingfroma negative/dualistdialecticthat:extolsthenegativeandbelittlesthepositive;doesnotbelieve inthe"humanrace"(satanisestheattitudesofindividuals);demobilises,blocks,fragments individuals'capacityforaction;breaksthelinesofnegotiation;makesrealityappeartobea strugglebetweengoodandevil;reinforcesmechanicismasopposedto"demons";stresses dogmatismasopposedtoevilandviolence;neglectsthedialecticandopensocialmatrix; possessesthetruthandthatisthat,thereisnodialogue;doesnotstudy,doesnotdebate; makesideasgrindtoahalt;onlyretakesthatofinterest,discriminateknowledge;places 27Cf."Subtleandopendialectics",ininvestigation...,pp.1169. 28.Cf.GALTUNG,Johan(1995)"TowardsaTaoistepistemologyofsocialscience".InvestigacionesTericas.

SociedadyCulturacontemporneas(TheoreticalResearch.ContemporarySocietyandCulture),Madrid,pp. 209221.

sentimentabovereasonorgivesreasonabsolutepower;barbarismagainstbarbarism;there arenomethodological,epistemologicaloraxiologicalapproaches;thereisneithercriticism orselfcriticism(thereisnoacknowledgementofnonneutralthinking...);orthatconverts forceintotheonlymeasurementoftruth. Theverydefinitionofconflictdependentupondiverseinterestsand/orperceptions presentsus witha hugeamountof possibilitiesintheir discourse.Theactors within a conflict,theirdifferentinterests,perceptionsorprojects,mayhavemanyothercoinciding interestsashappensonthevastmajorityofoccasions.Moreover,thedifferentinterests willnotbestatic,butrathersubjecttothedynamicsofsocietiesthemselves,wherebytheir confrontationorconfluencewouldbesubjecttochanges.Furthermore,theinterestsofeach actor,thesubinterestsofeachactor,thepossiblesubactors,thosethatunitethemandthose thatseparatethemandallthepossiblevariablesandalliancesincludingthatofsubactors oftheotheractor,createa"matrixofconflicts"wherethedifferentpossibilitiesmay initiallybeconsideredaspossible. Openepistemologieswouldalsomeananongoingcriticalreflectiononthepointat whichwefindourselvesandtheresearchpathstofollow,aswellasadmittingourown limitationsincludingtheverybiologicalsocialsubjectivesupportthatupholdsthem, erroneousvisionsandconceptions,movingforwardatthesamerateasourcapacityof perception and understanding of reality, fleeing from any form of ethno or andro or anthropocentrismandshunninganyinklingofconformistimmobilism.29 Certainscientifictheories,intheirattempttointerpretnature,mustcontinuallyopt to proportion the intermediate situations in which the different presuppositions find themselves and search for a way out in accordance with the potential that each one represents.Thus,apresuppositionisnotthatwhichclearlyimposesitselffromthestart,but ratherafteraseriesofrelationshipsand"mediations",whichweshallseeinmoredepth furtheron,withalltheotherelementsthatmaybepresent.Suchareasarefrequentlythose whichdefinereality,evenmoresothantheendresultitself.30 4.CONFLICTSANDPOWER Sofar,wehaverecognisedpeace,wehaveconsidereditsdependenceuponconflicts andthereforeitsunfinishednature,andweconsequentlybelieveitisnecessarytoencourage 29.Regardingthecontributionsfromthedifferenttheoriestowardssystemicthoughtorprofoundecology,as
theauthorlikestocallitsee:CAPRA.Fritjof(199S)Latramade1avida,Barcelona,especiallypages25 34whereheproposesashiftinparadigmssoastoincorporateintowesternculturethinkingandvalues that areintegrative(intuitive,synthetic,holistic,nonlinear;andconservation,cooperation,quality,association),as opposedtoassertivethatarealreadyfullyintegrated(rational,analytical,reductionist,linear;andexpansion, competition,quantity,domination),inordertoachieveadynamicequilibriumbetweenboth. 30.TheGametheorytakesintoconsiderationthedifferentdecisionpossibilitiesoftheactors(players)andthe combinations and feedback that can be deduced from them. What is more, the search for rational "equilibrium" demands on a great many ocassions the use of likelihood strategies. Cf. DASGUPTA. P., MALE,KG.WEIBULL,J.andothers(1993): Gametheory: RationaltyandEquilibriuminStrategic Interaction,BjorkbornManor,Karlskoga.Toacertainextent,diffusesetsareanattemptbymathematicsto address the nonmechanical delimitation of the "gradual" belonging from one group into another in accordancewiththechoiceofconditionstobefulfilled.

"peacefulepistemologies".Yetallofthiswillstillnotsufficeifwefailtoaccomplishthe mainobjectiveofourentirediscourse:namely,toachievepeace.Itisnecessarytomanage, transform,resolveandregulateconflictsbypeacefulmeans,butthiswillnotbeenoughif the decisionmaking process does not ultimately integrate such means as a principal elementofsocialdynamics.Inotherwords,peaceandtheregulatingofconflictsshouldnot simply beastopgapsolution,a fireservice,onlygettinginvolvedwhensituations are deemed tohavebecomecritical,butnotinthegeneraldecisionmakingprocessor the overalldesignofsocietiesandtheirfuture. Attheriskofbecoming"littleangels",itisabsolutelynecessarythatwestartto speakofpoweranditscapacitybothtotransformrealityandpromotetheoptimumpossible conditionsforachievingpeace.Thoughitistruetosaythatideasarealsoapartofpower, this is not sufficient if we do not once again contemplate the relationships that they establishwithothersocialinstances.Thereareagreatmanydebatesonthematterfrom diverseperspectives(jurists,politicalscientists,sociologists,anthropologists,philosophers, etc)soIhavenointentionofaddressingalloftheseissues,yet notheoryonpeacecanbe exemptfromatheoryonpower.Furthermore,itispossiblethattheyarealsodependenton theoriesconcerningconflicts,aspeaceandpowermaywellresideinthemanagementof conflicts. Manyresearchershavegraduallycometodeemitnecessarytoapproachtheissueof powerasawayofaddressingthetransformationofconflictsthroughobjectivesandby peacefulmeans.Todoso,itdistinguishedbetweenvariousspheresofitsconformation, integrativepower(cooperation,love,etc.),destructivepower(war,violence)andproductive (economic)power.Allthreesphereswouldbeinterrelated,fromwhichwecouldultimately inferacertain"pointofequilibrium"resultingfromtheriftsandconcordancesthatexist betweenthem.Thefirstsuchformofpowerintegrativepowerasasetofprivateor public actions, yet affecting the social organisation as a whole, allows us to recognise effectiveandavailableresources throughout history for anonviolent transformation of reality.31 Ontheotherhand,aconsequenceofthelackofindepthdebateontheissueisthe absenceofelaborate,coherenttheoriesonthepeaceful"taking"ofpower,inthefaceof what is supposed to be "established" power. Such theoreticstrategic poverty leaves a vacuum that in most cases is filled by "revolutionary" and violent proposals that thus becometheonlyvisibleproposalforchangeand,evenmoreserious,theactorsinvolvedin thechangesbecomeweakenedandisolated. Thecausesbehindsuchdifficultiesalsolieinthelackofintellectualandpolitical attentionthatispaidtononviolence.Thisisdespiteitshavingmademajorcontributionsof atacticalandstrategic,socialandpoliticalnature,inwhichitspresuppositionsforaction areguidedbyajustandpropernotinstrumentalsearchforpeace.Mostnotableamong itsprinciplesare:itshighregardforpeople;itsuseofpersuasionbeforecoercion;itsusing 31Cf. BOULDING,Kenneth(1993) Lastrescarasdelpoder (ThreeFacesofPower),Madrid. Theauthor
makesadistinctionbetweendestructivepower(war,violence),productive(economic)power,andintegrative power(cooperation,love,etc.).Cf."ElpoderdelaPazylosDerechosHumanos"(ThepowerofPeaceand HumanRights)inInvestigation....,pp.131168.Inthissection,theconceptof"praxis"isrevisitedasaneed foranongoingrelationshipbetweenthetheoryandthepractiseofpeace.Seealso LPEZMARTNEZ, Mario(2005)"Poder,politicaynoviolencia"(Power,politicsandnonviolence),inManual...,pp.357383.

as principles of political action certain virtues that are traditionally relegated to more privateambits,suchasfriendship,kindnessandlove(which,aswehavejustseen,formpart of Kenneth Boulding's description for integrative power); and both its continuous performingandthegreaterdepthofitsactions.Ontheotherhand,apacifistmovement unconcernedwiththestateanddemocracyhaslostgroundintheconstructionofpeace imperfect,ofcourse. 4.1.ImperfectPeace[structural]andStructuralViolence[imperfect] ImperfectPeace aswehave defineditthusfarcouldprovideuswithabroader understanding of social dynamics through the avenues that have been selected for the regulatingofconflicts.Indeed,ifwegaingreaterinsightintopeacefulavenues,wewillalso beabletobetterunderstandtherelationshipsthattheyestablishwithviolentavenuesand thesocialmediationsthatariseinsuchcircumstances.Inordertounderstandviolence, Peace Research proposed,as wehave previouslypointedout,the conceptof structural violencerelatedtothenonfulfilmentofneedsandsocialinjusticeand,whatIconsiderto beevenmoreimportant,revealingtheinteractionsbetweenthedifferentambitsinwhich violenceoccurs.Thishasenabledustodiscoverthehiddenandstaticformsofviolence withinthesystem(misery,dependence,hunger,genderinequalities,etc.). Consequently,amajorpartofthehistoricalandsocialrealitiesofconflictscouldbe explained through the different mediations and interrelationships (diachronic and synchronic,etc.) between Imperfect peace andStructural violence. Actually, we should speak of an imperfect structural peace and an imperfect structural violence, thereby allowingustoeasilyunderstandtheirlimitationsaswellastheircomplementarinessas regardstheirattemptstoexplainreality. Obviously,itisnotenoughjusttoestablishthisrelationshipafterall,wewere alreadyawareofitbutmoreaquestionofseeingthe magnitudes ofeachandofthe relationshipsthatbecomeestablishedthereby.Thismayundoubtedlybeoneofthekeysfor ourbeingabletomakeprogress.Itisnotenoughjusttoknowthatpeacefulandviolent regulationscanestablishrelationships inalldirections(scalesandambits), whichis of major importance in itself, but also that it could ultimately be regarded as a totum revolutumifwefailtoclarifythekindofrelationshipsthattheyestablishand"quantify"the numbersofeach. Atthispoint,wealsofindourselvesfacingadelicateproblem.Wehavemanagedto establish how violence and peace manifest and recur, and we also know that both possibilitiesareverycloselyrelated,somuchsothattheynearlyalwaysarisethroughthe samesocialmatrix.Howshouldweworknowwhenwhatwewantisforpeacetoprevail amongus?Allproposalswillbemoreorlesseffectivedependingontheeffectivenessof thediagnosis.Onemayholdtheviewthateverybodyisgoodasisstatedonoccasionsor, onthecontrary,thathomohominilupusasHobbesbelieved.Bothaphorismsarepartly true,yettotallyunworkableforaddressingthereality,astheyarealsofalsetoagreatextent. Wehumansareconflictiveandwehavethecapacitytoregulateconflictspeacefullyand violently.

We undoubtedly need to turn to the initial matrix, which includes the needs, emotions,perceptionsandconflictsthatareunleashedbytheirveryfulfilment,estimateand gaugehowmanysuchsituationsoccur,andwhatsolutionsariseinonesenseoranotherand onwhatscales.Thisissomethingthat,initsentirety,isvirtuallyimpossibletoaddress,but itispossibletoworkondifferentscalesorambits.Forinstance,wecouldconsiderapre school class: a family: a neighbourhood: the University; the relationship between two countries;betweengovernments. Firstly, it would be interesting to know in what levels of "confliction" we are immersedor,moreprecisely,towhatextentistheregulationoftheconflictsinwhichwe are immersed cause for concern, or that it is foreseeable that they may create serious distortions.Everythingseemstoindicatethatthelevelsareveryhigh.Suchasituationis inevitable,inviewofthehumanconditionandthewiderangeofneedsandsatisfiers,as wellastheamountofhumansinvolvedfacedwithlimitedresources.Aninitialapproachto thesesupposedlyhighlevelsofcomplexityandriskenablesustodeducethat,despitethe factthatviolenceisontheincrease,thevastmajorityofconflictsareregulatedpeacefully. AsIhavealreadypointedout,thisisoneofmycorepremisesforaddressingthechallenges wefacetoday.Itisalsoaproposalforcreatingtherapiesthatoffertheutmostefficiency. However,thismustnotcauseustounderestimatetheactionsandconsequencesof violence. I believethat wearegoingthroughthemostviolentperiodinthehistoryof mankind. Thereareplentyofindicationstomakeusbelievethatthisisso.Firstly,the persisting arms race, which has implemented its role of direct violence through the symbolicvisualisation,alsodirecttoacertaindegree,oftheneedforaviolent(vigilant) powerinordertoensurethatthereisharmonyaroundtheworld.Yetevenitstraditional positionasthenumberonecauseofviolencehasbeensurpassedbyhunger,easilycurable diseases,etc.Theunfairanddiscriminatorysharingoftheworld'sresourcesisalsoacause behindthenonfulfilmentofneedsforlargeareasofthepopulation.Therelationshipsand dependencies of such forms and causes ultimately reveal to us the destructive role of structuralviolenceinitsbroadestsense. Evenso,Ibelievethatmostconflictsareregulatedpeacefully,asthisistheonlywayto explain how six billion humans are able to survive, how we can grow being totally defencelessinthefirstyearsofourlivesthankstothecare,theloveandthesocialisationof ourfamilyandsocialgroup.Likewise,dialogue,cooperation,altruism,philanthropyandso forthgovernalargepartofhumanactionsintheireverydayrelationships,etc.Wehave alreadydiscussedthissufficiently,soitwillsufficetorecallthatimperfectpeacehelpsusto visualiseallsuchactions. Forscepticsandpessimists:bothappreciations(themostviolentperiodinhuman history/mostconflictsareregulatedpeacefully),difficulttoprovetotheirfullextent,arenot importantintheirentiretyunlessitisbecausetheyrevealtoustheexistenceofa strong potentialforviolenceandpeace.Andatthatpointiswheredecisionsmustbetaken:what shouldbedone?Resistandstopviolence,promotepeace,orbothatthesametime?What effortsshouldbeappliedtoeach?Thisentailsalong,drawnoutdebate,butifwewishtoat least show that just as natural medicine and neurolinguistic programming benefit the healthy parts of patients, Peace Research should pay special attention to all peaceful regulationsofconflictsasthe"main"guaranteethatwewillhaveaspeacefulafutureas possible.And"main"doesnotmean"only",but"indispensable".

4.2.Mediations Mediationisaconceptthatallowsdifferentelementstoberelatedthroughagentsor elements. These fulfill the function of: mediating, intervening between various circumstances;ofbeingacertainphysical,temporalorcausalintervalorspaceinwhicha particular action ceases to occur; of being or existing among two or more: taking a "halfwaypoint"betweentwoextremes.Themostimportantissueisthatsuchmediations ultimatelyinfluencethecourseofeventsandhowtheiroccurrencedependslargelyonthis typeofmediations.Inamoreabstractline,fromaphilosophicalviewpointitistherational reflectioninwhichmostideasareincorporated,itisarationalandlogicaldialecticprocess throughwhichthespecificrelationshipscanbefound. I believe it is important to consider it both in its more abstract form, in the articulationofideas,andinitspracticalconcretion,intheinterpretationofrealitiesand actionsthatcanbeperformedinsuchasense. Toacertainpoint,mediationsinterruptthebinomialpolaritywithwhichweoften comprehendandrelatetautenandviolaterealities.Suchasituationhasbeenconsidered byhundredsofcultures,whohaveusedthefigureofthemediatortoestablishrelationships betweencertainambitsandothers.Inreligions,amythicalcharacter(ahero,ademigod...) establishestherelationshipbetweensupernaturalforcesandhumancommunities.Wecould saythatwearedealingwithatopologicalconsequence,asregardsspecificlocations,spaces and representations of those that we have called open dialectics. As we have already stressed,thesehelpustofindhumanentitiesandpracticesthatconnect peaceandviolence, theyareoftenprecursorsofviolencebutatothertimestheyactasahindrancetoitand stimulatepeace. Again,KennethBouldingmakesarelevantcontributionbystudyingtheprocess throughwhichthetransitionoccursfroman"unstable"toa"stable"peace.Hebelievesthat socialsystems,inmuchthesamewayasmanychemicalsubstancesandotherbiological systems,displayhighlyvariedandcomplexphasesandareasofcontactbetweeneachother, insuchawaythatmanyorganisations,modelsandstructuresaredeterminedbysuchareas. Fromthisperspective,peacecanbecontemplatedindifferentphases,dependingonthere being a greater or lesser degree of justice, oppression, competition, enrichment, impoverishment,etc.32 Nevertheless,therecanbenodoubtastoits"interpretative"capacityanditsability toarticulatereality.Withinthepeacefulregulationofconflicts,negotiationisoneofthe mostwidelyrecognisedforms,inwhichmediationisacommonlyusedmechanismfor favouringtheinitialpositionsoftheactorsandbringingthemclosertogether. Allofwhichleadsustobelievethatitisimportanttoregardboththeoreticallyand practically mediations as being those ambits or circumstances in which the issue (confliction),forvariousreasons,cannotbeunderstoodordoesnotoperateeitheras 32BOULDING.EliseBOULDING.KennethE.(1994)Thefuture.ImagesandProcesses,London,7687.
Cf."Lasmediacionescomopuntodeencuentro"(Mediationsasameetingpoint),in Investigation...,pp.77 95.

peace or as violence. These may vary according to the moment (space, time, actors, interests)atwhichtheyoccurandtheparticularroletheyplay.Theyareimportantbecause oftheircapacitytocatalyseanddynamisesituations. Inmyopinion,mediationswouldallowustounderstandtherelationshipsthatoften arise between peace and violence, in any shape or form, or more generically between imperfectpeaceandstructuralviolence.Powercouldberegardedasaprototypicexample of such mediation and is commonly characterised as violent, but which in its latest interpretationsinthesenseof"capacitytotransform"canhavemoreopenapplicationsin whichitsviolentsenseisnotaninitialassumptionbutratheraqualitythatitacquires accordingtohowitisused. Consequently,mediationsmustalsobepropitiated,sought,promotedasaninterim step, interlocutor, for the peaceful transformation of conflicts. Thus, communication, exchangeofinformation,knowledgeoftheconditions,motivesandinterestsoftheother areasofconflictbecomesaresearchvehicleinasmuchasitcausesthecircumstancesthat define reality to interact. From this point of view, proposals of communicative ethics becometotallypertinent.33 4.3.Pacifisticempowerment Letusnowreaddresstheissueofpower.Thepreviousreflectionswouldbeoflittle useiftheylackedapracticalreflection,iftheywerenotusefulfortransformingreality.On many occasions, we gratify ourselves and make do with a simple reference to this desideratum:changereality. However,despitethefactthatmostoftheproblemsthatwefaceareallinthemind ("Sincewarsareborninthemindsofmen,itisthemindsofmenthatmustbechanged",as appearsinaUNESCOcharter),socialandpoliticalactionisessential.Inmyopinion,this vital praxis can only be addressed, unambiguously and without delays, from the space (horizon)ofpower. Although it is true that nonviolence (or even better: nonviolence) has laid the foundationsforsuchatheory,aswewillnevertireofrepeating,inmyopinionithastwo maindeficiencies.Thefirstisthat,toacertaindegree,itislimitedtomarginalactions,in thesenseofbeingassociatedwiththeclaimsofthemarginalised,butalsobecauseits capacitytomobilisehasneverbeenacknowledgedassuchbythedominantgroupsofone tendencyoranother.Thesecond,andpartlyasaconsequenceofthefirst,isthatitbarely has any impact within democratic societies. It is possible that both problems are not exclusivetononviolenceandarerelatedtothelackofdebatebetweentheclassictheories onpower,thestateanddemocracy,andnonviolence.34 Someofthetragicconsequencesofthisareallthe"revolutionary"proposalsthat aimtotransformrealitybyseizingpowerthroughviolentmechanismsthatleadtolossof lifeandthedestructionofinfrastructuresandresources.Theuseof"force"becomesthe 33.Cf.MARTNEZGUZMAN.Vicent,Op.Cit.

34.Cf.ARENDT,Hanna(1998)Sobrelarevolucin,Madrid;"Elestadoentreloangelicalyelleviatn",and "ElpoderdelaPazylosDerechosHumanos",inInvestigation,,,,pp.915and131168.

only argument of the social structure. For all of the above, we appeal to pacifistic empowerment asanacknowledgementofpacifisticrealities,practicesandactionsandits capacitiestoactandtransformitsmoreorlessimmediateenvirons,aswellastopromote thecreationofnetworksamongalltheactorsthat,inonewayoranother,havereasonsfor promotingpeace.35 The word "empoderamiento" comes from old Castilian Spanish, taken to mean "empowerment"inrelationtotheuseofpower.However,inthelasttenyears,ithasbeen used in this case as a translation of the English word "empowerment". The feminist movementandthenNGO'susedittodefinetheneedtotakechargeoftheirsubjectsasthe onlywayoftransforminganunequalreality.36 In my opinion, this point requires some deep reflection. I believe that Peace Researchhasenoughaccumulatedexperienceontheissuebutlittlesystematicreflection. Thebestplacetostartisundoubtedlywithnonviolence,butallthoseinvolvedinpacifistic activity are well aware that this is not sufficient, as in its daytoday practise such a frameworkissimplyoverwhelmed. Indeed,whetherinnegotiationscarriedoutwithintheareaofthehostorganisation, relationships with fellow institutions and associations, contacts with political forces, contactswithNGO's,actionscarriedoutinareasinconflict,etc.,"power"ispresentinall oftheseinstances.Itisalsotruethatweknow,moreorless,howtobehaveinsuchcases, howtomakeone'spresencefelt,whatpositionstoadoptdependingonthesphereofaction, whatproposalstocarryoutatanygiventime,howtoapplypressure,copewiththetension, etc. Pacifistic "empowerment" would implya process inwhichthe circumstances of conflictswouldbeacknowledgedandtherewouldberegulationsthatsatisfyalltheactors involved, an acknowledgement and potentiation of the practices of peace. A general pacifisticconceptionofpowershouldbebasedonconflictsandpotentiatetheinteractions between the different forms of peace, from individual peaces to group, associative, institutional,state,internationalorinterstatepeaces,aswellasthedifferentinteractionsthat mayexistbetweenthem.Finally,itshouldaidsuchpeacestooccupyaslargeapublicand politicalspaceaspossible,insuchawaythatanoverallframeofreferencecouldbedefined inwhichalltransformativeeffortsandprocesseswouldunitetowardsamorepeacefuland lastingreality. 5.GLOBALISATION,COMPLEXITYANDFUTURE Themobilisingcapacityofimperfectpeaceincreasesasitacceptsandconnectswith the "imperfection" of the initial reality and, therefore, is able to make proposals of transformationtowardssituationsthatareaspeacefulaspossiblebasedonthatparticular 35. Itwouldseemthatoneofitsorigenslieswithin"neurolinguisticprogramming"wherepeople'spositive
andnegativespacesareacknowledgedandthenusedtomakethenecessarychanges.Cf.GRINDER,John BANDLER,Richard (1998) Desaposaprncipes, SantiagodeChile(SpanishtranslationoftheEnglish versionFrogsintoPrinces,1980). 36. Althoughitisnowusedprofuselyforanycaseofawarenessandattitudeoftransformation,fromthe individualtothepublicandpolitical.

startingpoint.Alargepartofthereflectionsandconcernsthatwehaveonadailybasisin thefieldofPeaceResearchcouldtakeonnewdimensionsifanalysedwithintheanalytical category of imperfect peace. Indeed, as well as those spaces properly recognised as peaceful,thiscouldalsoberecognisedin:economicmodels,themarket,worldsystemsand globalisation,internationalandregionalconflicts,nationalism,armamentandarmies,the relationships between religions, cultures, gender relationships, community relationships, education,orstates.Alldisplaycertaincomponentsofpeace. Manyoftheserealitiescouldberegardedas"globalproblems",justasweourselves haveexpressedthemonoccasions,attemptingtounderstandorexplainthenewphenomena undertheumbrellaofwhatusedtobecalledthe"newworldorder"andisnowknownas globalisation.However,wecanalsoadopttheperspectiveof"globalwindows",i.e.allthose possibilitiesthatthenewsituationaffordsusfortheconstructingofpeace:globalvision, awarenessofourinterdependencewiththerestofthespeciesandtheworldingeneral, multiculturality,solidaritywithoutfrontiers,greaterpossibilitiesforcommunication,better information,etc.Againfromtheperspectiveof"imperfection"whichopensupspacesfor usinwhichtothinkandactwithnewhorizons. 5.1.Globalisation Theinteractionanddependenceamongthedifferententitiesinwhichhumanbeings areinvolvedinonewayoranotherisbecomingevermoreprofoundandpatent,andthe termglobalisation,accompaniedbymajorcontroversies,bringstogetheralargepartofthe debates on theissue.All of whichis goingtodemandfromus ever greater efforts of understanding,sothatwemayfaceuptoitschallengesandconsequences.37 Withinitscontemporarydevelopment,sincetheendoftheSecondWorldWar,there arecertainlinesofcontinuitywithprevioushistoricmomentsbutitcannotbecontemplated throughthelogicofanaccumulativeandlinealhistoricevolution,sincenewaspectsare beingdisplayedanditistakingonnewbackgroundorstructuralqualities,majorshiftsand reorientations areoccurring,it is multifaceted, it simultaneouslyrefers todifferentiated socialphenomena,thequalitativeaspectsandthetimingvaryineachsituation,andnew configurationsareachievedasdifferenttypesofrealities,actorsandagentsinteractaround theworld.Verymuchinspiteofthecontemporaryprocessesofregionalisation,itisvery difficultforanyoneoranythingtoescapefromitsconsequences(thespreadofnetworks, theintensityofinterconnections,thespeedofglobalflows,etc.).Fewareascaneludethe advance of the globalisation process. This is reflected in all social dominions, from

37Cf.HELD,DavidMcGREW,AnthonyGOLDBLATT,DavidPERRATON,Jonathan(2000)Global
Transformation. Politics,EconomicsandCulture,Cambridge. Itrepresentsabroadandrigorous updated compendiumofthedebatesthathavebeenheldonthesubject.Fromadifferentandveryprolixperspective, see:CASTELL,Manuel(2000)Laeradelainformacin(Theinformationage).Vol.1.Lasociedadred(The networksociety). Vol.2.Elpoder delaidentidad (Thepowerofidentity).Vol.3. Findemilenio (Endof millennium), Madrid; "Una sola especie en un solo mundo" (A single species in a single world), in Investigation...,pages169189.

economics(permanentglobalmarket)topolitics,law,themilitary,theenvironment,and evenculture.38 Amongitsdifferentmanifestations,itisworthhighlightingthegrowingtendency towardstheinterconnectingoftheexercisingofpowerwithintheglobalsystemthroughthe decisionsor interactions of agentsanywhereintheworld,orespeciallyonaparticular continent,whichcanhavemajorconsequencesfornations,communitiesandhomesinthe remainingspaces,orcontinents.Furthermore,thispractisecanoccurundertheinfluenceof interestsandcriteriathatarefarremovedfromtheneedsofthespacesthattheyaffect,orin otherwords,itdoesnotalwaysoccurinaccordancewithdemocraticcriteria,inwhichall theagentsinvolvedtakepartinthedecisionmakingprocess. Consequently, globalisation implies the structuring and restructuring of the relationships of power. Indeed, the processes of extension, expansion and, ultimately concentrationofitsrelationshipsofpowermeanthatthelocationswhereitisbasedare graduallybecomingmoredistancedfromthesubjectsandthelocallevels.Ultimately,the elitewithinthemajormetropolitanareasoftheworldtendtohaveanevergreaterand increasinglytightcontrolovertheglobalnetworksalongwithacertaincapacitytomanage them. Despitethefactthat,duringthedifferentperiodsofinternationalisation,stateshave takenondifferentforms,intoday'snewscenariostheyhavebeendeprivedofsomeoftheir traditional attributes (management of the economy, the planning of infrastructures, internationalpolicy,etc),eventhoughsomeofthemnotonlyshowresistancebutactively reinforcetheirposition(regulatingofthemarket,education,security,environmentaland benefitissues,health,etc.).Decisionsconcerningmanyissuesthatareessentialforthelife ofthepopulations,organisedandincludedindelimitedfrontiersandterritories,weretaken bymoreorlessdemocraticstatesandthegroupsthatcoexistedtherein.Now,withtheloss oftheir"autonomy",anincreasingnumberofvoicescanbeheardcryingoutagainsttheir debilitationandlossofcompetencies. This "protest" unites differentiated political tendencies (communists, social democrats,liberals,Christiandemocrats,etc.),institutionsandorganisationsintheneedto recuperate the true benefactorial roots of the state, so that the state may protect the populationfromthestarkpoliciesoftransnationalsandglobalisation.Thisgoeshandin handwithanincreasinglyglobalawarenessofelitism,aswellasthepopularclassesthatare developingnewformsofsolidarityminded"internationalism".Thisallopensupanew spaceforresistanceandunityinordertoachieveandvindicateamorehumaneandjust world. Indeed,thehighlytangible"visualisation"ofsomeofthefeaturesofglobalisation (hunger,poverty,migrations,pollution...)hasgivenrisetotheemergenceofoppositionand resistance movements against such processes in diverse areas and scenarios.39 This 38.Coincidingwiththeendofthemillennium,theworldpopulationroseto6billion,ofwhich1.2billiongo
hungry,asimilarnumberlackdrinkingwaterand1billionadultsareilliterateintheinformationage.Thiscan beverifiedthroughdifferentitemsyearafteryear.Thus,manyoftheendresultsofglobalisationcanbe evaluatednegatively,astheygohandinhandwithinequality,stratification,asymmetryandhierarchy,which generatenewmodelsofinclusionandexclusion,newwinnersandlosers. 39.Cf. HALLIDAY,Fred(1999)"Globalisationanditsdiscontents",Papelesdecuestionesinternacionales 67,1732.

constitutes an important new development, mainly because it is born from nonviolent presuppositions,therehasbeenalargescalemobilisation(demonstrations,parallelevents, publications,etc.)andtheresponsehasbeeninternational,allofwhichaffordsarayof hopethattheperniciouseffectsofthenewworldcanbearrested.Wehavereachedthe stagingdistributedaroundtheworldasapositiveconsequenceofinterconnectionsofa "power"strugglebetweentheworldelite(theWorldBank,etc.)andalternativemovements. Theentirerepresentationhasenabledresistancemovementstogaingreaterimportanceand provokedshiftsintheagendaanddiscourseoftheelite,butalso,Isuppose,changesin strategytoavoiditsreoccurrence.Inanyevent,Ibelievethatwemayhavewitnesseda nonviolent episode of popular democracy that is hopefully a beneficial effect of globalisation.40 However,itisagainnotsufficientjusttoviewtheperniciouseffects,asallthis capacityforinterconnectionalsoprovidesaccesstoadvancesandproposalsfromdistant spacesandpoints.Onagreatmanyoccasions,connectionsandnetworksenabletheflowof beneficialeffectsthatmustbeusedtobuildpeace.Letusfirstlookatinformation:many researchcentresareconnectedtothe"Net"andmuchoftheactivityiscarriedoutthrough thecontactsthatitprovides.Wehaveallexperiencedsuchtransoceanicrelationshipsthat wouldsimplybeimpossibleinanyotherway.Informationalsoenablestheprogressof scienceandprovidesaccesstoresourcesatdistantlocations.Itallowsustobecome"world citizens", to visualise and evaluate the effects of globalisation, etc. The transnational defenceofhumanrights,theequalityofwomenandenvironmentalprotectioncanalsobe regardedasbeingbeneficialeffectsofournewsituation. However,inspiteofeverything,wearestillconcernedwithfindingandcreating spaces of peace. Therefore, the greatest importance should be placed on those modificationsthatthestructuresofpowerareexperiencing,sinceinthenewsituationmany oftheactionsandcommitmentsofpowercomeintoveryclosecontact,whentheyarenot subsumedbytheprocessesofglobalisationand,consequently,thespatialrangeoftheir networksandcircuitsbecomemodified. 5.2.Interconnections,networksandcomplexity In order to approach all of these new phenomena, a renewed methodology is required that is able to provide models with the potential to explain the global interconnectionsthatwearefacing,ineverydominionandateverylevel,fromecological models of interconnection that may differ from cultural models, military models, etc. Likewise, when we open up our frame of reference, we gain an understanding of the interrelationships that exist among the different ambits, but we also come across new problemsderivedfromthenewquantitativeandqualitativedimensionsofouranalytical
40.TheparallelmobilisationsinRiodeJaneiro,Madrid,Copenhagen,Beijing,Seattle,alongwithsubsequent mobilisations,areatangibledemonstrationofsuchevents.ItisworthrememberingthattheEuropeanUnion invites NGO's to consultation tables and, in 1998, the World Trade Organisation proposed a plan of cooperation with these organisations, thus acknowledging their public and beneficial interest. Cf. CHOSSUDOVSKY,Michel(2000)"DisarmingtheNewWorldOrder. Seattleandbeyond",COATES,Ken (ed.)TheSpokesman.DisarmingtheNewWorldDisorder,Nottingham,517.

frameworks. Indeed,"globalisation",theuniversal,theholisticallowustoseethemacro linksbut,atthesametime,theyconnectusto complexity, whichthusbecomesbotha solutionandachallenge. Complexitycannotberegardedasamagicwandthatsolvesallourproblemsbut,for thetimebeing,itisoneoftheavenuesthatmayprovidesomeofthekeys,giventhatit assumesthestudyofthenetworkofrelationshipsamongheterogenicentitiesasfarastheir qualitativeandquantitativeaspectsareconcerned,includingevents,actions,relationships, interactions,feedback,needs,twistsoffate,orderanddisorder.Complexitythusconnects ustoimperfection,sinceitisrelatedtotheirrepressibleandtheuncertain.Therefore,onthe onehanditproducesturmoil,anxietyandimmobilisation.Ontheotherhand,itbecomesa refuge from the unknown. In both senses, it is related to the problems of peace and violence.Nevertheless,weneedtoreinvigorateourthinking,despitebeingawareofits limitations,sothatwemaygainthegreatestpossibleunderstandingofourreality.41 Due to the characteristics that we have defined thus far, all thinking generated aroundpeacebecomesaninstrumentwithwhichtoaddresscomplexityonallitsdifferent levels.Indeed,conflictshaveanenormouscomprehensivepotentialatleastinrespectto humanphenomenaandpeacebeingajustandequitableregulationofconflictssharesin thispotentialityandsuggestsdesirablesolutionstothem.Conflictionneedstobeaddressed throughbothinterdisciplinaryandcrossdisciplinaryepistemologiesthataresinequanon conditions for addressing complexity. The relationships between imperfect peace, mediations and structural violence can ultimately only be understood through the presuppositionsregardingcomplexity. Allthevariousdisciplines,whicharethemselveslimitedandinoperativeintheface oftheirevidentdependenciesonbothbroaderphenomenologiesandgreaterdimensionsof complexityespeciallyasregardsthechangesthatoccurandtherelationshipsbetweenthe partsandthewholeneedepistemologicalstrategiesandevenaxiologicalandontological strategiesinordertotakepartinthe"adventure"ofunderstandingtheuniverseandthose recentlyarrivedlittlecreaturescalledhumans.42 Thisviewofcomplexityenablesustounderstandsomeofthechangesthatoccur and that seem to defy the arrow of time those tendencies defined by the laws of thermodynamicsandwhichaffordacertainhopeforthefutureofMankind,relatingtothe capacityforselforganisation.NotinvainhasMayorZaragozausedthesetheoriesasa frameworkforsomeofhisproposalsforpeace.43 Pacifisticactionsthemselvesinteractwithsocialactivitiesandrealitiesasawhole. Theconsequencesofsuchrelationshipsarenotalwayscontrolledbythesubjectsofthe
41.MORIN,Edgar(1995)Theauthorpresentsthreeprinciplesthatmayhelpustothinkaboutcomplexity:the dialogicprinciple(itlinkstermsthatarecomplementaryandantagonisticatthesametimeallowmeto assimilate this to the relationship between imperfect peace and sturctural violence); the principle of organisationalresourcefulness("productsandeffectsaresimultaneouslycausesandproducersofwhatthey produce");thehologramaticprinciple("Notonlyisthepartinthewhole,butthewholeisinthepart"),p.105 ss. 42.Cf.WAGENSBERG.Jorge(1994)Ideassobrelacomplejidaddelmundo,Barcelona 43.Indeed,IlyaPrigogine,forefatherofthetheoriesondissipativesystems,wrotetheprologuetothebookby MayorZaragoza, Unanuevapagina, whichpointsouthow,eveninthefaceofsomuchviolentcruelty, Mankindisabletoperceivethechaosanddecidetoimproveitsorganisationtowardsformsthataremorejust, equitableandpeaceful.

action.Thismeansthatthey"immediately"becomepartofthecomplexframeworkofthe surroundingrealityand,logically,wouldnotbesufficientlyeffectiveunlessplacedwithin strategiesthattakesuchconditionsintoaccountandevaluatedonthebasisoftheircomplex implications. Living beings, as organised entities, are more tolerant of disorder in accordancewiththecomplexityoftheirorganisation,andthesolidarityamongitsmembers alsoallowsforgreaterlevelsoftolerance. 5.3.Futureandforecasting Thefuturebecomestheonlypossibleproposalforinteractingwithreality,soitis necessarythatwethinkaboutitandworkonitusingtheappropriatemethodologies. 44Asa consequence of all that we have seen over the previous pages, the future should be desirable, lasting, just, peaceful, but also imperfect. A future that includes solidarity towardsfuturegenerations,wherejusticeandequityareparamount,whereconflictsare regulatedbypeacefulmeansandwhereconflictsasignofour imperfectnaturegiveus thechancetoimagineandcreatenew,desirablesituationsinaccordancewiththevalues that we hold as regards peace. A future that is definitively open to both old and new conflicts and always in the "process" of regulating them peacefully. A lasting future inasmuchastheattitude,effortsandresourcesaimedatacknowledging,dynamisingand addressingthediverseinterestsandconflictsshould,byandlarge,actasadynamicdriving forcesothatsuchinterestsandconflictsmaybecomeasourceofcreationandwellbeing. Therefore,wemusttakecontroloftheFuture,notonlydrivenbyourdesiresorin search of utopias, but through scientific methods of approach and evaluation such as forecasting (or Future Studies) that provide us with both all the possibilities and circumstancesthatitrepresentsaswellaswiththecreationofPeace. From any perspective, peace should not be considered as "total", closed, the endpoint,an almost impossible to achieve "utopian"45 goal, except at great expense unrealisticand,consequently,frustrating,butascounterproductiveinasmuchasitcanbethe sourceofviolence.46 Thus, imperfect peace could be used to provide an intermediary path between maximalistutopianismandconservativeconformism:itisamatterofchangingourreality basedonourknowledgeofhumanlimitationsandpresentscenarios(knowledgeprovided bythedifferentsciences,forecastingandfuturestudies),yetwithouthavingtorenounce
44.Cf.BOULDING,EliseBOULDING,KennethE.(1994),Op.cit.,89ss.SANCHEZ,Jesus.MUOZ, Francisco A. JIMENEZ, Francisco. RODRIGUEZ, Javier. (eds.) (1995) Paz y prospectiva. Problemas globalesyfuturodelahumanidad,Granada;"Apoderarsedelfuturo",inInvestigations...,pp.269284. 45.Onotheroccasions(MUOZ,FranciscoA.RODRGUEZ,Javier(eds.)(1997),pp.7075,weheldthe viewthatutopias,asrepresentationsofanunachievablefuture,havegenerallygivenrisetoviolence,forallof thesefactors(cf.note9).Wethusprefertodistanceourselvesfromtheconceptofutopiainordertoplanfor thefuture. 46. From Wolfgang Sutzl's point of view, it is important to liberate the construction of metaphysical presuppositionsthathavemeantthemaskingofviolencerelatedtothepromotionofaneternalanduniversal peacebasedonscienceandmoderntechniques.Iwouldherebyliketothanktheauthorforhiscontributions. Cf.Op.cit.

making plans for the future or having a goal: imperfect peace, which, although more modest,isstilladesirable,overallgoal(hencealsowithanormativedimension). Inshort,afuturethatIonceagainstrivetobringascloseaspossible,yetalso removedfromnavet,forcingustobedeeplycriticalandcombativewiththeviolenceof thepresent,butalsowiththatwhichwemay"stage"inthefuture.Wemustmakefulluseof thepossibilitiesofferedtousbyourpresentrealityinordertoprojectafutureinwhichwe areasclosetopeaceaspossible.Comewhatmay,thismustoccurbywayofaprocess,a path,filledwithobstacles,difficulties,advantages,facilitiesinshort,conflictiveopento permanentevaluation,butwhichmustalwaysbedominatedbyacreativeandintelligent quest.47 ThemainobjectivethatIhavewishedtoaddressthroughoutthisworkis Peace basedontheassumptionofitsnormative,theoreticalandpracticalpresuppositionsin ordertoendowuswiththemostsuitable,finestmostrefinedintellectualtoolssothatwe may comprehend (approach, contain, embrace) all the circumstances that surround it includingviolence.Todoso,IhaveemployedalltheintellectualresourcesthatIhavefound alongtheway,withoutseekingtouseanyformofacademicistpedantry,butconvincedthat theinterdisciplinaryandcrossdisciplinaryapproachsorareyetsonecessaryinresearch institutionsistheonlyonethatcantakeusclosertothefuturethatwealldesire.

47. Cf. AVIA, M Dolores VZQUEZ. Carmelo (1998) El optimismo inteligente, Madrid; ROJAS MARCOS,Luis(2005)Lafuerzadeloptimismo,Madrid.

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