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Steps of Research Proposal

Ways to Select Research Topics
 Vital topics under discussion  Curiosity about something  Problem solving  Personal values  Gaps in the research and theoretical literature

Types of Economics and Political Science Researches
Qualitative/Exploratory Research  Qualitative research aims interpretation of a situation, set of behaviors, or a setting.  Analysis must take place within a context. o Note: Different researchers may view the same situation and obtain different results.  Qualitative research answers "how" and "why." Ex.: Why do two democratic nations fight each other? Quantitative/Explanatory Research  Focuses on causal relationships and their impact (outcomes).  Quantitative Research answers “what” questions. Descriptive Research  Descriptive research describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied.  Descriptive research answers the questions "who", "what", "where", and "when."  The research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive Research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.  Descriptive research classifies phenomena. o Ex.: We may simply wish to describe the participants in a study and how they act, believe, perceive the world, or look.  Examples of research questions for descriptive studies: o What is the clients’ degree of satisfaction with the services provided by Starbucks? o What percentages of people living in Cairo have incomes below the poverty line?


Ex: The Impact of Privatization on Economic Development in Egypt: An Assessment 1990-2011 Ex: The Impact of Rewards and Benefits on Employee’s Motivation: Case Study of Vodafone Egypt Ex: The Iranian Regional Role in the Middle East 2005-2010 2      . and descriptive.  Define the aim or desired outcome of the study. because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. Follow author suggestions for future research.Comparative Research  Comparative research aims at making comparisons across different countries or cultures. Techniques for Narrowing a Topic  Examine the literature. Use the correct terms in the title. Convey to the reader the main focus of your research. titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship. Note: Write the title beginning each word with capital letter and center-align it.  Specify the location or the place that you are going to tackle it in your research.  Often.  Try to limit your title to a single sentence and exclude any words that are not essential to the overall understanding of the title. and the choice of period must based on reason or specific event. Be concise. 1-Title  First of all. short. extend a theory to a new topic. explore unexpected findings from previous studies. you need to select a research area and the title of your research paper. it is very important to use the correct term so that your title becomes more meaningful. You can repeat a previous study. Address the main problem you are planning to investigate.  You have to choose specific period. A good title should: Indicate the type of study you will conduct. Future Studies  Predictive projects forecast future developments based on an analysis of current events and relevant theories.

Egyptian relations (Which period?) 4-Research Questions  The research questions state clearly what the study will investigate..: The relationship between economic development and democratization o Ex. Lay the broad foundation for the problem that leads to the study. The lead sentence: pay special attention to your first sentence. o Ex.  You should choose a topic which can be investigated through appropriate and valid methods and for which research material is available. are several sub-topics to be tackled….  Give a very short summary of the research problem that you have identified.: Related to…. Add necessary data to build on your research.: The change in leadership and its impact on the change in foreign policy  Choosing the period of research.2-Introduction The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or context for your research problem. the departing and closing dates is part of the formulation of research problem.: US. In an introduction.: The relationship between corruption and economic development o Ex.: The importance of this research appears in…  Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by your research. 3 .  Effective problem statement should cover: o Why does this research need to be conducted? o Ex.  The research problem must clarify the key independent and dependent variables of your study/research: o Ex. Add a reliable footnote(s) that supports the data. you should:     Create the reader interest in the topic. theory. as the main research point of this study. You must avoid:  Long historical backgrounds  Broadness  Subjective judgments/ researcher bias (you must be very objective and neutral) 3-Research Problem A problem might be defined as the issue that exist in the literature. or practice that leads to a need for the study. o Ex.

Null hypotheses: no relationship between the two variables. While a thesis is what you pose after deeper examination. Hypothesis is used to state the relationship between two variables (independent variable and dependent variable). and verify the evidence for or against your hypothesis.Distribution: including both economic and political distribution 4 .Production: over-complete economy 2.  You are going to cover these research questions in your research body. Research questions must be derived from the research problem. bureaucracies (governmental intuitions). 3) Then specify the best perspective that relates to your research problem and could allow you to reach to an accurate conclusion. Therefore you have to choose: 1) The theories and concepts that related to your topic. and may be stated as:   Directional hypotheses: we state the direction of the relationship between two variables. argue. A thesis is what you conclude to after you finish your research.  Your research questions should not have been answered satisfactorily in other the work of other people. analyze critique." Hypothesis is what you do before you examine. 2) Define and mention each theory or concept you want to use. B-Functional Approach It investigates a set of functions performed by such political structures as parties. 7. 6-Theoretical Framework It should be clear what paradigm you are working within. It really should be an original question that no one else has sufficiently answered. and courts. it may be either positive or negative. you have to define and mention it from different perspectives by different scholars. political executives. 5-Hypothesis Hypothesis (a Latin word) is what you "suppose. which you have stated before." a thesis is what you "pose. legislatures. There are four main functions of any political system: 1.: Analyzing the voting mechanism in the UN Security Council). what are the theories and concepts you will use it in order analyze your research and could help you to solve the research problem and reach to good conclusion or thesis.Approaches You have to choose one approach from the following approaches to use in your research A-Legal Approach Is the approach used to analyze the topic through tackling the legal documents related to it (Ex.

through peaceful manners. articles in journals.Political Distribution: whether the people have the chance to participate in the decision making process or not? The absence of people's chance to participate means political marginalization of people's will and voice.System Approach 8-Tools of Analysis The research proposal must specify the tools of analysis that will logically allow answering the research questions.Providing Security: the ability of the system to provide security against any internal threat to the citizens and prevent the state from any external aggression. Types of Tools 1-Desk Analysis: including books. previous studies.Cooperation: ability of the system to cooperate with many strategic countries in all fields. B. and if it unjust it will lead to economic deprivation. and avoid the military confrontation.Economic Distribution: does the system distribute the resources on equity basis? And how big is the gap between social classes? If it is a just distribution it will lead to equality. 4. B. 3. official documents. previous dissertation (Masters and PhD). Political marginalization and economic deprivation cause rebellion. academic periodicals (ex: Al-Siyysah Al-Dawliyah).Conflict: ability of the state to resolve its conflict with the other states. news paper. C. 5 . electronic books.A. and websites. 2-Observation: you can use this tool through your observation as a neutral actor.Foreign Policy: A.

 The research body must be divided into chapters (can be from two to four chapters) and each chapter must be divided into sections (can be divided from two to four sections). researchers. 10.1: — 4.3: Preliminary List of References You must write the references in the following order.2: — 3.3-Participant Observation: you can use this tool through your observation and your participation as participant actor. 9. then classify them into different categories.2 — 1.2: — 4. as well as ranking them aphetically inside each of the following categories: 1) Documents 2) Books 3) Articles in journals or periodicals 4) Thesis 5) Newspapers 6 . 4-Interview: creating a set of questions and conducting interviews with different people having different trends on your topic (they might be officials.The Literature Review  F  ocus on scholarly (peer-reviewed) sources. or academics) 5-Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions. They are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses.2: — 2. prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.1: — 2.1: — 3.3: Chapter three: — 3.3 Chapter two: — 2. Chapter one: — 1.3: Chapter four: — 4.1 — 1.Research Plan  You have to create a plan for your research through providing a roadmap to the rest of the paper.  You have to read all previous studies that related to your study. and figure out what they are missing and how your proposed research can fill in the gap. experts.

Chaos: Making a New Science. Note: Use the tips below for your footnotes and endnotes and do not refer to the OWL guide on this topic. Firstname. in order to understand the footnotes or endnotes. you can write it as: "see also…" and then complete that citation as normal. James. but also all the material you used to understand the topic. but you are not required to write the number of pages in the preliminary list of references. Title of Book. For example in the preliminary list of references you write as the following: Book Format: Lastname. City of Publication: Publisher. make it "firstname lastname. What is the difference between footnotes and endnotes? Footnotes are written at the bottom of each page. B. Endnotes are written after you finish your research. Year of Publication. this depends upon your preferences. City of Publication: Publisher. even if you did not cite directly from them. But in footnotes or endnotes you are required to write the author name as the following: Book Format: Firstname Lastname. Ex: Gleick.Second Difference: You must write number of pages in the footnotes. Visit the following OWL website for a detailed guide on references according to the MLA citation style: http://owl.english. which means after the conclusion and before the preliminary list of references. Year of Publication. How to Write Footnotes or Endnotes? Footnotes resemble the references in their format except for two differences: A. Page number 7 . You can either opt between footnotes or endnotes. Look at the research structure to understand this well.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ Footnotes/Endnotes Note: Visit the OWL website above and study the reference first.6) Electronic websites 7) Others Note: You will not only write all the references that you used in your research. Samuel. New York: Penguin.First Difference: Do not reverse the name of author as in references "lastname. Title of Book. firstname"." Ex. Samuel Huntington not Huntington.purdue. 1987.

Ex: James Gleick.2" or "Firstname Lastname.)  If you are going to write the same reference in another footnote you will write the following: "Firstname Lastname. you will write it as following: o Ibid. (et al. Ex: Michel Roksin.167.. New York: Penguin.. you can write it as following: o Name of one author. 2 or p.Cit.2 or Ibid. pp.168.1. pp. (et al. pp.167-72" or "Firstname Lastname.) Shortcuts for Footnotes  If you are going to write the same reference in the next footnote.Cit." 8 .pp.. 1987.).Cit.3 These two differences are applied to all formats (periodicals-articles-videosdocuments-Dissertations-studies. Op. p. Op. but you will use different pages.1-5 or pp. Op.2-5  In case of more than two authors. etc. p. Chaos: Making a New Science.