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Document No.

Applicability Date

GIS 26-101 Group 9 July 2003

Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

GIS 26-101

BP GROUP
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL PRACTICES

9 July 2003

GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

Foreword
This is the first issue of ETP BP GIS 26-101. It is based on documents of the merged BP companies, as follows:

BP (Pre-1999)
BP GS 126-1 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers.

Amoco
A FE-HE-660-P A FEHETIP Fabricated EquipmentHeat ExchangersAPI 660-Shell and Tube Procurement Specification. Fabricated EquipmentHeat ExchangersTitanium-Fixed Tubesheet Procurement Specification.

Arco
ES 20-91 Tubular Heat Exchangers.

PTA
PTA FEHETIP Fabricated EquipmentHeat ExchangersTitanium-Fixed Tubesheet Procurement Specification.

Copyright 2003, BP Group. All rights reserved. The information contained in this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which the document was supplied to the recipients organization. None of the information contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipients own organization without the prior written permission of Manager, Standards, BP Group, unless the terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

Table of Contents
Page Foreword............................................................................................................................................2 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................5 1 2 4 5 Scope........................................................................................................................................6 Normative references ...............................................................................................................6 General .....................................................................................................................................6 Proposals..................................................................................................................................7 5.2 6 Vendors responsibilities................................................................................................7

Drawings and other required data ............................................................................................7 6.2 6.3 Information required after drawings are reviewed .........................................................7 Reports and records ......................................................................................................8

Design.......................................................................................................................................8 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.12 Design temperature .......................................................................................................8 Cladding for corrosion allowance ..................................................................................8 Shell supports................................................................................................................9 Tube bundle...................................................................................................................9 Nozzles and other connections ...................................................................................10 Flanged external girth joints ........................................................................................11 Expansion joints ..........................................................................................................11 Gaskets .......................................................................................................................12 Hydrogen service.........................................................................................................12

Materials .................................................................................................................................12 8.3 Tubes...........................................................................................................................12

9.

Fabrication ..............................................................................................................................12 9.4 9.5 9.10 9.11 Tubes...........................................................................................................................13 Welding........................................................................................................................13 Tube-to-tubesheet joints..............................................................................................13 Assembly .....................................................................................................................13

10

Inspection and testing.............................................................................................................13 10.1 10.4 Quality assurance........................................................................................................13 Nameplates and stampings .........................................................................................14

11

Preparation for shipment ........................................................................................................14

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

11.1

Protection ....................................................................................................................14

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................15

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

Introduction
a. Guidance for shell and tube heat exchangers is based on ISO 16812 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Shell-and-tube heat exchangers, First Edition, 2002-07-01/API 660 7th Edition. Guidance statements of this GIS are modifications to ISO 16812. Modifications to ISO 16812 are identified as Add, Modify to Read, or Delete. Paragraph numbers in this specification correspond to ISO 16812. Paragraphs of ISO 16812 that are not revised remain applicable.

b. c. d. e.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

Scope
Add This Engineering Technical Practice (ETP) provides guidance on industry standard for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing, documentation, and preparation for shipment of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers based on ISO 16812.

2
Add

Normative references

BP
GIS 46-10 GS 118-8 Guidance on Industry Standard for Pressure Vessels. Heat Exchanger Tube End Fixing.

International Standardization Organization (ISO)


ISO 9001 Quality management systems Requirements.

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA)


Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

4
Add 4.6

General

Thermal design shall be performed using Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Services (HTFS) or Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (HTRI) methods and software. If other methods and software are used and a dispute regarding the design of the unit arises, a crosscheck using HTFS/HTRI software is required. In case of conflict between documents, the order of priority shall be: a. b. c. d. e. The inquiry or purchase order. The data sheet. This standard. TEMA Standards. Pressure Vessel Code.

4.7

4.8

In the event of any conflict between the requirements of this standard and the data sheet, said conflict shall be referred to BP for clarification before proceeding with the manufacture of affected items.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

4.9

Resolution of conflicts between the proposal and the purchase order shall be subject to BP approval. Work affected by such conflict shall not proceed until approved by BP.

5
5.2 5.2.7

Proposals
Vendors responsibilities Modify to Read The vendor shall provide the following items:

Add 5.2.8 Minimum required thickness (retirement thickness) calculations shall be provided for exchanger shell, channel, tube sheet, shell and channel covers, and each inlet and outlet process nozzle. (Minimum required thicknesses are thicknesses required for the design condition calculated in accordance with the Code and TEMA Standards). If the vendor is carrying out the thermal and hydraulic performance and vibration calculations, they shall guarantee the thermal and hydraulic performance and freedom from vibration damage. Input data and results of thermal design and vibration calculations shall be submitted to BP for approval. Fabrication, inspection, and testing shall not be subcontracted without prior written approval from BP. Quotation shall clearly indicate intentions to subcontract any part of the work and the name and location of subcontractor.

5.2.9

5.2.10

6
6.2 6.2.2 6.2.4

Drawings and other required data


Information required after drawings are reviewed Delete the Phrase if required by purchaser Revise to Read The vendor shall submit the following documentation to BP for review and approval prior to start of fabrication:

6.2.4.b)

Add and in accordance with applicable building codes;

6.2.4

Add d) e) Quality and inspection plan. All postweld heat treatment procedures.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

6.3

Reports and records Add m) copy of the thermal, hydraulic and vibration calculations and an electronic copy of the HTRI or HTFS computer file based on the as-built heat exchanger for the base case and all alternate cases. Computer files shall be suitably labelled.

Design
Add Design of channels, bolting, and pass partitions shall consider the stresses imposed by differential thermal expansion. Design of pass partitions shall also consider differential pressure (see paragraph 7.4.3).

7.1

Design temperature Modify Heading to Read Design temperature and pressure

Add 7.1.4 7.1.5 If the exchanger requires vacuum design, it shall be designed for full vacuum. Heat exchanger shall be rated to the highest maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) allowed by the actual as-built equipment. Cladding for corrosion allowance Modify Heading to Read Corrosion control and cladding 7.2.2 Modify to Read Clad and weld overlay shall comply with GIS 46-10, Annex 3. Add 7.2.3 7.2.4 Alloy linings, other than clad or weld overlay, shall not be used unless approved by BP. If sacrificial anodes are specified for cooling water service corrosion control, they shall be located in the channel. Type of anode shall be as specified on the data sheet. Sacrificial anode materials shall be either zinc, to US Mil Spec.18001 or equivalent, or aluminium-zinc-indium. a) Zinc should not be used above 50C (120F).

7.2

Zinc has a marked tendency to passivate at elevated temperatures. b) Aluminium-zinc indium alloys should not be used above 80C (176F).

Aluminium-zinc-indium alloys show a marked reduction in electrochemical capacity at elevated temperatures. c) Magnesium anodes should not be used in shell and tube heat exchangers.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

Magnesium has a high self-corrosion rate and limited life in saline water. Magnesium also has a high driving potential that can resulting damage to protective coatings. 7.3 Add 7.3.6 Approval for stacking three or more exchangers shall be obtained from BP. Stress calculations for shell supports shall be in accordance with GIS 46-10, paragraph 7.10.2. Tube bundle
Tubes

Shell supports

7.6
7.6.1

Add 7.6.1.5 7.6.1.6 Maximum unsupported tube length shall be 80% of TEMA maximum span. If required to maintain minimum tube wall thickness, the inner two rows of U tubes shall have a wall thickness one gauge thicker than the remaining tubes.
Tubesheets

7.6.2

7.6.2.3

Add For tubesheets in fixed tubesheet exchangers, significant cost benefits may be obtained by applying methods defined in the pressure vessel code in lieu of TEMA.

7.6.3

Transverse baffles and support plates

7.6.3.1

Modify to Read Thickness of transverse baffles and support plates shall be the greater of two times the shell side corrosion allowance or the thickness specified in TEMA Table R4.41.

7.6.4

Impingement protection

7.6.4.1

Modify to Read Tube impingement protection shall be provided for all shell and tube heat exchangers by a plate baffle or rods on the tube bundle, a distributor belt, or another means agreed by BP and the vendor. Perforated impingement plates shall not be used.

7.6.4.4

Add or twice the shellside corrosion allowance whichever is the greater.

7.6.5

Bypass sealing devices

7.6.5.5

Add or twice the shellside corrosion allowance whichever is the greater.

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

7.6.7

Tube-to-tubesheet joint

Add Tube-to-tubesheet joints shall be in accordance with GS 118-8. 7.7 Add 7.7.11 7.7.12 Stresses on interconnecting nozzles resulting from different thermal growth rates of stacked exchangers shall be included as superimposed loads in designing the nozzles. Unless otherwise specified, instrument connections shall not be provided in the exchanger nozzles. Flanged external girth joints Nozzles and other connections

7.8 Add 7.8.8

For flanges of diameter greater than 1 500 mm (59 in) the vendor shall either demonstrate previous satisfactory experience of resistance to leakage on similar designs or provide stiffness/leakage calculations. A combination of dissimilar materials at elevated or low temperatures; A flange with through bolting at temperatures above 400C (750F) or below 50C (58F); A flange assembly subject to cyclic temperature conditions.

7.9 7.9.4

Expansion joints Modify to Read Expansion joints shall preferably be of the single convolution thick walled type (flanged only or flanged and flued) rated for at least 1 500 cycles at full design movement. The design code used shall be agreed between BP and the vendor (examples are AD Merkblatter or TEMA). If thick wall bellows cannot be used then thin wall multi-convoluted bellows may be used but requires BP approval. The design code used shall be agreed between BP and the vendor (examples are EJMA and ASME VIII Div 1 App 26).

Add 7.9.5 If thin-walled bellows have been approved by BP, suitable protection shall be fitted to prevent damage to the bellows during fabrication, transport, installation and operation. A locking device shall be fitted to ensure that damage cannot occur during lifting of the exchanger. The expansion joint design and a quality plan for the manufacture of the bellows shall be prepared for BP approval.

7.9.6

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

7.10 7.10.3 Add 7.10.4

Gaskets Delete unless otherwise specified by the purchaser

Design conditions and hydrostatic test pressures shall not be limited by gasketing. Gasketing shall be verified at hydraulic test condition. Hydrogen service Modify to Read partial pressure exceeding 350 kPa (3,5 bar) (50 psi) absolute,

7.12

Add
7.13 Drainage

1. 2. 3.

Channel and floating head pass partitions shall be arranged such that tube side of each exchanger is self-draining through tubes. Pass partition plates may require weep holes. If possible, free drainage shall be provided through the bottom nozzles. Segmented baffles, skid bars, sealing strips, and support plates that trap liquid shall be notched for free drainage.

8
8.3 Add 8.3.3

Materials
Tubes

Seamless tubes shall be used for onerous (e.g., sour water, wet H2S, hydrogen, amine, caustic, cyanide, hydrofluoric acid, nitrate, sulphur dioxide, wet CO2, or polythionic acid) service, where corrosive attack on the weld can occur.

9.
9.1 Add 9.1.4

Fabrication
Modify Heading to Read Shells and heads

Marking materials that contain bromide, chloride, or sulphur shall not be used on stainless or nickel based alloys. Tubes Modify to Read Tubes shall be formed from a single length and shall have no circumferential welds.

9.4

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

9.5 9.5.10

Welding Modify to Read partial pressure (absolute) exceeding 350 kPa (3,5 bar) (50 psi).

Add 9.5.11 Welding, including attachments to pressure containing parts, shall be completed before postweld heat treatments. Tube-to-tubesheet joints Modify section to read Tube-to-tubesheet joints shall be in accordance with GS 118-8. 9.11 Assembly Add Matchmarks shall be made by a 1,5 mm (1/16 in) deep scribed line at the 12 and 3 oclock positions on the outer face of components.

9.10

10
10.1

Inspection and testing


Quality assurance Add A quality system that complies with the design code and this GIS shall be operated. The quality system shall be in accordance with the relevant part of ISO 9001 or equivalent. Technical and QA requirements specified in the inquiry and purchase documents shall be assured to apply to all materials, equipment and services provided by subcontractors.

10.4 Add 10.4.4

Nameplates and stampings

Nameplate shall indicate:


BP order number BP item number Date of manufacture Order placed by Manufacturers name Manufacturers serial number Design code and its date Total mass empty Bundle mass empty (if removeable) Any statutory markings (e.g. CE mark) Inspectors stamp BP works identification number Construction category or degree of RE (shell & tube side) Heat treatment (shell & tube side) Design pressure and MAWP Maximum design temperature (shell & tube side) Minimum design temperature (shell & tube side) Test pressure new and corroded (shell & tube side)

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GIS 26-101 Guidance on Industry Standard for ISO 16812 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (API 660)

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11.1 11.1.7

Preparation for shipment


Protection Add Carbon steel exchanger shells that will not be insulated shall be commercially sandblasted and given a prime coat of manufacturers standard paint. Other exchangers preferably to be delivered without paint, except that exchangers operating at temperatures below 93C (200F) shall receive a prime coat.

Add 11.1.10

a.

Equipment or materials that contain or are coated with any regulated substances, such as the following, shall be prominently tagged at openings to indicate nature of contents and precautions for shipping, storage, and handling: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Insulating oils. Corrosion inhibitors. Antifreeze solutions. Desiccants. Chemical substances. Hydrocarbon substances.

b. c.

Regulated substances shall have a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDSs shall fully comply with regulations for MSDS preparation specified by entity that has jurisdiction and shall include a statement that the substance is considered hazardous by regulation. If any substance is exempt from regulation, a statement to that effect shall be included. Before shipment, MSDSs shall be forwarded to receiving facility. At shipment, MSDSs in protective envelopes shall be affixed to the outside of the shipment.

d. e. f.

Bibliography
Add [6] BSI BS EN 13445-3 Unfired Pressure Vessels Part 3: Design. [7] EJMA Standard of Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association. [8] AD Merkblatter.

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