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Some Variants of Bell's Theorem This section will discuss in some detail two variants of Bell's Theorem which

de part in some respect from the conceptual framework presented in Section 2. Both are less general than the version in Section 2, because they apply only to a det erministic local realistic theory that is a theory in which a complete state m a ssigns only probabilities 1 or 0 (yes or no) to the outcomes of the experimental tes ts performed on the systems of interest. By contrast, the Local Realistic Theori es studied in Section 2 are allowed to be stochastic, in the sense that a comple te state can assign other probabilities between 0 and 1 to the possible outcomes . At the end of the section two other variants will be mentioned briefly but not summarized in detail. The first variant is due independently to Kochen and Specker (1967), Heywood and Redhead (1983), and Stairs (1983). Its ensemble of interest consists pairs of s pin-1 particles in the entangled state (50) |> = 1/3 [ |z,1>1 |z,1>2 |z,0>1 |z,0>2 + |z,1>1 |z,1>2 ], where |z,i>1, with i = 1 or 0 or 1 is the spin state of particle 1 with component of spin i along the axis z, and |z,i>2 has an analogous meaning for particle 2. If x,y,z is a triple of orthogonal axes in 3-space then the components sx, sy, sz of the spin operator along these axes do not pairwise commute; but it is a pe culiarity of the spin-1 system that the squares of these operators sx2, sy2, sz2 do commute, and therefore, in view of the considerations of Section 1, any two of them can constitute a context in the measurement of the third. If the operato r of interest is sz2, the axes x and y can be any pair of orthogonal axes in the plane perpendicular to z, thus offering an infinite family of contexts for the measurement of sz2. As noted in Section 1 Bell exhibited the possibility of a co ntextual hidden variables theory for a quantum system whose Hilbert space has di mension 3 or greater even though the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem showed the impo ssibility of a non-contextual hidden variables theory for such a system. The str ategy of Kochen and of Heywood-Redhead is to use the entangled state of Eq. (50) to predict the outcome of measuring sz2 for particle 2 (for any choice of z ) by measuring its counterpart on particle 1. A specific complete state m would deter mine whether sz2 of 1, measured together with a context in 1, is 0 or 1. Agreeme nt with the quantum mechanical prediction of the entangled state of Eq. (50) imp lies that sz2 of 2 has the same value 0 or 1. But if the Locality Conditions (8a ,b) and (9a,b) are assumed, then the result of measuring sz2 on 2 must be indepe ndent of the remote context, that is, independent of the choice of sx2 and sy2 o f 1, hence of 2 because of correlation, for any pair of orthogonal directions x and y in the plane perpendicular to z. It follows that the Local Realistic Theor y which supplies the complete state m is not contextual after all, but maps the set of operators sz2 of 2, for any direction z, noncontextually into the pair of values (0, 1). But that is impossible in view of the Bell-Kochen-Specker theore m. The conclusion is that no deterministic Local Realistic Theory is consistent with the Quantum Mechanical predictions of the entangled state (50). An alternat ive proof is thus provided for an important special case of Bell's theorem, whic h was the case dealt with in Bell's pioneering paper of 1964: that no determinis tic local realistic theory can agree with all the predictions of quantum mechani cs. An objection may be raised that sz2 of 1 is in fact measured together with o nly a single context e.g., sx2 and sy2 while other contexts are not measured, an d unperformed experiments have no results (a famous remark of Peres 1978). It may be that this remark is a correct epitome of the Copenhagen interpretation of qua ntum mechanics, but it certainly is not a valid statement in a deterministic ver sion of a Local Realistic interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, because a determi nistic complete state is just what is needed as the ground for a valid counterfa ctual conditional. We have good evidence to this effect in classical physics: fo r example, the charge of a particle, which is a quantity inferred from the actua l acceleration of the particle when it is subjected to an actual electric field,

provides in conjunction with a well-confirmed force law the basis for a counter factual proposition about the acceleration of the particle if it were subjected to an electric field different from the actual one. A simpler proof of Bell's Theorem, also relying upon counterfactual reasoning an d based upon a deterministic local realistic theory, is that of Hardy (1993), he re presented in Lalo's (2001) formulation. Consider an ensemble of pairs 1 and 2 of spin- particles, the spin of 1 measured along directions in the xz-plane makin g angles a=/2 and a=0 with the z-axis, and angles b and b having analogous signific ance for 2. The quantum states for particle 1 with spins + and relative to directi on a are respectively |a,+>1 and |a,>1, and relative to direction a are respectively (51a) |a,+>1 = cos|a,+>1 + sin|a,>1 and (51b) |a,>1 = -sin|a,+>1 + cos|a,>1; the spin states for 2 are analogous. The ensemble of interest is prepared in the entangled quantum state (52) |> = -cos|a,+>1 |b,>2 cos|a,>1 |b,+>2 + sin|a,+>1 |b,+>2 (unnormalized, because normalization is not needed for the following argument). Then for the specified a, a, b, and b the following quantum mechanical predictions hold: (53) <|a,+>1 |b,+>2 = 0; (54) <|a,+>1 |b,+>2 = 0 ; (55) <|a,>1 |b,>2 = 0; and for almost all values of the of Eq. (52) (56) <|a,+>1 |b,+>2 0 , with the maximum occurring around = 9o. Inequality (56) asserts that for the spe cified angles there is a non-empty subensemble E of pairs for which the results f or a spin measurement along a for 1 and along b for 2 are both +. Eq. (53) impli es the counterfactual proposition that if the spin of a 2 in E had been measured along b then with certainty the result would have been ; and likewise Eq. (54) imp lies the counterfactual proposition that if the spin of a 1 in E had been measure d along a then with certainty the result would have been . It is in this step that counterfactual reasoning is used in the argument, and, as in the argument of Ko chen-Heywood-Redhead-Stairs in the previous paragraph, the reasoning is based up on the deterministic Local Realistic Theory. Since the subensemble E is non-empty , we have reached a contradiction with Eq. (55), which asserts that if the spin of 1 is measured along a and that of 2 is measured along b then it is impossible t hat both results are . The incompatibility of a deterministic Local Realistic The ory with Quantum Mechanics is thereby demonstrated. An attempt was made by Stapp (1997) to demonstrate a strengthened version of Bel l's theorem which dispenses with the conceptual framework of a Local Realistic T heory and to use instead the logic of counterfactual conditionals. His intricate argument has been the subject of a criticism by Shimony and Stein (2001, 2003), who are critical of certain counterfactual conditionals that are asserted by St app by means of a possible worlds analysis without a grounding on a deterministic Local Realistic Theory, and a response by Stapp (2001) himself, who defends his argument with some modifications.

The three variants of Bell's Theorem considered so far in this section concern e nsembles of pairs of particles. An entirely new domain of variants is opened by studying ensembles of n-tuples of particles with n3. The prototype of this kind o f theorem was demonstrated by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (1989) (GHZ) for n=4 and modified to n=3 by Mermin (1990) and by Greenberger, Horne, Shimony, an d Zeilinger (1990) (GHSZ). In the theorem of GHZ an entangled quantum state was written for four spin particles and the expectation value of the product of cert ain binary measurements performed on the individual particles was calculated. Th ey then showed that the attempt to duplicate this expectation value subject to t he constraints of a Local Realistic Theory produces a contradiction. A similar r esult was obtained by Mermin for a state of 3 spin- particles and by GHSZ for a s tate of 3 photons entangled in direction. Because of the length of these argumen ts and limitations of space in the present article the details will not be summa rized here. urthermore, for the philosophically crucial purpose of demonstratin g experimentally the validity of Quantum Mechanical predictions and the violatio n of the corresponding predictions of Local Realistic Theories the examples usin g pairs of particles in Section 3 are more promising than n-tuple experiments wi th n3. In particular, it is evident that the detection loophole is more difficult to block in an experiment performed with n-tuples of particles, n3 , than in an experiment using pairs, because the net efficiency of detecting n-tuples is prop ortional to the product of the efficiencies of the detectors of the individual p articles.