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# CE 331, Fall 2000

## Truss Design Example

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Design a typical steel truss girder to support the roof of the office building shown below.

6 @ 10 ft = 60 ft

2 @ 10 ft = 20 ft

20 ft

20 ft

15 ft

Plan View

6 @ 10 ft = 60 ft

2 @ 10 ft = 20 ft

20 ft

Front Elevation Fy = 36 ksi Purlins are Z 7 x 2.5 light gage steel, weighing 2.7 lb/ft Use WT sections for the chords, double angles (LL) for the verticals, and single angels (L) for the diagonals. Roof: Composition 4-ply felt & gravel 18 ga metal deck fiberglass insulation gravel and bitumen waterproofing membrane Ceiling: acoustic tile suspended steel channel

## Truss Design Example

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Calculate Dead Loads Composition 4-ply felt and gravel 18 ga metal deck Fiberglass insulation Gravel Bitumin Waterproofing Acoustic Tile Suspended Steel Channel Total 5.5 psf 3.0 psf 1.1 psf 5.5 psf 1.0 psf 2.0 psf 18.1 psf

PDL_int = 18.1 psf x 10 ft x 20 ft + 2.7 lb/ft x 20 ft = 3.67 k PDL_ext = 18.1 psf x 5 ft x 20 ft + 2.7 lb/ft x 20 ft = 1.86 k Find chord with the max. bar force (assume compression controls) Model truss on RISA: 1. Open new file in RISA Setup 2. Select 1st item on "Data Entry" menu, "Global", and select "2" for "Number of Sections" 3. Select 2nd item on "Data Entry" menu, "Materials" and select correct yield stress, "Fy" (default = 36 ksi which is what is specified for this homework). 4. Select 4th item on "Data Entry" menu, "Sections", and specify three sections, labeled "Chords", "Verticals", and "Diagonals". Do not specify shapes at this time. Draw Members 5. Select "Modify the drawing grid" from graphic editing tool bar and create grid (8@10 for the X-axis and 1@6 for the Y-axis). 6. Select "Draw new members" from the graphic editing tool bar, select "Chords" under "Section Set" and select "Bending Moments Released (torsion fixed)" under both "I-end Release Codes" and "J-end Release Codes". 7. Draw chords. 8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for the verticals and the diagonals. 9. Select "Save As" under the "File" menu and save your model. Modify Boundary Conditions 10. Select "Modify Boundary Conditions" from the graphic editing toolbar. 11. Specify "Fixed" and click the "Use" box for the last for boundary conditions (Z-Translation, X Rotation, Y Rotation and Z Rotation) , select the "Apply entries to all selected items" button and click "Apply". 12. Specify "Reaction" and click the "Use" box for the first two boundary conditions (XTranslation and Y-Translation), select the "Apply Entries by Clicking them Individually" button, click "Apply" and click on the node at the pinned support. 13. Specify "Free" for the first boundary condition (X-Translation), click "Apply" and click on the node at the pinned support.

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## Chord Forces due to Dead Load (max = 20.645 k in member 11)

Member Label M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 Sec 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Axial, K -7.104 -7.104 -17.009 -17.009 -21.083 -21.083 -19.031 -19.031 -10.837 -10.837 2.818 2.818 6.88 6.88 1.404 1.404 6.135 6.135 16.591 16.591 20.645 20.645 18.591 18.591 10.446 10.446 -4.471 -4.471 -8.536 -8.536 -1.696 -1.696

## Truss Design Example

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Compute Bar Forces due to Live Load 31. Create a Basic Load Case for the Live Load on Span 1 by opening the BLC sheet and typing LL on Span 1 only on the 3rd line. 32. Repeat steps 15 through 17 to place the external and internal concentrated loads on the leftmost 7 joints. (The loads over the support will have no effect on the bar force in member 11, but they will affect the bar forces in the verticals and diagonals near the supports). Show the live loading to cause max. force in member 11.

## CE 331, Fall 2000

Truss Design_Example

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## Live Loads to Cause Max. Force in Member 11

Calculate Chord Forces due to Dead + Live Loads 33. Create a Load Combination for DL + LL by typing "DL + LL on span 1", "1", "1", "3", "1 " on the third line of the "Load Combination" sheet in columns 1 and 7 through 10, respectively. 34. Select the solve button ("=") on the top tool bar, select "Single Combination" and "3 : DL + LL on Span 1" and select the "Solve" button. 35. Check to make sure that the Total Y reaction (45.01 k) equals the sum of the loads DL: 2 x 1.86 k + 7 x 3.67 k = 29.41 k LL: 1.20 k + 6 x 2.40 k = 15.60 k Total: 45.01 k, OK 36. Document your results (see step 21) Chord Forces due to Dead plus Live Load (max. compressive = 37.5 k in member 11)
Member Label M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 Sec 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Axial, K -12.446 -12.446 -30.144 -30.144 -38.227 -38.227 -36.174 -36.174 -23.97 -23.97 -2.588 -2.588 6.549 6.549 1.417 1.417 10.793 10.793 29.456 29.456 37.501 37.501 M12 M13 M14 M15 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 35.448 35.448 23.313 23.313 0.123 0.123 -8.868 -8.868

## CE 331, Fall 2000

Truss Design_Example

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Determine Section Sizes 37. Make sure "Redesign" has been specified for your members (step 4a). 38. Select "Sections" from the "Data Entry" menu and select the heaviest (default) WT section for the chords, "Double Angle" section for the verticals, and "Single Angle" section for the diagonals. 39. Analyze ("=" button) for Load Combination 3 (DL + LL on Span 1). 40. Select "Alternate Shapes" from the "Results" menu, right click and select "Replace and Resolve" until asterisks appear in front of all 3 shapes. 41. Check to make sure that none of the sections are "off the chart" for RISA (this happens for very slender members) and is indicated by the message "compressive stress fa exceeds F'e (Euler stress)". If this happens, select a heavier section from the "Sections" menu for this type of member and repeat steps 40 and 41. 42. Document your results (unity check values, section sizes and truss weight). Steel Code Checks (for DL + LL on Span 1) Unity Member Check M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18 M19 M20 0.189 0.434 0.551 0.521 0.346 0.053 0.12 0.03 0.218 0.637 0.811 0.766 0.504 0.014 0.142 0.025 0.588 0.11 0.147 0.144

M21 M22 M23 M24 M25 M26 M27 M28 M29 M30 M31 M32 M33 M34 M35 M36 M37 M38 M39 M40 M41

0.149 0.084 0.929 0.025 0.053 0.677 0.178 0.366 0.106 0.111 0.015 0.051 0.217 0.144 0.468 0.202 0.819 0.349 0.043 0.089 0.024

## CE 331, Fall 2000

Truss Design_Example

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Final Member Sizes Controlling Section Member CHORDS M11 VERTICALS M23 DIAGONALS M37 Truss Weight Section CHORDS VERTICALS DIAGONALS