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Foetus Ultrasound Medical Image Segmentation via Variational Level Set Algorithm

M.Y. Choong

S.S. Yang A. Kiring K.T.K. Teo M.C. Seng Modelling, Simulation and Computing Laboratory, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. msclab@ums.edu.my ktkteo@ieee.org image segmentation method that used in the project is a parametric method. This paper is organized as follows. In section II, image segmentation methods described. Explanation of the level set algorithm is presented in section III. In section IV, the experimental results on foetus ultrasound medical image segmentation and discussions are provided. Lastly, this paper is concluded in section V. II. IMAGE SEGMENTATION METHODS Some previous approaches to image segmentation, which provide the basis for a variety of more recent methods, include boundary-based segmentation such as Canny edge detection [1], region-based segmentation such as region growing and global optimization approaches. Andreetto propose a simple probabilistic generative model for image segmentation. The model is principled, provides both hard and probabilistic cluster assignments, as well as the ability to naturally incorporate prior knowledge [2]. In many vision problems, the performance of the segmentation step is highly dependent on the algorithm selection and its parametrization. These tasks are tricky and time-consumming. Martin and Thonnat present an approach to perform task-oriented segmentation based on segmentation algorithm parameter tuning and learning techniques [3]. W.Tao, H.Jin and Y.Zhang developed a novel approach that provides effective and robust segmentation of colour images [4]. Colour image segmentation methods can be seen as an extension of the gray image segmentation method in the colour images, however, many of the original gray image segmentation methods cannot be directly implemented to colour images. Jun Tang proposes a colour image segmentation method of automatic seed region growing on basis of the region with the combination of the watershed algorithm with seed region growing algorithm which based on the traditional seed region growing algorithm [5]. Michael and Anil propose a method of segmentation by using the object classication subsystem as an integral part of the segmentation. This will provide contextual information regarding the objects to be segmented, and the probability of correct classication as a metric to determine the quality of the segmentation [6]. Clustering is a vital element of model identification field means distinguishing and classifying things that are provided with similar properties. Based on image segmentation and model identification technologies and considering application characteristics of clustering method into image segmentation, Z.Wang and M.Yang

AbstractThere is a challenge to segment the medical image which is often blurred and consists of noise. The objects to be segmented are always changing shape. Thus, there is a need to apply a method to automated segment well the objects for future analysis without any assumptions about the objects topology are made. In general, when performing pregnancy ultrasound scanning, obstetrician needs to find out the best position or angle of the foetus and freeze the scene. The obstetrician will click on the crown and the rump of the foetus to get the foetus length. The segmentation technique applied is level set method. A variational level set algorithm has been successfully implemented in medical image segmentation (Xray image, MRI image and ultrasound image). The results showed the level set contour evolved well on the low contrast and noise consisting medical image, especially the ultrasound image. Keywords-image segmentation; level set algorithms; foetus ultrasound medical image

I.

INTRODUCTION

Image segmentation plays an important role in image analysis, appearing in many applications including pattern recognition, object detection, and medical imaging. Image segmentation means to partition an image into meaningful region with respect to a particular application and corresponding to individual surfaces, objects, or natural parts of objects. In general, image segmentation is the first stage in image analysis which seeks to simplify the data into its basic component elements or objects within the scene. The purpose of image segmentation is to simplify the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. There are some applications of image segmentation which include identify an object in a screen for object based measurements such as size and shape. For example, by segment the body of the foetus from the ultrasound image, future calculation of the foetus weight can be obtained through the region of segmentation. This can help the obstetrician to check whether the foetus is growing healthily. Image segmentation can be generally categorized into two categories which are parametric and non-parametric image segmentation. Parametric approaches are more generative. Non-parametric method does not require the image regions to have a particular type of probability distribution and does not require the extraction and use of a particular statistic. The

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proposes a fuzzy clustering application into image segmentation [7]. Geodesic active contour methods are powerful numerical techniques in image segmentation and analysis. Changzheng Liu present a new region based geodesic active contour method. The new method gives a global view of the boundary information within the image [8]. Pan Lin present a new method integrates the image region statistical information and image boundary statistical information instead of the conventional method that uses spatial image gradient information [9]. The level set approach was introduced by S. Osher and J. A. Sethianin 1988, which actually originates from computational fluid dynamics. Level sets are designed to handle problems in which the evolving interfaces can develop sharp corners and cusps, change topology and become very complex [10]. A variational model which is used to locate at the boundary of the object in the designated region is presented by Zhong. This is done by adding an intersect area term into our model. In this model, an energy functional needs to construct using two level set functions. One is used to capture the object of interest, the other one indicates image region which should be corrected [11]. III. LEVEL SET ALGORITHM The basic idea is to represent contours as the zero level set of an implicit function dened in a higher dimension (level set function), and to evolve the level set function according to a partial differential equation (PDE). This approach presents several advantages. First, the contours represented by the level set function may break or merge naturally during the evolution, and the topological changes are thus automatically handled. Second, the level set function always remains a function on a xed grid, which allows efficient numerical schemes. In this project, level set method will be focused in the image segmentation. The variational level set method can be totally eliminated the need of re-initialise process which is needed in the traditional level set method. A. Traditional Level Set Method The basic idea of level set formulation of active contour is represented by the zero level set function: (t ) = {( x, y ) | (t , x, y ) = 0} . (1) is the closed curve. (t, x, y) is the level set function. The set {(x, y)|(0, x, y) defines the initial contour. is negative inside object region, and positive outside the interested region. The evolution of the curve in normal direction with a speed F, which is called level set equation, can be written in the following general equation: + F | |= 0 . (2) t During the evolution, ordinary level set function can develop shocks (very sharp or flat shape) that can cause inaccuracy to the further computation. Re-initialise or reshape are used to avoid this problem. Initialise the function as a signed distance function before the evolution, and re-initialize the function to be a signed distance

function periodically during the evolution. The re-initialise process is definitely crucial and cannot be avoided in traditional level set method. B. Variational Level Set Method The variational level set method focus the level set function to be close to a signed distance function, and it completely eliminates the re-initialisation procedure. In the process of the image segmentation, the active contour (dynamic curve) will move towards the boundaries of object. This will be done by the external energy which can move the zero level curves toward the boundaries of interest region. In the variational level set method, that are few parameters need to be considered in order to get the most accurate result. These parameters include the standard deviation of Gaussian distribution, parameter of internal energy, parameter of weighted length term and parameter of weighted area term. Those parameters played an important role in the evolution of level set method. The value of these parameters needs to be selected correctly to maintain the stability of evolution level set equation. For the internal energy part, this parameter controls the effect of penalizing the deviation of from a signed distance function. The range of the time step and the coefficient must satisfy < 0.2 in order to maintain stable level set evolution. For < 0.2, small will take longer time to completely segment the image. With the same number of iteration, Fig. 1(b) shows the final evolution of level set curve is far away from boundary of object compared to Fig. 1(a). The parameter of weighted area term, can be positive or negative, depending on the relative position of the initial contour to the object of interest. The positive makes contour to shrink inwards and negative causes contour to expand outwards. The value of standard deviation can affect the result of the final contour. The edge-indicator is depended on the Gaussian distribution of the input image. The value of Gaussian function is decided from the standard deviation value. The Gaussian distribution is the basic of large proportion of statistical analysis. Its averaging almost always leads to a bell-shaped distribution where sometime referred to as normal distribution. In Gaussian distribution, standard deviation reflects the width of the bell. Small standard deviation leads to narrow bell and high peak. Large standard deviation results a wide bell and low peak. Fig. 2 shows the result of different value of standard deviation.

(a)

(b)

Figure 1. Result of evolution level set with 200 iterations with (a) = 0.02, (b) = 0.01.

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700 Iterations Standard deviation = 1.5 Figure 2. Results for evolution level set with various standards deviation. Images in left show edge-indicator and images in right show complete level set curve.

850 Iterations

C. Medical Image Segmentation using Variational Level Set Method There are various types of medical image. This includes X-ray image, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) image and ultrasound image. Fig. 3 shows the evolution of the level set contour on X-ray image of bone. Note that, the level set curve has slowly evolved towards the boundaries of the bone region. It shows the initial square contour successfully evolved to the boundaries of the bone at 850 iterations. Besides, the level set contour has enclosed the shape of the bone. The variational level set method has performed well in the segmentation of MRI images. It can handle the sharp corners and cusps of the brain tissue, and it is flexible to the topology change of the brain boundary. Result for evolution level set on MRI image of brain is shown in Fig. 4. Ultrasound image are famous for the speckle noise and low signal-to-noise ratio. Varaitional level set algorithm has played an important role as it can help the obstetrician to automatic segment the region of interest in the ultrasound image such as tumour cells. Fig. 5 shows the evolution of the level set contour on an ultrasound image of carotid artery and its result. Note that, the boundary of the carotid artery is blurry. However, the variational level set curve successfully evolved to the object boundaries at 250 iterations. In addition, the shape of the carotid artery has well covered by the contour. IV. EXPERIMANTAL RESULTS ON FEOTUS ULTRASOUND IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND DISCUSSION

Result Figure 3. Evolution of the level set contour on X-ray image of bone and its segmented result.

Initial Contour

200 Iterations

400 Iterations

600 Iterations

Result Figure 4. Evolution level set on MRI image of brain and its segmented result.

The foetus region is the region of interest need to be segmented. Foetus ultrasound images have been tested in the segmentation program by using the variational level set algorithm. The tested results are shown in the following.

Fig. 6 demonstrated the evolution of the level set contour on ultrasound image of a week tenth foetus. The level set curve was evolving towards the boundaries of the target region. The initial circle contour successfully stops evolved at the boundaries of the foetus. Fig. 7 demonstrates the initial ellipse level set contour evolving on ultrasound image of a week eighth foetus and a week sixth foetus respectively. The level set curve is evolving towards the boundaries of the foetus region and it successfully covers

227

well the shape of the foetus at the final iteration despite the presence of strong noise. A. Performance of Variational Level Set Algorithm Table I shows the performance of the Variational Level Set compare to manually segmentation. The difference

percentages of the Variational Level Set Algorithm segmentation result are very small compare to the manually segmentation result. Thus, the Variational Level Set Algorithm is suitable to be used in foetus ultrasound image segmentation. B. Calculation of Foetus Length Segmenting the whole body of the foetus can help in future analysis such as calculate the gestational age of the foetus. Gestational age means the age of the baby during pregnancy. Measuring the foetus by using ultrasound is mostly accurate in early pregnancy. When the foetus is viewed by ultrasound, the obstetrician can measure the crown-rump length and determine the gestational age. Crown-rump length (CRL) is the measurement of the length of foetus from the top of the head (crown) to the bottom of the buttocks (rump). For example, a foetus crown-rump length of 18 mm equals a gestational age of just more than eight weeks old. Usually, the obstetrician needs to manually click on the crown and the rump of the foetus, and the foetus length will be calculated. The benefit of level set method in foetus segmentation is the length of the foetus can be measured automatically. The length of the foetus will be calculated automatically after segmenting the foetus from the ultrasound image. Fig. 8 shows the tested results of the foetus length. The dimension of the size is measured in pixel. For example, the length of the segmented foetus Fig. 8(b) is 63 pixels. C. Calculation at Difference Angle Some calculations at difference angle are performed to get the average length. Two difference angle of the same foetus is discussed in this section. Fig. 9 is showing the measurement result at first angle for the same foetus. A week tenth foetus ultrasound image is used. Note that, at difference frame will produce difference length.

TABLE 1. PERFORMANCE OF THE VARIATIONAL LEVEL SET ALGORITHM

SEGMENTATION COMPARE WITH MANUALLY SEGMENTATION

Initial Contour

100 Iterations

200 Iterations

250 Iterations

Result Figure 5. Result for evolution level set on ultrsound image of carotid artery and its segmented result.

Initial Contour

30 Iterations

90 Iterations

180 Iterations

300 Iterations Figure 6. Evolution of the level set contour on ultrasound image of a week tenth foetus.

1.183%

Initial Contour

100 Iterations

200 Iterations

300 Iterations

450 Iterations

0.717%

Initial Contour

20 Iterations

40 Iterations

80 Iterations

120 Iterations

0.283%

Week sixth feotus Figure 7. Evolution of the level set contour a week eighth foetus and week sixth foetus.

228

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 8. Evolution of the level set contour a week eighth foetus and week sixth foetus.

However, the difference of the lengths would not be too much. Fig. 10 shows another measurement result at second angle for a week tenth foetus. Notice that the foetus of the two angles has almost the same length on Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. V. CONCLUSION The level set method has been proposed in this project for medical image segmentation. The variational formulation consists of two energies, internal and external energy. The internal energy term penalizes the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function and the external energy term drives the motion of the zero level set towards the desired image features, such as object boundaries.. This variational level set formulation has three main advantages. First, a larger time step can be used to speed up the curve evolution. Second, the re-initialize procedure has completely eliminated. Third, the level set curve can be flexible implemented in different object shapes. In addition, the variational level set algorithm has been successfully implemented in medical image segmentation which including X-ray image, MRI image and ultrasound image. The results showing that the level set contour evolved well on the low contrast and noise consisting medical image, especially the ultrasound image which are well known for the speckle noise and low signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the variational level set algorithm can be applied in foetus ultrasound image segmentation. This can

help to automatically calculate the length of the foetus. However, the unit of the calculated length used in the project is in the number of pixel and the images have been used were not the real time image. Thus, the measured length could not be used to calculate the gestational age of the foetus. In conclusion, the real time image may be used in the program where the image has not been resized. Hence, the foetus length will present as the real length. Moreover, this program may be applied to the machine where the dimension of the screen pixel is in base unit of the length such as millimetre. So that the calculated length of the foetus can be used to calculate the gestational age predictably by using the crown-rump length technique. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the funding assistance of Postgraduate Centre of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) under Postgraduate Assistance Scheme. REFERENCES

[1] J.F. Canny, A computational approach to edge detection, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell, vol. PAMI-8. no. 6., Jun. 1986, pp. 679698. [2] M. Andreetto, L. Zelnik-Manor and P. Perona, Non-Parametric Probabilistic Image Segmentation, IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision. Oct. 2007, pp. 1-8. [3] V.Martin and M.Thonnat, A Cognitive Vision Approach to Image Segmentation, 19th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, 2007, pp. 480-487.. [4] T. Chan and L. Vese. Active contours without edges, IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 10. no. 2, Feb. 2001, pp. 266277. [5] J. Tang, A color image segmentation algorithm based on region growing, 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET), vol.6, June 2010, pp. 634-637. [6] E. F. Michael and K. J.Anil, A Wrapper-Based Approach to Image Segmentation and Classication, IEEE Transactions On Image Processings, vol.14, no.12, Dec. 2005, pp.2060-2072. [7] Z. Wang and M. Yang. A fast clustering algorithm in image segmentation,, 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET, vol.6, April 2010, pp.592 -594. [8] M.S. Allili. and D. Ziou, An Automatic Segmentation Combining Mixture Analysis and Adaptive Region Information: A Level Set Approach, Proceedings of the Second Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, June 2005, pp.73-80. [9] P. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. Yang and J. Gu, Medical Image Segmentation by Level Set Method Incorporating Region and Boundary Statistical Information, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Progress in Pattern Recognition. Image Analysis and Application, vol.3287/2004. 2004, pp. 654660. [10] S. Osher and J.A. Sethian, Fronts propagating with curvaturedependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations, Journal of Computational Physics. vol. 79, 1988, pp. 12-49. [11] H.L. Zhong, G.L.Wen, T.W.Ji. and X.D.Bin, Detection of Local Boundary Using a Variational Level Set Method With Application to Medical Image, Congress on Image and Signal Processing, May 2008, pp.650-655.

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