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PERMUTATION I (LINEAR ARRANGEMENTS) 1. How many different arrangements can be made by taking 3 letters of the word SUNDAY ? 2.

In how many ways can 5 boys be arranged in a row ? 3. In how many ways can a first, second and third prize be awarded in a class of 8 students ? 4. How many 5-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 2,3,5,6,8,9 if no digit can be used more than once in a number ? How many even numbers can be formed ? 5. Find the value of (i) (ii) (iii) 6. Find the value of (i) 6! (ii) 8! / 5! 7. In how many ways can 4 consonants and 3 vowels be arranged in a row (a) so that the 3 vowels are always together, (b) so that the first and the last places are occupied by consonants. 7a. There are 4 different mathematics books, 6 different physics books, and 2 different chemistry books are to be arranged on a shelf. How many different arrangements are possible if (a) the books in each category must all stand together , (b) only the mathematics books must stand together. 8. In how many ways can four girls and three boys be arranged in a row so that (a) the boys are always together, (b) the girls and boys occupy alternate places ? 9. In how many ways can 6 people be seated in a motor car if only 2 can occupy the driver's position ? 10. In how many ways can 6 people be arranged in a circle if 2 particular people are always (a) together (b) separated. 11. Father, mother and 6 children stand in a ring. In how many ways can they be arranged if father and mother are not to stand together. 12. In how many ways can 5 boys and 3 women be arranged (a) in a row , (b) in a circle if both cases the women are always to stand together ? 13. Four men and four women are to be seated alternately (a) in a row (b) at a round table. In how many ways can this be done ? 14. How many even number of 4 digits can be forned with the figures 3,4,7,8 if (a) no figure is repeated , (b) repetitions are allowed. 15. How many numbers greater than 4000 can be formed from the figures 3,5,7,8,9 ? (repetitions not allowed). 16. In how many ways can the letters of the word PERMUTE be arranged if (i) the first and last places are occupied by consonants, (ii) the vowels and consonants occupy alternate places. 17. If , find r. 18. The number of arrangements of 2n+2 different objects taken n at a time is to the number of arrangements of 2n different objects taken n at a time as 14:15. Find the value of n. 19. How many numbers of 7 digits can be formed from the digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 if (i) the numbers begins with 1 and ends with 2, (ii) there are not more than 2 digits between 1 and 2 ? 20. If , find the value of n. [4]

21. In how many ways can 5 different mathematics books, 4 different physics books and 2 different chemistry books be arranged on a shelf if the books in each subject are to be together. 22. In how many can 3 men, 3 women and 3 boys be arranged in a row if the three boys are to remain together ? 23. Find the number of arrangements of the letter in the word PENCILS if (i) E is next to I, (ii) E precedes I, (iii) there are three letters between E and I. 24. In how many ways can the letters of the word PRINCIPLE be arranged? In what proportion of these arrangements do the letters P come together ? . 25. In how many ways can the letters in PRECISION be arranged? In how many of these arrangements do the vowels occupy even places ? 26. How many arrangements can be made by the letters of word DEFINITION (i) if the letters I do not occupy the first or last place, (ii) if the letters I are together?

27. How many different arrangements of the letters in TOMATO are there, if the letters O are to be separated? 28. A car can hold 3 people in the front seat and 4 in the back seat. In how many ways can 7 people be seated in the car if 2 particular people must sit in the back seat and 1 particular person is the driver? 29. In how many ways can 4 people be accommodated if there are 4 rooms available? 30. In how many ways can 8 oarsmen be seated in a eight-oared boat if 3 can row only on the stroke side and 3 can row only on the bow side ? 31. Prove that (i) from the definition of (ii) the formula for that . .

32. Prove that . 33. In how many ways can 5 men and 5 women by arranged in a circle so that the men are separated? In how many ways can this be done if two particular women must not be next to a particular men. 34. How many arrangements of the letters of the word PARRAMATTA are possible? ANSWERS: 1. 120 2. 120 3. 336 4. 720; 360 5.(i) 120 (ii) 11800 (iii) 6720 6.(i) 720 (ii) 336 7.(a) 720 (b) 1440 7a (a) 207360 (b) 8709120 8.(a) 720 (b) 144 9. 240 10.(a) 120 (b) 48 (c) 72 11. 3600 12. (a) 4320 (b) 720 13.(a) 1152 (b) 144 14. (a) 12 (b) 128 15. 216 16 (i)1720 (ii) 72 17. r=3 18. 3 19.(i) 120 (ii) 15 20. 4 21. 34560 22. 30240 23. (i) 1440 (ii) 2520 (iii) 120 24. 90720, 22.2% 25. 181440; 1440 26. (i) 141120 (ii) 20160 27. 120 28. 288 29. 256 30. 1152 33. 2880; 864 34. 37800 PERMUTATION II: ARRANGEMENTS IN A CIRCLE 1. In how many different ways can (i) 4 persons be arranged (a) in a line (b) around a circle ; (ii) 7 persons be arranged (a) in a row (b) in a ring; (iii) 8 different table mats must be placed (a) along one side of a rectangular table (b) around an oval table. [Ans: (i) (a) 4!=24 (b) 3!=6 (ii) (a) 7!=5040 (b) 6!=720 (iii) (a) 8!=40320 (b) 5040] 2. In how many ways can 4 boys and 4 girls be arranged in a ring if (i) there are no restriction on where the boys and girls are placed; (ii) the boys and girls are alternate; (iii) a particular boy P is next to a particular girl Q; (iv) two particular girls R,S do not wish to be placed next to each other; (v) the particular boy P is to be placed between the particular girls R, S; (vi) three friends A,B,C wish to be together; (vii) the boys and girls are to be in separate groups. [ans: (i) 5040 (ii) 3!4!=144 (iii) 2(6!)=1440 (iv) 5(6!)=3600 (v) 2(5!)=240 (vi) 3!5!=720 (vii) 4!4!=576] 3. Eight men and two women are to be seated around a table. In how many ways can they be arranged if (i) each can choose any seat; (ii) the eldest person is to have the most comfortable chair; (iii) the two women are to seat together; (iv) the two women are not sit directly opposite one another ; (v) a partcular man is not to sit between the women. [ans: (i) 9!=362880 (ii) 362880 (iii) 2(8!)=80640 (iv) 8(8!)=322560 (v) 9!-2(7!)=352880] 4. The numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 are to be arranged around a circle. (a) How many ways can this be done ? How many of these arrangements have

(i) the odd and even numbers altering; (ii) at least two odd numbers together; (iii) all the odd numbers together; (iv) the numbers 5,6 together but the number 4 is not next to either 5 or 6 ? (b) What is the probability that if one of these arrangements of the numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6 in a circle is selected random, then this arrangement has (i) the odd and even numbers altering; (ii) at least two odd numbers occurring together; (iii) all the odd numbers together; (iv) the numbers 5,6 together but neither next to the number 4? [ans: (a) 5!=120 (i) 2!3!=12 (ii) 120-12=108 (iii) 3!3!=36 (iv) 2.2.(3!)=24 (b) (i) 1/10 (ii) 9/10 (iii) 3/10 (iv) 1/5] 5. Ten marbles (indistinguishable except for colour) are to be arranged in a circle on the ground. In how many different ways can this be effected when (i) the marbles are all of different colours; (ii) four of the marbles are of the same colour and the rest are different; (iii) there are 6 red, 3 yellow, 1 white marbles. [ans: (i) 362880 (ii) 9!/4!=15120 (iii) 9!/(6!3!)=84] 6. In how many ways can (i) 8 different coloured beads be arranged on a string to form a necklace; (ii) 7 unlike keys be placed on a key ring (iii) 4 green, 1 pink, 2 blue beads form a circular bracelet. [ans: (i) 7!/2=2520 (ii) 6!/2=360 (iii) 6!/(4!2!)=15; beads indentical except colour] 7. 12 counters (each containing a hole through the centre, and identical except for colour) are to be placed (a) in a line (b) about a circle (c) on a bracelet In how many ways can this be done if (i) the counters are all different in colours; (ii) there are 7 purple, 4 black, 1 green counters. [ans: (i)(a) 12! (b) 11! (c) 11!/2 (ii)(a) 12!/(7!4!) (b) 111!/(7!4!) (c) 11!/(7!4!2!)] 8. It is required to seat n people at a round table. How many different possible arrangements are there ? How many arrangements are possible if (i) three specified people are to sit together ? Use these results to show that if n people are given seats at random at a round table, the chance of two particular people aitting together is 2/(n-1) and the chance of a group of three particular people sitting together is 6/(n-1)(n-2). [ans: (n-1)! (i) 2[(n-2)!] (iii) 3!(n-3)!] 9. (i) A dinner party consisting of 5 couples, sit around a rectangular table, with ladies and gentlemen altering. The host and hostess each occupy one end of the table and their guests are arranged four on each side. Find the number of ways the party can be seated. [ans 4!4!=576] (ii) At a meeting, there are 6 sporting associations represented. Each association is allowed 1 delegate to attend the meeting, as well as 2 assistants. In how many ways can the persons attending the meeting be seated at a large round table if the assistants must sit on either side of the delegate in each case. [ans 2^6.5!=7680] 10. 9 persons are arranged in a straightline. What is the probability that two particular persons are side by side ? What is the corresponding probability if the nine persons are arranged in a circle (instead of in a line)? [ans 2(8!)/9!=2/9; 2(7!)/8!=1/4]

11. In how many ways can ten girls be placed around a table if two particular girls must be separated ? The ten girls take their places at random about the table. What is the probability these 2 particular girls are NOT together ? [ans 7(8!)=282240; 7(8!)/9=7/9] 12. In how many ways can 6 men and 6 women be seated about a round table ? If these men and women take their seats at random, determine the probability that (a) the men and women sit alternately at the table; (b) a particular couple are seated together; (c) two particular women are not sitting side by side; (d) a particular woman is not seated next to either of 2 particular men; (e) two particular men are seated on either side of a particular woman; (f) three particular persons are seated together. [ans: 11! (a) 6!5!/11!=1/462 (b) 2(10!)/11!=2/11 (c) 1-2/11=9/11 (d) 9.8(9!)/11!=36/35 (e) 2(9!)/11! =1/55 (f) 3!9!/11!=3/55] 13. Nine beads (indistinguishable except for colour) are to be arranged (a) in a line (b) around a circle (c) on a necklace In how many ways can this be done if (i) the beads are all of different colours; (ii) there are 4 red, 3 green, 1 yellow and 1 blue bead. [ans: (i) (a) 362880 (b) 40320 (c) 8!/2=20160 (ii) (a) 9!/4!3!=2520 (b) 8!/4!3!=280 (c) 140.] 14. The numbers 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 are to be arranged in a circle in all possible orders. If one of these arrangements is selected at random, what is the chance that (i) the numbers 8,9 are together; (ii) the number 8,9 are separated; (iii) the numbers 4,5,6 are together; (iv) it is the arrangement 0123456789 ; (v) all the even numbers are together; (vi) the even and odd numbers alternate ; (vii) at least two even numbers are together. [ans: (i) 2/9 (ii) 1-2/9=7/9 (iii) 3!7!/9!=1/12 (iv) 1/9!=1/362880 (v)5!5!/9!=5/126 (vi) 4!5!/9!=1/126 (vii) 1-1/126=125/126] 15. (i) There are 5 boys and 5 girls in a gymnastics squad. In how many ways can they be formed into (a) one ring, with no girls next to one another; (b) two concentric rings, with a girl behind each boy ? (ii) Show that 10 persons may be seated at two round tables, 5 persons at each, in 10!/5^2 ways. [ans: (a) 4!5!=2880 (b) 4!5!=2880 (ii) answer is IV. COMBINATION 1. In how many ways can 3 books be selected from 8 different books? [56] 2. In how many ways can a set of 2 boys and 3 girls be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls? [40] 3. How many different selections can be made by taking 3 of the digits 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ? [20] 4. In how many ways can a committee of 4 men and 5 boys be formed from 8 men and 7 boys ? [1470] 5. From 8 soldiers, 7 sailors and 5 airmen how many sets can be formed each containing 5 soldiers, 4 sailors and 3 airmen ? [19600] 6. In how many ways can 8 boys be divided into two sets containing 5 and 3 respectively? [56] ]

7. A committe of 6 is to be selected from 10 people of whom A and B are two. How many committees can be formed (i) containing A and B, (ii) excluding A if B is included ? [70;140] 8. In how many ways can 3 cards be selected from a pack of 52 playing cards if [i] at least one of them is an ace, [ii] not more then one is an ace ? [4804; 21808] 9. In how many ways can a commitees of three men and 4 women be chosen from 6 men and 7 women? What proportion of these commitees contains a particular man and a particular women? [700; 1/7] 10. A commitees of 7 politicians is chosen from 10 liberal members, 8 labor members and 5 independents. In how many ways can this be done so as to include exactly 1 independent and at least 3 liberal members and at least 1 labor member? [73080] 11. An eleven is to be chosen from 15 cricketers of whom 5 are bowlers only.2 others are wicket keepers only and the rest are batsmen only.How many possibles elevens can be chosen which contain ( i ) 4 bowlers, 1 wicketkeeper and 6 batsmen, ( ii )at least 4 bowlers and at least 1 wicktkeeper? [280; 742] 12. From 7 teachers and 5 pupils a commitee of 7 is to be formed. How many commitees can be selected if both teachers and pupils are represented and the teachers are in a majority? [595] 13. From 4 oranges, 3bananas and 2 apples, how many selections of 5 pieces of fruit can be made, talking at least one of each kind? [98] 14. In lotto, a frame contain the numbers 1 to 40 and we can select any 6 of these numbers. How many such combinations are possible? [3,838,380] 15. In TAB betting, the "trifecta" pays on first three horses in correct order, the "quinella" pays on the first two horses in either orther. In a 10 horses race what is the possible number of (a) trifecta combination (b) quinella combinations? [720;45] 16. In how many ways can a jury of 12 be chosen from 10 men and 7 women so that there are at least 6 men and not more than 4 women on each jury? [1946] 17. In how many ways can a set of 3 or more be selected from 9 people? [466] 18. In how many ways can n things be shared between 2 people. [2n - 2] 19. In how many ways can a commitee of 3 men and 4 boys be chosen from 7 men and 6 boys so as not to include the youngest boy if the eldest man is serving? [375] 20. How many ( i ) selections, ( ii ) arrangements consisting of 3 consonants and 2 vowels can be made from 8 consonants and 4 vowels? [336; 40320] 21. In how many ways can 4 Physics books and 3 Mathematics books be arranged on a shelf if a selection is made from 6 different Physics books and 5 different Mathematics books? In how many of these arrangements are the Physics books together? [756,000; 86400] 22. In how many ways can 3 boys and 2 girls be arranged in a row if a selection is made from 5 boys and 4 girls? In how many of these arrangements does a boy ocupy the middle position? [7200; 4320] 23. How many words (arrangement of letters ), containing 3 consonants and 2 vowels, can be formed from the letters of the word promise ? [1440] 24. From the definition of nCr prove each of the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 25. If , find the value of n. [10] 26. The ratio of the number of combinations of (2n+2) different objects taken n at a time to the number of combinations of (2n-2) different objects taken n at a time is 99:7. Find the value of n. [5] 27. In how many ways can 9 books be distributed amongst a man, a woman and the child, if the man receives 4, the woman 3 and the child 2? [1260] 28. In how many ways can 8 boys be divided into two unequal sets? [92] 29. In how many ways can 8 girls be divided into 4 sets of 2? [105]

V. PROBABILITY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION 1. Five cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards . what is the probability that they are all from the same suit? [33/16660] 2. A bag contain 5 red balls and 4 wite balls. Three balls are withdrawn without replacement. Find the probability of drawing at least 2 red balls [25/42] 3. An urn contains three white balls, 4 red balls and 5 black balls. Three balls are drawn at random. what is the probability that they are (a) different colour (b) the same colour? [3/11; 3/44] 4. From7 teachers and 5 pupils, a random selection of 7 is make. what is the probability that is contains at least 4 teachers? [149/198] 5. A committee of 3 men and 4 women is to be chosen from 6 men and 7 women. what is the probability that is contains a particular manand a particular woman? [2/7] 6. Five cards are drawn from a pack of 52 playing carts. What is the probability of drawing at leas 3 aces? [19/10829] 7. Eight people are to be divided into two groups. What is the probability that there will be 4 in each groups? [35/81] 8. The letters of the word "PROMISE" are arranged in arow. What is the probability that there are 3 letters between P and R ? [1/7] 9. Six people arrange themselves at random in a circle. what is the probability that the tallest and the shortest are toghether? [2/5] 10. Four men and three boys are arranged in a straight line. What is the probability that the men and the boys occupy alternate position? [1/35] 11. The number plates of the motor car contain 3 letters of the alphabet followed by 3 numerals. How many such number plates can be made? What proportion of these would contain 3 letters the same and 3 numerals the same ? [17576000;1/67600] 12. The letters of the word "independence" are arranged in a row. What is the probability of the letters "e" being toghether? [1/55] 13. A commitee of 6 is to be selected from 10 people. What is the probability of the youngest and oldest being on the same commitee? [1/3] 14. A party of twelve, of whom A and B are two, are arranged at random in a straight line. What is the probability that A and B are not next to one another? [5/6] 15. An urn contains 5 red cubes and 4 white cubes. Three cubes are drawn in succession without replacement. What is the probability that (a) the fisrt two cubes are red and the third one white.[10/63] (b) any two cubes are red, and one is white? [10/21] 16. A carton contains 15 transistors of which 5 are defective. If a random sample of 6 transistors is drawn from the carton (without replacement) determine the probability of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 red cubes in the sample [0.0419;0.2517;0.4195;0.24;0.045;0.002] 17. An urn contains 12 distinguishable cubes of which 5 are red and remainder black. If a random sample of 6 cubes is drawn without replacement, calculate the probabilities of 0,1,2,3,4,5 red cubes in the sample. [1/132;5/44;25/66;25/66;5/44;1/132] 18. Two boxes each contain eight balls. In box A there are 3 black and 5 white balls, in box B there are 1 black and 7 white balls. For each box find the probability that two balls chosen at random without replacement will both be white. [5/14;3/4] 19. A sample of 3 coins is selected without replacement from 8 coins, consisting of 4 five cents coins and 4 ten cents coins. What is the probability the sample contains at least 2 five-cent coins? [1/2] 20. A hand of 5 cards is dealt from a pack of 52 playing cards. What is the probability that it will contain at least one ace? [0.3412]

21. From a group of 12 people of whom 8 are males and 4 are females, a sample of 4 is selected at random. what is the probability that the sample contains at least 2 females? [67/165] 22. Urn A contain 6 white and 4 black balls. Urn B contains 2 white and 2 black balls.From urn A two balls are selected at random and placed in urn B. From urn B two balls are then selected at random.What is the probability that exactly one of these two balls is white? [128/225] 23. From a set of 10 cards numbered 1 to 10, two cards are drawn without replacement. What is the probability that (a) both numbers are even, (b) one is even and the other is odd, (c) the sum of the two numbers is 12, (d) both numbers are even and the sum of two numbers is 12? [2/9; 5/9; 4/45; 2/45] 24. The letters of the word TOMATO are arranged at random in a row.What is the probability that (a) two letters O are together, (b) the two letters O are not together? [1/3; 2/3]. 25. The letters of the word TUESDAY are arranged at random in the row.What is the probability that (a) the vowels and consonants occupy alternate positions (b) the vowels are together (c) the vowels are together and the letter T occupies the first place? [1/35; 1/7; 1/35] 26. Four girls and four boys arrange themselves at random in (a) a row, (b) a circle. What is the probability in each case that the girls and the boys occupy alternate position? 27. Six people, of whom A and B are two, arrange themselves at random in a row.What is the probability that (a) A and B occupy the end position, [1/15] (b) A and B are not next to each other, [2/3] (c) there are at least three people between A and B? [1/2] 28. The digits 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6 are used to form numbers which contain two or more digits.( The same digit can not be used more than once in a number ). What proportion of such numbers are even numbers? [1/2] 29. Five cards are selected without replacement from a pack of 52 playing cards. What is the probability of (a) exactly 3 hearts, (b) 4 aces, (c) no hearts? [2717/33320;1/54145;2109/9520] VI. BIONOMIAL DISTRIBUTION - PART I 1. Write out the expansion of . (i) the probability p that A biassed coin fall heads is 2/3; what is the probability q that it does not fall heads? (ii) this coin is tossed 3 times. Find the probability that there will be : (a) 0 head (b) exactly 1 head (c) exactly 2 heads (d) 3 heads What is the sum of these probabilities? comment on this. 2. A true- false quiz consists of 5 quesions. A student selects answers at random. What is the probability of his being correct in: (a) all 5 questions (b) exactly 2 questions (c) at most 2 questions (d) at least e questions? 3. If the births of boys and girls are assumed to be equally likely, what is the probability that in a family of 8 children, there is (a) exactly 4 girls (b) all girls (c) at least 2 girls (d) a majority of girls? 4. A bag contians 8 white balls and 12 black balls. Balls are withdrawn one at a time, the ball being replaced after each draw. There are 4 drawings. What is the probability of drawing out: (a) all black balls (b) at least 3 white balls?

5. An ordinary die is rolled 3 times. If X denotes the appearance of a "4" on the upper face of the die, find the following probabilities (a) p(x=2) (b) p(x>2) (c) p(x=0) 6. At a referendum 662/3% of voters were in favour of a certain proposal.A television interviewer approached 7 voters chosen at random. Find the probability that the number in favour of the proposal was: (a) exactly 3 (b) no more than 1. 7. (i) A card is selected at random from a regular pack the card is replaced after the selection. What is the probability that it is a diamond. (ii) If 5 cards are drawn at random one at a time with replacement, from the pack, find the probability of drawing: (a) exactly one diamond (b) a majority of diamonds 8. An urn contains 4 blue, 3 green and 2 yellow marbles. Marbles are drawn out, on at a time, with replacement. If 6 drawings are made , find the probabilioty of obtaining (i) all green marbles (ii) exactly 4 green marbles 9. For a biassed coin, the probability of a head is given by p= 0.3. If the coin is tossed 4 times, find the probability of (a) 3 heads exactly (b) at most 3 heads. 10. It is known that at noon the sun is hidden by clouds on an average of two days out of every three. If 5 consecutive days are taken, find the probability of the sun shining at noonon: (a) each day (b) the first 4 days only (c) 4 of the days (d) at least 4 days. 11. In a bag, there are three counters marked with the digit "3" and five counters marked with digit "2". Four counters are drawn out of the bag one at a time with replacement after each draw, find the probability that: (a) all counters drawn are marked with the digit "2" (b) two of the counters are marked with "2" and two with "3" (c) the sum of the digits on the counters is greater than 10. 12. For a certain die, the probability of a "6" times in succession. Find the probability that a "6" appears: (a) on no occasion (b) exactly 5 times (c) no less than 5 times (c) no more than 5 times 13. Two ordinary dice are tossed simultaneously on the table. What is the probability p of a total of 7? If 4 players each roll a pair of dice, determine the probability that (a) only one roll a 7 (b) at least 2 roll a 7 (c) none of them rollr a 7 (d) all of them roll a 7 14. Suppose we take a random sample of 5 items from a large number of items which are known to be 10% defective. What is the probability that our sample contains (a) all defectives (b) no defectives? Show that the chance our sample contains more than 2 defectives is less than 1% 15. (i) A machine produces parts which have a 90% chane of meeting the required speccification. A sample of 10 parts is taken, find the probability that exactly 2 of these fail to meet the spectifications required.(Give answer correct to 4 significant figures) (ii) An event has a 10% chance of occurring. Evaluate to 3 decimal places, the probability of it occurring at least once in 10 independt trials.

ANSWERS: 1. (i) 1/3 (ii) (a) 1/27 (b) 2/9 (c) 4/9 (d) 8/27; 1, one of these events is certainly to occur hence the probability is 1. 2. (a) 1/32 (b) 5/16 (c) (1+5+10)/32 (d) 13/16 3.(a) 70/256 (b) 1/256 (c) 247/256 (d) (56+28+8+1)/256 4.(a) 81/625 (b) (16+96)/625 5.(a) 15/216 (b) (15+1)/216 (c) 125/216 6.(a) 280/2187 (b) (1+14)/2187 7.(i) 1/4 (ii) (a) 405/1024 (b) (90+15+1)/1024 8.(i) 1/729 (ii) 60/729 9.(a) 4(0.7)(0.3)3=0.0756 (b) 1-(0.3)4 =0.9919 10.(a) 1/243 (b) 2/243 = (1/3)4(2/3) ; not binomial (c) 10/243 (d) (10+1)/243 11.(a) 625/4096 (b) 1350/4096 (c) (540+81)/4096 12.(a) 1/4096 (b) 1458/4096 (c) (1458+729)/4096 (d) 1-(3/4)6 = 3367/4096 13. 6/36 (a) 500/1296 (b) 1- (625+500)/1296 (c) 625/1296 (d) 1/1296 14.(a) 0.00001 (b) 0.59049 ; prob.=0.00856 < 0.01 i.e 1% 15.(i) 0.1937 (ii) 1(0.9)10 = 0.651 BINOMIAL PROBABILITY 1. In 12 throws of a die, what is the probability of exactly 4 sixed turning up? 2. Hospital records show that of patients suffering from a certain complaint, 75% die of it. What is the probability that, of 6 randomly selected patients, all will recover? 3. A marksman finds that, on the average, he hits the target 4 times out of 5. If he fires 4 shots, what is the probability of (i) more than 2 hits, (ii) at least 3 misses. 4. What proportion of families with exactly 6 children should be expected to have at least 3 boys? (Assume that a child is a boy is 1/2 and ignore the possibility of multiple births.) 5. A manufacturer of metal pistons finds that on the average 12% of his pistons are rejected because they are either oversized or undersized, What is the probability that a batch of 10 pistons will contain (i) no more than 2 rejects, (ii) at least 2 rejects. 6. It is known that, in the long run, 7 out of 10 students from year 12 of a class will enter university. Assuming a binomial distribution, find the probability that out of a group of 5 students chosen at random from this form (i) exactly 3 enter the university, (ii) any number up to and including 3 will enter, (iii) only the first 3 chosen will enter. 7. In the long run 40% of patients treated for particluar disease with the drug streptomycin are cured. If a doctor were to treat 10 randomly chosen patients with the drug, what is the probability of (i) 9 cures, (ii) more than 8 cures ? A second doctor treats 10 patients with a new drug and obtains more than 8 cures. Comment on this result. 8. A dental inspector find that about 20% of children of a certain area have tooth decay. What is the probability that out of 6 children examined, only the first, third and fifth will have tooth decay. 9. A long series of hospital record show that 40% of cases of a certain disease fail to recover. Calculate the probability of a sample of 10 patients yielding only one death. If it were known that these ten patients had been subjected to a new treatment, what inference would you make about the efficacy of this treatment. 10. A Gallup Poll established that 60% of people interviewed are in favour of a certain proposal. What is the probability that if 15 people are selected at random, there will be a majority of them against the proposal.

11. Three uniform tetrahedra (triangular pyramids) each has one face black, another white, another red and the other green, When tossed onto a table, 3 faces of each tetrahedra can be seen. What is the probability that (i) no black face can be seen, (ii) exactly 2 black faces can be seen, (iii) at least 2 red faces can be seen, (iv) 3 white faces and only 1 green face can be seen. 12. A die is rolled 10 times. What is the probability of at least 2 sixes turning up? 13. A die is loaded such that in 10 independent trials the probability that an even number appears 5 times is twice the probability that an even number appears 4 times. What is the probability that an even will appear in a single trial? 14. What is the probability that a family of 4 children will contain 4 girls. 15. The probability that persons aged 60 and 65 will survive the next year is 0.97 and 0.96 respectively. From a group of 5 people of whom 3 are aged 60 and 2 aged 65, what is the probability that (i) not more than one will die within next year, (ii) the two aged 65 survive and not more than one dies within the next year. 16. How many times must a fair coin be tossed so that the probability of at least one head exceed 0.9? 17. In an examination consisting of 10 true-false questions, a student guesses the answers. What is the probability that he will gain 70% or better? 18. Assuming that the chance of death by accident is 1/300, estimate the probability that out of random selection of 150, there will be at least 1 death by accident. 19. John estimates that the probability of his winning any one game of tennis against a particular opponent is 1/3. How many games should they play so that the probability that John wins at least one gam is greater than 0.9? 20. On the average, a typist has to correct one word out of 800 words. Assuming that a page contains 200 words, find the probability of more than one correction per page. 21. Steel rods are manufactured to be 4 cm in diameter but they are acceptable if they are between 3.98 cm and 4.02 cm. The manufacturer find that in the long run 3% are rejected as oversized and 3 % are undersized. A random sample of 10 rods is selected randomly from the population. What is the probability that it contains not more than one which has to be rejected. 22. Four families each have 4 children. What is the probability that (i) at least one of these families has 2 boys and 2 girls, (ii) each family has at least 1 boy. 23. A man finds that on the average he hits the target 9 times out of every 10 times and scores a bull's eye on the average once every 5 rounds. He fires 4 rounds. What is the probability that (i) he hits the target each time, (ii) he scores at least 2 bull's eyes, (iii) he scores at least 2 bull's eyes and he has hit the target on each of the 4 rounds. 24. In a packet of flower seeds 40% are known to be pink flowering and the remainder yellow. Calculate the probability of getting 0, 1, 2, ...,6 pink flowers in a row of 6 plants. If 2500 rows each of 6 plants are planted, how many rows would be expected to contain (a) all pink flower, (b) all yellow flowers.

25. If 10 coins are tossed 50 times, in how many cases would we expect the number of heads to exceed the number of tails. 26. On the average, a man scores a bull's eyes in 2 out of every 3 shots. He fires at a target in multiples of 5 shots. Estimate how many mulriples of 5 shots with 3 bull's eyes would occur in a thousand multiples. 27. A factory has 7 machines, 4 of model A which are in use, on the average, 80% of the time and 3 of model B which are in use 60% of the time. If a manager walks into the factory at a random selected time, what is the probability that (i) he will find 2 machines of model A and 1 of model B in use, (ii) he finds 2 machines in use. 28. If, over a certain period of time, rain falls at random and on the average on 12 days in every 30, find the probability that (i) the first 3 days of a given week will be fine and the remainder wet, (ii) rain will fall on just 3 days of a given week, (iii) at least 3 days in a given week will be fine. 29. A manufacturer of gold chains finds that on the averge 1 gold chain in every 20 is faulty, The gold chains are marked in packets of 5. Out of a batch of 200 packets, how many would be expected to have 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 faulty chains. 30. During the course of a particular morning, a machine in a factory workshop was active or idle as specified belows: Time (AM) Status 9:00-9:30 Idle 9:30-10:20 Active 10:20-10:30 Idle 10:30-11:30 Active 11:30-12:00 Idle If a work engineer had walked through the workshop at a time randomly selected between 9:00 and 12 noon, determine the probability that he would have found the machine idle. Determine also the probability that if he had observed it at six randomly selected times during this period he would have found it idle (i) at all of them, (ii) at all but one of them. 31. In order to form an estimate of the quality of mass-produced articles, a customer adopts the following double sampling scheme. A random sample of 10 is inspected; if no defectives are found, he accepts the lot; if 4 or more defectives are found he rejects the lot; but if 1,2 or 3 defectives are found, he takes a second sample of 10 and if the total of defectives in the two samples is 4 or more, he rejects the lot, but if the total of defectives in the two samples is 4 or more, he rejects the lot, but otherwise accepts the lot. Calculate the probability that a lot which is known to be 10% defective is accepted. 32. If p is the probability of a success in each of n independent trials, show, by using the binomial expansion of (q+p)n that the most likely of successes is np. 33. Find the most likely number of successes in each of the following: (a) Number of heads in 20 tosses of a fair coin. (b) Number of defective articles in a sample of 25 articles drawn from a population which is 10% defective. (c) Number of people in favour of a certain candidate in a sample of 30 voters taken from a population which is 60% in favour of the candidate.

ANSWERS: 1. 0.08883 2. 0.0002441 3.(i) 0.8192 (ii) 0.0272 4. 21/32 5. (i) 0.8916 (ii) 0.3415 6.(i) 0.3087 (ii) 0.4718 (ii) 0.03087 7.(i) 0.001573 (ii) 0.001678 8. 64/3125 9. 0.04031 10. 0.3174 11.(i) 1/64 (ii) 27/64 (iii) 27/32 (iv) 3/32 12. 0.5155 13. 5/8 14. 1/16 15.(i) 0.9893 (ii) 0.9192 16. 4 17. 11/64 18. 0.394 19. 6 20. 0.0625 21. 0.8824 22. (i) 3471/4096 (ii) (15/16)4 23.(i) 0.6561 (ii) 113/625 (iii) 177/1250 24. 0.0041, 0.0368, 0.2764, 0.3109, 0.1865, 0.0466 (a) 10 (b) 117 25. 19 26. 329 27.(i) 0.04422 (ii) 0 0.0179 28.(i) 0.0055 (ii) 0.2903 (iii) 0.9038 29. 155, 41, 4, 0, 0, 0 30. 7/18; (i) 0.003457 (ii) 0.0326 31. 0.868 33. (a) 10 (b) 2 (c) 18. Some Challenge Problems in Probability 1. The Sock Drawer A drawer contained red socks and black socks. When two socks are drawn at random, the probability that both are red is 1/2. (a) How small can the number of socks in the drawer be? (b) How small if the number of black socks is even? 2. Successive Wins To encourage Elmer's promising tennis career, his father offers him a prize if we wins (at least) two tennis sets in a row in a three- set series to be played with his father and the club champion alternately: father-champion-father or champion-father-champion, according to Elmer's choice. The champion is a better player than his Elmer's father. Which series should Elmer choose? 3. Trials Until First Success On the average, how many times must a die be thrown until one gets a 6? 4. Coin in Square In a common carnival game, a player tosses a penny from a distance about 5 feet onto the surface of a table rule in 1-inch squares. If the penny (3/4 inch in diameter) falls entirely inside a square, the player receives 5 cents but does not get his penny back; otherwise, he loses his penny. If the penny lands on the table, what is his chance to win? 5. Silent Cooperation Two strangers are separately asked to choose one of the positive whole numbers and advised that if they choose the same number, they both get a prize. If you were one of these people, what number would you choose? 6. Quo Vadis Two strangers who have a private recognition signal agree to meet on a certain Thursday at 12 noon in New York City, a town familiar to neither, to discuss an important business deal, but later they discover that they have not chosen a meeting place, and neither can reach the other because both have embarked on trips. If they try nevertheless to meet, where should they go? 7. Collecting Coupons Coupons in cereal are numbered 1 to 5, and a set of one of each is required for a prize. With one coupon per box, how many boxes on the average are required to make a complete set? 8. The Theatre Row Eight eligible and seven beautiful models happen randomly to have purchased single seats in the same 15-seat row of a theatre. On the average, how many pairs of adjacent seats are ticketed for marriageable couples? 9. An Even Split at Coin Tossing When 100 coins are tossed, what is the probability that exactly 50 are heads? 10. Isaac Newton Helps Samuels Pepys Pepys wrote to Newton to ask which of three events is more likely: that a person get (a) at least 1 sex when 6 dice are rolled; (b) at least 2 sixes when 12 dice are rolled; (c) at least 3 sixes when 18 dice are rolled. What is the answer? 11. The Ballot Box In an election, two candidates, Albert and Ben, have in a ballot box a and b votes, respectively, a>b, for example, 3 and 2. If ballots are randomly drawn and tallied, what is the chance that at least once after the first tally the candidates have the same number of tallies?

12. Players A and B match pennies N times. They keep a tally of their gains and losses. After the first toss, what is the chance that at no time during the game, will they be even? 13. Select the Largest Dowry In order to test a candidate for the position of a wise man, the king offers him a chance to marry the young princess with the largest dowry. The amounts of dowries are written on slips of paper and mixed. A slip is drawn at random and the wise man must decide whether that is the largest dowry or not. If he decides it is, he gets the princess and her dowry, if he is correct; otherwise, he gets nothing. If he decides against the amount written on the first slip, he must choose or refuse the next slip and son on until he chooses one or else the slips are exhausted. In all 100 attractive princesses (the king as a lot of wives!) participated, each with a different dowry. How should the wise man make his decision? 14. Random Quadratic Equations What is the probability that the quadratic equation x^2 + 2bx + c = 0 has real roots? 15. Broken Bar A bar is broken at random in two places. Find the average size of the smallest, of the middle-sized, and of the largest pieces. 16. Thick Coin How thick should a coin be to have a 1/3 chance of landing on edge ? 17. Birthday problems (a) What is the least number of persons required if the probability exceeds 1/2 that two or more of them have the same birthday? (Year of birth need not match.) (b) You want to find someone whose birthday matches you. What is the least number of strangers whose birthdays you need to ask about to have a 50-50 chance? (c) If k persons compare birthdays in the pairing problem, the probability is P(k) that at least 2 have the same birthday. What should n be in the personal birthmate problem to make your probability of success approximately P(k) ? 18. Prisoner's dilemma Three prisoners A, B and C, who equally have good records, have applied for parole. The parole board has decided to release two of the three, and the prisoners know this but not which two. A warder friend of prisoner A knows who are to be released. Prisoner A realises that it would be unethical to ask the warder if he, A, is to be released, but thinks of asking for name of ONE prisoner OTHER THAN HIMSELF who is to be released. He thinks that before he asks, his chance of release are 2/3. He thinks that if the warder say "B will be released", his own chances have now gone down to 1/2, because either A and B or B and C are to be released. And so A decides not to reduce his chance by asking. However, A is mistaken in his calculation, why ? 19. The Flippant Juror There are two jury systems. First, a three-man jury has two members each of whom independently has probability P of making the correct decision and a third member who is undecided and only makes decision by flipping a coin for each decision (majority rules). The second system is a one-man jury, which has probability P of making a correct decision. Which jury has the better probability of making the correct decision? 20. Length of Random Chords If a chord is selected at random on a fixed circle, what is the probability that its length exceeds the radius of the circle? 21. Catching the Cautious Counterfeiter (a) The King's minter boxes his coins 100 to a box. In each box, he put 1 false coin. The King suspects the minter and from each of 100 boxes draws a random coin and has it tested. What is the chance the minter's peculations go undetected? (b) What if both 100's are replaced by N? 22. Catching the Greedy Counterfeiter

The King's minter boxes his coins N to a box. Each box contains M false coins. The King suspects the minter draws 1 coin from each of N boxes and has these tested. What is the chance that the sample of N coins contain exactly R false ones? 23. Evening the Sales A bread salesman sells on the average 20 cakes on a round of his route. What is the chance that he sells even number of cakes> (We assume the sales follow the Poisson distribution) 24. Choosing the Largest Random Number The King wants a wise man to choose the largest number from among 100 numbers. The numbers on slips are randomly drawn from the numbers from 0 to 1 (random numbers, uniformly distributed). Now, what should the wise man's strategy be? 25. Random Walk Starting from an origin O, a particle has a 50-50 chance of moving 1 step north or 1 step south, and also a 50-50 chance of moving 1 step east or 1 step west. After the step is taken, the move repeated from the new position and so on indefinitely. What is the chance that the particle returns to the origin? 26. Three Dimensional Random Walk As in the two-dimensional walk, a particle starts at an origin O in three-space. Think of the origin as centered in a cube 2 units on a side. One move in this walk sends the particle with equal likelihood to one of the eight corners of the cube. Thus, at every move, the particle has a 50-50 chance of moving one unit up or down, one unit east or west, and one unit north or south. If the walk continues forever, find the fraction of particles that return to the origin.