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Date CHAPTER

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Study Guide

Electromagnetism
Vocabulary Review
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. A nonconducting material such as air, glass, or water is known as a(n) a. ion source b. piezoelectric c. antenna d. dielectric . .

2. A combination of electric and magnetic fields that travels through space is a(n) a. electromagnetic wave b. sound wave c. electromagnetic spectrum d. antenna crystal

3. A device that precisely measures the charge-to-mass ratio of positive ions is a(n) a. cathode-ray tube b. mass spectrometer
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c. receiver d. anode , they deform.

4. When a voltage is applied across crystals that have a. capacitance b. magnetism c. ionization

d. piezoelectricity .

5. Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called a. ions b. chemicals c. isotopes d. positive .

6. A wire that receives or transmits electromagnetic waves is a(n) a. receiver b. antenna c. capacitor d. conductor

7. Positively charged particles that can be created by pulling electrons off a hydrogen atom are . a. protons b. neutrons c. positrons d. isotopes

8. The is the range of wavelengths and frequencies that make up all forms of electromagnetic radiation. a. charge-to-mass ratio b. coil-and-capacitor circuit c. electromagnetic spectrum d. transformer

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continued

9. The device used to detect and decode signals in a satellite dish is called the a. horn b. receiver c. tripod d. parabolic dish .

10. Energy carried in the form of electromagnetic waves is a. kinetic energy b. potential energy c. voltage

d. electromagnetic radiation

11. High-frequency electromagnetic waves that are produced when electrons are accelerated to very high speeds and then crashed into matter are called . a. X rays b. ultraviolet rays c. gamma rays d. infrared rays

Section 26.1

Interactions of Electric and Magnetic Fields and Matter


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In your textbook, read about J.J. Thomson and measuring the mass of the electron on pages 697700. Fill in the missing labels in the figure below.
2. 4. 5. 1. Electron Beam 3. Electric Field

Write the term that correctly completes the statement. In order to eliminate interference between the electron beam and atoms and molecules in the air, Thomson created a (6) created the electron beam by applying a large (7) inside his cathode-ray tube. Thomson between the cathode

and the anode. The electric field applied perpendicular to the electron beam deflected the beam (8) towards the positive plate. The magnetic field, which was applied

perpendicular to both the electric field and the direction of motion of the electrons, deflected the beam (9) a (10) . At the end of a cathode-ray tube, the electron beam strikes which produces a glowing spot.

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Write the term that correctly completes the statement. 11. When the forces from the electric field and the magnetic field are equal, the electron beam follows a path.

12. Using known values of E and B, Thomson measured the deflection of the electron beam and was able to calculate the 13. The expression v/Br can be used to calculate the 14. In a cathode ray tube, particles called opposite that of electrons. 15. Forces applied to the electron beam by the electric field and the magnetic field are balanced only for electrons with a specific . of an electron. of an electron. are deflected in a direction

In your textbook, read about the mass spectrometer and isotopes on pages 701704. For each statement below, write true or rewrite the italicized part to make it true.
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16.

Different forms of the same atom that have the same chemical properties but different charges are called isotopes. A mass spectrometer precisely measures the masses of positive ions.

17.

18.

The ion source, which is the material measured by a mass spectrometer, must be in the form of a gas. When using a mass spectrometer, positive ions are formed from the ion source when protons knock electrons off the atoms of the ion source. Ions in a mass spectrometer are subject to a magnetic field that curves their paths. The radii of these paths can be used to determine the charge-to-mass ratio of the ions. In order to produce doubly ionized atoms in a mass spectrometer, electrons are accelerated to higher speeds using a greater magnetic field.

19.

20.

21.

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Section 26.2

Study Guide

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Electric and Magnetic Fields in Space


.

In your textbook, read about electromagnetic waves on pages 705708. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. A moving magnetic field produces an electric field in a process called a. electromagnetism b. induction c. magnetism d. propagation that also changes.

2. In 1860, James Maxwell proposed that a changing electric field produces a. electromagnetic radiation b. an ion c. an X ray d. a magnetic field

3. The speed of an electromagnetic wave is the product of the wavelength and the a. velocity b. magnitude c. frequency d. direction

of the wave.

4. The speed of an electromagnetic wave traveling through a an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum. a. dielectric b. conductor c. piezoelectric

is always lower than the speed of

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d. magnetic field

5. Because a vacuum has a _____ of 1.00000, the velocity of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum is equal to c. a. density b. dielectric constant c. electric field d. radius

Answer the following questions. Use complete sentences. 6. Define electromagnetic wave.

7. Why does a moving magnetic field produce an electric field that is circular?

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8. What is the relationship between the wavelength and the frequency of electromagnetic waves?

9. How does the varying potential difference produced by an AC current in an antenna generate electromagnetic waves?

In your textbook, read about coil-and-capacitor circuits on pages 709710. Answer the following questions. Use complete sentences. 10. Why do the oscillations in a coil-and-capacitor circuit eventually die out?

11. How can you turn a coil-and-capacitor circuit into a transformer?

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12. Briefly describe how a transformer works.

In your textbook, read about resonant cavities and piezoelectricity on page 711. Write the term or terms that correctly complete the statement. 13. Resonant cavities can produce oscillation frequencies from . 14. The rectangular box of a resonant cavity acts as both a(n) . 15. Infrared rays are produced by oscillating electrons in 16. Piezoelectric crystals deform when a(n) 17. When a piezoelectric crystal is bent, a(n) amplified and returned to the crystal to allow it to keep vibrating. . is applied them. is generated that can be and a(n) to

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In your textbook, read about the reception of electromagnetic waves and X rays on pages 712713. Answer the following questions. Use complete sentences. 18. How does an antenna detect electromagnetic waves?

19. What is it that causes electrons in an antenna to accelerate?

20. If you have to build an antenna for a television from scratch, should you use one wire or several wires to increase the strength of the signal? Should the antenna be long or short? Explain the reasons behind your design.

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21. What is the purpose of the dish on a parabolic dish antenna?

22. How can an antenna be designed so that it receives primarily waves of a certain frequency?

23. Briefly explain how X rays are created.

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Physics: Principles and Problems

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Supplemental Problems
7. An ion in a mass spectrometer is accelerated through a voltage of 45 V. The ion has a mass of 6.6341026 kg. It passes through a magnetic field of strength 0.080 T and its path has a radius of 53.99 mm. a. What is the charge on the ion? b. How many electrons were removed to create this charge on the ion? 8. An electromagnetic wave has a frequency of 5.001014 Hz as it travels through a vacuum. When the same wave travels through glass, it has a wavelength of 2.24107 m. a. What is the speed of the wave in glass? b. What is the dielectric constant of the glass? c. What would the speed of the wave be in a material with a dielectric constant of 42.5? 9. A sample containing singly ionized oxygen (m 2.65691026 kg/atom) and fluorine (m 3.15491026 kg/atom) are run through a mass spectrometer. The ions are accelerated with a potential difference of 27 V and pass through a magnetic field of 0.091 T. a. What is the radius of the oxygen ions path? b. How much larger or smaller is the radius of the fluorine ions path? 10. A spectral analysis of a substance yields electromagnetic waves of frequencies in the 6.521014 Hz range. What color do these spectral lines appear?

Electromagnetism
1. Electrons moving at a speed of 1.8106 m/s travel undeflected through crossed electric and magnetic fields. If the strength of the electric field is 4.2103 N/C, what is the strength of the magnetic field? 2. A beam of doubly ionized particles is accelerated by a 95-V potential difference and through a magnetic field of 0.090 T. a. If the particles are nitrogen ions (m 2.32601026 kg), what is the radius of the beams path? b. If the beams path has a radius of 6.28 mm, what is the mass of the ion? 3. The charge-to-mass ratio of a particle is 4.81107 C/kg. The particle moves at a velocity of 4.5104 m/s through a field of 0.013 T. a. What is the radius of the particles path?
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b. How strong would the magnetic field have to be to give the particles path a radius of 30.0 mm? 4. A proton (m 1.671027 kg) enters a magnetic field of strength 0.021 T moving at 4.33103 m/s. What is the radius of the protons path? 5. A beam of electrons follows a circular path with a radius of 18.01 mm in a magnetic field of strength 0.00900 T. What is the speed of the electrons? 6. A certain FM radio station broadcasts its signal at 102.7 MHz. What is the best length for an antenna designed specifically to receive signals from this radio station?

Physics: Principles and Problems

Supplemental Problems

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Supplemental Problems

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11. An ion beam passes through crossed electric and magnetic fields without deflection. The electric field is 2340 N/C and the magnetic field is 0.026 T. When the electric field is turned off, the beams path takes on a curvature with a radius of 36.1298 mm. a. What is the mass-to-charge ratio of the particle in question? b. Assuming the particle is singly ionized, what is the mass of the particle? 12. Positively charged sodium ions are tracked as they travel through a magnetic field of strength 0.85 T with a velocity of 4.0106 m/s. The observed radius of their circular path through this magnetic field is 1.12 m. What is the mass of a single sodium ion? 13. A mass spectrometer is capable of observing the curved track of a particle up to a radius of 5.0 cm using a magnetic field strength of 4.5 T. What voltage is necessary to measure the charge-to-mass ration of a proton? 14. a. What is the speed of a light wave with a wavelength of 640 nm in water? The dielectric constant for water is Kwater 78. b. What is the frequency of this light wave in water compared to its frequency in a vacuum? 15. A dish radio antenna with a diameter of 55 m is used to receive electromagnetic signals from deep space. What frequency is this antenna best suited to detect? 16. a. With a frequency of 1018 Hz, are X rays visible to the unaided human eye? b. In terms of the dielectric constant, explain why X rays will pass through your body but will not pass through bone and metal, allowing internal details to show up on photographic plates.
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52 Supplemental Problems

Physics: Principles and Problems