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Perform encryption and decryption using the RSA algorithm, as in Figure 9.6 for the following: 1.

p=3; q=11; e=7; M=5 Answer: n = p * q = 3 * 11 = 33 f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 2 * 10 = 20 Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD algorithm: According to GCD: 20 = 7 * 2 + 6 7=6*1+1 6=1*6+0 Therefore, we have: 1=76 = 7 (20 7 * 2) = 7 20 + 7 * 2 = -20 + 7 * 3 Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 20 = 3 mod 30 = 3 So, the public key is {7, 33} and the private key is {3, 33}, RSA encryption and decryption is following:
Plaintext 5 Encryption ciphertext 14 Decryption Plaintext 5 143 Mod 33 = 5

57 Mod 33= 14

PU= (7, 33)

PR= (3, 33)

2. p=5; q=11; e=3; M=9 Answer: n = p * q = 5 * 11 = 55 f(n) = (p-1) * (q-1) = 4 * 10 = 40 Now, we need to compute d = e-1 mod f(n) by using backward substitution of GCD algorithm: According to GCD: 40 = 3 * 13 + 1 13 = 1 * 13 + 0 Therefore, we have: 1 = 40 3 * 13 Hence, we get d = e-1 mod f(n) = e-1 mod 40 = -13 mod 40 = (27 40) mod 40 = 27 So, the public key is {3, 55} and the private key is {27, 55}, RSA encryption and decryption is following:

Plaintext 9

Encryption

ciphertext 14

Decryption Plaintext 9 1427 Mod 55 = 9

93 Mod 55= 14

PU= (3, 55)

PR= (27, 55)

Problem Areas of MAC protocols

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Wireless MAC protocols are dealing with high speed mobility. No MAC protocol has come forward to supporting multicasting in wireless Dealing with multiple hops in a potentially dynamic network is a hard problem

Time registers and Timers in FDDI Time Registers o FDDI defines three time registers to control circulation of the token and distribute o
link-access opportunities among the nodes equitably. Each station has three registers. The registers hold time values that control the operation of the ring 3 Registers:

Synchronous Allocation (SA) The SA register indicates the length of time allowed each station for sending synchronous data. This value is different for each station and is negotiated during initialization of the ring. Target Token Rotation Time (TTRT) The TTRT register indicates the average time required for a token to circulate around the ring exactly once (the elapsed time between a token's arrival at a given station and its next arrival at the same station).

Absolute Maximum Time (AMT) The AMT register holds a value equal to twice the TTRT. A token may not take longer than this time to make one rotation of the ring

Timers
Each station contains a set of timers that enable it to compare actual timings with the values contained in the registers. Timers can be set and reset, and their values decremented at a rate set by the system clock