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ECONOMICS FOR

BUSINESS
AFTERSCHO☺OL
– DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS
CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
PGPSE PROGRAMME –
World’ Most Comprehensive programme in social
entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship
OPEN FOR ALL FREE FOR ALL

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ECONOMICS FOR
BUSINESS
Dr. T.K. Jain.
AFTERSCHO☺OL
Centre for social entrepreneurship
Bikaner M: 9414430763
tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in
www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk
www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS
Study the production possibility curve below. X axis
is for consumer goods, capital goods is denoted by
Y axis.

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Which points in PPC represent
equal production?
• A,B,C,D

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Which points in PPC represent
highest production?
• W

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Which points in PPC represent
lowest production?
• U

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Which is the equilibrium point?

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Solution
• Q == because this is the point, where
highest indifference curve touches the
budget line.

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In the graph,which indifference
curve shows least satisfaction?

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Solution
• IC 1

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If a consumer’s income increases,
which ICs will he touch?

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Solution
• The consumer will shift from IC3 to IC4
and then to IC 5.

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Which is the budget line? What will
happen, if income decreases and
price of X also decreases?

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Solution
• Budget line is YL.
• The point L will not shift much. But the
point Y will shift toward below and the
budget line will shift below.

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What is FII?
• Foreign institutional investors
• They invest money in the secondary
market – in stock markets etc.

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What is private placement?
• When a company directly sells its equity to
an investor, it is called private placement.

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What is book building?
• The process by which shares of a
company are given support by another
company is called book building. The
company which undertakes book building,
tries to ensure that the shares don’t fall
below certain level.

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Which is this – demand curve or
supply curve?

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Solution
• Supply curve

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What is PPC?
• Production possibility curve

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What is labour mobility?
• Labour is one of the factors of production
(the other factor is capital). When the
labour is able to move from one place to
another, it is called labour mobility.

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In the following case, there is shift
in a curve, identify the reason of
shift?

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Solution
• Supply has decreased. Answer.

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What is basis point?
• In international markets, when firms go to
raise funds, they get loan at LIBOR +
basis point. For example, if interest rate is
LIBOR + 300 basis point, and LIBOR is 5,
then the rate of interest is 5.3%.
• These basis points show change from
LIBOR (London Inter Bank Offered Rate).

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When does the law of increasing
return end?

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Solution
• As you can see there are three stanges:
• 1. increasing returns
• 2. constant returns
• 3. decreasing returns

• The law of increasing returns ends at point


N. answer.

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what is GDP, and how is it
measured?
• GDP= Gross Domestic Product.
• There are 3 ways to measure it:
3. Calculate total earnings of every one and
sum it up.
4. Calculate expenses of each individual in
the nation and sum it up.
5. Identify total production of goods and
services in the nation by each unit and
sum it up.
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What is utility and what is its
impact?
• Utility is the benefit that a consumer derives
from consuming some product or service.
• Utility reduces with each unit of consumption
• There are 2 concepts regarding utility :
• 1. Cardinal utility – the utility can be
measured
• 2. ordinal utility – utility cannot be measured.

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What do you understand from
diminishing marginal utility?
• Utility reduces with each additional unit
consumed. Thus diminishing marginal
utility means the utility will reduce with
each unity being consumed.
• Marginal utility means the utility derived
from one additional unit consumed.

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What is the relation between
demand & supply regarding factors
of production
(a) Labor Demand (b) Production Function
Real wage, Inc ome, output,
Y
W/P
W/P1 Y 5 F(L)
Y2
W/P2
Y1
L 5 Ld(W/P )

4. ... output,
..
2. .. . reduces L1 L2 Labor,L L1 L2 Labor,L
the real wage 3. ...which raises
for a given
employment,..
nominal wage,..
(c) Aggregate Supply
Pric e level,
P Y 5 Y1 a(P 2 Pe)

P2
6. The aggreg
P1 supply curve
summarizes
these changes
1. An increase
in the price Y1 Y2 Inc ome, output
Y
level
..
5. ... and income.

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What are the factors of production?
• There are many, some of them are :
2. Labour
3. Capital
4. Technology
5. Entrepreneurship

We generally take only 2 factors while doing


analysis : these are 1. capital 2. labour
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What is short run and what is long
run?
• Short run is the period in which we cannot
increase the capacity of the plant. Long run
is the period in which we can increase or
decrease the capacity of the plant and also
install or close a plant.
• In short run only one factor can be changed –
labour – other factors are constant
• In long run both labour and capital can be
changed. Plant capacity be altered.

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What is bank rate ?
• The rate at which the central bank ( RBI in
the case of India or FED bank in the case
of the USA) gives loan to other bank is
called bank rate.

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What is PLR?
• Prime lending rate – it is the rate at which
a bank gives loan to prime customer.
Prime customer means the customer,
whose economic conditions are very good
and who is credit worthy.

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What is CRR & SLR?
• CRR = cash reserve ratio (it denotes the
ratio of cash held by banks against the
deposits)
• SLR = statutary liquidity ratio (it denotes
the ratio of investments in government and
approved securities by the banks).

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Suppose the total deposits are 1
lakh crores in India – RBI reduces
CRR by 1%, what will happen?
• 1% of 1 lakh crore = 1000 lakh crores.
Thus liquidity in the market will increase
by 1000 lakh crore Rupees – as bank will
be able to give more loans and will be able
to give money easily. Due to ease in
liquidity, the industry will benefit as it will
be able to get more funds easily.
However, inflation may increase due to
this.
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Which is called banker of banks or
banker of last resort?
Central bank (RBI in India).

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What is liquidity?
• Availability of cash / cash equivalent is
called liquidity.

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What is sensex?
• It is index of stock prices based 30
selected scrips. These 30 scrips are those
which are selected on the basis of market
capitalisation & business volumet.
• It is presented by BSE (Bombay stock
exchange).

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What is NIFTY?
• It is index of stock prices based 50
selected scrips. These 50 scrips are those
which are selected on the basis of market
capitalisation & business volumet.
• It is presented by NSE (National stock
exchange).

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What is NPA?
• Non performing assets –in banks, the
major assets are loans given to
companies / units / people. Some times
some loans become overdue - those
loans (assets) which are not performing –
means not making regular payments of
their outstanding amounts are called NPA.
• NPA word is used for banking industry.

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What is CAC?
• Capital Account Convertibility.
• When foreign exchange is converted into
capital account freely even in capital
account, it is called capital account
convertibility.
• Capital account here mean money raised
for capital projects / investment purpose
etc.
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What is LC?
• Letter of credit, = when a bank gives loan
against export documentation, it is called
LC. For example, if you export some
goods, the buyer send you acceptance of
the bill and the bank of the buyer gives
guarantee, then your bank can give you
loan agains these documents. This is
called LC.

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What is packing credit?
• When you have received an order from an
importer for some goods and you want to
make goods as per the order, then you
may take packing credit from the banks. In
packing credit the bank gives you loan for
purchasing raw material, and other
working capital expenses. It is given for
period till exports are sent – later LC is
given.
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What is forex reserves?
• Foreign exchange reserves of a country is
called forex reserve.
• It will increase in following cases : If FDI
will increase, FII will invest more money
and exports will increase, increase of
tourists to your country, repatriation of
money by NRIs (non residents Indians),

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What is IRS?
• INTEREST RATE SWAP
• Banks use these instruments to minimise
their risks.

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What is ALM?
• Asset liability management – banks try to
match the cash flows of cash inflow and
cash outflow through ALM. They try to
match their assets and liabilities.
• Banks’s assets are its loans
• Bank’s liabilities are its deposits
• Matching them is called ALM.

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What is hedging?
• When banks use various instruments like
swaps, options etc. to reduce their risk
exposure it is called hedging.

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What FCD?
• Fully convertible debentures.

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What is market capitalisation?
• No. of shares multiplied to the market
price per share.
• For example, the share of reliance is
quoted at Rs. 1250. suppose there are
100 shares in the market. The market
capitalisation is 125000.

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What do you understand from
reverse mortgage?
• In mortgage, a person goes to bank and puts his
land / building as mortgage to obtain loans
(humge amount simultaneously) from bank and
then he used to repay it in long time. In reverse
mortgage, the bank gives land / building to the
other person and gives money also on monthly
basis and takes back the land / building after
long time. (many old age persons are resorting
to this option for maintaining their living)

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What is microfinance?
• Raising small deposits (let us say Rs. 10
per month) – pooling this money together
and Giving loan in very small amount (let
us say Rs. 2000) so that a person may
start a micro-enterprise – and can become
self dependent. It is very successful
business model –as has been proved by
Gramin Bank and SEWA.

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ABOUT AFTERSCHO☺OL
Afterschoool conducts three year integrated PGPSE
(after class 12th along with IAS / CA / CS) and 18
month PGPSE (Post Graduate Programme in Social
Entrepreneurship) along with preparation for CS / CFP /
CFA /CMA / FRM. This course is also available online
also. It also conducts workshops on social
entrepreneurship in schools and colleges all over India –
start social entrepreneurship club in your institution
today with the help from afterschoool and help us in
developing society.

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Why such a programme?
• To promote people to take up entrepreneurship
and help develop the society
• To enable people to take up franchising and
other such options to start a business / social
development project
• To enable people to take up social development
as their mission
• To enable people to promote spirituality and
positive thinking in the world

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Who are our supporters?
• Afterschoolians, our past beneficiaries,
entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs
are supporting us.
• You can also support us – not necessarily
by money – but by being promotor of our
concept and our ideas.

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About AFTERSCHO☺OL PGPSE – the
best programme for developing great
entrepreneurs
• Most flexible, adaptive but rigorous programme
• Available in distance learning mode
• Case study focused- latest cases
• Industry oriented practical curriculum
• Designed to make you entrepreneurs – not just
an employee
• Option to take up part time job – so earn while
you learn
• The only absolutely free course on internet
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Workshops from
AFTERSCHO☺OL
• IIF, Delhi
• CIPS, Jaipur
• ICSI Hyderabad Branch
• Gyan Vihar, Jaipur
• Apex Institute of Management, Jaipur
• Aravali Institute of Management, Jodhpur
• Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar
• Pacific Institute, Udaipur
• Engineering College, Hyderabad

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Flexible Specialisations:
• Spiritualising business and society
• Rural development and transformation
• HRD and Education, Social Development
• NGO and voluntary work
• Investment analysis,microfinance and inclusion
• Retail sector, BPO, KPO
• Accounting & Information system (with CA / CS /CMA)
• Hospital management and Health care
• Hospitality sector and culture and heritage
• Other sectors of high growth, high technology and social
relevance

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Salient features:
• The only programme of its kind (in the whole world)
• No publicity and low profile course
• For those who want to achieve success in life – not just a
degree
• Flexible – you may stay for a month and continue the rest of
the education by distance mode. / you may attend weekend
classes
• Scholarships for those from poor economic background
• Latest and constantly changing curriculum – keeping pace
with the time
• Placement for those who are interested
• Admissions open throughout the year
• Latest and most advanced technologies, books and study
material

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Components
• Pedagogy curriculum and approach based on IIM Ahmedabad and ISB
Hyderabad (the founder is alumnus from IIMA & ISB Hyderabad)
• Meditation, spiritualisation, and self development
• EsGotitial softwares for business
• Business plan, Research projects
• Participation in conferences / seminars
• Workshops on leadership, team building etc.
• Written submissions of research projects/articles / papers
• Interview of entrepreneurs, writing biographies of entrepreneurs
• Editing of journals / newsletters
• Consultancy / research projects
• Assignments, communication skill workshops
• Participation in conferences and seminars
• Group discussions, mock interviews, self development diaryng
• Mind Power Training & writing workshop (by Dr. T.K.Jain)

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Pedagogy
• Case analysis,
• Articles from Harvard Business Review
• Quiz, seminars, workshops, games,
• Visits to entrepreneurs and industrial visits
• PreGotitations, Latest audio-visuals
• Group discussions and group projects
• Periodic self assessment
• Mentoring and counselling
• Study exchange programme (with institutions out of
India)
• Rural development / Social welfare projects
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Branches
• AFTERSCHO☺OL will shortly open its
branches in important cities in India
including Delhi, Kota, Mumbai, Gurgaon
and other important cities.
Afterschooolians will be responsible for
managing and developing these branches
– and for promoting social entrepreneurs.

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Case Studies
• We want to write case studies on social
entrepreneurs, first generation
entrepreneurs, ethical entrepreneurs.
Please help us in this process. Help us to
be in touch with entrepreneurs, so that we
may develop entrepreneurs.

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Basic values at AFTERSCHO☺OL
• Share to learn more
• Interact to develop yourself
• Fear is your worst enemy
• Make mistakes to learn
• Study & discuss in a group
• Criticism is the healthy route to mutual support
and help
• Ask fundamental questions : why, when, how &
where?
• Embrace change – and compete with yourself
only
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www.afterschoool.tk
social entrepreneurship for better
society

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