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UNIVERSITATEA POLITEHNICA DIN TIMISOARA FACULTATEA DE STIINTE ALE COMUNICATII MASTER COMUNICARE, RELATII PUBLICE SI MEDIA DIGITALA ANUL

2 METODOLOGIA PROIECTARII SI CERCETARII

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE The Discourse an Art of Public Speaking


SPEECH. MILESTONES Communication Discourse and their place in society History of speech Speech. Conceptual structure of a speach Speech development stages General components of building a speech Rules of a successful speech

STUDENT: STROESCU DENISA

TIMISOARA, 20.01.2013 in terminology to more diverse areas, which are based in part on many hypostases released over time 1. COMMUNICATION DISCOURSE AND THEIR PLACES IN SOCIETY Communication is a major component of human existence in all time, and the role of this process in the current era is confirmed by the existence of a vast field of research that is reflected in what we call communication sciences. Communication is thus a staging of all processes, interactions and relationships between people and society in a broader sense, there are actually due to fluctuating continuous communication process because, without it, the micro-level social structures and macroclimat would not be formed nor could maintain. In this sense Paul Watzlawick consider communication as a "sine qua non of human life and social order[1]i Although we are in a society that is based on general process communication, amount of information conveyed increase from year to year, this dynamic state reflected in all fields. Communication was seen as a fundamental element of human existence since ancient times. In fact, the etymology of the term itself suggests this. The word communication comes from the Latin, communis means "agree", "being in relation to" or "being in relationship", although the term travel in ancient vocabulary to mean "to send to others", "sharing some others ". To be informed, to communicate, to relate are the main pawns of the existence of each of us, of progress and social and cultural life.[2] The concept of communication is a dramatic increase in popularity, both in ordinary language and but with a major trend towards locating and neutralizing permanent sources of confusion and controversy. Countless personalities belonging to different fields, have tried to define in more detail how this concept so that its constituents contain references to as many fields and thus the definition itself is a benchmark widely. But this seems to have been in vain, because the communication proves to be the most extensive and ever-present phenomenon. Since the early twentieth century, Anthony Giddens wrote: "I think that my ideas involve the focus of studies on communication in social science in general.``[3] 2. HISTORY OF SPEECH Since ancient orator goal was to persuade, to obtain the consent of those who hear it. Art of the great orators, as has been seen for a long time as a very old word, rhetoric and established as a science due to the impressive power to convince the public discourse. Rhetoric is based, in fact, the art of building a strong union between discourse and discourse theory. It is known from ancient times, the existence of speeches at public meetings of the great leaders and warriors of the ancient world. First was attested as a science in the classical period of ancient Greece, when a wave of lawsuits that were caused by the fall of tyrants in the Greek cities of Sicily and Syracuse. Rhetoric or burned benefit dicendi had an impressive course over time we can describe as miraculous. Towering, thriving in full progress in Greek and Roman antiquity, banned, ignored and

despised among many centuries, shy revived in the eighteenth century - rhetoric revives the ideology itself collapses, barely managing to maintain the early twentieth century, was reinvented, restored and revised nowadays, because now the role and purpose of the discourse, the words of the great orator of antiquity, Cicero, is to persuade, to please and excite. Although considered more an era of oral communication, public speech, there were large influential written about freedom as Magna Carta, for instance, English Charter of Rights and Freedoms XIII century, which later inspired the Constitution United States of America. With the economic boom that followed the Second World War and has made the United States the most prosperous country in the world, public discourse has also seen unprecedented growth. Was used to force the public discourse even to promote their products and services and to attract more customers from domestic and international market. After the Second World War, public communication has proliferated in Europe since diplomacy and mass communication became a center for image restoration restore order and countries involved in armed conflict. Although visibly marked fared over two thousand years, we can say that now, new art speech rhetoric is not elegant, but rather persuasive communication theory. Oratorical speech today has a great inclination towards simplicity, appropriateness, pragmatism, and perhaps stereotype spontaneous interpretation, arguing eventually becoming the key key, the most important component of any speech. In this state slightly ambiguous and uncertain where we are now, is clearly needed reinvention prespectivelor and how to look social, to refresh everything is relationships.

3.

THE DISCOURSE. CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE

The notion of discourse is a key concept that has been defined in opposition to phrase the statement with language. There are several features that are found consistently in most proposed definitions discourse: the result of the action of language use, is relevant only in historical and socio-cultural parameters, it is the linguistic study of text production conditions. Some Dutch researchers came to the idea that there is a kind of genetic relationship between text and speech and speech that contains text. In this respect it is stated that any text contains some speech. Evaluative discourse is the set of attitudinal objects and relations between them, attitudinal object belongs to the real world and can be seen as such . Speech can be seen as a process where participants create and share information to reach a mutual understanding. The term refers more to address the issue of a vast field of research than a way of understanding language and its relation to parameters requires nonlingvistice reality. From this point of view we can say that speech is "an interdisciplinary field of research (and not just the strictly linguistic) to configure which contributes primarily rhetorical, and pragmatic conversation analysis, sociology, ethnomethodological".[4] In this case, the term has no plural discourse, it means a generic domain, representing "a complex term that can be defined as a set of statements of a transmitter that covers a single topic (topic, the Anglo-Saxon teminologia) ".[5] In a broader sense, "speech is a continuous sequence, structured and coherent sentences / phrases",[6] while in a narrower sense it can be understood "as updated text as communicative event,

expressed in linguistic behavior "contemporary researchers emphasizing grammar text or textual language. In addition to the character of a common language, we can talk of creating a specialized discursive field as in writing a novel, a newspaper article or a tourist brochure. According to E. Benveniste's thesis precursor of Roman Jakobson, speech "is an event report, any enunciation assuming a speaker and an interlocutor, the first of its intention in some way influence the other. In fact, this reference to our speech refers to the intention of speaking, that sends a message to a change in the attitude of the other - to his interlocutor, thus producing speech act.[8] Speech occupies an intermediary position between competence and performance, ie between "rules that mechanically locks into structural description phrases and rules that show how contextual factors interact with grammatical structures to determine the meaning of the statement" which gives its Pragmatic two dimensions: one related to context and the other in language. The latter, the practice of language "involves acts and speech interaction where language plays an instrument or means of communicative action".[9] Speech, then found an art to speak well and good, make available to all a very powerful tool that is the power to persuade others, while being a key element in becoming individual: personal fulfillment in society requiring outstanding communication skills acquiring skills and socio-linguistic, discursive and cultural value. Thus, it is considered to be the interdependence between language and society - no society without language and no language without society. Certainly, each of us has wondered where it came from this notion of public discourse. The answer is very simple: talk talk - about the art of

oratory - since the time of Cicero (Roman orator's largest and one of the most important figures of the ancient world) and Aristotle in Greek and Roman times when I had to learn to become a citizen, you know you talk using the most powerful arguments, as this was a novelty at the time. What did the early rhetoric is evident is that language is not just language, it becomes speech. Aristotle himself said in this regard that "rhetoric is technical discourse."[10] In this respect, Dictionary of Language Sciences (DSL) proposes a definition relevant to the above, namely: "Rhetoric is the art and science of speech development in general, with the primary function persuasive, and explanatory function, or deliberative demo"[12]. If the deadline would not be significantly devalued temporal axis we would have probably talking all the rhetoric - burning ornandi (adornment art discourse), but only when spoken or implicit discourse we find the term in touch with rhetoric as both meanings "as stated and Diderot in the article" Rhetoric "in Encyclopedia involve beautiful speech, means and different techniques of expression and a person's own conviction, and eloquence and rhetorical style."[13] Besides that rhetoric is a discipline, it could be seen as a science of developing speech using various techniques its beauty. As a synthetic speech from the beginning based on two key elements that are somewhat symbiotic, and when I say this I mean, in particular, efficiency and ethics. Salesmanship involves directly observing the surrounding, as well as ourselves. Speech is always in close contact with a socio-cultural context influenced by a particular configuration whose purpose is determined by the roles agents speech. All these different conceptions of speech and eloquence marks the beginning of an era which will have a very important word.

Oratorical speech "is a written text following the laws and precise composition techniques (established and studied rhetoric), intended to be delivered before a large number of auditors who are trying to persuade."[14] This is in our view the most relevant definition of discourse as it applies today when already discourse tends toward simplicity, appropriateness, pragmatism, improvisation. In fact, true portrait of the orator hiding after several curtain. Even if it is incompetent in that it focuses speech, he will not hesitate to show mastery through the power of speech, which seems to be more powerful than silence competence demonstrated by actual facts. Speech addressed to a wide audience and trying to appeal to patterns, sensitivity and ideology immunity against such weapons has only part that fails to go beyond appearances rhetorical art. And if we consider a recipient incompetent, then indeed appearance will defeat jurisdiction. Modeling mood and feelings of the audience by challenging speaker imagination and boldness required in public relations: angry / calm / peace, friendship / enmity, battle against human or abstract thing always leads to reactions: an intuitive reaction materialized the combative instinct or reaction intellect, embodied in national sentiment by invoking words like unity, good country, fear / trust, compassion, goodness / badness, orator speculate paternal instinct and feeling friendly, welfare / social condition is related to good economic benefits and meeting materials, speaker position is to ensure the goods; sexual instinct and feeling of love, joy, love all the songs played or contempt, caricatures of opponent. A speech is a very complex process that involves not only a preparatory stage before, but a set of rules to be followed during the course of its

support basing this on the idea that communication finds its maximum expression in speech when transmission of a message. 4. SPEECH DEVELOPMENT STAGES An important distinction in terms of stages of development discourse was made from the peak of ancient rhetoric when taking into account all the elements involved in the art speaker on the topic of discourse by saying, consecrating is a well structured based 5-times the development of a speech: Inventio (invention) - definition of subject speech, outlining the case or the case is about; Dispositio (available) - organization of speech content itself an art to order arguments, consisting in assembling the arguments according to plan, plans discourse in antiquity as somewhat "prefabricated" as today, in a certain way, plans dissertations, business letters or reports professional Elocutio (elocution) - art style that was noticeable by grammatical correctness, and those figures rhetorical persuasion to create the choice and arrangement of words in a speech; Memory - storing speech by some special techniques called "mnemonic", based on the creation of mental spaces and the use of symbols to ensure memory discourse; Actio (interpretation) - utterance and gesture to ensure the best possible reception of speech. 5. GENERAL COMPONENTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DISCOURSE Even today there have been no major changes in this respect, since every speech must have a well-defined structure, which is a first step to be considered successful. For this he must be made according to three general components:

Introduction or exordium (Draw line running speech: greetings, personal presentation (name and surname), denunciation theme, presenting the central idea of the speech (and arguments) establishing connection with a need, a problem or purpose of the audience, explaining terms to be used (definitions) - if necessary. related The speech must capture attention immediately and announce their plan - captatio benevolentiae). Discourse structure must be well defined, have coherent themes include a series of thoughts, ideas, logic, coupled to form a whole. Very important is the introduction because it connects the related discourse, audience and subject of discourse. Moments early speech must arouse interest. Recommended as an introduction not to make too big to not bother those who listen. Defining a few ways to capture attention from the first moments of initiating discourse as: asking a question whose answer directly concerning the content of what is to be presented, revealing the theme and objectives, addressing a joke or a joke ( But it often can not please everyone or who do not hold that the trial talent in telling jokes or jokes). idea Content or narratio by (aimed at presenting the facts as they are, develops the central immediately followed deployment argumentative approach: it presents arguments and provide evidence / examples to support their support (premise, argument, conclusion); Another very important point is the transition from introduction to the actual content of the speech itself, after briefly presenting its subject and object. Speech should be natural and logical place in the oral presentation and written for a speech, highlighting those key points, supported with arguments to create credibility.

End or peroratio (is the final and therefore should provide an overview of speech. During her time since remained, to be followed in short: explaining any blur occur during speech (if they have a major to support the main idea) emphasizing the strong points of the speech, an overview of the entire speech, but also explain the possible uncertainties in the speech is important especially when they have a key role in understanding the arguments. Emphasizing strengths in the end offers a discourse increased security that they have been retained and will count in the decision. During conclusion is to achieve a maximum tone, to the conviction of the audience said, but avoiding aggression. Conclusion that the introduction has a special value because when the arguments are well supported and explained Explained public perception will be made, in fact, at which he delivered the speech. Persuasion and manipulation feels a very high end at this point. Basically, the public, who receives the message should be regarded as a piece of plasticine that can gradually to shape as you wish. Efficiency discourse, it's good that he ends with a dramatic statement with a memorable quote that remain alive in public memory. Equally important is the use of vocabulary in choosing the right words for that context - avoiding euphemisms, the clichs, and jargon is unavoidable, as always speaks freely and is absolutely necessary to use all the means supplied to be heard among those who listened. However (perfect structure, expression logical and coherent, grammatical and lexical correctness) are not sufficient as an important value acquired the act of enunciation for achieving communication. This act of verbal communication can be characterized by the existence of two levels:

situational

and

communicative.

Regarding

the

considered to be the interdependence between language and society - no society without language and no language without society. Certainly, each of us has wondered where it came from this notion of public discourse. The answer is very simple: talk talk - about the art of oratory - since the time of Cicero (Roman orator's largest and one of the most important figures of the ancient world) and Aristotle in Greek and Roman times when I had to learn to become a citizen, you know you talk using the most powerful arguments, as this was a novelty at the time. What did the early rhetoric is evident is that language is not just language, it becomes speech. Aristotle himself said in this regard that "rhetoric is technical discourse." Design of this study showed a real interest to us and at the same time, a challenge because the art of public speaking make available to everyone a very powerful tool that is force persuading others, is a key element in becoming an individual: personal fulfillment in society always requiring special skills especially communication and public speaking skills. I tried to present a current topic and to outline the usefulness of exposure for any communicator. Developing this work gave us the opportunity to acquire a comprehensive view of what speech is today and to know the mechanisms that manage those people who impeccable speeches to win admiration, affection, respect and willingness to be they good speakers. Speech is omnipresent in our lives and this is evident by the fact that whatever the occasion or time of day is dawning a chance to speak in public, to give a speech. The art of public speaking is an important tool in everyday work, proving every time an opportunity of addressing a large audience neintermediat, before which we present necessary

Situation "are determined appropriate conditions of the speech genre of discourse, such as purpose of the act of language, identity partners, the discussion, the physical trade-setting media." At the opposite end the communication, "which corresponds to the internal space, that the subject adopts different strategies to successfully perform the act of language - and the various ways to achieve a political speech, a university course or advertisement ".[15] An obvious feature of discourse is that the internal structure. Regardless of how it is establish the smallest units of speech (morpho-phonemic, phrase, sentence, paragraph or entire speech), they are grouped in different ways to form larger structures so that a coherent discourse can be represented as a tree that has the units of speech terminal nodes as internal nodes relations. However the audience can be a cause for anxiety and to remove it, follow some rules, many are nothing demic modern adaptation of old techniques required of rhetoric. In the past the role of rhetoric was to persuade judges and justice highlight the case presented, while in today's speech is endowed with great abilities to inform, to persuade and create entertainment. In recent decades was considered a speech the most important link in the vast chain theory, interpenetration linguistics with some science such as sociology, psychology, communication philosophy of language. Speech, then found an art to speak well and good, make available to all a very powerful tool that is the power to persuade others, while being a key element in becoming individual: personal fulfillment in society requiring outstanding communication skills acquiring skills and sociolinguistic, discursive and cultural value. Thus, it is

information

communication

objectives

of

preparatory stage before, but a number of rules during his deployment. Initial training of a speech primarily involves knowing your audience: that of who made what concern has he come to listen etc. After this realization content is interesting and relevant to the audience that, but it is necessary for the thorough research to gather all available information on the subject: facts, opinions, documentation, causes and effects. All data that follow to be used must be accurate and come from reliable sources. Information should prove to be interesting and show both sides of the argument. One can find a touch of humor appropriate form of anecdotes, quotations, stories, or you can search for examples of successful case studies, choosing those they consider most effective for the audience in question. The message must be thought to be spoken, not written to be as such is very important length. Should consider how long it will be speech and if there are any questions. There must always be a margin of at least 20% during normal speech saying that, establishing a theme or key information that is highly artificial. After the speech was done should be considered environmental knowledge which will deliver the speech. Discourse structure should be well knit and contain a logical sequence of key thoughts or fears logical, ordered and interrelated. A speech should be structured so that key moments: An important role plays the introduction because it opens communication between one who utters speech, audience and topic. The introduction should arouse interest and curiosity so it is better to start with a story or a joke. Should then present relationship with the audience speaker, subject, object and content for short. Avoid too long an introduction.

organizations or structures they represent. Therefore, you should take advantage of every opportunity to speak in public, to refine our skills to gain experience, get rid of emotions and to communicate spontaneously, in order to exercise persuasion whenever appropriate . Speech is a statement to people. The case study is a review of this claim, the speech proved to be a form of subjectivity in order to convince and force ilocutorie a statement in a speech acquires different modeling power and influence from different speakers. In this case the means of influence is based on the authority that supports speech and its science to substantiate truths. I also noticed that the reputation of speaking, the transmitter beyond where it is a prodigious times stronger institution is given and also increased argumentation and persuasion science. Who always deliver a speech, or represent an institution or himself, he must respect the facts even if the speaker occupies a central place or not. 6. RULES OF A SUCCESSFUL SPEECH The secret to a successful speech is to prepare, practice, analysis and saying it in a way more concise and coherent. Logical and coherent argument, mark up towards conclusion and elegance of language, there are three key elements that lead to success clearly a speech. Speech must consider achieving objectives through a series of specific methods of approach. Therefore, before a speech, the speaker must think about the audience, the message they are trying to convey and how it will be responsive. Depending on the objective pursued (to inform, to persuade, to inspire, to entertain) orator involves different ways of addressing construction and expression. A speech is a very complex process that involves not only a

There are a number of ways or tricks that can be applied at the beginning of a speech in order to capture public attention including: name or title theme, goal setting and plan speech (deductive sentences without revealing too much of the content intending to be addressed), issuing a question (that anticipate audience questions probably will address), the use of anecdotes (short, well placed, on the subject to be discussed), the adoption of local color (with caution to Avoid stereotyped phrases), facts and statistics (in the introduction addressed only in passing, must be exposed as real and as simple) sentences shocking (to amaze listeners, always followed by a significant pause) interesting stories (not necessarily anecdotal value, where jokes can not be placed). Speech should be natural and logical place to be easily achieved. Discourse segments should be linked, being able to stop the slideshow every two to three minutes with a replica that is aroused a reaction (or applause) from the audience. You can use audiovisual materials, unless they clarify or support speech. The main point of the speech may consist of 2 or 3 key elements developed and supported colloquial, highlighting strengths, making referirechiar and counter-arguments to ensure the credibility of the speaker. The conclusion should lead to emotional reactions and specific audiences want. It is recommended to avoid digressions or subjects left in suspense, and at the same time launching new discussions or issues. It is better to use a few words, a symbol for the final approach and avoid clichs such as "in conclusion" or "end". As in the introduction there are a number of ways that you can successfully complete a speech: summarizing, rhetorical questions (which causes the audience to look for an answer), drama (using a slightly dramatic voices, modulated),

initiatives (proposed solutions to problems analyzed), stating the main subject or issue of mobilizing slogans.[16] In addition to content issues, speech can be made attractive and how it is delivered. It is recommended that one who utters speech to look at the audience - and "to respond to its feed-back".[17] You must first conquer people and then bringing arguments. Addressed in those moments attitude affect how the audience will receive speaker even before speaking. In a speech content is 30% and 70% form. The sides should look ahead, but without fixed head up and taking the audience in the eye. That avoids focusing its gaze on the audience may induce the idea that the speaker is in a state of tension, fear, anxiety or anguish. Mobility is required sight speaker to establish some benchmarks in the hall, crowd, group of people, who come back regularly. It has a supportive role and insured for the speaker and for the audience that it stimulates and makes him more careful follow exposure. Speaking words into the microphone, alternating speed and tone, say clearly the way sentences also have great significance. A shaky voice stress anxiety betrays the speaker and also anxiety in front of others, can often be associated with uncertainty. Voice pace is extremely important because the speaker has the advantage of introducing special moments of silence, the pauses between phrases parties, and may thus speculate a number of advantages: the speaker has time to reflect on what he says; public / audience has time to assimilate and rank information and message, as the phrase is not complete attention on what is, is preparing an impact when people listened attentively knowing what will happen. It can also use body language, but with strict control, natural gesturing. Stance to favor body, do not block the lungs, facilitate better breathing and

therefore, good oxygenation, or accelerated heart beats for his blood still be purified, and therefore increase excitability.

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