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Gramatica limbii engleze n tabele i scheme

Gramatica limbii engleze n tabele i scheme este o lucrare ce cuprinde morfologia i sintaxa. Ea este elaborat pentru studentii al caror scop este de a studia limba englez. Aceest carte are drept obiective de baz familiarizarea i asimilarea de ctre studeni a structurilor gramaticale de baz ale limbii engleze, folosirea prilor de vorbire precum i evitarea dificultilor ntmpinate de ctre studeni n utilizarea acestor pri de vorbire i a categoriilor lor gramaticale. Lucrarea dat cuprinde de asemenea, sistemul timpurilor verbale, corespondena timpurilor, vorbirea direct i indirect mbinarea cuvintelor n propoziie i a propoziiilor n fraz.

PART I: MORPHOLOGY Grammatical structure of the English language. General classification of the parts of speech. THE NOUN Definition Morphological and syntactical characteristics Morphological composition Classification The category of number The category of case The category of gender THE ARTICLE Use of articles with common nouns Use of articles with proper nouns Special difficulties in the use of articles Absence of articles THE ADJECTIVE Definition Morphological and syntactical characteristics Morphological composition Classification THE ADVERB Definition

Classification Degrees of comparison THE PRONOUN Definition Classification THE NUMERAL Definition Classification THE WORDS OF THE CATEGORY OS STATE THE VERB Definition Grammatical categories Types of verbs Tenses in the Active Voice The Present Indefinite The Present Continuous The Past Simple The Past Continuous The Present Perfect The Present Perfect Continuous The Past Perfect The Past Perfect Continuous The Future Indefinite Going to construction The Future Continuous The Future Perfect Simple The Future Perfect Continuous The Future In The Past Simple The Future In The Past Continuous The Future Perfect In The Past The Future Perfect Continuous In The Past Tenses in the Passive Voice The formation of the Passive Voice The use of tenses in the Passive Voice The use of the Passive Voice Modal Verbs Moods The Imperative Mood The Subjunctive Mood The Conditional Mood THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (THE VERBALS) The Infinitive The Gerund The Participle THE MODAL WORDS THE INTERJECTION Definition Classification

THE PREPOSITION Definition Classification THE CONJUNCTION Definition Classification THE PARTICLE Definition Classification PART II: SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE Definition Classification Parts of the Sentence The Main Parts of the Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER General remarks Inverted order of words Position of the object Position of the attribute Position of the adverbial modifiers THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence General Notion Types of Coordination The Complex Sentence General Notion. Types of clauses. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH


THE ADVERB THE PRONOUN THE NUMERAL THE WORDS OF THE CATEGORY OS STATE THE VERB Tenses in the Active Voice Tenses in the Passive Voice Modal Verbs Moods THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (THE VERBALS) THE MODAL WORDS THE INTERJECTION THE PREPOSITION THE CONJUNCTION THE PARTICLE SYNTAX THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The Main Parts of the Sentence The Subject The Predicate Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject The Secondary Parts of the Sentence The Object The Attribute The Adverbial Modifier. Detached Parts of the Sentence The independent Elements of the Sentence Sentences with Homogeneous Parts WORD ORDER THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE The Compound Sentence The Complex Sentence THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES THE INDIRECT SPEECH


1. Give a short description of types of languages Flexional Languages

synthetic (inflections)

analytical (words and word order)

2. Analytical forms are mostly proper to verbs. An analytical verb-form consists of one or more form words, which have no lexical meaning and only express one or more of the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood, and one notional word, generally an infinitive or a participle: e. g. He has come, I am reading. The analytical forms are: Examples 1. Tense and Aspect verb-forms I am writing the Continuous form: I have written the Perfect form: I have been writing the Perfect Continuous form: I shall write the Future Indefinite: Does he sing? all the other forms of the Future; also the He doesnt sing interrogative and the negative forms of the Present and Past Indefinite:

2. The Passive Voice: 3. The analytical form of the Subjunctive Mood:

I was invited to the theatre. I should go there if I had time.

3. However, the structure of a language is never purely synthetic or purely analytical. Accordingly in the English language there are: The synthetic forms in English are: 1. Endings: -s in the third person singular in the Present Indefinite: -s in the plural of nouns: -s in the genitive case: -ed in the Past Indefinite of regular verbs: 2. Inner flexions: 3. The synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood: Examples speaks tables my brother's book smoked man - men; speak - spoke were, be, have, etc.

4. Owing to the scarcity of synthetic forms the order of words, which is fixed in English, acquires extreme importance: The fisherman caught a fish. A deviation from the general principle of word order is possible only in special cases. 5. One of the marked features of the English language is the extensive use of substitutes. A word substitute saves the repetition of a word in certain conditions. Here belong one, that, do. One replaces class nouns in the singular and in Thanks for the compliment, if it is one. The hours he spent with Ruth were the only happy ones the plural: he had, and they were not all happy. He (Martin) watched the easy walk of the other in front That generally substitutes nouns, especially of him, and for the first time realized that his walk was abstract nouns and nouns of material followed different from that of other men. by an attribute, mostly introduced by the Almost every day thereafter Mrs. Skelton would go for preposition of: a ride in her own car or that of Castleman. You know your law better than I do. Do substitutes verbs: Forgive me for speaking with brutal frankness; I only do so because I care.

PART I: MORPHOLOGY Give a short definition of Morphology

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH THE PARTS OF SPEECH Notional - perform certain functions in the sentence: the functions of subject, predicate, attribute, object, or adverbial modifier. The notional parts of speech are: the noun; the adjective; the pronoun; the numeral; the verb; the adverb; the words of the category of state; the modal words; the interjection. Structural - either express relations between words or sentences, or emphasize the meaning of words or sentences. They never perform any independent function in the sentence. Here belong: the preposition; the conjunction; the particle; the article.


The noun is a word expressing substance.



syntactical subject object predicative attribute adverb. modif.

number gender


Morphological composition of nouns

Nouns simple
Types of nouns Simple Derivative Compound



Examples chair, table, room, map, fish, work. reader, blackness, childhood, misconduct, inexperience. snowball; blackbird, bluebell; pickpocket; dining- room, reading-hall, dancing-girl.

are nouns which have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: are nouns which have derivative elements (prefixes or suffixes or both) are nouns built from two or more stems. The main types of compound nouns are as follows: (a) noun-stem + noun-stem: (b) adjective-stem + noun-stem: (c) verb-stem + noun-stem: the stem of a gerund or of a participle may be the first component of a compound noun:

Classification of nouns

Types of nouns A) Proper



They are individual names given to separate persons or things. They are used to designate: Deborah, Smith personal names: titles: Mr. Jackson, Lord Byron, Dr. Johnson Sunday, January, Christmas

calendar items: geographical names:

Britain, Europe, The Pacific Ocean, The Black Sea, the Caucasus Gone with the Wind, The titles of books, newspapers, Guardian, The United Nations institutions: Organization English, Greek, Spanish names of nationalities and languages: Mayflower, the Regent Hotel names of ships, hotels, clubs etc.


Common class nouns

are names that can be applied to any man, tree, curiosity individual of a class of persons or things. denote persons or things belonging to a class. They are countable and are generally used with an article. a part of the town


denote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a singular unit. They denote: machinery, foliage nouns used only in the singular: nouns that are singular in form police, poultry, cattle, people though plural in meaning: nouns that may be both singular family, crowd, fleet and plural: iron, gold, paper, tea, water kindness, sadness, fight idea, hour

nouns of material abstract

denote material and are uncountable. denote some quality, state, action or, idea: They are usually uncountable; though some of them may be countable:

concrete countable uncountable

Existing in a form that can be touched, girl, apple, pen seen, etc. nouns that can be counted computer, table nouns denoting things that cannot be freedom, goodness counted:


Number singular
Rules for forming the plural of English nouns: By adding the ending -s (-es) to the singular; -s is pronounced in different ways: [iz] after the sounds [s] ; [], [d ], [t ], [ ], [z] [z] after vowels and the sounds [b], [d], [g], [l], [m], [n], [ ], [], [v] [s] after the sounds: [k], [], [p], [t], [] 2. If the noun ends in -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, or -tch, the plural is formed by adding -es to the singular: If the noun ends in -y preceded by a consonant, y is changed into i before es: Note: If the final -y is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by simply adding -s to the singular: If the noun ends in -o preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally formed by adding -es. Only a few nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant form the plural in -s All nouns ending in -o preceded by a vowel form the plural in -s and not in -es. There are some nouns ending in o that may have both s and es for the plural: 5. a) Most nouns ending in f or ef get s in the plural: b) There are a few nouns that change f or fe into ves when turned into the plural:

Examples noses, bushes; villages; benches; horses, bridges bees, pubs, beds, mornings, cans doves, caps, books, hats, cliffs, months bus- buses glass- glasses box boxes brush - brushes bench benches match - matches fly flies army- armies



day days toy - toys monkey - monkeys hero heroes echo echoes piano pianos potato - potatoes photo - photos


cuckoo cuckoos portfolio - portfolios motto motos/-es tobacco tobaccos/-es belief beliefs grief griefs half halves leaf leaves loaf loaves thief thieves cliff cliffs roof roofs knife knives life lives shelf shelves wife wives

NB. There are some nouns ending in -f which have two forms in the plural:

scarf- scarfs/ scarves wharf wharfs/ wharves


Nouns ending in th get s in the plural. The ending th is pronounced: a) [] b) [] a) Nouns ending in -th [] after long vowels change it into [] in pronunciation (which does not affect their spelling). b) [ ] is always retained after consonants (including r) and short vowels:

a) bath baths b) death - deaths bath [ba:]- baths [ba:z] path [pa:]- paths [pa:z] oath [ou] - oaths [ouz] month - months [m n s] myth - myths [mi s] birth - births [b : s] health - healths [hel s] cloths clothes sheath sheaths houses [hauziz ] child children man men mouse - mice foot -feet woman women tooth - teeth goose geese louse - lice ox oxen cod; sheep; deer; Chinese; Japanese armchair-armchairs forget-me-not forget-me-nots brother-in-law brothers-in-law man - servant men-servants phenomenon - phenomena datum data crisis - crises stimulus - stimuli formula - formulae index - indices terminus - termini formulas, indexes, terminuses, etc. advice, barley, bread, business, butter, cotton, furniture, income, information, knowledge, luggage, nylon, etc. a {piece/slice} of bacon/cake a {piece/loaf} of bread a {piece/word} of advice a {piece/item} of information/news shorts, trousers, measles, mumps, hysterics, glasses, scissors, billiards, cards, economics, informatics, politics, doings, funds (fonduri), remains (resturi), savings (economii), etc truth - truths wreath wreaths

NB. There are some nouns whose plural form ths may be pronounced either [] or []. 7. 8. The noun house has the plural There are certain irregular nouns, i.e. they do not need s at the end to form the plural form:

9. 10 .

A number of nouns get zero plural i.e. have the same form in both singular and plural: In compound nouns the plural is formed in different ways: a) adding s to one of the parts of speech b) or changing the root vowel

11 .

Some words borrowed from Latin or Greek keep their Latin or Greek plural forms:

Some of these nouns have acquired English plural forms: 12 . A few nouns are used only in the singular being called Singularia Tantum nouns. None of these nouns can be preceded by the indefinite article a/an and, as some of them have a collective meaning, when we want to refer to the singular, we must use the words: piece, item, bar, bag, etc.: A number of nouns (Pluralia Tantum) have only a plural form:

13 .

THE CATEGORY OF CASE the grammatical category which shows the relations of the noun to the other words in the sentence.

Case Nominative
Case Nominative Explanations Answers the questions: who? and what?

Examples The teacher asks us a lot of questions. A strong wind is blowing.


It answers the questions: whose? (al cui, a cui, ai cui, ale cui?) which? what? (care ?) It is formed by adding , s, or of: is used with plural forms ending in s The girls coats NB.1. Nouns forming their plural by changing the root Mens hats vowel take s in the plural: s is usually used with: Proper names: Names of persons: When the possessor is represented by several words, the possessive ending is added after the last one only: If each possessor is followed by s, this means that the possessed objects differ: When we have groups of words and composed titles, the sign of the s is added to the last word. Collective nouns: Abstract nouns: Names of countries, towns: Deborahs town My friends bag The boy and the girls toys. (they have the same toys) The boys and the girls toys (the boy has some toys and the girl has others) My mother-in laws words, In Henry VIIIs reign The governments decisions deciziile guvernului. Libertys defense Romanians towns, Londons parks. The suns rays Our ships crew. (today, week, month, etc. ): You must come to tomorrows meeting. anothers claim,

Names of celestial bodies: Names of vessels, boats, ships: Names of chronological divisions or nouns denoting measurements, distance, weight, etc. With some of the indefinite pronouns: another,

either, neither, one, etc. and the composed forms of: some, any, no, every, etc. With some expressions:

somebodys advice, eithers offer, anyones opinion for Gods sake

NB. 2. Nouns ending in -s form the genitive case in two Dickens' novels, Dickens's ways: The pronunciation of the genitive case -ending novels. [dikinsiz] follows the same rules as the pronunciation of the plural ending. of is used: The wings of the fly. when the possessor is a small animal, insect, etc.: when the possessed object is preceded by a Those toys of the children Tom is a cousin of my friend. demonstrative adjective or by the indefinite article: in some idiomatic expressions: sometimes we avoid of and form compound words: Of a size, in order of, in sight of A writer of prose a prosewriter = un scriitor de proza The cover of the book the book cover = coperta cartii The leg of the table

with common nouns


It is doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English for it is hardly ever expressed by means of grammatical forms. There is practically only one gender-forming suffix in Modern English, the suffix -ess, expressing gender. It is not widely used. heir - heir-ess poet - poet-ess






adding suffixes

using different words

using a word that indicates sex

Feminine gender a) adding suffixes to the masculine form actor actress; author authoress; fianc - fiance; comedian-comedienne; waiter waitress; master mistress; duke duchess; hero heroine; widow-widower; bride-bridegroom director-directrix (directress); husband - wife; wizard - witch;

b) using different words

boy girl; father mother; sister- brother; uncle aunt; nephew niece;

c) using a word that indicates the sex.

bachelor - maid/spinster; goose a) nouns denoting persons boy fried-girl friend brother-in-law - sister-in-law b) nouns denoting animals he-bird she-bird male/tom cat female/tabby cat he/billy-goat she /nanny- goat

drake duck;


male patient - female patient man friend woman friend male camel female camel cock-pheasant hen-pheasant buck-rabbit doe-rabbit landlord - landlady half brother half sister a Dutchman a Dutchwoman a Scotsman a Scotswoman

The use of compounds in which the second grandfather - grandmother element specifies chairman chairwoman gender:

The nouns that an Englishman an Englishwoman indicate nationality or origin. (man - the a Frenchman a Frenchwoman masculine gender; woman the feminine). All the other nouns that indicate a persons British nationality or origin Greek have one form for the both genders: American Italian etc.



Sometimes for clarity a Romanian woman (girl) the word woman or girl a Spanish woman etc. is used: Common gender denotes either sex and the same word maybe used both of male and female: adult neighbour animal professor cook relative

a Japanese woman

doctor servant etc.

Neuter gender denotes things, ideas or book beings whose sex are not interested in: house thought, etc.

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of noun. 2. Give the definition of proper and common nouns. B. Application 1. Give examples of proper, common, abstract, concrete, countable, and uncountable nouns. C. Integration 1. Compare the category of gender in English and Romanian.


definite: the

indefinite: a, an

USE OF ARTICLES WITH COMMON NOUNS I. The use of the definite article with common nouns. 1. When the noun has already been mentioned or it is How did you like the play? well known. 2. When the speaker uses an attribute pointing out a This is the house that Jack built. particular object. The wedding looked dismal. The bride was too old and the bridegroom was too young. The English use the definite article much oftener than Let me have the book. the demonstrative pronouns this or that. 3. Before a noun followed by a prepositional phrase. The capital of France. The house with large windows.

4. Before nouns which are considered unique: the The sun was getting warmer. earth, the Bible, the sky, the sun. NB. The indefinite article can be used when we mean a A pearl-white moon smiles through the certain aspect in which the sun, moon and sky appear to green trees. us, a certain state of the sun, the moon, the sky. In this case an attribute is used. 5. Before a singular noun used as a representative of a The elephant is a big animal. class: But: Elephants are big animals. NB. a) With the noun man no article is used. Silas felt that his trust in man had been cruelly destroyed. b) The noun woman is used with the definite article or He had always been interested in that occasionally without an article. mysterious being the woman. Woman is man's helpmate. 6. Before superlatives and ordinal numbers: the best, the second etc.

7. With nouns in word groups the first component of Most of the gentlemen looked both angry which is: some, many, none, most and the second a and uncomfortable. noun wit the preposition of: 8. With nouns modified by the pronoun same and the To all invitations he replied with the same adjectives wrong, right, very. courteous and positive refusal. I do wish we had not opened the door of

the wrong room. 9. With substantivized adjectives and participles. 10. With the names of materials when they are narrowed in their meaning. NB. With nouns of material used in a general sense, when a certain material as such is meant, no article is used. 11. With abstract nouns that are modified by a particularizing attribute or the situation makes the idea definite. 12. Before a common noun followed by a proper noun which identifies it: But nouns expressing professions usually follow the proper names and are preceded by the: NB. If a noun is modified by a proper noun in the genitive case no article is used. 13. Before names of musical instruments: 14. With the words: the police, the fire-brigade, the army, the bank, the post office. 15. Also with the words: the doctor, the dentist: Only the simple and the humble were there. But suddenly he heard steps on the snow. Honey is wholesome. He was the courage of his father, the spirit of his brothers, the hope of his children. The novelist Hemingway. Brown, the lawyer Brown, avocatul I met Roberts father. To play the piano/violin I must go to the bank to change some money and then I am going to the post. John isnt very well. He has gone to the doctor. (his doctor)

16. We say the cinema/ the theatre: We went to the cinema last night. NB: when we say the cinema/ the theatre we do not necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre. We usually say the radio; We often listened to the radio. But we usually say television (without the). We often watch television. But: Can you turn off the television, please? 17. In a number of phrases: By the way, on the one hand, in the country, at the seaside, in the evening, etc.

II. The use of the indefinite article with common nouns. 1. When the speaker presents the object expressed by Close beside them grew a rose-bush the noun as belonging to a certain class. covered with scarlet hips. 2. With a predicative noun. NB. After the conjunction as a predicative noun is often used without an article. 3. When the noun is used in a general sense. The article has the meaning of every. 4. There are cases when the indefinite article preserves its old original meaning of 'one'. Miss Sharp's father was an artist. She was engaged as governess. A drowning man catches at a straw. A stitch in time saves nine.

5. Abstract nouns can be used with the indefinite In her eyes there was an eagerness, which article. In this case the abstract noun denotes a could hardly be seen without delight. certain kind of a quality, feeling, state, etc. 6. With the nouns period, population, distance, height, Simpson was out of the city for a period of

salary etc. followed by of + numeral + noun. 7. When we want to classify people in terms of their occupation: NB.1 If the noun denotes a title or office that can only be held by one person at a time the indefinite article is no longer used: NB.2 The indefinite article is not used after the verb to turn when it means to become. 8. In expression of measurements, when we refer to one unit of measurement in terms of another. 9. In exclamatory sentences beginning with what, such or so. NB. The indefinite article precedes the adjective when used with such and it follows the adjective when used with so: NB. If the noun following what or such is uncountable, the indefinite article is not used: However, it is corrected to say what a pity, although pity is an uncountable noun. 10. In a number of phrases:

ten days. I am a doctor. Eu sunt doctor. Jack was elected captain of the team. a fost ales capitan. She used to be a dancer, but then she turned singer. 90p a kilo/ 80 km an hour/ twice a week. What a day! He was such (att) a good worker! He was so (aa) good a worker. What weather we are having at the moment.

as a rule = de regul; as a reward = ca rasplat; at a distance = la distant, etc.

USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS I. Names of persons 1. Names of persons are used without articles. 2. In most cases no article is used with names of persons modified by the adjectives old, young, poor, dear, little, honest, lazy. NB. When modified by other adjectives and participles, the definite article is used. He looked at Lanny and Ann. She is the widow of poor Giovanni Bolla. The astonished Tom could not say a word.

3. Nouns denoting military ranks and titles such as Painter Gainsborough left many fine academician, professor, doctor (both a profession and a pictures. title), count, lord, etc. followed by names of persons do not take the article. 4. Nouns indicating relationship, such as farther, mother, Mother trimmed the hats. sister, brother, aunt, master, etc. are used by the members of the family or by intimate friends, are used without an article. Or when a proper name is added to the nouns aunt, sister, Uncle Benjamin lived in a very nice cousn, etc. town. 5. The indefinite article is used when names of persons: a) are used to denote a representative of a family: Florence will never, never, never be a b)are modified by the adjective certain: dumber. I heard it from a certain Mr. Brown. 6. The definite article is used: a) When these names denote the whole family. The Dashwoods were now settled at Berton. b) When names of persons are modified by a particularizing You're not the Andrew Manson I attribute. married. 7. when we want to classify people in terms of: a) their origin: b) their religion: c) their politics: He is a Mexican. El este Mexican. Shes a Catholic. - Ea este catolic. Tom is a Republican.

II. Geographical names No article is used with: 1. Continents: 2. Countries and States: But we say the a) with names which include words like republic, union, kingdom, states: b) with plural names: 3. Cities/ towns/ villages: Exception: The Hague (in the Netherlands) 4. Individual islands : NB. Island groups usually have plural names with the: 5. Lakes: Africa, Asia, Europe France, Japan, Texas The U.S.A, the U.K., the Republic of Ireland The Netherlands New York, Madrid Bermuda, Easter Island The British Isles Lake Superior

6. We dont normally use the with names of streets/ roads/ Regent Street, Red Square squares etc. NB. The Mail, the High Street, the Strand. We use the with:

SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF ARTICLES I. The use of articles with the nouns morning, day, night, evening, afternoon, midnight 1. Nouns denoting the parts of the day; morning, day, The night was fine but very dark. evening, afternoon, midnight are used with the definite article when a particular morning, evening etc. is meant. 2. The nouns day, night etc. have no article when they are used in a more general abstract sense: a) when the nouns day, morning, night etc. are It was midnight. - Era miezul noptii. predicatives, sometimes - objects: b) in one member sentence: Morning, cold and gray. c) in phrasiological combinations of these nouns with the It is easier to work by day than at night. prepositions: by day; at night, at noon, etc. NB. Sometimes the article is also absent with other prepositions. But in these cases both absence of the article and the definite article may be found depending on the meaning implied. d) after such constructions: We reached home towards evening. (time) Am ajuns acas spre sear. (Towards the evening the evening of that particular day.) Morning after morning.

e) When day or morning means light and evening or night I rose as soon as day dawned. - Eu mmeans darkness. am trezit numai cum s-a luminat de zi. II. The use of articles with names of seasons. 1. Names of seasons are used without articles: a) if they show a certain time of the year. b) when they are modified by the adjectives early or late. 2. The definite article is used when these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or the situation makes them definite. 3. The indefinite article is used when these nouns are modified by a descriptive attribute. It was spring. It was early spring. It happened in the spring of 1930. It was a cold spring.

III. The use of articles with the nouns school, college, bed, prison, jail. 1. These nouns are used without an article when they loose their concrete meaning and express the purpose for which the objects denoted by these nouns serve. 2. When these nouns denote concrete objects the articles are used according to the general principle. Mary goes to school. (She is a pupil)

Mother went to the school yesterday to attend a parents meeting. She worked at a school in Siberia.

IV. The use of articles with the names of meals. 1. Names of meals are used without articles. When did you have dinner?

2. The definite article is used when these nouns are The dinner we had today was very substantial. modified by a particularizing attribute or the situation makes them definite.

3. The indefinite article is used when these nouns After a hearty breakfast the four gentlemen left. are modified by a descriptive attribute. V. The use of articles with the names of languages. 1. These names are used without articles when they She knows English. are not followed by the noun language. 2. When the noun language is mentioned the The English language. definite article is used. VI. The use of articles with the word space. We say space (not the space) when we mean space in the universe. There are millions of stars in space. ( not in the space) But: He tried to park his car but the space wasnt big enough.

ABSENCE OF ARTICLES 1. Before abstract nouns used in a general sense: But, if the reference is made to certain abstract nouns, they are preceded by the. 2. Before names of materials used in a general sense: milk, bread, snow. 3. Before plural nouns used in a general sense. 4. Before names of meals used in a general sense. 5. Before such nouns cook, nurse, teacher, gardener, milkman: when they have the meaning our cook/ teacher/ etc. 6. Before names of days, months, seasons, holidays. 7. Before names of subjects, sciences. 8. Before names of illnesses. Life, death, freedom, liberty, love The life of this child. NB. The coffee is very expensive. Books are silent friends. But: the books you lent me are very interesting. We have breakfast at 7 oclock every morning. Teacher is going to give us a test today. Monday is the first day of the week in our country. Phisics, Chemistry measles

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. What kinds of articles are there in English? B. Application 1. Give examples of proper nouns used with definite articles. C. Integration 1. What does the article used before a noun depend on?

The adjective is a word expressing a quality of a substance.


Morphological characteristics degrees of comparison comparative superlative Meaning One object has more of the quality named by the adjective than some other. Than is often used after a comparative degree. Much can come before the comparative to give emphasis. The greatest degree of the quality among the things being compared. The objects are equal in the quality named by the adjective. One object has less of the quality named by the adjective than the other does. The least degree of the quality named by the adjective. Something is acquiring or losing a quality.

Syntactical characteristics attribute predicative

Examples She is taller than her sister. This task is more difficult than that one. Is Tokyo much more modern than London? This is the highest building I have ever seen. It is the most wonderful party. Peter is as tall as Nick. Peter is not as tall as Nick. Jane is less beautiful than Kate. This is the least interesting film Ive seen lately. Your English is getting better and better. I am less and less satisfied with my job. Superlative denotes the highest degree of a quality (the) cheapest (the) smallest (the) happiest (the) narrowest (the) cleverest (the) simplest (the) most careful

Comparative denotes a higher degree of a quality Short adjectives Adjectives of two syllables which end in y, -ow, -er, -le. Adjectives with two cheap small happy narrow clever simple careful cheaper smaller happier narrower cleverer simpler more careful

syllables or more Irregular adjectives

interesting good bad many, much little far old

more interesting better worse more less farther/ further older/ elder Spelling rules

(the) most interesting (the) best (the) worst (the) most (the) least (the) farthest/ furthest (the) oldest/ eldest

1. Short adjectives with one vowel + one consonant double the consonant. 2. If the adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, y is changed into i before er, -est. 3. If the adjective ends in e the e is dropped before er and -est.

hot fat busy early fine nice

hotter fatter busier earlier finer nicer

hottest fattest busiest earliest finest nicest

Morphological composition of the adjective


simple derivative compound


good, red, black. beautiful, foolish, unkind, etc. snow white life giving, smoke dried deaf mute cold hearted lynx eyed four wheeled over - peopled

They have neither prefixes nor suffixes. They are indecomposable: They have derivative elements, suffixes or prefixes, or both: They are built from two or more stems: a) noun-stem + adjective stem: b) noun-stem + participle stem: c) adjective-stem + adjective stem: d) adjective stem + noun-stem + suffix - ed: e) noun-stem + noun-stem + suffix - ed: f) numeral-stem + noun-stem + suffix ed: g) adverb-stem + noun-stem + suffix ed:

Classification of adjectives




Qualitative adjectives

They denote qualities of a substance directly, not through its relation to another substance, as size, shape, colour, physical and mental qualities, qualities of general estimation: Grammatical characteristics: most of them have degrees of comparison: some of them have no degrees of comparison: they have certain typical suffixes, such as -ful, -less, -ous, -ent, -able, -y, -ish: from most of them adverbs can be formed by the suffix ly: They denote qualities of a substance through their relations to: materials place time some action Grammatical characteristics: they have no degrees of comparison: they have certain typical suffixes, such as en, -an, -ist, -ic, -ical, : they do not form adverbs with the suffix ly:

Little, large, high, soft, hard, warm, white, blue, pink, strong, bold, beautiful, important, necessary, etc. big / bigger/ the biggest greenish, unsuitable careful, careless, dangerous, convenient, etc. graceful gracefully.

Relative adjectives

silken, woolen, wooden Italian, Asian monthly, weekly preparatory

wooden, Italian, synthetic, etc.

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of adjective. B. Application 1. Give examples of qualitative and relative adjectives. C. Integration 1. Compare the degrees of comparison of the adjective in English and your mother tongue.

The adverb is a part of speech which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state, or points out some characteristic features of an action or quality. The function in the sentence: adverbial modifier.

According to the structure simple According to the meaning time

derivative compound composite

place and direction Compound cause and consequence Composite manner degree, measure, quantity
degree, measure, and quantity

Types of adverbs simple derivative (suffix or prefix + word) compound composite time frequency place and direction cause and consequence manner degree, measure, quantity long, enough, then, etc.


slowly, likewise, forward, etc. anyhow, sometimes, nowhere, etc. at once, at last, etc. today, tomorrow, soon, etc. often, seldom, never, sometimes, etc. inside, outside, here, there, upstairs, etc. therefore, consequently, accordingly, etc. kindly, quickly, hard, etc. very, enough, half, too, nearly, almost, much, little, quite, etc.

Degrees of comparison comparative An adverb of one syllable Adverbs ending in -ly fast hard wisely faster harder more wisely superlative fastest hardest most wisely

Irregular forms of comparison

beautifully well badly much little

more beautifully better worse more less

most beautifully best worst most least

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of adverb. 2. According to the structure adverbs are 3. According to the meaning adverbs are B. Application 1. Give examples of time, frequency, place, cause and consequence, and manner adverbs. C. Integration 1. Compare the degrees of comparison of the adverb in English and your mother tongue. THE PRONOUN Types of pronouns 1. Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Indefinite pronouns Examples Subject: I, he, she, it, we, you, they Object: me, him, her, It, us, you, them mine; his; hers; ours; yours; theirs myself; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; yourselves; themselves each other; one another this these; that those; the former; the latter; the first; the last; the same; such; such- and-such; suchlike; one ones. all; both; much; many; more; most; little, few; a little; a few; another; the other; others; the others; either; neither; each; everybody; everything; everyone; some; any; no one/ none; somebody; something; someone; anybody; anything; anyone; nobody; nothing; enough; several; one who; whom; whose; what; which who; whom; whose; whoever; which; whichever; that; what

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Interrogative pronouns Relative pronouns

Types of prono uns Personal Prono uns

Explanations Grammatical categories: of person, number and (in the third person singular) gender. two cases: a) the nominative case: b) the objective case: NB. If the pronoun is used as part of the subject, use a subject pronoun: If it is part of the object, use an object pronoun: two numbers: a) singular b) plural NB. you is both singular and plural He, she, it distinguish gender a) Male beings (man, uncle, boy, etc.) are referred to as he: b) Female beings (woman, aunt, girl, etc.) are referred to as she: c) Inanimate things (house, tree, cap, etc.) are referred to as it: Functions: of subject, object, predicative.


I, you, he, she, it, we, they me, you, him, her, it, us, them Eric and I are good friends. Ann met Eric and me at the museum. I, he, she, it, we, they

Her husband asked only a few questions. He was a silent man. He turned and saw the girl. She was a pale, ethereal creature Wheres your car? - It is in the garage.

Possessive prono uns

Grammatical categories: of person, number and (in the third person singular) gender.

mine; his; her; ours; yours; theirs Possessive adjectives I have my pen. You have your pen. She has her pen. He has his pen. We have our pens. You have your pens. They have their pens. I have a book. Its cover is black.

A possessive pronoun is used alone, Possessive pronouns I have mine. without a noun following it. You have yours. A possessive adjective is used only She has hers. He has his. with a noun following it. We have ours. NB. The form its, although it may occur You have yours. in some constructions, is no longer used They have theirs. today being considered obsolete.

Reflexive prono uns

Grammatical categories: of person, number and (in the third person singular) gender. End in self/ -selves. They are used when the subject (e.g., I) and the object (e.g., myself) are the same person. The action of the verb is pointed back to the subject of the sentence. Incorrect: I saw me in the mirror. By + a reflexive pronoun = alone.

I saw myself in the mirror. You saw (one person) yourself in the mirror. She saw herself in the mirror. He saw himself in the mirror. It saw itself. We saw ourselves. You (plural) saw yourselves. They saw themselves.

Greg lives by himself. (i.e. alone without family or roommates.) Enjoy and a few other verbs and Believe in, blame, cut, enjoy, feel sorry for, help, phrases are commonly followed by a hurt, give, introduce, kill, pinch, be proud of, take care of, talk to, teach, tell, work for. reflexive pronoun.

Functions: of prepositional object, predicative. Those verbs which describe actions that people do to themselves ( to shave; to dress; to wash, etc.) do not usually take reflexive pronouns: With these verbs, reflexive pronouns are only used for emphasis: Reciprocal prono uns

Jimmy usually shaves before breakfast.

I prefer shaving myself to going to the barbers

The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another indicate that two people do the same thing, feel the same way, or have the same relationship, that is the feeling or action is mutual. Each other generally implies only two people: He had never heard his father or his mother speak in an angry voice to each other.

Seated in a row close to one another One another generally implies more than two were three ladies Aunt Ann, Hester, people: and Julie. to argue, to hug, to compete, to kiss, to consult, to marry, to embrace, to match, to engage, to meet, to fight, to touch. We kissed.

There are some verbs in English that describe processes which involve two people or two groups of people doing the same thing to each other, having, thus, a reciprocal meaning:

If, however, we want to emphasize that both participants are equally involved in the action, we use We kissed one another. each other or one another after the verb:

Demonstra This is used to point at what is nearer in time or -tive space: pronouns That is used to point at what is farther in time or space: This these; that those may be applied to both persons and things. The former the latter: these pronouns have the meaning of the first and, respectively, the second of two. They have the same form for singular and plural: The same is used as a: demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun

This is an interesting book. That was a serious problem. This is a French girl. Ann and Janet are cousins: the former is a student, the latter is a pupil. Ann si Janet sunt verioare: prima e student, a doua e elev.

George learns in the same school as his friend. I think the same about this. I drank a glass of milk and my sister did the same. Have you ever read such stories? Such is the present situation.

The same may also replace a whole sentence: Such can be both a demonstrative adjective: a demonstrative pronoun: Suchlike:

Indefinite Pronouns

We have never listened to suchlike songs. (adjective) I dont like books about love, romance and suchlike. (pronoun) All is a generalizing pronoun; it takes a group of And Martin forgot all about it. things or people as a whole. It may be used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute. Both points out two persons, things or notions Both seemed to implore something to mentioned before. It may be used as subject, object, shelter them from reality. prepositional indirect object, and attribute. Each and every refer to all the members of the group of persons, things, or notions mentioned before and taken one by one. They require a verb in the singular. Each may be used as subject, object, and attribute. Every is used only as an attribute. They began to deal swiftly with the cocoa tins, slipping a stick of dynamite in each.(prepositional indirect object) This is something more than genius. It is true, every line of it.

Everybody, everyone refer to all the members of the group of persons mentioned before or taken one by You walked into the waiting-room, into a great buzz of conversation, and one. They have two cases: there was everybody; you knew almost a) the common everybody. He almost forgot the discomfort of b) the genitive being set up as a target for Functions of: subject, object, and attribute. everybodys gaze. Everything may be applied to things, animals, and abstract notions. It is used as subject, predicative, and No one will see us. Pull down that veil and everything will be all right. object. Either has two meanings: a) each of the two, b) one or the other. It is usually used as attribute or part of Which book do you prefer?

the subject. Other others have two cases: a) the common (other others) b) the genitive(others others) The other means the the last one in a specific group, the only one that remains from a given number of similar items. It can be pronoun and adjective. It used as subject, object, and attribute.


There are two apples on the table. Paul is going to eat one of them. Sara is going to eat the other.(pronoun) Sara is going to eat the other apple. (adjective)

Other(s) (without the) means several more out of a There are many apples in Pauls group of similar items, several in addition to the one kitchen Paul is holding one apple. (s) I have already talked about. There are other apples (ones) in a The adjective other (without an s) can be used with bowl. (adjective) a plural noun or with the word ones. There are others on a chair.(pronoun) Others (with an s) is a plural pronoun; it is not used with a noun. The other(s) means the last ones in a specific group, the remains from a given number of similar There are four apples on the table. items. Paul is going to take one of them. The other (without an s) can be used as an Sara is going to take the other apples. adjective in front of a plural noun or the word ones. (ones) (adjective) The others (with an s) is a plural pronoun; it is not She is going to take the others. (pronoun) used with a noun. Another means one more out of a group of similar Theres a large bowl of apples on the items, one in addition to the one(s) I have already table. Paul is going to eat one apple. If he is still hungry after that, he can talked about. eat another ( apple). There are many It may be used as subject, object, and attribute. apples to choose from. There were two apples on the table. Another can be used as an adjective in front of a Paul ate one apple. Then he ate another one. (adjective) noun or in front of the word one. Paul ate one apple. Then he ate Another can also be used alone as a pronoun. another. (pronoun) Some, any, somebody, anybody, Somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, one have someone, anyone, something, two cases: anything, one. a) the common b) the genitive Some is chiefly used in affirmative sentences. Any is used in negative and interrogative sentences Cats? I dont have any. Do you see any? and in conditional clauses. If you have any, show them to me please. Im sure some will agree.

Do you want some? Some, not any, is used in special and general questions expressing some request or proposal. Any are allowed to do it.. Any may be used in affirmative sentences with the meaning of every. Theres someone in front of our Somebody, someone, something are chiefly used in house. I would like to say something. affirmative sentences. I dont want anything. Anybody, anyone, anything are used in negative Is there anything you would like to and interrogative sentences and in conditional tell me? If anybody comes, tell me please. clauses. Will someone help me? Somebody, someone, something are used in special and general questions if they express some request or Youve no business to say such a proposal. thing! she exclaimed. : Why not? Anybody, anyone, anything may be used in Anybody can see it. affirmative sentences. Anybody, anyone are used ...she sank in spirit inwardly as she with the meaning of everyone; anything is used thought of asking for something to do with the meaning of everything. something that she could do Some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, anything. something, anything may be used as: subject, object, attribute, predicative. I forgot to bring a pen. Can you lend me one? One is used to avoid the repetition of a/ an + noun. None of us can hold on forever! None may be applied both to human beings and things. It can be used as subject or object. It is opposite to the pronouns some, something, someone, Nobody seemed to know him well. all, everybody, every, each. We have no one to help us. Nobody, no one refer to human beings. They are opposite to the pronouns somebody, someone, all, everybody, every, and each. They are mostly used as subjects and objects. Nothing refers to things. It is opposite to the pronouns something and everything. It may be used as subject, predicative or object. Neither is opposite to the defining pronouns either, both. It may be used as subject, object, and attribute. Nothing can satisfy me more.

Do you like any of these two cars? I like neither.

Interrogative pronouns

Are used to form special questions: Who has the category of case: a) the nominative: who b) the objective: whom NB. Theres a tendency in Modern English to use who, instead of whom, as an object. Who refers to human beings: What usually refers to things but it may be applied to persons when one inquires about their occupation: Which has as elective meaning; it refers to an individual of the group. It may refer to persons or things. Functions: subject, predicative, object, and attribute.

who; whom; whose; what; which

Who has watered the flowers? What are you looking for, Tess? Hairpins, she replied. What was he? A painter. Which of us does he mean? asked the boy. Which side of the bed do you like, Mum?

Relative pronouns

Refer to somebody or something that has already who; whom; whose; whoever; which; been mentioned and, at the same time, join clauses whichever; that; what together. Who refers to persons. It is the subject of a relative The boy who is answering the teachers question is my friend. clause: Whom is the object of a relative clause, although, This is the girl who(m) we met yesterday. nowadays, the form who is also accepted: Whose refers to persons, animals, and things. It shows who or what something belongs to or is The woman whose hat is red is our connected with. It must always come in front of a neighbour. noun. Which always refers to things or animals and can be Here was her own style- a bed which did not look like others. the subject or the object of a relative clause: That may refer to either people or things and has the The girl that you see is my sister. same form as the subject or the object of a relative On one side was a low wall that clause, or of a preposition: separated it from the street.

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of pronoun. 2. Name the types of pronouns. B. Application 1. Give examples of personal, possessive, reflexive, reciprocal, relative, interrogative, indefinite, demonstrative pronouns. C. Integration 1. Compare the types of pronouns in English and your mother tongue.



adverbial numeral


distributive adverbial

multiplicative adverbial

Types of numeral Cardinal

Examples Are used to refer to an exact number of things, etc. Notes: The figure 0 can be written and pronounced in the following ways: Zero usually used in American English, in mathematics, for temperature; Nought used in British English, in mathematics; Oh used when reading out long numbers, one figure at a time (e. g. telephone numbers, account numbers, etc); Nil used to express scores in team games; Love used to express scores in tennis. 0 - zero; 1 one; 2 two; 3 three; 4 four, 5 five; 6 six; 7 seven; 8 eight; 9 nine; 10 ten; 11 eleven, 12 twelve; 13 thirteen; 14 fourteen; 15 fifteen; 16 sixteen; 17 seventeen; 18 eighteen; 19 nineteen; 20 twenty; 21 twenty-one; 22 twenty-two, etc.; 30 thirty; 40 forty; 50 fifty; 60 sixty; 70 seventy; 80 eighty; 90 ninety; 100 one hundred; 205 two hundred and five; 1,000 one thousand; 1,325 - one thousand, three hundred and twenty-five; 1,000,000 one million; 5,000,000 five million; 1,000,000,000 - one billion.

Unlike most other languages, in English the numbers over 999 that are written in 1,987 1 987 figures get a comma or a blanc dividing the 2,513,608 2 513 608 figures into groups of three: When the cardinal number contains a full stop, the number or numbers that occur after 7.25 (seven point twenty-five)

the full stop indicate a fraction: When we write in words or say a number over 100, we must put and before the number expressed by the last two figures: But and is often omitted in American English: A is usually used before hundred, thousand, million when they stand alone or in informal English: and one in formal English or when these words are followed by other numbers: The words hundred, thousand, million, dozen (= 12), score (=20) and gross (= 144) are never used in the plural when preceded by a definite number or by several, a few or a couple of: But the words hundred, thousand, million, billion, dozen, score and gross are used in the plural when they express an indefinite number or are preceded by many: Expressing Age We can express a persons age in the following ways: with the help of the verb to be followed by a number: with the preposition of after a noun, followed by a number: with the word aged after the noun, followed by a number: with the help of a compound adjective, made up of a number followed by a singular noun referring to a period of time, followed by the word old. These words are hyphened: with the help of a compound noun consisting of a number followed by year old: 102 = one hundred and two 1120 = one thousand, one hundred and twenty 129 = one hundred twenty-nine. This watch costs a hundred dollars. There were not more than a thousand people on the beach. One hundred and twenty-four. One thousand and five. Two hundred years, five thousand books, ten million people, three dozen books, ten score. Hundreds of girls, thousands of flowers, millions of people, scores of letters They sell in dozens and in grosses. Many hundreds/ thousands/ etc.

Tom is fifteen (years old). She was a girl of twelve. He had a daughter aged fifteen. A fifteen year-old boy A two-month-old baby

We were met by Kerry, a pretty twenty-yearold. All the seven-year-olds will go to school in September. If we want to refer to somebodys age in an When Rosemary was in her teens, ... approximate way, we can do it in the The two men were both in their mid-fifties. I think she is over fifty. following ways: All those present were under twenty. She is below the age of thirty. Im sure he sisters are above the age of twenty. The over-eighteens will be allowed to see this film. The under-fourteens will not be given identity cards. Telephone Numbers

Each digit of a telephone number is usually spoken separately except in the case of two identical digits occurring together, which are said as double three, double seven, etc. The digits are spoken in groups of two or three, with slight pauses between the groups. Ordinal They are used to identify something by indicating where it comes in a series of sequence. They are formed with the help of the suffix th added to the cardinal numbers or their equivalents, except the first three numbers which have irregular forms, and the compound numbers with which only the last figure gets its ordinal form. They can also be written in abbreviated form:



43338 (four-double three-three-eight)/ (four-three-double three-eight) NB. In American English, zero or nought is usually used instead of oh The first; the second; the third; the fourth; the fifth; the tenth; the eleventh; the twelfth; the thirteenth; the twenty-first; the twentyfourth; the thirtieth; the one hundredth; the ten thousandth; the one millionth; the thirtysomethingth; etc.

The 1st; the 2nd; the 3rd; the 4th; the 10th; the 21st; the 52nd; the 76th; April 1, 1946 1 April 1946 dates may be written in the following April 1st, 1946 1st April 1946 ways: 1st of April 1946 But, when reading or speaking, the ordinal numbers must be used in all these cases. years: 1969 - nineteen hundred and sixty-nine, or nineteen sixty-nine. 2006 two thousand and six Charles I, Richard II, Henry VIII Charles the First, Richard the Second, Henry the Eighth. Double/ twofold; threefold; fourfold; tenfold; hundredfold; etc. One by one; two by two/ by twos/ in twos; ten by ten/ by tens/ in tens; etc. Once; twice; three times; ten times; etc. We sang that song twice.

Multiplicative adver-bial Distributive adverbial Adverbial

titles of kings must be written in Roman numbers, but they are read using ordinal numbers: This numeral shows the proportion in which a quantity is increased: It shows the distribution or grouping of objects: It shows how many times an action is performed.

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of numeral. 2. Name the types of numeral. 3. Which type of numeral is used to write dates years, telephone numbers, and age. B. Application 1. Give examples of cardinal, ordinal, multiplicative adverbial, distributive adverbial, and adverbial numerals. C. Integration 1. Compare the use of cardinal and ordinal numerals in English and Romanian.


Characteristics Examples denote the temporary state or condition of But Johnny and Paddy were as1eep, the rose-red glow had paled, bats were flying, and still the persons or things. bathers had not returned. "I'm afraid, General, we have to rely on the appeal of the leaflet." ablaze, afire, aflame, afoot, afraid, awake. have the prefix a. He is awake. are mainly used in the function of a predicative. She was saying that she intended to leave him may be used as objective predicative. entirely alone again. may be sometimes used as attributes. But unlike The father and mother dolls, who sprawled very stiff adjectives they cannot be placed before the as though they had fainted in the drawing-room, and words they modify. As attributes they may be their two little children asleep upstairs were really too big for the doll's house. only used in post-position: can be modified by adverbs of degree: may take prepositional indirect objects. Sally had been half asleep with her head on Eddie's lap. I am ashamed of you.

The verb is a part of speech which denotes an action. A) The grammatical categories: Grammatical categories person number tense aspect voice mood Characteristics In Modern English there are but few forms indicating person and number in the synthetic forms of the verb. These are: It denotes the relation of the action either to the moment of speaking or to some definite moment in the past or future. It shows the way in which the action develops, whether it is in progress or completed. It indicates the relation of the predicate to the subject and the object. There are two voices: Examples a) the third person singular Present Indefinite Indicative: He speaks. b) the Future Indefinite Tense: I shall speak/ he will speak 16 tenses in English Perfective non-perfective Progressive non-progressive a) active b) passive

It indicates the attitude of the speaker towards the a) the indicative mood action expressed by the verb from the point of view of b) the imperative mood its reality. c) the subjunctive mood d) the conditional mood B) Types of verbs:

Types of verbs transitive

Characteristics Require a direct object, i.e. they express an action which passes on to a person or thing directly. Here belong such verbs as to take, to give, to send, to make, to see, to show, to bring, to love etc. There are other verbs which can be used either with or without a direct object, such as to read, to write, to hear, to see. Usually, in this case the object is clear

Examples Ive known these people for a long time. I wrote (a letter) to him a month ago.

from the context. intransitive Cannot take a direct object. Here belong such verbs as to stand, to sleep, to laugh, to think, to lie, to swim. Note: There are verbs whose primary meaning is transitive and whose secondary meaning is intransitive. Here belong such verbs as to sell, to read, to add, to act, etc. There are verbs whose primary meaning is intransitive and whose secondary meaning is transitive. Here belong such verbs as to work, to starve, to walk, to run, etc. Verbs may have finite forms - which can be used as the predicate of a sentence. Verbs may have non-finite forms - which cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. She shrank slowly away from him, and stood quite still. She sells books. (transitive) This book sells well. Yesterday I walked far. (intransitive) He walked the horse to and fro. ( transitive) Hearing the noise, she opened the door. Hearing the noise, she opened the door.

finite forms non finite forms

According to their morphological structure verbs are divided into: simple derived compound composite Have affixes. Consist of two stems. Consist of a verb and a postposition of adverbial origin. Read, live, hide, speak Magnify, fertilize, captivate, undo, decompose Daydream, browbeat Sit down, come in, go out.

According to their syntactic function verbs are divided into: notional Are those which have a full meaning of their own and Ricky surrounded her with great care can be used without any additional words as a simple and luxury. predicate. Here belong such verbs as to write, to She knew what he was thinking. read, to speak, to know, to ask. Are those which have only a grammatical function. They are used in analytical forms. Here belong such verbs as to do, to have, to be, shall, will, should, would. I dont recollect that he ever did anything, at least not in my time. Their father ... had come from Dorsetshire near the beginning of the century. Are verbs which to a smaller or greater extent have The house was big. lost their meaning and are used in the compound The old face looked worn and hollow nominal predicate. again. NB. In different contexts the same verb can be used ... She turned her head sullenly away as a notional verb and an auxiliary verb or a link from me. (notional verb) verb: She ... turned deadly pale. (link verb) modal Are a special group of verbs which cannot be used without additional words, though they have a meaning of their own, such as can, may, must, ought, etc. The same verb in different contexts can be modal and auxiliary. You must come on time. You should listen to her more attentively. I crouched against the wall of the gallery so that I should not be seen. (auxiliary verb) I dont honestly think Lady Crowan was



exaggerating when she said something should be done in your honour. (modal verb) According to their lexical meaning verbs are divided into: terminative Denote an action implying a certain limit beyond which it cannot go: to come, to bring, to build, to give, to take, to receive, to find, to fall, to kill, to die, to become, to stand up, to sit down, to come to. Denote a certain action which does not imply any limit: to live, to exist, to sleep, to love, to be, to have, to possess, to work, to speak, to respect, to smoke, etc. In certain contexts have a terminative meaning, and in others, a durative meaning: to stand, to kneel, to sit, to know, to remember, etc. He went to the kitchen and brought him a cake and a plate of biscuits. He loved the Old Masters of painting. He sat very still a moment. (durative) I went and sat beside him. (terminative)

durative verbs of double lexical character



Table of tenses
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Present Past Future Future in the Past I go to the theatre I went to the I shall go to the I said I should go every week. theatre last week. theatre next week. to the theatre next week. Dont speak to him. When I came, he Dont come at 8. I He said he would He is working. was working. shall be working. be working at 8 oclock. I have known him When I came, he By 2007 I shall I said I should for two years. had already left. have known him have read all the for twelve years. books by the first of April. My hands are dirty. I was very tired. I By the first of May I said that by the I have been had been reading I shall have been first of May I working in the a lot. reading the book should have been garden. for a fortnight. reading the book for a fortnight.

Perfect Continuous

1. The Present Indefinite

1.1 Form Affirmative and negative I We You They He/ She/ It Positive live Negative do not (dont) live in Chisinau. lives does not (doesnt) live

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Do I we you they he she it positive I we you do. they he does. she it

Short answers negative I we you they he she it do not (dont)

live in Chisinau?




does not (doesnt)

1.2 Use The Present Simple is used to express: a repeated action, a habit. It is used with adverbs of frequency (always, often, sometimes, usually, never) to express how often something happens. a fact which is always true. a fact which stays the same for a long time. sometimes in giving the summary of a story. an officially planned action or an action belonging to a settled program. a future action a) in a conditional clause: b) in a time clause: c) with verbs of motion such as to go, to come, to leave, etc. 1.3 Spelling of verb + -s The normal rule is to add s to the base form of the verb. Add es to verbs that end in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, z. Verbs that end in a consonant + y change to ies. NB. Verbs which end in a vowel + y only add s. A few verbs have irregular forms. 1.4 Pronunciation. There are three different pronunciations for the final -s of the third person singular: [s] after the sounds: [p], [t], [k], [f]. [z] after the sounds [b], [d], [g], [v], [ ], [m], [n], [], [l], and [r], and all vowel sounds. [iz] after the sounds [s], [z], [], [t] [ ], [ ]. Do and say have a change in vowel sound.

We go to school by bus. We sometimes sleep late. Ice melts in the sun. My daughter has brown eyes. He works in a bank. The prince decides to enter the cave. He enters the cave and there sees a witch. The championship starts next Saturday. If you come tomorrow, well go to the cinema. You will see your cousin when you come. The train leaves at 10.00 tomorrow.

Wants, eats, drives, reads Kisses, washes, watches, fixes, buzzes. Carry - carries, fly - flies, worry - worries, try - tries Buys, says, plays, enjoys Be is, are do does Go goes have- has

[s], [z], [iz]. Tops, gets, takes, laughs Describes, sends, hugs, lives, bathes, seems, remains, sings, tells Relaxes, freezes, rushes, massages, watches, judges Say [ ], says [ ] Do [ ], does [ ]

2. The Present Continuous

2.1 Form am/ is/ are + verb + -ing (present participle)

Affirmative and negative I We You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Am Is Are I he she it we you they working? Yes, positive I he she it we you they Positive m (am) re (are) Negative m not arent (are not) working.

Short answers negative am. is. are. No, I he she it we you they m not. isnt. arent.

2.2 Use The present continuous is used to express: an activity that is happening now. an activity or situation that is true now, but is not necessarily happening at the moment of speaking. a temporary activity. a planned future arrangement. a frequent repetition of an activity which has a distinct meaning of annoyance, irritation, sarcasm. In this case the verbs are usually combined with such adverbs as: always, constantly, continually, for ever. with verbs to get or to grow to express a transition from one state to another. 2.3 Spelling of verb + -ing Add ing to the base form of the verb. Verbs that end in one e lose the e. NB. Verbs that end in ee dont lose an ee. In verbs of one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant, the consonant is doubled. NB. If the final consonant is y or w, it is not doubled Note: lie lying

You cant see Jane. Shes having a bath. Dont take that book. Jane is reading it. Im doing a French evening course this year. Im living with my friends until I find a place of my own. Im having lunch with Jane tomorrow. He is always borrowing money from his friends but never gives it back. It is getting dark Our parents are getting older and older. going, wearing, visiting, eating smoking, coming, hoping, writing agreeing, seeing stopping, getting, running, planning, jogging playing, showing

2.4 Verbs not used in the Continuous Verbs of thinking and opinion Verbs of emotions and feelings Verbs of possession Believe, think, understand, suppose, expect, agree, doubt, know, remember, forget, mean, imagine, realize, deserve, prefer, foresee, guess, mind, regard, suppose, trust, recollect. Like, love, hate, care, hope, wish, want, admit, abhor, adore, detest, please, dislike, displease. Belong, have, hold, keep, owe, own, possess.

Verbs of senses Verbs of state/ condition NB. When the subject is a person, we often use can: Some of these verbs can be used in the Present Continuous, but with a change of meaning. In the Continuous, the verb expresses an activity, not a state.

Look, hear, taste, smell, feel, notice. appear, be, consist, contain, differ, deserve, equal, exist, resemble, seem, suit. Can you smell something burning? I think you are right. (opinion) I was just thinking what a long way it is. (mental activity) He has a new car. (possession) Shes having a bath. (activity) The tea tastes strongly of mint. (activity) Im tasting the soup to see if it needs salt. (activity)

3. The Past Simple

3.1 Form verb + -ed Affirmative and negative positive I He/ She/ It arrived We went You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative I he/ she/ it we you they positive I he/ she/ it we you they To be Affirmative and negative positive I He/ She/ It was We You They were negative was not (wasnt) yesterday. were not (werent)

negative did not (didnt) arrive/ go yesterday.

Short answers negative I he/ she/ it we you they







Interrogative and short answers Interrogative positive Was Were I he/ she/ it there? we you Yes, we you I he/ she/ it

Short answers negative was. No, were. we you werent. I he/ she/ it wasnt.







3.2 Spelling of regular verbs 1. add -ed to the infinitive of the verb: 2. if the verb ends in e, add d: 3. if the verb has only one syllable and ends in a vowel-consonant combination, the final consonant doubles. NB. cooked, seated, , moaned, because there are two vowels. The consonant is not doubled if it is y, x, or w. 4. In most two-syllable verbs, the end consonant is doubled if the stress is on the second syllable. NB. Exception is the final consonant l. 5. verbs that end in a consonant + -y change to ied: NB. We write enjoyed , because it ends in a vowel + y. 3.3 Pronunciation -ed is pronounced in the following way: [d] after [b, g, n, l, m, v, z, w, r, and the vocalic sounds: [t] after [,f, k, p, s, , t ]: [id] after [d, t ]: 3.4 Use The past Indefinite expresses: a past action that is now finished. a succession of past actions. repeated actions in the past. in conditional clause in time clauses , ]

worked, started lived, loved stopped, planned played, mixed, showed pre`ferred, ad`mitted traveled studied, carried

opened [oupnd], answered [ans d] worked [w kt], hopped [ ], published lasted [ la:stid ], intend [ in tendid]

John left two minutes ago. He threw down his spade and entered the house. He made an entry in his diary every night. If I were you, I would accept the proposal. He promised me that he would tell me the truth when he knew it.

3.5 The translation of the Past Simple into Romanian Perfect cmpus When he opened the door, he saw the dog. Cnd a deschis ua, vzu cinele. Perfect simplu Imperfect The little boy was very tired. Bieelul era foarte oboist. Conjunctive perfect Helen said that she felt lonely before she met him. Elena a spus c se simea singur nainte s-l fi ntlnit. Condiional prezernt I would read that letter if he gave it to me. A citi scrisoarea aceea dac el mi-ar da-o. Prezent I didnt know she loved music. Nu tiam c-i place muzica.


He girl said that she would come here when she was free. Fata a spus c va veni aici cnd va fi liber.

4. The Past Continuous

4.1 Form was/ were + verb + -ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative positive I was He/ she/ it We You were They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Was I he she it we you they positive I he she it we you they

negative wasnt (was not) working. werent (were not)

Short answers was. No, were. negative I he wasnt she it we you werent. they




4.2 Use The Past Continuous is used: to express an activity in progress before, and At 7.00 I was having breakfast. probably after, a particular time in the past. to describe a situation or activity during a period in Jane looked lovely. She was wearing a green cotton the past. dress. Her eyes were shining in the light of the candles that were burning nearby. to show that two or more actions were going on at While mother was cooking, father was reading and the same time in the past. grandmother was knitting. to express an interrupted past activity. to express an incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the Past Simple which expresses a completed activity. When I returned, she was sweeping the floor. I was reading a book during the flight. (I didnt finish it.) But: I wrote a letter during the flight. ( the whole letter) with always to express repeated action in the past These children were always laughing during my which annoys the speaker. classes. in conditional clauses. What would you say if the boys were sleeping now?

5. The Present Perfect

5.1 Form have/ has + verb + -ed (regular verbs) have/ has + past participle (irregular verbs) Affirmative and negative positive negative

I We You They He She It Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Have I we you they he she/ it

have not (havent) ve (have) worked/ begun. s (has) has not (hasnt)

Short answers positive I we you they he she/ it negative have. No, has. I we you they he she/ it havent.

worked/ begun?


Has 5.2 Use The Present Perfect is used: to look back from the present into the past, and express what has happened before now. The action happened at an indefinite time in the past. The action can continue to the present, and probably into the future. to express an experience as part of someones life. Ever and never are common with this use.


Ive met a lot of famous people. (before now) She has won awards. (in her life)

Many pupils have learnt in this school. (many still learn here) Ive traveled a lot in Europe. Have you ever been in a car crash? My mother has never flown in a plane. to express an action or state which began in the past How long have you worked as a teacher? and continues to the present. For and since are common with this use. We use for Weve lived here for two years. (a period of time) with a period of time, and since with a point in time. Ive had a beard since I left the army. (a point in time) to expresses a past action with results in the present. Ive lost my wallet. (I dont have it now). when we are no longer interested in the time when I have visited an interesting museum. (I still the past action took place, but in its result into the remember the things seen there). present. to express completed activities in the immediate past. The train has just left. (I left a little time ago) In this case, the verb is generally accompanied by: just, lately, of late, lately, till now, up to now, so far, up to the present, during the last week the last too days, these twenty minutes, etc. with words denoting an incomplete period of time: Last week we wrote three letters, but this week we today, this week, this month, this year, this night, this have written only one. morning etc. to express a future action, in a time clause I shall ring you up as soon as/ after mother has come back.

6. The Present Perfect Continuous

6.1 Form have/ has + been + verb + -ing Affirmative and negative positive


I We You They He She It

have (ve)

have not (havent) been running.

has (s)

has not (hasnt)

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Have I we you they he she it positive I we you they he she it

Short answers negative have. No, has. I we you they he she it havent.

been running?




6.1 Use The Present Perfect Continuous is used to express the same kind of meaning as the Present Perfect, though the action is very often still happening. This tense emphasizes the length of time the action has taken place. There is no clear division between the use of the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous. Time indications: how long?, since when, since, for I have been writing since I came here. The Present Perfect Continuous is used: to express an activity which began in the past and continues Mary has been watering the flowers for half to the present, emphasizing its duration in the present. an hour. (she is still doing the job) NB. Present Perfect implies that the attention is focused on Mother has watered the flowers. (Her job has the repetition or on the completion of an action. just been done.) to refer to an activity with a result in the present. My hands are dirty because I have been working in the garden. since the Present Perfect Continuous describes an action I have been drinking tea since 5oclock. which is apparently uninterrupted, it will not be employed But I have drunk three cups of tea since when we mention the number of times a thing has been done 5oclock. or the number of things that have been done.

7. The Past Perfect

7.1 Form had + verb + -ed (regular verbs); had + past participle (irregular verbs) Affirmative and negative positive negative I He/ She/ It We had arrived/ gone had not (hadnt) arrived/ gone You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative positive Short answers negative

before 10.00.


I he/ she/ it we you they

arrived/ gone


I he/ she/ it we you they



I he/ she/ it we you they


7.2 Use to express an action in the past which happened before another action in the past.

When I got home, John had cooked a meal. When I got home action 1 John had cooked a meal action 2 to express duration up to a certain moment in the By the time the rain started, we had cleaned the past: whole house. often with just, already, hardly/ barely/ scarcely I had hardly/ scarcely/ entered the room, when and no sooner, to show that the past action was somebody rang the bell. finished a little time before another past action. to express a Past Conditional in a conditional clause: I would have helped her if I had known.

8. The Past Perfect Continuous

8.1 Form had + been + verb + -ing Affirmative and negative positive I He/ She/ It We had You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative I he/ she/ it we you they positive I he/ she/ it we you they

negative had not (hadnt) been running.

Short answers negative I he/ she/ it we you they


been running?





8.2 Use to underline the continuity of a past action to a past moment or just before it.

The pupils had been reading the lesson for five minutes when the school master entered the classroom. The streets were wet. It had been raining.

9. The Future Indefinite

9.1 Form shall/ will + short infinitive Affirmative and negative positive negative

I We He/ She/ It You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Shall/ will Will I we he she it you they

shall/ will (ll) live will (ll) live

shall not (shant)/ will not (wont) live will not (wont) live

in Chisinau.

Short answers positive I we shall/ will. he she it will. you they negative I we No, he she it you they shant/ wont

live in Chisinau?



9.2 Use to express a future event, a prediction about the future. When we decide to do something at the moment of speaking. in the following situations: a) offering to do something. b) agreeing or refusing to do something. c) promising to do something. d) asking someone to do something. with these words and expressions: a) probably b) sure c) expect d) think

I will go on an interesting trip next week. Dont worry Tom, youll pass the exam. Oh, Ive left the door open. Ill go and shut it. That bag looks heavy. Ill help you with it. A. You know that book I lent you? Can I have it back? B. Of course, Ill bring it back this afternoon. Thank you for the money. Ill pay you back on Friday. Will you shut the door, please? Ill probably be a bit late this evening. You must meet Ann. Im sure youll like her. I expect Carol will get the job. I think Ill stay at home this evening.

Going to construction
Form am/ is/ are + going + to + infinitive Affirmative and negative I m (am) m not He She s (is) It isnt (is not) We You re (are) They arent (are not) Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Am I positive I

going to work.

Short answers negative am. I m not.

Is Are NB.

he she it we you they

going to work?


he she it we you they

is. are.


he she it we you they

isnt. arent.

INCORRECT: I am going to go. I am going to come. CORRECT: I am going. I am coming. Im going to travel to Scotland on Monday. Look at these clouds! It is going to rain.

Use Going to is used: To express a future decision, intention, or plan made before the moment of speaking. When we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future.

10. The Future Continuous

10.1 Form shall/ will + be + verb + -ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative positive negative I We He/ she/ it You They shall/ will shant (shall not)/ wont (will not) wont (will not) will be working.

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Shall/ Will Will I we he she it you they be working? Yes, positive I shall/ we will. he she it you they

Short answers I we No, will. he she it you they negative shant (shall not)/ wont (will not).

wont (will not).

10.2 Use To express a future activity or state that will be in progress This time tomorrow we shall be watching TV. at a specific time in the future. To indicate that an activity or state will extend over a John will be reading newspapers all day long. whole future period.

11. The Future Perfect Simple

11.1Form shall/ will + have+ verb + -ed (past participle) Affirmative and negative positive negative

I We He/ She/ It You They

shall /will will

shall not/ will not have read will not the book by 10.00.

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Shall/ Will Will I we have read? he/ she/ it you they Yes, he/ she/ it you they positive I We

Short answers shall/ will No, will he/ she/ it you they will negative I we shall/ will

11.2 Use The Future Perfect Simple is used to indicate: an action which will be finished before a certain It is 10 oclock. I will have finished my homework moment or another action in the future. In this case it by 12 oclock. is usually associated with the preposition by. the duration up to a certain time in the future. Next year Tom and Amy will have been married for 25 years. possibility or assumption. If Jack has taken a taxi he will have arrived at the concert in time.

12. The Future Perfect Continuous

12.1 Form shall/ will + have+ been + verb + -ing Affirmative and negative positive I We He/ She/ It You They shall /will will negative shall not/ will not will not have been reading for two hours.

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Shall/ Will Will I we he/ she/ it you they have been reading? Yes, he/ she/ it you they positive I We

Short answers shall/ will No, will he/ she/ it you they will negative I we shall/ will

12.2 Use The Future Perfect Continuous is used:

to express the duration of an action up to a certain moment in the future.

At 6 oclock your sister will have been sleeping for two hours.

13. The Future In The Past Simple

13.1 Form should/ would + short infinitive Affirmative and negative positive I should/ would We He/ She/ It You They would negative should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) live in Chisinau. would not (wouldnt)

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Should/ I Would we he she it you they live in Chisinau? Yes,

Short answers positive negative I should/ I shouldnt/ we would. we wouldnt. he she it you they No, would. he she it you they



13.2 Use to express a future action or state seen from a viewpoint in the past.

She told me that she would go there soon.

14. The Future In The Past Continuous

14.1 Form should/ would + be + verb + ing Affirmative and negative positive I should/ would We He/ She/ It would You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Should/ I Would we he be sleeping? Yes, negative should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) would not (wouldnt) be sleeping.

Short answers positive I should/ we would. he No, I we he negative shouldnt/ wouldnt.


she it you they

she it you they


she it you they


14.2 Use To express a Future Continuous seen from a past viewpoint.

The woman assured us that, in less than half an hour, her boy would be sleeping.

15. The Future Perfect In The Past

15.1 Form should/ would + have + past participle Affirmative and negative positive I should/ would (d) We He/ She/ It You would (d) They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Should/ I Would we he she it you they have worked/ gone. Yes,

negative should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) would not (wouldnt) Short answers positive I should/ we would. he she it you they No, would.

have worked/ gone.

I we he she it you they

negative shouldnt/ wouldnt.



15.2 Use it is used to denote an action completed before a I wondered whether they would have reached definite moment which was future from the point of the place by noon. view of the past.

16. The Future Perfect Continuous In The Past

16.1 Form should/ would + have been + verb + ing Affirmative and negative positive I should/ would (d) We He/ She/ It would (d) You They Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Should/ I Would we

negative should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) would not (wouldnt)

have been working.

Short answers positive negative I should/ I shouldnt/ we would. we wouldnt.


he she it you they

have been working?


he she it you they

No, would.

he she it you they


16.2 Use It is used to denote an action lasting during a certain period of time before a definite moment which was future from the point of view of the past.

I wondered how long they would have been packing by the time I returned.


THE INDICATIVE Form to be (different tenses) + past participle

Table of tenses
Indefinite Present Past Future Future in the Past I am invited to the I was invited to the I shall be invited to I should be invited theatre. theatre. the theatre. (voi fi to the theatre. (voi (eram/fusei/fui/am invitat) fi invitat) fost invitat) I am being invited to I was being invited the theatre. to the theatre. I have been invited I had been invited I shall have been I should have been to the theatre. to the theatre. invited to the theatre. invited to the (fusesem invitat) (voi fi fost invitat) theatre. (voi fi fost invitat)

Continuous Perfect

Notice the passive infinitive: Wed love to be given this flat. These books should be read by the end of this week. Use Passive sentences move the focus from the subject to the object of Millions of people buy it. active sentences. The object of an active sentence becomes the It is bought by millions of people. subject of the passive sentence. Passive is not another way of expressing the same sentence in the Columbus discovered America. active. We choose the active or the passive depending on what we America was discovered by Columbus. are more interested in. In the first sentence we are more interested in the person performing the action; in the second we want to show that we are more interested in the receiver of the action. (i.e. America) Very often by and the doer are omitted. In this case: My car was stolen last night. In silence the work was done. the doer is unknown. Tom was sent off early, however, to a the doer is unimportant. school in London. we understand who the doer is. The passive is associated with an impersonal, formal style. It is It has been noticed that reference often used in notices and announcements. books have been removed from the library. In informal language, we often use you, we, and they to refer to We travel by train in this country. people in general or to no person in particular. In this way we can avoid using the passive.

The same meaning is expressed in formal language using one. NB! Many past participles are used more like adjectives. Only transitive and prepositional verbs are used in the passive.

One should dress to suit the occasion. We are very worried about you. Im exhausted! Ive been working all day. The article is referred to.

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of verb. 2. Name the grammatical categories of the verb. 3. According to their syntactic function verbs are divided into: B. Application 1. Explain the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs. 2. Explain the common features of simple and continuous tenses. 3. Explain the common features of perfect and perfect-continuous tenses. C. Integration 1. Compare the Active and Passive Voice.

Form Can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, need, ought to, dare, had better (to be able to, to have to) modal verbs. They are helping verbs that express a wide range of meanings: ability, permission, possibility, necessity, etc. Most of the modals have more than one meaning. Characteristics There is no s in the third person. Exception: to have (got) to, and sometimes need, dare. There is no auxiliary verb in the question. Exception: to have (got) to, and sometimes need, dare. There is no auxiliary verb in the negative. Exception: to have (got) to, and sometimes need, dare. They are followed by an infinitive without to. Exception: ought to, to be able to, to have (got) to, and sometimes need, dare. They dont really have past forms or infinitives or ing forms. Other verbs are used instead. They can be used with perfect infinitives to refer to the past. Ability Can Could Be able to Can The past is expressed by could. Other forms are provided by be able to. He can speak English. He needs a new car. May I ask a question? He didnt dare to meet his uncle. I cannot speak English. You dont have to go there at 8 oclock. It might rain. Kate ought to study harder. I had to work hard when I was young. (trebuia) She must have been crazy to marry him.

Bob can play the piano. Bob could play the piano when he was three. I love being able to drive.

The fire spread through the building very Was able to or managed to (not could) is quickly but everyone was able/ managed used to express a fulfilled ability on one to escape.

particular occasion in the past. We could have gone to the cinema last Could + the perfect infinitive is used to night, but we decided to stay at home. express an unrealized past ability. Someone was able to do something in the past, but You could tell me if you are going to be didnt try to. Could can be used to criticize people for not late! doing things. We feel that they are not doing You could have done something to help me instead of just sitting there! their duty. Will and wont are used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present. They indicate an assumption based on our knowledge of people and things their routines, character, and qualities. Leave the meat in the oven. It wont be cooked yet. Youve got a letter. Itll be from my aunt.

Possibility/ probability/ assumption Will Must Have to Should May Might Could Couldnt

Must/ have to is used when you are almost You must be joking. I dont believe you. 100 percent certain that something is She cant have a ten-year-old daughter. Shes only twenty-five herself. possible. The negative of this use is cant. May and might is used when you are less certain. They express possibility in the We may come very early. We dont know present or future. Theres no important exactly. difference between them. It might rain. Take your umbrella! Might is more tentative and slightly less certain than may. There could be another rise in the price Could has a similar meaning to might. It of petrol soon. expresses present and future possibility. The Jack might not be in his office. negative of could in this use is might not.

Permission May Can

Cant/ couldnt is used when you are almost She couldnt have a ten-year-old 100 percent certain that something is daughter. Shes only twenty-five herself. impossible. Couldnt is only slightly weaker than cant. He should be home at the usual time. (if Should expresses what may reasonably be theres no traffic jam) expected to happen. Expectation means believing that things are or will be as we want them to be. This use of should has the idea of if everything has gone according to plan. Use could in questions. We rarely use might Could he be at home? and we never use may in questions about possibility. I met a tall girl at your party. Very NB. All the modal auxiliary verbs above can be attractive. That will have been my used with the perfect infinitive. They express the sister, Nancy. He may have got lost. same varying degrees of certainty. She didnt answer. She might have been Will have done is the most certain. in the bath. Might/ could/ have done is the least certain. May, can, and could are used to ask for May I use your phone? permission. Can/ could I go home?


May, can cant to give permission. May sounds very formal. Can and cant are more common. Can, could, or be allowed to are used to talk about permission generally, or permission in the past. Can, could, will, would express a request. Could and would are more polite. NB. Do not use could and would to answer polite requests. Should, ought to, and had better have basically the same meaning. They mean this is a good idea/ this is good advice. Ought to is not usually used in the negative.

You can go. You cant smoke in here. Its forbidden. Children can/ are allowed to do what they want these days. I couldnt/ was allowed to have a cookie. Can/ could/ will/ would you please open the door? Yes. Of course./ Id be happy to. The children shouldnt be playing. They should be at school. You ought to study tonight.

Request Can Could Will Would Advice/ mild obligation Should, Ought to Had better

Had better often carries a warning of bad You had better not be late! If you are late, you will get into a lot of trouble. consequences. It never refers to the past. Hello, Ann. The party last night was Should/ ought to/ could/ might + the perfect great. You should have come. Why infinitive is used to refer to a past action that didnt you. didnt happen. The action would have been a I ought to have taken that job. god idea. The good advice is too late! (I didnt take the job. That was a mistake) She could have gone to a better school. (She didnt go to a good school. Now she regrets.) You might have told me. (You didnt tell me. That was wrong.) Should not have/ ought not to have are the He shouldnt have missed the exam. only forms used in negative statements. Use only should in questions. Must expresses strong/ important obligation. Other verb forms are provided by have to. Must expresses an obligation imposed by the speaker. It expresses the opinion of the speaker, his feelings. Must is associated with a more formal, written style. Should I apply for this job? You must try harder! I must be at the hospital at 2. Its most important. You mustnt hit your baby brother. You will have to do this exercise again. I must get my hair cut. (Im telling myself) Candidates must answer three questions. (on an exam paper) Books must be returned by the end of the week. (Instructions in a library)

Obligation/ necessity Must Have to Need

I have to be at the hospital at 7 oclock Have to expresses a habitual, repeated every morning. I begin work at 7.00. obligation. I cant meet you on Friday. I have to Have to expresses an obligation imposed work. from the outside. It gives facts, not feelings. You mustnt steal. Its very naughty. Mustnt expresses negative obligation. You dont have to go to England if you

Dont have to expresses the absence of obligation. Have got to is common in British English. It is more informal than have to.

want to learn English. Ive got to go now. Cheerio! Dont have a late night. Weve got to get up early tomorrow.

NB. Sometimes theres no difference between I have to / must go now. must and have to. Need which has two forms: regular verb He needs to hurry. and modal verb. As a regular verb, it has the meaning to require, to be in the need of and it forms the negative and the interrogative with the help of do/ did. Need she get up early? Yes, she must. As a modal verb it means to have to. Didnt need to shows that the action was not necessary and it was not performed. Neednt have + Past Participle expresses an unnecessary action, which was, nevertheless, performed. Will Shall is used in questions. Wouldnt is used in the past. Might/ how dare express indignation, reproach. I daresay I suppose. Should I didnt need to go at 8, so I didnt. I neednt have bought any eggs, because I had plenty. (but I bought) I will not answer it. Shall I shut the door? Ann said she wouldnt help him. You might listen to me when I am talking to you. How dare you interrupt me? I daresay you are my neighbours brother. If he is eight years old, he should be taller than your daughter. They should have finished their work by now.

Willingness/ refusal Will Shall Wouldnt Indignation, reproach Might/ How dare Supposition Daresay Should

Tasks: A. Knowledge 1. Give the definition of modal verbs. 2. What do the modal verbs express? B. Application 1. Explain the common features of modal verbs. C. Integration 1. Suggest another way of classifying the English modal verbs. 2. Compare the modal verbs that express ability, possibility, advice, and necessity.







THE IMPERATIVE The imperative expresses a command, an order, an invitation, etc. Form Singular The 1st person The 2nd person The 3rd person Affirmative Let + me + Short Infinitive Let me repeat! Short Infinitive Repeat! Let + Noun/ Pronoun + Short Infinitive Let Tom repeat! Let the cat eat! Negative Do not/ Dont let + me + Short Infinitive Do not let me repeat! Do not/ Dont let+ Short Infinitive Dont repeat! Do not/ Dont let+ Noun/ Pronoun + Short Infinitive Dont let Tom repeat! Dont let the cat go! Negative Do not/ Dont let + us + Short Infinitive Do not let us repeat! Do not/ Dont let+ Short Infinitive Dont repeat! Do not/ Dont let+ Noun/ Pronoun + Short Infinitive Dont let them repeat!

Plural The 1st person The 2nd person The 3rd person

Affirmative Let + us (Lets) + Short Infinitive Let us/ lets repeat! Short Infinitive Repeat! Let + Noun/ Pronoun + Short Infinitive Let the children repeat!

THE CONDITIONAL The Present Conditional Form should/ would + short infinitive Affirmative and negative I We He/ She/ It You They Interrogative and short answers

should/ would should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) would would not (wouldnt) live in Chisinau

Interrogative Should/ I Would we he she it you they live in Chisinau? Yes,

Short answers positive I should/ we would. he she it you they No, would. negative I shouldnt/ we wouldnt. he she it you they



The Past Conditional Form should/ would + have + Past Participle Affirmative and negative I should/ would We should not (shouldnt)/ would not (wouldnt) He/ She/ It You They would would not (wouldnt) have lived in Chisinau

Interrogative and short answers Interrogative Should/ I Would we he she it you they have lived in Chisinau? Yes,

Short answers positive negative I should/ I shouldnt/ we would. we wouldnt. he she it you they No, would. he she it you they



Use MAIN/ REGENT CLAUSE Type I (open/ probable condition) Such sentences express a condition that may or may not be fulfilled. Type II ( rejected/ improbable/ hypothetical/ unreal condition) The past tense in the conditional clause is not a real Past a tense, but a Subjunctive, indicating improbability or unreality. Type III ( impossible condition) The conditional clause expresses something completely hypothetical, and represents what is contrary to past fact. The Past Perfect indicates past unreality. Future John will help you John te va ajuta Present Conditional John would help you John te-ar ajuta Past Conditional John would have helped you John te-ar fi ajutat IF CLAUSE Present if he has time. dac va avea timp. Past Tense (be were) if he had time. dac ar avea timp. Past Perfect if he had had time. dac ar fi avut timp.

Other Possible Variants of Tenses Rules Used in Conditional Sentences IF CLAUSE Present Tense MAIN/ REGENT CLAUSE Present Tense If you boil water, it turns to vapour. Dac fierbi apa, ea se transform n vapori. Past Tense If he did that, he was courageous. Dac el a fcut aceasta, el a fost curajos. Past Tense Future Tense If Jane didnt manage to call yesterday, she will do it tomorrow. Dac Jane n-a reuit s sune ieri, ea va suna mine. Present Perfect Present Tense If John hasnt finished his homework, why is he playing? Dac John nu i-a fcut temele, de ce se joac ? Present Perfect Imperative If you havent understood the instructions, read them again. Dac n-ai neles instruciunile, citete-le din nou. Past tense Imperative If she didnt read it yesterday, tell her to read it today. Dac n-a citit ieri cartea, spune-i s o citeasc astzi. Should + Infinitive Imperative If you should meet them, remind them of our appointment. Dac se ntmpl sa-i intlneti, amintete-le de ntlnirea noastr. Present Tense (real condition) Present Conditional (unreal action) If you have a few hours to spare, I would invite you to the cinema. Dac ai cteva ore libere, te-a invita la cinema. Past Tense (condition contrary to present fact) Past Conditional (unfulfilled action in the past) If she were a better singer, she would have participated in the festival Dac ar fi o cntrea mai bun, ar fi participat la festival. Past Perfect (unreal condition in the past) Present Conditional (the result of the condition in the present) If he hadnt had an accident, he wouldnt be in hospital now. Dac n-ar fi avut un accident, n-ar fi n spital acum. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD - is used to express either a possible action, or unreality, improbability, that is something contrary to fact.

Past Tense






Past Perfect

Use/ Form The Synthetical Subjunctive The Present Subjunctive is identical to the short infinitive. It occurs in formal, informal, and American English. It is used: Long live peace! Traiasca pacea! to express wishes or set expressions. God forbid! Fereasca Dumnezeu! in subordinate that-clauses when the main clause expresses a desire, a demand, a requirement, an obligation, a necessity, etc. a) in direct object clauses, after such verbs as: to They suggested that steps be taken to consolidate suggest, to order, to demand, to urge, to peace and security in Europe. S-a propus luarea recommend, to require, to propose, to arrange to: de msuri pentru consolidarea pcii si securitaii . b) in subject clauses after such impersonal It is necessary that your friend inform us of the constructions as: it is necessary/ advisable/ decision. possible/ impossible, etc. There was a proposal that he be elected captain. c) in appositive attributive clauses. If this rumour be true, we cannot stay here. In conditional clauses. The Past Subjunctive is identical to the Past Tense of the verb. It is used: in conditional clauses, to express a Present Conditional. after wish, its (high) time, as if/ though, even if/ though, would rather/ sooner, suppose (that). after its (high) time we can also use for + object + long infinitive. Its (high) time + for + object + long infinitive - it is the exact time for the action. Its (high) time + Subjunctive it is already a little late. If I saw her, I would be glad. He wishes he were in France now. He is singing as though he were a great artist.

Its (high) time for him to start learning a foreign language. ( it is the proper time) It is high time he started learning a foreign language. ( E de mult timpul)

The Past Perfect Subjunctive is identical to the Past Perfect of the verb. It is used: in conditional clauses to express a Past Conditional. after wish (to express a regretted action in the past), as if/ though and even if/ though. If she had read the book, she would have answered my questions better. I wish(ed) I had been there too. He talked as if he had seen her.

The Analytical Subjunctive Shall/ should/ would/ may/ might/ could + Present/ Perfect Infinitive. It is much more often used than the Synthetic Subjunctive. Shall + Infinitive is used: in main clauses. in subordinate clauses. Shall I help you with your homework? They have decided that you shall go there. (is not generally used in spoken English) Should + Infinitive is used: Why should they behave in this way? ( De ce-ar trebui ...) They demanded that the meeting should be held without delay. (Au cerut ca ...) It is necessary that they should come so early. (Este necesar ca ei ...)

in main clauses.

in subordinate clauses: a) in direct object clauses, after such verbs as: to suggest, to insist, to demand, to propose, to command, etc. b) in subject clauses after such impersonal constructions as: it is/was necessary/ impossible/ essential/ important, vital/ right/ advisable/ natural/ surprising, etc. c) in appositive attributive clauses. d) in conditional clauses.

Theres no reason why he should be late. If he should come, tell him to wait. (Dac vine cumva/ se intimpla s vina ...) He hurried for fear he should be late. ( ... de fric e) subordinate clauses of purpose introduced by s nu ...) lest, for fear (that), in case. Whatever he should say, I dont believe him. (ce nf) concessive clauses introduced by though, ar zice ...) although, whatever: May/ Might + Infinitive is used: May you live long! ( S traiesti muli ani!) in main clauses to express a wish. in subordinate clauses: It is possible that she may know the answer. (E a) subject clauses after such impersonal posibil ce ea s tie ...) constructions as: it is/was possible/ probable/ likely, etc. She spoke clearly so that everyone might e) subordinate clauses of purpose introduced by understand. (... aa ca toi s neleag) that, in order that, so that. However tired he might be, he must come down and f) concessive clauses introduced by though, talk to us. ( Orict de oboist n-ar fi ..) although, however, whatever, no matter: Would + Infinitive is used: in direct object clauses after wish. (to express a wish for a future action which doesnt have chances to be completed) in subordinate clauses of purpose. They wish we would pay them a visit soon.

She learnt a lot so that she would be able to pass the exam. Could + Infinitive This construction is used to express purpose as an alternative to may/ might. May/ Might + Infinitive is more formal. Could + Infinitive has a higher degree of certainty.

THE INFINITIVE Form Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous Active To write (a scrie) To be writing (a scrie) To have written (a fi scris) To have been writing (a fi scris) Passive To be written ( a fi scris) To have been written (a fi fost scris)

A) The infinitive has verb characteristics: 1. Tense: Present and perfect: The Present Infinitive may refer to: the Present: the Past: the Future: The Perfect Infinitive shows either that the action expressed by it precedes a past action/ moment: or a future action/ moment: or that it has a hypothetical meaning 2. Voice: Active Passive 3. Aspect: Common and continuous B) The infinitive has noun characteristics. It has the function of: subject, direct object, predicative, attribute. C) The use of the infinitive without to: after modal verbs: Exception: ought after verbs denoting perception: after to make and to let: after had/would rather, had better, would sooner, better than, rather than, sooner than, more than, can (not) but, nothing but:

to go; to have gone I want to go on a trip. I was glad to see your sister. Ill tell her to read that book. She left too early to have met them. (ca s-i fi ntlnit) He will want to have read this before he goes to bed. I expected him to have understood us. We hope to come tomorrow. It is glorious to be loved. To doubt is almost to insult. (subject) At boarding school she learned to dance. (direct object) One cannot have what one loves. You ought to go earlier. I never saw you look so well before. What makes you think so? I had better go now.

D) Constructions with the Infinitive 1. The Accusative with the Infinitive is used: After verbs that express perception: to hear, to feel, to notice, to perceive, to see, to watch and I heard the baby cry. after to let, to make, to have (to experience, to cause), to have known. After verbs expressing volition: to want, to I want you to come and dine with me. desire, to forbid, to intend, to demand, to wish: After verbs expressing mental activities: to believe, to consider, to expect, to imagine, to Everybody expected her to marry Pete. know, to suppose, to think, to trust, to understand, etc.: After verbs expressing permission or a He ordered his carriage to be ready early in the command: to allow, to command, to compel, to

force, to oblige, to order, to permit, to urge, to warn: After verbs like: to advise, to appoint, to assist, to choose, to challenge, to convince, to enable, to persuade, to send, etc.:


She advised me not to gossip.

2. The nominative with the Infinitive is used: With the following verbs in the Passive Voice: to believe, to expect, to feel, to find (out), to hear, to imagine, to know, to notice, to perceive, to report, to say, to see, to suppose, etc.: With the following verbs in the Active Voice: to appear, to chance, to happen, to prove, to seem, to turn out, etc.: With such constructions as: to be lucky/fortunate/unlucky/unfortunate, to be certain/positive/sure, to be likely:

He was supposed to be a gifted doctor.

He happens to know English. Din ntmplare tie Engleza. He is sure to be late as usual.(Sigur c are s ntrzie. )

THE GERUND Indefinite Perfect Active writing Having written Passive Being written Having been written

Use A) The Gerund has noun characteristics: It can have a plural form. It can have a Genitive form. It can be preceded by a genitive or possessive adjective. It can perform the function of: subject, object, predicative, attribute, adverbial modifier. B) The Gerund has verb characteristics: It may have tense: Present Perfect Voice: Active Passive It may have an object. It may have an adverbial modifier.

I cant understand his comings and goings. I didnt like the idea of staying there They disliked Janes smoking so much. Her being late was noticed. Reading is her best relaxation. (subject) Have you given up smoking?(object) I dont understand his way of behaving. (attribute) I dont mind her seeing me. (c m-a vzut ori m-a vedea) I dont mind her having seen me. (c m-a vzut) He loves writing poems. I dont mind being seen by her. Singing folk songs is her greatest talent. This is worth doing well. C) Use

To express prohibition After such verbs and phrasal verbs as: to admit, to advise, to anticipate, to avoid, to begin, to consider, to continue, to delay, to deny, to detest, to dread, to dislike, to enjoy, to escape, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forget, to forgive, to hate, to imagine, to intend, to involve, to go on, to give up, to keep (on), to like, to love, to mind, to miss, to omit, to postpone, to practice, to put off, to recollect, to remember, to regret, to resist, to risk, to save, to start, to stop, to

No Parking! He avoided looking at Ann. Forgive my speaking rudely! Give up smoking, please!

suggest, to try, to understand, etc.: After the following verbs with the prepositions: to accuse of, to aim at, to agree with, to approve of, to consist in, to count on, to dissuade from, to rely on, to result in, to succeed in, to think of, etc.: After be/get + adjective/Past Participle + preposition: to be afraid of, to be agreeable to, to be annoyed at, to be capable of, to be intent on, to be interested in, to be responsible for, to be suitable for, to be surprised at, to be tired of, to be/get used to, to be/ get accustomed to, etc: After such nouns with prepositions: apology for, art of, change of, disappointment at, experience in, habit of, necessity of objection to, opportunity of, pleasure of, necessity of objection to, opportunity of, pleasure of, possibility of, reason for, skill in, surprise at, etc.: After there is, there was, it is no good, (it is) no use, it is useless, etc.:

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. She was not pleased at my coming. She was surprised at seeing me there.

The art of letter writing is disappearing. He is well known for his art in marketing. There was singing and dancing everywhere. No use buying it, it isnt new.

There are some verbs or nouns that can be followed either by the Gerund or by the Infinitive: to begin, to I began reading/to read an interesting book. cease, to continue, to start. THE PARTICIPLE

The Participle

The Present Participle

The Past Participle

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE Indefinite Perfect Active writing having written Passive being written having been written.

Use A) It has verb characteristics: It has tense and voice. It can be modified by an adverb. It can have a direct or indirect object. It is used with to be a) to show simultaneous actions: b) to show simultaneous actions B) The participle has adjective characteristics: Sometimes it has degrees of comparison. It can have the functions of attribute and

writing, being written, having written, having been written. We are reading now. They are building a house. A boy passed by me carrying a box. Frankly speaking, he is a smart man. (if we speak ...) She is more amusing than I thought. This is no laughing matter.

predicative: The effect of her words was terrifying.... C) The participle has adverb characteristics: It modifies an adjective: It is raining cold. When going to school, he met his friend. It has the function of adverbial modifier: D) Participial Constructions 1. The Accusative with the Participle is used: after verbs of perception: to feel, to hear, to listen, to see, to observe, to notice, to smell, etc. after to catch, to find, to imagine, to keep, to leave, to start, etc. 2. The Nominative with the Participle is used: with verbs of perception in the passive: 3. The Absolute Nominative In this construction the Present Participle is used independently from the predicate of the sentence and its subject is different from the subject of the sentence: 4. The Absolute Participle The Present Participle that occurs in this construction has no subject:

I can smell something burning.

I found her reading a book.

She was heard speaking English.

The door being open, we looked in.

Frankly speaking, he is right.

THE PAST PARTICIPLE Form: translated, broken, read. Use a locked door, a written letter as an adjective I have already made a mistake. as part of the perfect forms of the verb It is said that you are a liar. as part of the Passive Voice They were into a large room lit up with Chinese its functions in the sentence: attribute, adverbial lamps. (attribute) modifier, predicative, part of a complex object. In spite of himself, Val was impressed. (predicative)


The modal words express the attitude of the speaker to the reality, possibility or probability the action he speaks about. Characteristics According to their meaning modal words express: a) certainty: b) supposition: c) whether the speaker considers the action he speaks about desirable or undesirable: In the sentence they are used as parentheses: Most of them have developed from adverbs, so very often there exists a formal identity between modal words and adverbs: Examples Certainly, surely, of course, no doubt, apparently, etc. Perhaps, maybe, possibly, probably, etc. Happily unhappily, luckily unluckily, fortunately unfortunately. Certainly youll admit we could finish all this in a month. Certainly, surely, happily (which are homonymous with the adverbs certainly, surely, happily)

The interjection is the part of speech which expresses various emotions without naming them.


According to their meaning:





Types of interjections emotional

Characteristics Express the feelings of the speaker.

Examples Ah, oh, eh, bravo, alas, etc. Alas! The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window To let (sorrow). Psha! Theres no possibility of being witty without a little ill nature. (contempt)


Show the will of the speaker or his order Here, hush, sh-sh, well, come, now, etc. or appeal to the hearer. Here! Ive had enough of this. Im going. (protest) Are not derived from other parts of speech. Most of them are simple words. Only a few primary interjections are composite. Rederived from other parts of speech. They are homonymous with the words they are derived from. Ah, oh, eh, pooh, hum, fie, etc. Heigh ho, hey ho, holla ho, gee ho. Well, now, here, there, come, why, dear me, hang it, etc.



The preposition is a part of speech which denotes the relations between objects and phenomena. It shows the relations between a noun or a pronoun and other words.

According to their form According to their meaning place and direction time abstract relations

simple derivative compound composite

simple In, on , at, for, with, etc. derivative compound composite place and direction

time After, at, before, etc.

abstract relations By, with, because of, with a view to, etc.

Behind, Inside, outside, Because of, in In, on , below, across, within, without, front of, in below, under, along, etc. etc. accordance etc. with, etc. Prepositions in time expressions in on in the morning/ on Saturday afternoon/ evening on Monday morning in December on Christmas Day in summer on January 18 in 1995 on holliday in two weeks time

at at six oclock at noon/ midnight/ night at Christmas at the weekend

no preposition today yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday last night last week two weeks ago next month yesterday evening tomorrow evening this evening tonight

Prepositional Constructions that Present Difficulties On time in time On time In time At exactly the right time. Early, soon enough for something. At the end - in the end At the end In the end At the point when something stops. Finally, at last. We are going on a trip at the end of this week. At thirst, we didnt understand that Our English class always starts on time. We got to the station in time. (before the train left)

exercise, but in the end we could do it. As like As Like Refers to a job, role or a function of someone She works as a teacher. (She really is a or something. teacher.) When we make comparisons. She is talking like a teacher. (She is not a teacher) NB. Either as or like can be used before a We are spending this weekend as/like we clause that means in the same way: usually do. Before - in front of Before In front of It is used with dynamic and static verbs He was sitting before us. meaning before one reaches. Refers to position and often presupposes a The tree in front of my house is a chestnut surface. tree. Between among Between Among Is usually used for two objects, clearly distinct from the others. Refers to a mass, a crowd, or a group, a collection of things which do not see separately. The verbs to divide and to share are followed by between when used with several singular nouns. She was sitting between the table and the chair. We saw a house hidden among the trees. She shared her property between her brother, her son and her daughter.

Of from with + made Of From With When the materials can be recognized clearly. When the ingredients are not obvious. Made of iron/ plastic/wood The ice-cream is made from cream, sugar and lemon. When we try to identify one or more of the This chocolate is made with milk. ingredients. Arrive in arrive at Arrive in Arrive at A country or town. Other places. They arrived in England/ Paris last week. Not: arrived to England. Arrive at the station, at work, at the hotel. NB. arrive home

In the corner on the corner at the corner In the corner On the corner At the corner When the corner is inside something. When theres no enclosure. Can be used for either. In the corner of a room, triangle, square. Theres a lamp on the corner of our road.

In a photograph/ picture on a photograph/ picture In a For the persons/ things portrayed in the Are you in this photograph? photograp picture or photograph. h/ picture On a For something which is not part of it, but only Theres some dust on this photograph. photograp on its surface. h/ picture To in denoting direction To In Denotes position in relation to a country or Hungary is to the west of Romania. city. Iasi is to the north-east of Bucuresti. Denotes position within that country or city. Iasi is in the north east of Romania. Transylvania is in the north of Romania. At in At In Is preferred with names of buildings and I was educated in Cluj-Napoca at Babes institutions, with villages and small Bolyai University. towns. Is used with names of countries, provinces, He lives in Italy. cities.

The Difference between English and Romanian Prepositions English In the playground In the sun On the way to Round the corner At the same time In a years time In English By my watch To look out of the window On fire Wild with happiness A lesson in English Romanian Pe terenul de joc La soare n drum spre Dup col n acelai timp Peste un an Pe englezete Dup ceasul meu A privi pe fereastr n flcri Nebun de fericire O lecie de Englez English In the sky In the open air On the first floor At present At this moment In my opinion Word for word By mistake To get in through the window In the reign of Drenched to the skin A professor in the University Romanian Pe cer La aer curat La etajul I n prezent n acest moment Dup parerea mea Cuvnt cu cuvnt Din greseal A intra pe fereastr Sub domnia lui Udat pna la piele Profesor la Universitate.

The conjunction is a word that connects sentences, clauses or words with the same syntactical function.

Conjunctions According to their form According to their function

simple compound correlative conjunctional phrases

coordinating subordinate

Type Simple Compound Correlative Conjunctional phrases Coordinate


Examples and, but, if, that. however, notwithstanding, otherwise, unless. as... as; both... and; either... or; neither... nor; not only... but also; whether... or. as well as...; as if/though...; for that reason...; for instance...; in order that/to...; that is why...; so long as.

copulative conjunctions imply that something or somebody is added to something or somebody else.

and; and... as well; as well as; besides; both...and; further; furthermore; no less than; neither... nor; not... either; not... but also; not only... but... too; She opened the door and went inside. If you go, I'll go as well.

adversative conjunctions but; whereas; while. express a contrast. He's tall whereas I am short. disjunctive conjunctions - or; else; or else; otherwise; either... or. Take this taxi; else you will miss the train. express an alternative. She must either go now or stay. so; for; accordingly; consequently; on that account; causative-consecutive conjunctions denote hence; so; then; that is why; therefore. consequence, result, or reason. My sister has a headache. So, she can't come with us. The teacher didn't explain that problem clearly; consequently we didn't understand it. connect subordinate clauses that; what; who; which; whoever; whatever; with their corresponding regent whichever; when; how; why; where; whosoever; if; sentences or clauses. Some of whether. such conjunctions introduce only certain clauses Who will be captain of the team has not yet been (although/though - concessive decided. (subj. clause) clauses; as if/though - The woman whose hair is grey is our grandmother. comparison clauses; etc.), (attributive clause)


others can introduce several Before you go, you must finish your job. (adverbial types of clauses (that clause of time) object/subject/predicative/attributive clauses; if conditional/direct object clauses etc.). They can also be introduced by relative adverbs or relative pronouns which play the part of a conjunction.

The particle is a part of speech giving modal or emotional emphasis to other words or groups of words or clauses.

Particles according to their meaning:





Types of particles: limiting

Examples Only, just, but, alone, solely, merely, barely, etc. I only wanted to make you speak. Just one question, Mrs. Dartie. Are you still fond of your husband? He just did dislike him. They did not even know that he was married. He was silent. Soames, too, was silent. Higgins takes off the hat and overcoat. Pickering comes in. He also takes off his hat and overcoat. No, he was not afraid of that. I never spoke to him except to ask him to buy a flower off me.

intensifying Simply, still, just, yet, all, but, only, quite, even, etc. connecting Too, also. negative Not, never.


THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The simple sentence
According to the purpose
of utterance

According to the structure

declarative interrogative imperative exclamatory

Types of sentence the declarative sentence the interrogative sentence: Characteristics States a fact in the affirmative or negative form a) general questions: b) special questions: c) alternative questions: d) disjunctive questions: the imperative sentence the exclamatory sentence two-member sentence

two-member one-member

Examples He was born in 1962. Do you like art? Where do you live? Do you live in town or in the country? You speak English, dont you?

Induces a person to do something, so it expresses Stop talking! a command, a request, an invitation, etc. Expresses some kind of emotion or feeling What a lovely day it is! it has two members: a subject and a predicate (if one of them is missing it is easily understood from the context). It can be: a) complete when it has a subject and a predicate: b) incomplete: (when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context they are called: elliptical): it has only one member which is neither the subject, nor the predicate it is generally used in descriptions and emotional speech the main part is often expressed by: 1) noun (sometimes modified by attributes) 2) infinitive consists only of the principal parts: She had established immediate contact with an architect. I met her yesterday. Who does it for you? James, of course. Where were you yesterday? At the cinema. Dusk of a summer night. To have his friendship, his admiration, but not at that price.

a one membersentence:


She is a student.


Winter! consists of the subject, predicate and one They visited me yesterday. or more secondary parts:







Types of questions General Special Alternative Disjunctive

Characteristics require the answer yes or no.


Do you have classes on Saturday? Are you well today? Who is Cher? begin with an interrogative word. How do people communicate? Do you have English on indicate choice. Monday or on Tuesday? require the answers yes or no and consist of an You are Jenny, arent you? affirmative statement followed by a negative It isnt a very nice day, is it? question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question. You havent been here before, we repeat the auxiliary verb in the question. have you? She bought this book, didnt NB. If theres no auxiliary we use: do, does, did. she? If we have modal verbs, we repeat them in the You can speak French, cant you? question. Youre coming, arent you? Notice the meaning of yes and no in answer to Yes. (I am coming.) question tags. No. (Im not coming.)


THE SUBJECT Ways of expressing the subject: a noun in the common (or occasionally possessive) case a pronoun (personal, demonstrative, indefinite, possessive, interrogative) a substantivized adjective or participle Examples The teacher brought a map. Adas is a noble heart. That set me thinking of my plan of action. All were happy. Hers is not a very successful plan called me. The wounded were taken good care of.

The two were quite unable to do anything. The fist stood in front of him. To live is to work. an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or construction To be a rich man is not always roses and beauty. Lying doesnt go well with me. a gerund, a gerundial phrase or construction Winning the war is what counts. On is a preposition. any part of speech used as a quotation a group of words which is one part of the The needle and thread is lost. (here the subject represents one person). sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group. Their friend and defender is darkly groping towards the solution. a numeral (cardinal or ordinal)

It as the subject of the sentence

The subject it



impersonal Type of subject notional Characteristics

introductory or anticipatory

emphatic Examples

it represents a living being or a thing and has the following characteristics: stands for a definite thing or some abstract idea the personal it: points out a person or thing expressed by a predicative noun, or it refers to the thought contained in a preceding statement, thus having a demonstrative meaning the demonstrative it: it does not represent any person or thing. Here we must distinguish: a) the impersonal it, which is used to denote: natural phenomena or that which characterizes the environment. to denote time and distance: b) the introductory or anticipatory it introduces the real subject: c) the emphatic it is used for emphasis:

The door opened. It was opened by a young girl. It is John. It was a large room with a great window. Dick came home late, it provoked his father. It is cold in winter. It is delightfully quiet in the night. It is morning already. It was curious to observe that child. It was he who had brought the book.






Compound nominal

Compound verbal

Compound verbal modal predicate

Compound verbal aspect predicate Type of predicate The simple predicate Expressed by:/ characteristics a finite verb in a simple or compound tense form Examples Yesterday, Ann arrived home late. My dear I have been looking for you everywhere.

a phraseological unit: to get rid, to take care, to pay attention, to lose sight, to make fun, to take care, to take part, to have a swim, to have a run, to give a laugh, to give a push, to take a look, etc. a) a finite verb which lost its concrete Burton gave a kindly little chuckle. meaning + a noun mostly used with the indefinite article b) a finite verb + abstract noun without Then we got inconveniences. article rid of such

NB. The characteristic feature of this predicate is that the finite verb has lost its concrete meaning to a certain extent and forms one unit with the noun, consequently the noun cannot be treated as an object to the verb. It is impossible to put a question to the second component.

C o m p a r e: My friend gave me an interesting book to read. The man gave a violent start.

The consists of two parts: compound a) a finite verb + b) some other part of speech: a predicate noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verbal, etc. The compound link verb + predicative. He grew more cheerful.

nominal predicate The compound verbal predicate The compound verbal modal predicate

it denotes the state or quality of the person or thing expressed by the subject. It is of two types: 1. the compound verbal modal predicate 2. the compound verbal aspect predicate shows whether the action is possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, etc. It consists of: You can prove everything and a modal verb and an infinitive. nothing. modal expressions: to be + Infinitive, to The operation was to take place in the capital of the city. have + infinitive. I have to work for my living. a verb with a modal meaning ( to hope, to expect, to intend, to attempt, to try, to endeavor, to long, to wish, to want, to desire, etc.) and an infinitive or a gerund. He wanted to throw himself into the whirlpool of Paris. He tried to open the tin with a pocket knife.

The compound verbal aspect predicate Mixed types of predicate: NB.

I am going to leave Paris. modal expressions ( to be able, to be obliged, to be bound, to be willing, to be anxious, to be capable, to be going) and an infinitive. consists of such verbs as: to begin, to start, to His bones ceased to ache. commence to fall, to set about, to go on, to keep on, to proceed, to continue, to stop, to give up, to finish, to cease, to come and an infinitive or gerund. Would and used + Infinitive, which express a I used to write poetry myself when I was his age. repeated action in the past, also belong here. the compound modal nominal predicate. the compound aspect nominal predicate. the compound modal aspect predicate. He greatly longed to be the next heir himself. I continued to be glad for that. I had to begin living all over again.

The link verbs and their characteristics have partly lost their original concrete meaning: to appear, to get, to grow, to continue, to feel, to keep, to look, to turn, to hold, to prove, to turn out, to loom, to rank, to remain, to run, to seem, to smell, to taste, to fall, to stand, to go, to work. Many of these verbs can be used both as verbs of complete predication fully preserving their concrete meaning and as link verbs: to be, to grow, to look, to feel, to come, to go. There are some verbs which, though fully preserving their concrete meaning, perform the function of link verbs: to lie, to sit, to die, to marry, to return, to leave, to come, to stand, to fall, to go , etc. They are used with a predicative. According to their meaning link verbs can be divided into two large groups: a) link verbs of being and remaining: to be, to remain, to keep, to continue, to look, to smell, to stand, to sit, to lie, to shine, to seem, to prove, to appear, etc. b) link verbs of becoming: to become, to get, to grow, to come, to go,

Examples The nightmare of my life had come true. (link verb) Giles and Beatrice were coming for the night. (verb of complete prediction) The poor man sat amazed. Tome went home miserable.

He was a nice-looking man of thirty perhaps... ... he grew handsomer and more

to leave, to run, to turn, to make, etc. The predicative is expressed by: a noun in the common case, occasionally by a noun in the possessive case. an adjective a pronoun personal, possessive, negative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, defining. a word of the category of state: a numeral, cardinal or ordinal. a prepositional phrase: an infinitive, infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction. a gerund, gerundial phrase, or gerundial construction. Participle II or very seldom Participle I; the latter is generally adjectivized. an adverb.

interesting. Examples She is a pretty child. Hes awfully dear and unselfish. It was he. You are nobody.

What is he?

He was aware of the state in which he was. Im only 46. He was the first to break the dead silence. The things were outside her experience. Junes first thought was to go away. His first act was to bolt the door on the inside. The best thing is for you to move in with me. My favorite sport is swimming. The topic of their conversation was their going on an expedition. He was surprised at the sound of his voice. The moment was soothing to his sore spirit. It was enough the way she said it.

AGREEMENT OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE a singular subject takes a singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb: Collective nouns may be followed either by a singular verb or a plural one. When such a noun is regarded as a whole it takes a singular verb: But when it is thought of as a group of individuals, it takes a plural verb: However, such collective nouns as: cattle, clergy, people, police, public are always followed by a plural verb. Two singular subjects connected by either... or; neither ... nor; not only ... but also; no less than ... ; and not are followed by a singular verb: But when one subject is singular and the other one plural, the rule of proximity must be observed: This girl speaks English. These girls speak English. My family is called Smith.

My family are at home. The cattle were gazing in the field. The police are investigating the case. Either the boy or the girl knows the answer.

Neither the teacher nor the pupils are in the classroom. Neither the pupils nor the teacher is in the classroom. Two or more subjects connected by and take a The dog and the cat are under the table. plural verb: However, when the two subjects are regarded as a Fish and chips is a traditional English food. whole, a single idea, they are followed by a Whisky and soda is Tims favourite drink. My neighbour and friend comes here every day. singular verb: (one person) My neighbour and my friend come here every day.(two different persons)

Fifty pounds is a lot of money. Five years is a long time. (= period) Twenty miles is a long distance. Each boy tells us a joke. Either book is interesting. Every student knows this answer. Neither solution was good. When a plural noun is preceded by neither of, it Neither of the girls lives/live in this house. can be followed either by a singular or a plural verb: The nouns body, heart, life, mind, soul are Many people lost their lives in World War II. used in the plural whenever they refer to more than one person: Theres a book on the table. When the formal subject of a sentence is there, the There are many trees in the garden. predicate must agree with the real subject: The noun number takes a singular verb when it The number of mistakes is very large. is preceded by the definite article the and a A number of people were waiting for me. plural verb when it is preceded by a: When the pronoun it is used in identifying or It is these boys who broke my window. emphatic constructions, it is followed by a singular verb: Singularia Tantum nouns (advice; information; Your information is very interesting. furniture; damage; luggage; knowledge; Kerrys luggage was very heavy. machinery, etc.) are followed by a singular verb: Pluralia Tantum nouns will be followed either by plural verbs: a) when they name things made of two parts His trousers are very smart. (glasses; scissors; trousers) b) when they are one of these: chemicals; contents; ashes; surroundings, etc. or by singular verbs: Mumps is a very common illness with children. a) when they name diseases: measles; mumps b) games: billiards; draughts Her news is extremely interesting. c) when they are one of these: news; works, etc. either by singular or by plural verbs after Acoustics is the scientific study of sound. names of sciences, subjects or after such The acoustics of this room are very good. nouns as: means; series; species. The words hundred, thousand, million etc., take Three hundred men were coming to the meeting. the plural verb: The fractions -their verb depends on the noun Half the land is hilly. Half of the puppies were black. determined by them: Nine-tenths of English speech is idiomatic. Two thirds of the flowers were faded. A great deal of time and pains is necessary for A great (good) deal takes the singular verb: the study of English. A great many of the children were present. A great (good) many the plural verb. Nouns denoting units of measurement take a singular verb when they are preceded by a numeral: A singular noun proceeded by each, either, ever, or neither takes a singular verb. Are the fish fresh? The fruit were green. A + noun + or two very often takes the plural A word or two is sufficient to convince him. verb: Fish. Fruit. (pesti, fructe) take the plural


The secondary parts of the sentence



adverbial modifiers


The object





of the first type

of the second type

Ways of expressing the object:


We ought to give him a present, too. a noun in the common case a pronoun ( personal in the objective case, You ought to know all about statues and things. possessive, defining, reflexive, demonstrative, indefinite) Jane Forsyte always championed the a substantivized adjective or participle unfortunate. The sergeant ordered his men to stop. an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction Could they prevent flying in war-time? a gerund, a gerundial phrase, or a gerundial construction He called hsst several times. any part of speech used as a quotation Do you object to my going away for a month. a prepositional phrase with a noun or a gerund He found a number of persons in that room. a group of words which is one part of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group

Kinds of objects Charact eristics

The direct object The indirect object is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is used after transitive verbs is used without any preposition denotes a living being to whom the action of the verb is directed sometimes it also denotes a thing

The complex object

The cognate object it is used with intransitive verbs though it has no preposition it is expressed by a noun which is either of the same root as the verb or is similar to it in meaning it is almost regularly attended by an attribute with which it forms a combination that is close in meaning to an adverbial modifier: to live a happy life to live happily it is generally used in such combinations as: to smile a sad smile, to laugh a bitter life, to die a violent death, etc.

1. of the first type, which expresses the addressee of the action. is used with transitive verbs which take a direct object, so it hardly ever stands alone. E.g. She gave him an interesting book to read.
NB. As a rule the indirect object comes before the direct object. In this case it is used without a preposition. E.g. Without hope she sent Soames the telegram. When the direct object precedes the indirect object, the latter is used chiefly with the preposition to and sometimes for. E.g. He was giving an interview to the correspondents. But when the direct object is a pronoun and the indirect object a noun, the indirect object follows the direct object. E.g. I sent him to his mother. When the direct object is expressed by the pronoun it, it always precedes the indirect object. E.g. Give it to him. There are a number of verbs after which the indirect object is used with the preposition to even when it comes before the direct object. These are: to explain, to dedicate, to suggest, to relate, to announce, to ascribe, to attribute, to communicate, to introduce, to submit, to repeat, to dedicate, to disclose, to interpret, to point out. E.g. I shall dictate to you the names of books.

consists of two components it can be prepositional and non-prepositional the first component is a noun in the common case or in the possessive case, a personal pronoun in the objective case, or a possessive pronoun the second component is an infinitive, a participle, a gerund, seldom a noun, an adjective, a word denoting state, or a prepositional phrase

E.g. She thinks herself very clever. He could see the man and Great Beaver talking together. Thus these two waited with impatience for the three years to be over.

E.g. That night the roused forces of god and Evil fought their terrible fight for her soul...

2. of the second type (prepositional indirect object), which is more frequently used with intransitive verbs does not always express the addressee of the action. it can be used with any preposition is used with verbs, adjectives, words denoting state, and nouns of verbal origin. E.g. She was not aware of his being there.

THE ATTRIBUTE is a secondary part of the sentence which qualifies a noun, a pronoun, or any other part of speech that has a nominal character can be either in pre-position or in post-position to the word it modifies Ways of expressing the attribute: an adjective a pronoun (possessive, defining, demonstrative, interrogative, relative) a numeral (cardinal or ordinal) a noun in the common or possessive case a prepositional phrase an adverb Participle I and II or a participial phrase a prepositional phrase or a prepositional construction with a gerund an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction quotation group Examples The big girl is very lazy. I looked at her from that moment. In his final examinations he won six distinctions. I recognized him as Todd, the village painter and carpenter. Her fathers nerves would never stand the disclosure. The letter from her sister reassured her. The room above is large and light. I was dazzled by the snow glittering on the tree tops. Sally hated the idea of borrowing and living on credit. All right, go back to your office; youve got work to do. I dont like dont-talk-to-me air.

The apposition
is a special kind of attribute which is expressed by a noun (with or without accompanying words) which characterizes or explains the word modified by giving the person or thing another name

The apposition


loose or detached

Types of apposition the close apposition



the loose or detached apposition

is not separated by commas and stands in close connection with the word modified (usually it is a proper noun). It denotes: Professor Brown, Captain Marryat, a) a title, rank, or profession, or relationship Aunt Polly, etc The River Thames, Mount Everest, etc. b) or a geographical name: NB. Sometimes the apposition consists of the the city of London preposition of + noun. Dr. Smith, my predecessor, was a it is not so closely connected with the noun it is always separated by commas and has a classmate of my fathers. stress of its own.

THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER it is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. according to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial modifiers:

concession purpose





adverbia l modifier of





attendan t

degree and measur e


The adverbial modifiers: of time of frequency of place and direction of manner of attendant circumstances

Examples: We shall try it tomorrow. They had often bothered him. Gains had spies everywhere. Their conversations were conducted with icy formality. Now I can go to bed at last without dreading tomorrow.

of degree and measure of cause of result (consequence) of condition of comparison of concession. (it is very rare) of purpose

It is rather good. It weighs a pound. The men were weary, having run behind the beasts all day. She is too fond of the child to leave it. In case of your absence I shall leave you a note. Judice is as white as mud. Though frightened he carried it off very well. They opened the way for her to come to him.

Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier: an adverb a noun with or without accompanying words a prepositional phrase a noun, pronoun, adjective, infinitive, participle, or prepositional phrase with a subordinating conjunction a participle or a participial phrase absolute constructions a prepositional phrase or construction with a gerund an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction.

Examples Rachel turned instinctively t prevent a misfortune. Next days the hours seemed to pass very slowly. I walked straight up the lane. Mary swims better than her sister. While waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the stove. When questioned, she explained everything very carefully. He stopped and turned about, his eyes brightly proud. His father looked up without speaking. They rose to go into the drawing-room

REMARKS It is not always easy to discriminate between different parts of the sentence expressed by prepositional phrases. The following parts of the sentence are not to be confused: 1. a prepositional indirect object and an adverbial modifier. 2. an attribute and an adverbial modifier of place. 1. a) Kate removed her eyes from the window and gazed directly at Papa. b) Decimus had been born in Rome.

In (a) at Papa is a prepositional indirect object as the noun denotes a living being. In (b) in Rome adverbial modifier, as the noun denotes an inanimate object and the question is: where had he been born? When the noun in the prepositional phrase denotes an inanimate object, very often 2 ways of analysis are possible. E.g. His wife was sitting before a very little fire. Before a very little fire can be treated either as an adverbial modifier or an object. 2. an attribute and an adverbial modifier of place. a) I thought you were going to a party at the club. b) The party will take place at the club. In (a) at the club is an attribute as it modifies a noun. It answers the question: What party? In (b) the same prepositional phrase modifies a verbal group; consequently it is an adverbial modifier of place.

DETACHED PARTS OF THE SENTENCE These are secondary parts which assume a certain grammatical and semantic independence. This phenomenon is due to their loose connection with the words they modify. Characteristics Any part of speech used in the function of an adverbial modifier may be detached, which accounts for the comma that separates it from the rest of the sentence. An adverbial modifier expressed by any absolute construction is generally detached. Examples One summer during a brief vacation at Knocke, his visit has come to the notice of Brande. The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers entered their respective compartments. He took farewell tired with waiting. Stout, middle aged, full of energy, she bustled backwards and forwards from the kitchen to her room. She does not change except her hair. A silver tray was brought, with German plums (stafide).

Detached parts of the sentence The detached adverbial modifier

The detached attribute The detached object

Of all kinds of adverbial modifiers, that of attendant circumstances is most apt to become detached. can modify not only a common noun as an ordinary attribute does but also a proper noun and a pronoun. The prepositional indirect object is often detached.

THE INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE They are words and word groups which are not grammatically dependent on any part of the sentence as:

The independent elements of the sentence


Direct Address


The Independent Elements of the Sentence


1) Interjections: ah, oh, hurrah, eh, hallo, goodness Oh, if I only knew what a dreadful thing it is to gracious, good heavens etc. be clean, Id never come. 2) Direct address: Good morning, sweet child! 3) Parenthesis. Characteristics: shows the speakers attitude towards the thought To be sure, Morris had treated her badly. expressed in the sentence. Unfortunately, it will be you who will have to or connects a given sentence with another one explain that to him. or summarizes what is said in the sentence.

is connected with the rest of the sentence rather semantically than grammatically. no question can be put to it. very often it is detached from the rest of the sentence and consequently it is often separated from it by commas or dashes. indeed, certainly, assuredly, decidedly, in fact, truly, naturally, surely, actually, possibly, perhaps, evidently, obviously, maybe, luckily. firstly, secondly, finally, thus, consequently, then, anyway, moreover, besides, still, yet, nevertheless, otherwise, notwithstanding, therefore etc. in a word, in truth, in my opinion, in short, by the by, on the one hand, on the contrary, at least, etc. to be sure, to tell the truth, to begin with, generally speaking, strictly speaking etc.

A parenthesis can be expressed by: Modal words:

Adverbs wich to a certain extent serve as connectives, such as: Prepositional phrases:

Infinitive and participial phrases:

SENTENCES WITH HOMOGENEOUS PARTS two ore more parts of the sentence having the same function and referring to the same part of the sentence. They are linked either by means of: coordinating conjunctions or asyndetically. Homogeneous parts Examples

1) two or more homogeneous subjects to one From the edge of the bed came a ripple and whisper. predicate. 2) two or more homogeneous predicates to one subject: That gentleman started, retreated, rubbed his eyes, simple predicates: stared again and finally shouted: Stop, stop! a compound verbal predicate with homogeneous These sheets must be printed, dried, cut. parts within it. a compound verbal aspect predicate with First he began to understand and then to speak English. homogeneous parts within it. a compound nominal predicate with several The sky was clear, remove, and empty. predicatives within it. 3) two or more attributes, objects, or adverbial The unlighted, unused room seemed to absorb the modifiers to one part of the sentence. moods of the house.

WORD ORDER S subject P predicate O object A. - attribute Cog. O cognate object Comp. O complex object

DO direct object Prep. O prepositional object IO indirect object Ad. M. adverbial modifier 1) direct word order in the English declarative sentence: S + P + Os + Ad. Ms. 2) inverted order of words: P + S. Inverted order of words is used in: A) interrogative sentences: sentences introduced by there: compound sentences, their second part beginning with so or neither: simple exclamatory sentences expressing wish: Examples Where did they find her? There is nothing marvelous in this. Their parents escaped unhurt, so did three of their sons. Be it so!

B) The inverted word order is widely used when a word or a group of words is put in a prominent position. In this case inversion is due to the authors wish to produce a certain stylistic effect. Thus inversion occurs when: adverbial modifier opens the sentence: a) Ad. Ms. expressed by a phrase or phrases open the sentence, In an open barouche stood a stout old gentleman. and the subject often has a lengthy modifier: b) an Ad. M. with a negative meaning opens the sentence. Here Never before and never since, have I belong such adverbial modifiers as: in vain, never, little, etc. In known such peace, such happiness. this case the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. c) Ad. Ms. expressed by such adverbs as so, thus, now, then, Now was the moment to act. etc. placed at the head of the sentence, if the subject is expressed by a noun.
NB. If the subject is a pronoun, inversion does not take place.

Thus he thought and sank down upon the wet earth.

d) Ad. Ms. of M. may or may not cause inversion. In case of inversion the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. only, hardly, scarcely, (correlated with the conjunction when), no sooner (correlated with the conjunction than), nor open the sentence. the sentence begins with the word here which is not an adverbial modifier of place but has some demonstrative force.
NB. If the subject is expressed by a personal pronoun, the word order is direct.

Silently did the doctor bear all this.

Scarcely was one long task completed when a guard unlocked our door. Here is my card, Sir.

postpositions denoting direction open the sentence and the Out went Mr. Smiths head again. subject is expressed by a noun. Here belong such words as: in, out, down, away, up, etc. an object or an adverbial modifier expressed by a wordgroup with not a..., or many a... opens the sentence. In case of inversion the auxiliary do must be used if the predicate does not contain either an auxiliary or a modal verb. a predicative expressed by an adjective or by a noun modified by an adjective or by the pronoun such opens the sentence (in case the subject is a noun or an indefinite pronoun). the predicate, which introduces conditional clause, is Not a soul did I meet with in all my drive.

NB. If the subject is a pronoun, inversion does not take place.

Sweet was that evening. Such is life.

Even were they absolutely hers, it would

expressed by was, were, had, could, or should. Position of the object a) in declarative sentences: P. + O. (usually) O. + S. + P. ( the purpose of emphasis)

be a passing means to enrich herself

A fearful voyage I had with such a monster in the NB. As a rule this prominent position of the object causes vessel.
no inversion except when the object is expressed by word groups with not a ..., or many a...

S + P + Ad. M / Prep. I. O + D.O ( it occurs when the object has an attribute) I. O + S. + P. (very rare) b) in exclamatory sentences we may have: What wonderfully blue eyes you have! O + S + P:
NB. This position of the object usually causes inversion only in poetry, high prose, and negative exclamatory sentences. Passage after passage did he explore!

Position of the attribute It has 2 positions: a) pre-position The usual way of the attribute is before the word it What extraordinary ideas you have! modifies. b) post-position Most adjectives in able, -ible are generally sufferings unspeakable, the only person visible, etc. placed after the noun, especially when the noun is preceded by the adjective only or an adjective in the superlative degree: from times immemorial, a poet laureate, court in some stock phrases: martial, etc. the adjective proper and present are placed after We shant find anything about sculpture in this book, it deals with architecture proper. (propriu-zis) the noun. All the people present ( prezeni) welcomed Paul enthusiastically. NB. This is not a proper (correct) answer to the question.
Our present (actual) task is to preserve peace in the world.

attributes expressed by cardinal numbers: adjectives stand after indefinite and negative pronouns. attributes expressed by prepositional phrases follow the noun modified. to emphasize:

page ten, room two. Id like to read something very interesting. Theres nothing extraordinary in her dress. As a gesture of proud defiance he had named his son Francis Nicholas. He gave Annette a look furtive and searching.

Position of the adverbial modifier Helen patiently heard me to the end. S. + Ad. M + P.: Helen heard me patiently to the end. S. + P. + D. O. + Ad. M.: S + P. + Ad. M. + D.O. (when the object has an She knew instinctively the principles of kiting. attribute). 1. The adverbial modifier of time (Ad. M. T.) On Tuesday night the new laundrymen arrived. We shall try tomorrow.

Ad. M. T. + S + P...: or S. + P. + ... Ad. M.:

Now and then can be placed in nearly any She then remembered that there would have been time for this. position: The hour is generally mentioned before a day, At nine in the evening Mr. White opened the door. night, evening... 2. The adverbial modifier of place (Ad. M. Pl.) Down in the mill yard a little girl was playing. Ad. M. Pl. + S. + P. + ...: A library was a common place for her, and he might S. + P. + O. +... Ad. M. Pl.: see her there. He emerged from the theatre with the first of the Sometimes: S. + P. + Ad. M. Pl. + Prep. O. crowd. Im going to the country tomorrow. S. + P. + ... + Ad. M. Pl. + Ad. M. T. Sybil had gone to town to buy a new carpet. S + P. + ... + Ad. M. Pl. + Ad. M. Purp. 3. Adverbial modifier of frequency (Ad. M. F.) She seldom comes on time. S. + Ad. M. F. + P.: (very often) She is seldom on time. but S + to be/ modal verbs + A. M. F.:
st nd

N.B. but to emphasize: S + Ad. F. + P.:

You always are good with her.

She has never been asked about this. S. + 1 aux. + Ad. M. F. + 2 aux. + V.: S. + sometimes/generally + P. or S. + P. + For he sometimes thought that... And I got so lonely here sometimes. sometimes/generally: Occasionally they followed the preachers. Sometimes Ad. M. F + S. + P.: 4. Adverbial modifier of manner (Ad. M. M.) Dont worry, Louise said stoutly. S. + intrans. verbs + Ad. M. M.: Ann shakes hands effusively with Soames. S. + transitive verbs + D.O. + Ad. M. M. She leaned lightly against his shoulder. S. + P. + Ad. M. M. + Prep. I. O.: I slowly descended. S. + Ad. M. M. + P.: These ladies were deferentially received by Miss S. + aux. verb + Ad. M. M. + verb...: Temple. 5. Adverbial modifier of degree. ( Ad. M. D.) always S + Ad. M. D. + P.: S. + P. + Ad. M. D. ( enough): S. + P. + noun + enough...: or S. + P. + enough + noun +...: I entirely agree with you. He is clever enough. ( in case of an adjective ) I have time enough to do it. I have enough time to do it.

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE THE COMPOUND SENTENCE( Fraza prin coordonare) it consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other a clause is part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own. the clause may be connected in two ways:

The compound sentence is connected

syndetically by means of:

asyndetically (without connectives)

coordinating conjunctions: and, or, nor, else, for, yet, but, still, etc conjunctive adverbs: otherwise, however, still, yet, etc. 1) syndetically: a) The darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighted. b) He knew there were excuses, yet he felt sick at heart. 2) asyndetically: The rain fell softly, the house was quiet. The types of coordination: The types of coordination: copulative coordination ( connects the ideas) disjunctive coordination ( indicates choice) adversative coordination ( shows opposition) causative consecutive coordination Expressed by: and, nor, neither...nor, not only...but (also). or, else, or else, either...or, otherwise. but, while, whereas, nevertheless, still, yet. for, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence. Examples Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily. Either our union must be consecrated and sealed by marriage or it cannot exist. I was not unhappy, not much afraid, yet I wept. There was something strange with him, for he was strangely grave and looked ill.

NB. For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. So, therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence introduces coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result.



( Fraza prin subordonare) Examples

it consists of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The clauses may be linked in two ways: 1) syndetically, i.e. by means of subordinating

More and more she became convinced that some misfortune had overtaken Paul. (conjunction)

conjunctions or connectives: 2) asyndetically, i.e. without a conjunction or connective. it may contain two or more homogenous clauses coordinated with each other. it may be subordinated to the principal clause or to another subordinate clause.

All that he had sought for and achieved seemed suddenly to have no meaning. (connective) His steps quickened as he set out for the hotel. They were all obstinately of opinion that the poor girl had stolen the moonstone, and that she had destroyed herself in terror of being found out. I think I have noticed that they have an inconsistent way of speaking about her, as if she had made some great self- interested success in marrying Mr. Gowan.

Types of subordinate clauses



Predicative Direct Objec t


Resul t

Concessio n

subor dinate clause s

Prep. Ind. Objec t




Condition Cause


Types of subordinate clauses The subject clause

Definition/ Characteristics Performs the function of subject to the predicate of the principal clause. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether. by means of the connectives: who, which, what, whoever, whatever, where, when, how, why. asyndetically. It appears before or after: the verbs: seem, chance, appear, turn out. such adjectives as: likely, certain, possible, clear, true, important, alarming, etc. some transitive verbs expressing mood: alarm, trouble, amaze, attract, confuse, relieve, discourage, embarrass, scare, etc. Performs the function of a predicative. The link verb together with the predicative clause forms a compound nominal predicate. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether, as if. by means of the connectives: who, which, what, where, when, how, why. asyndetically Performs the function of direct object to the predicateverb of the principal clause. The affirmative and interrogative sentences transformed into direct speech are also direct object clauses. It is connected with the principal clause in the following ways: by means of the conjunctions: that, if, whether.

Examples What I want to do is to save us both. It was unfortunate that the patient was brought in during the evening. Its a grand thing when you see the working class in action. It seemed that he was wrong. Its important that the students have fulfilled the tasks earlier. That she hasnt written yet amazes me.

The predicative clause

I felt as if death had laid a hand on me. The question was how was the matter to be kept quiet.

The direct object clause

We asked him whether he had understood the instructions.

The prepositional indirect object Attributive clauses (relative)

by means of the connectives: who, which, what, whoever, whatever, where, when, how, why. asyndetically Performs the function of indirect prepositional object to the predicate-verb of the principal clause. Look at who has come. It is introduced by wh elements both with and Look where he is going. without prepositions: They are divided into: 1) attributive relative restrictive clauses restrict the meaning of the antecedents. they cannot be removed without destroying the meaning of the sentence they are not separated by a comma from the principal clause they are introduced by: a) relative pronouns: who, whose, which, etc.

Remember that we have to leave by 11.00 a.m.

The bus that goes to the station stops at this corner.

b) relative adverbs: where, when, etc. c) asyndetically

I liked the film we saw yesterday.

2) attributive relative non-restrictive (descriptive) clauses Your desk mate, whose name I do not restrict the meaning of the antecedents; it can never remember, has just phoned. gives some additional information about them can be left out without destroying the meaning of the sentence they are often separated by commas 3) attributive appositive clauses disclose the meaning of the antecedent, which is expressed by an abstract noun (opinion, reason, idea, problem, impression, doubt, excuse, question, fact). are not separated by the principal clause by a comma are usually introduced by: when, where, why, how, that, whether. Shows the time of the action expressed in the principal clause. it is introduced by: when, while, whenever, as, till, until, as soon as, as long as, since, after, before, now that. Shows the place of the action expressed in the principal clause. it is introduced by: where, wherever. I dont know the reason why he left so quickly.

The adverbial clause of time The adverbial clause of place The adverbial clause of cause The adverbial clause of condition The adverbial clause of purpose The adverbial clause of concession

I hope to visit you whenever I happen to be in London.

Deronda placed himself where he could see her.

Shows the cause of the action expressed in the As he had a liking for the spot, he principal clause. seldom let a week pass without it is introduced by: as, because, since, for fear that, paying it a visit. on the ground that, for the reason that, etc. States the condition which is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the principal clause. it is introduced by: if, provided ( that), so long as, suppose, in case, unless, etc. States the purpose of the action expressed in the principal clause. it is introduced by: that, in order that, so that, lest, in case, for fear that. Denotes the presence of some obstacle which nevertheless does not hinder the action expressed in the principal clause. It is introduced by: though, although, as, no matter how, however, whoever, whatever, whichever, notwithstanding that, in spite of the fact that. Denotes the result of the action expressed in the principal clause. It is introduced by: so that, that. I will do anything you wish, my brother, provided (dac) it lies in my power.

I crouched against the wall of the gallery so that I should not be seen.

I enjoyed that day though it was cold and rainy. Darkness had fallen and a keen blizzard was blowing, so that the streets were nearly deserted.

The adverbial clause of

result The adverbial clause of manner The adverbial clause of comparison Characterizes in a general way the action expressed in the principal clause. It is introduced by: ( exactly) as, (just) as. Denotes an action with which the action of the principal clause is compared. It is introduced by: than, as, as...as, not so...as, as if, as though.

It was so hot that we opened all the windows. Joe left the house as he had entered it. We were going up the road as fast as we could.


It applies to

direct object clauses

conditional clauses

adverbial clauses of time

DIRECT OJECT CLAUSES A) Main / Regent Clause


Subordinate Clause Any tense required by he meaning of the clause

Examples Mary explains/has explained/will explain that she goes/will go/has gone/went/had gone to London.


Past Tense (main clause)

a) Past Perfect (sub. clause) (to express an anterior/prior action) b) Past Tense (sub. clause) (to express a simultaneous action) I thought they were at home. c) Future-in-the-past (sub. clause) (to express a posterior action)

a) He said he had seen that film. b) I thought they were at film. c) They promised they would write that exercise again. However, there are some exceptions to the rules of sequence of tenses in direct object clauses: a) The verbs to ask, to demand, to insist, to order, to She demands/requires/insists/etc. that you

recommend, to require, to urge, etc. in the main clause should arrive in time. are followed by the Analytical Subjunctive) b) Expressing general (universal) truths (those statements that The pupil said that five and five is ten. are either generally accepted or can be scientifically proved that water boils at 100 C. proved) It was

lasting (irreversible) truths are statements whose I knew that she is a widow. (her condition of validity exceeds the moment of speaking: being a widow was irreversible at that moment) The Past Tense forms of the verbs to know, to believe, You realized that the boy is right. to realize may be followed by Present Tense since, in themselves, they imply the veridicity of the direct object.

TIME CLAUSES A basic rule is that no Future Tense can occur in a time clause. In its stead, the following tenses are used: Main/Regent Clause a) FUTURE b) FUTURE Subordinate Clause PRESENT TENSE ( for simultaneous actions) PRESENT PERFFCT (for anterior / prior actions) c) PAST TENSE or FUTURE-INTHE-PAST PAST TENSE (for simultaneous actions) PAST PERFECT (for anterior/prior action) The boy will translate the lesson after he has learnt the new words. Mary visited us whenever she was free. I promised mother I would buy that book when I saw it. The children went to bed after they had done their lessons. We understood that they would come home after they had finished their work. NB. In the other types of subordinate clauses, there will usually occur those tenses that will be logically required, with no constraint: Types of clauses Attributive clauses Adverbial clause of manner Adverbial clause of comparison Adverbial clause of reason Examples Yesterday I bought a book which is very interesting/I will read this week/I have been looking for since April. Jack played tennis that day as he will never be able to play again Last year Mary spoke English better than her sister does now. My brother finished his work in the morning because he will go to a party this evening. Examples Margaret will tell us the truth when she knows it


In Direct Speech we give the exact words of the speaker, while in Indirect Speech we explain/report what the speaker has said. A) Reporting Statements When changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, there take place some changes. Generally speaking, words expressing nearness in Direct Speech become words expressing remoteness in Indirect Speech. Direct Speech I we My our This/ these here now today tonight tomorrow yesterday ago next the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday Indirect Speech he/she they his/her their That/ those there then that day that night the next day / the following day the day before / the previous day before the next in two days time two days before

As for the tenses used in Indirect Speech it must be shown that, when the reporting verb is in the Present Tense or in the Present Perfect, no tense change occurs in Indirect Speech: I shall buy this book tomorrow, Jane says. (Direct Speech) - Jane says that she will buy this book tomorrow. (Indirect Speech) But, when the reporting verb is in the Past Tense, the following change of tenses takes place: Direct Speech Present Past Tense Present Perfect Indirect Speech Past Tense Past Perfect Examples I live in this house now, the girl explained. The girt explained that she lived in that house then. We saw this film yesterday, the children told me. The children told me that they had seen that film the day before. I have not visited New York yet the tourist said. The tourist said that he had not visited New York yet. Future Future-in-the-Past We shall not be late, my friends promised. My friends promised that they would not be late. Exceptions Examples

When the subjects of the reporting verb and of I must do all these exercises today, my son the action in the direct object clause are complained.

identical, the verb must may remain unchanged:

My son complained that he must do all those exercises that day.

However, even in this case, the more frequent form My son complained that he had to do all those exercises that day. would be: Conditional sentences of Type II remain I would write to her if I knew her address, the unchanged, as well as the subjunctive after: boy explained. wish, would rather, its (high) time: The boy explained that he would write to her if he knew her address. She said: I wish I were younger. She said she wished she were younger. Had better, might, ought to, used to, could, You might be right, she said. should, neednt do not normally change in She said that he might be right. Indirect Speech: When expressing repeated actions in the past: We often walked on the beach when we were young, my grandparents told me. My grandparents told me that they often walked on the beach when they were young. B) Reporting Questions General (Yes/No) questions introduced by if/whether: will be Is your mother at home? aunt Maggie wanted to know. - Aunt Maggie wanted to know if/whether mother was at home.

Will you go to the mountains or will you spend this Whether usually expresses a doubt and a week-end in town? my friend asked me. - My friend possible choice between two alternatives: asked me whether I would go to the mountains or would spend that week-end in town. Special questions will maintain, in Indirect Speech, the interrogative word they begin with: Where do you live? the policeman wanted to know. The policeman wanted to know where I lived.

NB. The word order of questions changes to the word order specific to statements when these questions are turned into the Indirect Speech. C) Reporting Commands Direct Speech Affirmative commands Negative commands Indirect Speech Long infinitives Not + long infinitives Examples Come in! she told me. - She told me to come in. Dont run in the street! mother advised her son. Mother advised her son not to run in the street.

The Imperative with let, when turned into the Indirect Speech, is normally introduced by the verb to suggest: Lets hurry now, he said. He suggested that they should hurry then. D) Reporting Exclamations Exclamations with What a... , or What a sunny day she said. She said that it was a sunny

How... are reported by:


Exclamations such as: Heavens , She gave an exclamation of surprise/disgust/etc. or She Oh , etc. are usually reported by: exclaimed with surprise/disgust/etc. Other Changes She said Good morning! - She greeted me/wished me a good morning. She said Thank you! - She thanked me. She said Merry Christmas! - She wished me a merry Christmas. She said Liar! - She called him a liar. He said Damn! - He swore.

THE NOUN 1. Read this article. Circle all the proper nouns. Underline once all the common count nouns. Underline twice the common non-count nouns. Was Columbus really the first explorer to discover the Americas? Thor Heyerdahl didnt think so. He believed that ancient people were able to build boats that could cross oceans. To test his ideas, he decided to build a copy of the reed boats that were pictured in ancient paintings and sail across the Atlantic from North Africa to Barbados. Heyerdahls team also copied ancient Middle Eastern pots and filled them with food for their journey dried fish, honey, oil, eggs, nuts, and fresh fruit. Ra, the expeditions boat, carried an international group including a Norwegian, an Egyptian, an Italian, a Mexican, and a Chadian. The first trip failed, but everyone survived and wanted to try again. Departing on May 17, 1970, under the flag of the United Nations, Ra II crossed the Atlantic in 57 days. The expedition proved that ancient civilizations had the skill to reach the Americans long before Columbus. Write the plural of the following nouns. Hat, box, day, boy, job, bag, mouth, clock, map, plant, class, birth, branch, bath, factory, family, house, play, key, leaf, knife, life, wife, chief, roof, man, woman, tooth, foot, child, ox, sheep, bush, Negro, quantity, fox, species, hero, valley, means, thief, volcano, quiz, epoch, studio, bus, photo, mouse, scarf, tomato, potato, belief, goose, path, country, toy, church, dish, crisis, thesis, shoe. Ask your group-mates to give the singular of the following nouns: children, umbrellas, gentlemen, teeth, parties, geese, lives, dictionaries, factories, deer, leaves, zoos, photos, pianos, plays, cities, stomachs, shelves, dishes, dogs, hens, friends, maps, data, oxen, handkerchiefs, trays, heroes, wolves, couches, bushes, phenomena, means, loaves, stimuli, halves. Explain and reproduce the following dialogue: Teacher: Is trousers plural or singular? Pupil: Singular at the top and plural at the bottom. Make these sentences plural. 1. He is a teacher. 2. She is a pretty girl of sixteen years old. 3. The church is old. 4. There is a man behind you. 5. The glass is broken. 6. Here is a book and a notebook. 7. A mouse is an animal. 8. A goose is a bird. 9. A calf is a little cow. 10. A dog is bigger than a cat. 11. The classroom is large. 12. A woman is busier than a man. 13. The leaf is green. 14. Give me the key. 15. The shop is open today. 16. The door is shut. 17. The book is on the shelf. 18. The shelf is on the wall. 19. The child is ill. 20. The deer is young. 21. The tooth is broken. 22. The foot is sore. 23. The sheep is in the field. 24. The brother-in-law is in the garden. 25. The knife is sharp. 26. The photo is excellent. 27. The piano is beautiful. 28. The hero is unknown. 29. The thief was found. 30. The scarf is red. 31. The toy is pretty. Make these sentences singular. 1. The boxes are heavy. 2. The men are in the shop. 3. There are forget-me-nots in the garden. 4. The villages are far. 5. The leaves are dry. 6. The wolves are stronger than the foxes. 7. The plays are interesting. 8. The branches are broken. 9. The mice are grey. 10. The animals in the zoos are funny. 11. My teeth ache.12. The days are long in summer. 13. There are boys and girls in the classrooms. 14. My friends are good. 15. The knives are sharp. 16. The jobs are interesting. 17. There are hats and bags in my car. 18. There are buses and cars in the street. 19. The babies are crying in the dining-room. 20. The watches are new. 21. Take these loaves. 22. There are interesting flies in my collection. 23. His shoes are at the shoemakers. 24. The oxen are in the yard. 25. These heroes are known to everybody.

Give the plural of the following nouns. Housewife, Englishman, passer-by, Frenchwoman, businessman, fireman, postman, workman, law, forget-me-not, step-daughter, fingertip. 8. Write the nouns denoting parts of the human body on the blackboard. one (a) nose. Model: I have two eyes.

mother- in-

Head, face, shoulder, eye, cheek, lip, tooth, mouth, tongue, brain, ear, chin, neck, throat, thumb, finger, hand, wrist, elbow, chest, leg, fingernail, knee, ankle, foot, toe, arm. Choose the singular or plural nouns from the given list and fill in the blanks using the possessive forms: problem lives toys parks fur shoes teeth friends storm skin mistake name songs visit decisions house wife car rays climate newspaper jobs product environment holiday history health room influence Model: A home is his castle. => A mans home is his castle. 1. People are interesting to a writer. 2. Men are very different from womens. 3. The children are on the sofa. 4. Their wives are very interesting. 5. The boys are on the shelf. 6. The men are hard. 7. The child is in danger. 8. The patients are healthy. 9. The Negroes are beautiful. 10. John is serious. 11. The ladies is upstairs. 12. The Joneses is large. 13. The hero is unknown. 14. My brother-in-law is new. 15. Charles is a famous singer. 16. New York are dangerous at night. 17. This factory are very good. 18. Today is full of interesting news. 19. The earth is in danger. 20. Yesterday is over and the week came to an end. 21. The sun are very strong in the South. 22. The school is long. 23. Science is great. 24. The fox is red. 25. The mouse is grey. 26. The country is different. 27. The Party are important. 28. The month is over. Fill in the blanks using the given nouns (piece, blade, block, pile, lump, sheet, bar, glass, slice). Make up situations of your own using the expressions. Model: A of paper. => A piece of paper. 1. a of bread; 2. a of grass; 3. a of ice; 4. a of rubbish; 5. a of sugar; 6. a of soap; 7. a of chocolate; 8. a of water; 9. a of cake. Put together the words under A and B, making possessive forms. Model: student book => the students book. A. student B. book eye needle teacher question yesterday newspaper children mother pupil dictionary friend father girl answer boy uncle a morning trip mother hair branches the tree tomorrow concert John sister bottom the river.

Describe your flat, using nouns in the possessive case or of-phrases: Prompts: the size of the flat (room, kitchen), the colour of the room (carpet, furniture, curtains, walls, lamps) the width (the length) of the balcony (corridor), etc. Ask your group-mates what they usually do at: a bakers (shop), a barbers, a booksellers, a butchers, a chemists, a dressmakers, a grocers, a photographers, a shoemakers, a stationers, a doctors. Prompts: meat, hair, bread, paper, books, shoes, photos, sugar, clothes, drugs.

THE ARTICLE Put a or an before each of the following if necessary: 1. Does mother take ___ sugar in ___ coffee? 2. You have ___ hour and ___ half for your lunch. 3. Mr. Jones has ___ little money left. 4. She will travel by ___ plane this time. 5. ___ book on psychology is not interesting for ___ child. 6. Father always smokes ___ cigarette with ___ cup of ___ coffee in the morning. 7. I have paid ___ lot of money for ___ Rembrandt today. 8. Does your sister need ___ notebook? 9. John can hardly speak because he has ___ sore throat. 10. The rubbish is collected twice ___ week. 11. My wife would like ___ coffee and ___ sandwich. 12. ___ boy likes playing football better than studying. 13. Ive found ___ item of news that you might be interested in. 14. I think she has made ___ big mistake. 15. They heard ___ sudden noise. 16. The old woman was knocked down by ___ car. 17. Jane has got ___ pain in her shoulder. 18. You need ___ visa. 19. My friend is looking for ___ job. 20. Mother saw ___ accident this morning when ___ car crashed into ___ tree. Complete the following sentences by putting the into the spaces only where necessary: 1. Excuse me, can you tell me where ___ theatre is? Its on ___ left, just after ___ museum. 2. This thing proves once again that ___ honesty is not ___ best policy. Sometimes ___ diplomacy is ___ more successful. 3. Do you know who put ___ first man into ___ space? ___ United States of America or Russia? ___ Russia, but ___ Americans were ___ first on ___ moon. 4. What is on ___ TV this evening? Its a comedy and I dont like ____ comedies very much. 5. What ___ present Government has done up to now is that it has made ___ rich richer and ___ poor poorer. 6. Who is ___ man over there talking to ___ woman with ___ grey hair? Oh, thats Mr. Williams. Hes one of ___ teachers in our school. He came to our town ___ month before last. 7. My sister believes that ___ women are better drivers than ___ men. Not necessarily. Some of ___ worst drivers I know are women. Complete the sentences below using the with these adjectives: accused; aged; blind; dead; deaf; disabled; grey-haired; injured; old; poor; rich; sick; unemployed; young. 1. ___ can read with their fingers. 2. ___ should be held in great respect by everyone. 3. They say one should never speak ill of ___. 4. The numbers of ___ are still increasing. 5. Only ___ can buy such expensive cars. 6. He gave away a lot of his money to ___. 7. ___ were permitted to make their last wishes. 8. She spent her life visiting ___ in the hospitals. 9. ___ have to wear hearing aids. 10. One ought to help ___. 11. This is a hospital for ___. 12. ___ usually dont understand the present-day problems of ___. Supply a/an or the if they are necessary: 1. ___ Lake Ontario is one of ___ five Great Lakes in ___ North America. 2. Andrew and Alice went to ___ school yesterday and then studied in ___ library before returning home. 3. There are only ___ few seats left for tonights musical at ___ university. 4. When you go to ___ supermarket, please buy ___ bottle of ___ chocolate milk and ___ dozen oranges. 5. Your ___ car is five years old and it still runs well. 6. No one in

___ German class knew ___ correct answer to ___ Mr. Grubers ___ question. 7. ___ red books on ___ table are for our Geography class. 8. Please give me ___ cup of coffee with ___ cream and ___ sugar. 9. ___ judge asked ___ witness to tell ___ truth. 10. Margaret is studying ___ Physics and ___ Chemistry this term. 11. ___ Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from ___ France to ___ United States. 12. Peters father bought him ___ ball that he had wanted for his birthday. 13. Our cousin is in ___ hospital so we went to visit him ___ last night. 14. ___ Queen Elizabeth II is ___ monarch of ___ Great Britain. 15. On our trip to Brazil, we crossed ___ Atlantic Ocean. 16. While Ted was in Alaska, he visited ___ Eskimo village. 17. ___ Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776. 18. ___ armchair she is sitting in is broken. 19. ___ Civil War was fought in ___ United States between 1861 and 1865. 20. Two nights ago there was ___ bird singing outside our house. 21. George cant go to ___ cinema tonight because he has to write ___ essay. 22. Scientists hope to send ___ expedition to ___ Mars during ___ 1990s. 23. John has been admitted to ___ School of Medicine at ___ Cambridge University. 24. Emma plays ___ guitar and her brother plays ___ violin. Insert a, an or the if necessary. (A) 1. Shakespeare? He was ....... poet. 2. Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, they were ....... American presidents. 3. Do you collect ..... stamps? 4. What ...... beautiful garden! 5. Do you enjoying going to .... concerts? 6. When we found that someone had broken into our house we called ....... police. 7. We didnt have any money, so we had to go to ..... bank. 8. Im not very hungry. I had ....... big breakfast. 9. It was a beautiful day. ....... sun shone brightly in ...... sky. 10. ..... piano is my favourite instrument. 11. Why do ...... English think they are so wonderful. 12. Agnes has been ..... nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ...... sick. 13. I like your garden. ....... flowers are beautiful. 14. Do you like ...... coffee? 15. ....... women are often better teachers than ..... men. 16. I know someone who wrote ...... book about ..... Smiths life. 17. Two of ..... biggest problems facing our society are: ...... crime and ..... unemployment. 18. I hate ..... violence. 19. After I leave ..... school, I want to go to ....... university. 20. Mr. Kelly went to .... school to meet his daughter. 21. I was very tired and it was very late, so I went to ..... bed. 22. A friend of mine used to work as ..... reporter in ..... Middle East. 23. .... Nile is ...... longest river in Africa. 24. We went to Spain for our holidays and swam in ..... Mediterranean. 25. Last year we visited ........ Canada and ...... United States. 26. The British Prime Minister lives in ...... Downing Street. 27. Frank is ....... student at ..... Liverpool University. 28. Open ...... book at ..... page 12. 29. Is there ........ park near here? Yes, ...... Victoria Park. 30. Is there ........ restaurant near here? Yes, ...... Pecking Restaurant. 31. Which country is Manila the capital of? ....... Philippines. 32. The name of ocean between ....... America and ...... Asia is ...... Pacific Ocean. 33. She is rather ...... nice person. 34. Excuse me, can you tell me where ..... theatre is? 35. Please give me ..... cup of coffee with ...... cream and ..... sugar. 36. ....... stamps in my collection may be valuable. 37. ....... rabbits run very fast. 38. .... Doctor Taylor has performed some interesting transplants. 39. ...... lion can be dangerous. 40. ..... morning after morning I have taken my walk in the same direction. 41. ..... dead silence prevailed. 42. ..... We usually have ..... tea at four oclock. 43. .... Browns lived in the next house. 44. She was born ...... Gibson, rather than ...... Watson. 45. ..... sun rises at six. 46...... French are famous for their food. B) 1. There was ___ knock on ___ door. I opened it and found ___ small dark man in ___ blue overcoat and ___ woolen cap. 2. He said he was ___ employee of ___ gas company and had come to read ___ meter. 3. But I had ___ suspicion that he wasnt speaking ___ truth because ___ meter readers usually wear ___ peaked caps. 4. However, I took him to ___ meter, which is in ___ dark corner under ___ stairs (___ meters are usually in ___ dark corners under ___ stairs). 5. I asked if he had ___ torch; he said he disliked torches and always read ___ meters by ___ light of ___ match. 6. I remarked that if there was ___ leak in ___ gaspipe there might be ___ explosion while he was reading ___ meter. 7. He said, As ___ matter of ___ fact, there was ___ explosion in ___ last house I visited; and Mr. Smith, ___owner of ___ house, was burnt in ___ face. 8. Mr. Smith was holding ___ lighted match at ___ time of ___ explosion. 9. To prevent ___ possible repetition of this accident, I lent him ___ torch. 10. He switched on ___ torch, read ___ meter and wrote ___ reading down on ___ back of ___ envelope.

11. I said in ___ surprise that ___ meter readers usually put ___ readings down in ___ book. 12. He said that he had had ___ book but that it had been burnt in ___ fire in ___ Mr. Smiths house. 13. By this time I had come to ___ conclusion that he wasnt ___ genuine meter reader; and ___ moment he left ___ house I rang ___ police. 14. Are John and Mary ___ cousins? ~ No, they arent ___ cousins; they are ___ brother and ___ sister. 15. ___ fog was so thick that we couldnt see ___ side of ___ road. We followed ___ car in front of us and hoped that we were going ___ right way. 16. I cant remember ___ exact date of ___ storm, but I know it was ___ Sunday because everybody was at ___ church. On ___ Monday ___ post didnt come because ___ roads were blocked by ___ fallen trees. 17. Peter thinks that this is quite ___ cheap restaurant. 18. Theres been ___ murder here. ~ Wheres ___ body? ~ There isnt ___ body. ~ Then how do you know theres been ___ murder? 19. Number ___ hundred and two, ___ house next door to us, is for sale. Its quite ___ nice house with ___ big rooms. ___ back windows look out on ___ park. 20. I dont know what ___ price ___ owners are asking. But Dry and Rot are ___ agents. You could give them ___ ring and make them ___ offer. 21. ___ postmans little boy says that hed rather be ___ dentist than ___ doctor, because ___ dentists dont get called out at ___ night. 22. Just as ___ air hostess (there was only one on the plane ) was handing me ___ cup of ___ coffee ___ plane gave ___ lurch and ___ coffee went all over ___ person on ___ other side of ___ gangway. 23. There was ___ collision between ___ car and ___ cyclist at ___ crossroads near ___ my house early in ___ morning. ___ cyclist was taken to ___ hospital with ___ concusion. ___ driver of ___ car was treated for ___ shock. ___ witnesses say that ___ car was going at ___ seventy miles ___ hour. 24. Professor Jones, ___ man who discovered ___ new drug that everyone is talking about, refused to give ___ press conference. 25. Peter Piper, ___ student in ___ professors college, asked him why he refused to talk to ___ press. 26. Were going to ___ tea with ___ Smiths today, arent we? Shall we take ___ car? ~ We can go by ___ car if you wash ___ car first. We cant go to ___ Mrs. Smiths in ___ car all covered with ___ mud. 27. He got ___ job in ___ south and spent ___ next two years doing ___ work he really enjoyed. 28. It is ___ pleasure to do ___ business with such ___ efficient organization. 29. ___ day after ___ day passed without ___ news, and we began to lose ___ hope. 30. Would you like to hear ___ story about ___ Englishman, ___ Irishman and ___ Scotsman? ~ No. Ive heard ___ stories about ___ Englishmen, ___ Irishmen and ___ Scotsmen before and they are all ___ same. 31. But mine is not ___ typical story. In my story ___ Scotsman is generous, ___ Irishman is logical and ___ Englishman is romantic. ~ Oh, if its ___ fantastic story Ill listen with ___ pleasure. 32. My aunt lived on ___ ground floor of ___ old house on ___ River Thames. She was very much afraid of ___ burglars and always locked up ___ house very carefully before she went to ___ bed. She also took ___ precaution of looking under ___ bed to see if ___ burglar was hiding there. 33. ___ modern burglars dont hide under ___ beds, said her daughter. Ill go on looking just ___ same, said my aunt. 34. One morning she rang her daughter in ___ triumph. I found ___ burglar under ___ bed ___ last night, she said, and he was quite ___ young man. THE ADJECTIVE Answer the following questions. Model: Which is larger: a sea or a lake? => A sea is larger than a lake. (A sea is) 1. Which is more comfortable: a chair or an armchair? 2. Which is lighter: paper or wood? 3. Which is sweeter: honey or sugar? 4. Which is heavier: wood or stone? 5. Which is quicker: a cat or a dog? 6. Which is more difficult: English or Chinese? 7. Which is more interesting: the book or the film?

Use the adjectives in the comparative or in the superlative degree. 1. He usually brought many bottles of lager with him; it was _______ (clean) and ________ (safe) than water. 2. She was a small woman, a little _______ (short) than Roy and considerably ________ (thin). 3. Marlow is one of _______ (pleasant) river centres I know of. 4. They are certainly much _______ (useful) in the Gredos than here. 5. Thats right, miss, said ________ of the men. 6. I suppose she was ________ (beautiful) creature I ever saw in my life. 7. It was _______ (early) than I thought, not yet four. 8. The house seemed _______ (large) than before. 9. If I could live my life again I would try to do _______ (much) work. 10. I cant send him straight into _______ (bad) job on the battalion front. 11. I think my father is the ________ (good) man I have ever known. 12. Women cry for ________ (odd) things, sometimes for pleasure. 13. The _______ (much) money I make, the _______ (happy) I am. 14. He wanted to help those ________ (little) fortunate than him. Correct these sentences 1. Hes more older than he looks. 2. Jessicas as tall than her mother. 3. Trains in London are more crowded that in Paris. 4. Oxford is one of oldest universities in Europe. 5. He isnt as intelligent than his sister. 6. This is more hard than I expected. 7. Who is the most rich man in the world? 8. Everything is more cheap in my country. 9. Rome was hoter than I expected. Rewrite the sentences with as ... as or not as ... as. 1. Bobs taller than Jack. Jacks not as tall as Bob. 2. Bob got more presents than Jack. 3. Jills more intelligent than Bill. 4. The suns hotter than the moon. 5. Are you and your husband the same age? 6. You can read more quickly than I can. 7. Harry won more money than Bill. 8. Is Switzerland bigger than Luxembourg? Yes, it is. 9. Evas work is better than mine. 10. Dogs are friendlier than cats. THE ADVERB Form the adverbs from the following adjectives by adding the suffix ly. Polite, happy, complete, just, real, nice, gay, recent, right, bad, quick, wide, deep, attentive, high, careful, close, sharp, strict, loud, unfortunate, serious, slow, clear, exact, wonderful. State whether the words given in bold type are adjectives or adverbs. 1. All is well that ends well. 2. He kept close to the road. 3. You look quite ill. 4. Look straight ahead. 5. Lets meet at 5 oclock sharp. 6. We shall return early. 7. It takes me long to come here. 8. When I came back he was fast asleep. 9. I shall come in half an hour. 10. Its half white and half red. Use the comparative or superlative degree of the adverbs. 1. Then the bus... began to run, ______________ (fast) still, through a long avenue. 2. ... moreover, he was _______________ (well) educated than the others. 3. She was the one who was being hurt _________________ (deeply). 4. He contrived to get a glimpse of Montanelli once or _______________ (often) in every week, if only for a few minutes. 5. Driving _______ slowly now, she arrived between four and five. 6. However, I must bear my cross as _______ well I may. 7. Then he dismissed the thought as unworthy and impossible, and yielded himself _________ (freely) to the music. 8. He followed her mental process _________ (clearly) now, and her soul was no __________ (long) the sealed wonder it had been. 9. Felixs eyebrows rose _________ (high) than ever. 10. It was a comfort to Margaret about this time, to find that her mother drew _______ (tenderly) towards her than she had ever done.

Complete Maggies letter with the correct word in parentheses. Dear Mom and Dad, Life in New York is very (exciting/excitingly). Luis and I werent sure wed like such a (large/largely) city, but its so interesting! Yesterday we saw a street musician near school. He played the violin so (beautiful/ beautifully) we couldnt believe he wasnt in a big concert hall. Youd be surprised to see us. We walk (happy/happily) down the (busy/busily) streets, and the noise doesnt bother us at all! Im sending a photo of our apartment building. It looks (nice/nicely), doesnt it? Its so (quiet/quietly) we can (hard/hardly) believe its in New York. Our next-door neighbor is very (nice/nicely). At first she seemed (shy/shyly) but now we are (good/well) friends. We hope youre both well. Please give our love to everyone and write soon. Love, Maggie Make up sentences of your own. Model: Come as quickly as possible. Prompts: to come soon, to smoke little, to get up early, to read much, to do it quickly, to listen to the tape-recorder often, to study well, to read loud, to finish the work quickly, to treat it seriously.

THE PRONOUN 1. Replace the nouns with pronouns: 1. Peter sees Mary. 2. The girl has the answer. 3. The cat is sleeping. 4. George is studying French. 5. Mrs. Craig is with my brother. 6. Jimmy and Alison are outside the shop. 7. The dogs have played with the cat. 8. The teacher is in front of the house. 9. Alice is watching TV. 10. Loren wants to see Julie. 11. The present is for the children. 12. The girl bought the books. 2. Choose the correct form of the personal pronouns given in brackets: 1. My husband and (I/me) have just come back home from the theatre. 2. If you see Jane, please give (she/her) my regards. 3. So, this is the baby! Is (it/she) a girl? 4. (We/Us), the Romanians, are very proud of our past. 5. Thats very kind of (they/them). 6. Pass (I/me) the bread, please! 7. Let (we/us) go on this trip together. 8. It is said that (she/her) likes playing tennis. 9. We wanted to know where (they/them) lived. 10. Your friend enjoys fishing, doesnt (he/it)? 3. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding possessive pronouns or adjectives: 1. Mr.Brown is painting ___ house. 2. It seems to him that my secretary is more efficient than ___. 3. What did they think of that party of ___? 4. She offered ___ services. Did any of the other people offer ___? 5. Grannie cant find ___ glasses. 6. I always pay ___ bills on time. 7. Look at those puppies biting ___ tails. 8. You have found ___ umbrella, but I havent found ___. 9. I like ___ job, but you dont like___. 10. She is typing ___ reports and we are typing ___. Complete the sentences with another or the other. 1. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind, the tiger is ___________. 2. There are two colors on this page. One is white, ____________ is black. 3. Alexs bicycle was run over by a truck and destroyed. He needs to get _______________ one. 4. The Smiths have two bicycles. One belongs to Mr. Smith, ___________ - to his wife. 5. There are three books on my desk. Two of them are dictionaries. __________ one is a telephone directory. 6. The puppy chewed up my telephone directory, so I went to the telephone company to get ___________ phone book. 7. Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. Thailand is _______________.

8. It rained yesterday, and from the looks of those dark clouds, were going to have ___________ rainstorm today. 9. Nicole and Michelle are identical twins. The only way you can tell them apart is by looking at their ears. One of them has pierced ears and _____________ doesnt. 10. Of the 50 states in the US, 49 are located on the North American continent. Wheres _________ located? 11. I have 2 brothers. One is named Nick. __________ is named Matt. 12. There are 5 names in this list. One is Adam. __________ is Greg. __________ is Nick. _________ of the names is Eric. ___________ name on the list is Jessica. Complete the sentences with other(s) or the other(s). 1. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. Some _________ are tigers, horses, and whales. 2. There are many kinds of animals in the world. The elephant is one kind. Some __________ kinds are tigers, horses and whales. 3. There are three colors in the US flag. One of the colors is red. ___________ are white and blue. 4. There are three colors in the US flag. One of the colors is red. ___________ colors are white and blue. 5. There re four seasons. Spring and summer are two. ____________ are fall and winter. 6. Spring and summer are two of the four seasons. _____________ seasons are fall and winter. 7. There are many kinds of geometric figures. Some ar circles. __________ figures are squares. Still _________ are rectangular. 8. There are three geometric figures. One is a square. ___________ figures are a rectangle and a triangle. 9. Of the four geometric figures, only the circle has curved lines. ___________ have straight lines. 10. Some ships are fuelled by petroleum. ___________ are propelled by atomic power. 11. Some boats are used for pleasure. ____________ boats are used for commercial fishing. 12. Many people like to get up very early in the morning. __________ like to sleep until noon. 13. Out of the twenty students in the class, 18 passed the exam. __________ failed. 14. Out of the 20 students in the class, only two failed the exam. __________ students passed. Choose the correct variant. 1. They sat for two hours without talking to (each other, another). 2. Jill and Jack write articles for (their, theirs) school newspaper. 3. Most of the sports articles are (their, theirs). 4. Have you got any (other, another) colours? 5. it is a good idea of (your, yours) to go to the theatre tonight. 6. Be nice to (one another, the other). 7. Is it (your, yours) article about snakes? No, its not (my, mine). Its Janes. 8. Do you want a blue pen or black (one, ones)? 9. Some people like hamburgers; (other, others) prefer fishburgers. 10. We are going boating with some friends of (our, ours). 11. Ive already had (one, ones) tea. I dont want (another, the other). 12. Weve got the same kind of flat as the Martins, but his is a bit bigger than (our, ours). 13. Alice has blue shoes. (Her, hers) shoes are shiny. 14. Dan bought two folders. He gave (one, ones) to me and kept (another, the other). Make up sentences of your own. Use one or ones to the model: 1. suitcases (this brown); 2. jackets (that leather); 3. newspapers (these weekly); 4. dictionaries (that French); 5. TV sets (those colour); 6. records (that long-playing); 7. chairs (those soft); 8. notebooks (these pink); 9. beds (that double); 10. typewriters (those portable).
Rephrase the following sentences according to the model using possessive pronouns: E.g. Fishing is one of my hobbies. Fishing is a hobby of mine. 1. Jack is one of their friends. 2. Mary lent me one of her English books. 3. Becoming an architect is one of his ambitions. 4. Jane is one of your neighbours. 5. That is one of his pencils. 6. That is one of his favorite songs. 7. Show me one of her dresses, please! 8. This is one of your drawings. 9. This is one of my valuable stamps. 10. These are some of their toys.

Complete this text with reflexive and reciprocal pronouns. (This is the talk of a high school French teacher to a group of new teachers.) I teach French, but the subject itself isnt that important. I think my experience applies to all subjects. Your first year may be hard, so teach __________ to use positive self-talk and keep things simple. Remember that a

good teacher helps students learn by __________. Recently, John, one of my students, was having trouble teaching _________ how to bake French bread. I encouraged him to keep trying, and in the end he succeeded. As far as discipline goes, I have just a few rules. I tell my students, Keep __________ busy. Discuss the lessons, but dont interfere with ________ s work. Keep teaching materials simple too. I pride ________ on being able to teach anywhere, even on a street corner. Finally, the salary for teachers is not great, but you have a lot of freedom. I run my class by ________ - just the way I want to. You will have to decide for ________ if its worth it. I cant afford to travel to France, but I satisfy ________ with trips to Quebec! Join the sentences using a suitable relative pronoun to form defining and non-defining clauses. 1. He put the ring through her nose. It was made of gold. 2. I know somebody. Her father has got a tattoo on his back. 3. I read a leaflet. It said body piercing was dangerous. 4. I went to a salon. They did body piercing there. 5. My sister dyed her hair pink. I find it an attractive colour. 6. I saw a girl. She had each part of her face pierced. 7. They opened a beauty salon in St Georges Square. There used to be a perfume shop there. 8. You can see people. They have rings. 9. Mick pointed out his certificate. It was on the wall. 10. I only pierce young people. Their parent or guardian is with them. 11. He marked the area. He had disinfected the skin there. 12. Itll be a little secret. I wont share it with anyone. 13. My sister is sixteen. She had her eyebrows pierced yesterday. 14. People spray paint on walls. They are spoiling the environment. 15. Merchandise is sold on the Internet. It has an enormous market. 16. I went to an art gallery. There was an avant-garde exhibition there. 17. Jeans used to be considered working clothes. They became fashionable among young people. 18. Toms father plays the cello. Tom wants to be a musician. 19. Some graffiti artists have moved into designing products. They can make a lot of money. 20. He marked the area near the navel. He had disinfected her there. Fill in the blanks. Use some, something, somebody, somewhere, any, anything, anybody, anywhere, no, nothing, nobody, nowhere, every, everything, everybody, everywhere. 1. He never puts ________ sugar in his tea. 2. ________ children dont like reading. 3. Theres ________ to be done about it. 4. I must find ________ for you to play badminton with. 5. Theres _________ at the door. I heard the door-bell ring. 6. Do they live ________ near Fleet Street? 7. Dont worry about your mistake. _______ is all right. 8. I cant find my shoes. Ive looked_________. 9. Stop sitting there doing ________ and help me. 10. Can you get me ________ to eat, please? 12. I can do the job alone. I dont need _______ to help me. 13. Ive hardly been _________ since last holiday. 14. would you like _________ more coffee? THE NUMERAL I. Read and write the following cardinal numerals. 12; 19; 30; 100; 1, 207, 641; 14; 40; 9.90; 236; 12,752,894. II. Read and write ordinal numerals from the following cardinal numerals. 1; 5; 11; 21; 62; 100; 690; 3; 8; 13; 30; 76; 108; 4; 9; 19; 50. III. Read and write the following dates: 6/IV.1799 8/XII.1930 12/IV.1961 7/XI.1917 6/III. 1997 31/ VII. 2006.

IV. Translate: 1. Copiii au intrat la scoala doi cite doi. 2. Am citit deja sute de pagini. 3. Numai dupa ce am citit problema de trei ori, am inteles-o. 4. Regele Richard III este unul dintre cei mai singerosi. 5. Capitolul IX mi s-a parut mai interesant.

Write on the blackboard 10 telephone numbers and read them. THE WORDS OF THE CATEGORY OF STATE Point out the words denoting state. Translate the sentences. 1. "I am an old man who is afraid of no one," Anselmo told him. 2. When the soldiers found him ... he was still alive. 3. She was ashamed both for herself and for Constance. 4. Sophia was not aware of this grievance, for Amy had hidden it under her customary politeness to Sophia. 5. Her little resolute face... was suspiciously eager and aglow. (Galsworthy). 6. "Whats amiss in the Square?" Constance exclaimed. 7. "I wish you wouldn't try to domineer over me!" - "Domineer !" exclaimed Sophia, aghast. 8. A moment later... I noticed that he was asleep. 9. Ben thought the boy was afraid they would be caught doing something wrong. THE VERB Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or Present Continuous tense. 1. Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds. 2. You can't see Tom now: he (have) a bath. 3. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. 4. A. What she (do) in the evenings? ~ B. She usually (pray) cards or (witch) TV. 5. I won't go out now as it (rain) and I (not have) an umbrella. 6. The last train (leave) the station at 11.30. 7. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 8. Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own clothes. 9. Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays. 10. A. I'm afraid I've broken one of your coffee cups. ~ B. Don't worry. I (not like) that set anyway. 11. I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong. 12. Tom can't have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it. 13. I'm busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the sitting room. 14. The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea? 15. A. You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now? ~ B. I (enjoy) myself very much. I (want) to stay to the end. 16. A. How you (get) to work as a rule? ~ B. I usually (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Tom's car. 17. A. Why you (put) on your coat? ~ B. I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me? ~ A. Yes, I'd love to come. You (mind) if I bring my dog? 18. How much you (owe) him? 19. A. You (belong) to your local library? ~ B. Yes, I do. A. You (read) a lot? ~ B. Yes, quite a lot. ~ A. How often you (change) your books? ~ B. I (change) one every day. 20. Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern Greek. 21. I always, (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything. 22. A. You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow. 23. A. I won't tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. ~ B. I (promise). 24. You always (write) with your left hand? 25. A. You (love) him? ~ B. No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him. 26. A. You (dream) at night? ~ B. Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have) nightmares. 27. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time? 28. These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain). 29. We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is broken. 30. He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it. 31. You (know) why an apple (fal1) down and not up? 32. A. You (write) to him tonight? ~ B. Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (want) to send any message? 33. Tom and Mr Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they (talk) about. 34. A. You (believe) all that the newspapers say? ~ B. No, I (not believe any of it. ~ A. Then why you (read) newspapers? 35. A. This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right? ~ B. Oh, that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that. 36. A. The fire (smoke) horribly. I can't see across the room. I (expect) the birds (build) a nest in the chimney. ~ B. Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimneys? ~ A. Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or Present Continuous tense. 1. A. What Tom (think) of the Budget? ~ B. He (think) it most unfair.~ A. I (agree) with him. 2. A. What this one (cost)? ~ B. It (cost) forty pence. 3. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight. 4. A. You (see) my car keys anywhere? ~ B. No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them. 5. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else. 6. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island. 7. A. You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? ~ B. No, I (not understand) him at all. 8. A. What you (have) for breakfast usually? ~ I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold water. 9. When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) a factory gate. 10. A. Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. ~ B. I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 o'clock and she

(not like) to be kept waiting. 11. A. I (wish) that dog would lie down. He (keep) jumping up on my lap. ~ B. I (think) he (want) to go for a walk. 12. You (recognize) that man? ~ B. I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name. 13 Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for. 14 This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want) to send a reply. 15. A. Stop! You (not see) the notice? ~ B. I (see) it but I can't read it because I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)? ~ A. It (say) 'These premises are patrolled by guard dogs'. 16. She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back. 17. You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough? 18. A. It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? ~ B. No, it (not matter) which path you take. 19. I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July. 20. I (think) it is a pity you don't take more exercise. You (get) fat. 21. The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off for Paris. 22. Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work) on his car. 23. A. What he (do) to his car now? ~ B. I (think) he (polish) it. 24. That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it? 25. A. How Peter (get) on at school? ~ B. Very well. He (seem) to like the life. 26. A. Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry? ~ B. Mr Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet. 27. A. This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris, and (set) out that night for Venice. ~ B. That (sound) most interesting. You must tell me all about it when you (get) back. 28. This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it. 29. He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boaconstrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy. 30. A. The snake (feel) sorry about this? ~ B. I (not know). The story (end) there. 31. A. How you (end) a letter that (begin), 'Dear Sir'? ~ B. I always (put), 'Yours truly', but Tom (prefer) 'Yours faithfully'. 32. A. What the word 'catastrophe' (mean)? ~ B. It (mean) 'disaster'. 33. A. What you (wait) for? ~ B. I (wait) for the shop to open. ~ A. But it (not open) till 9.00. ~ B. I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today. 34. A. Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. ~ B. I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains from wood. 35. A. Who (own) this umbrella? ~ B. I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it. 36. A. You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? ~ B. That (depend) on the question. ~ A. It (concern) your brother. ~ B. I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous tense. 1. I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7.00. 2. When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector. 3. I (make) a cake when the light went out. 4. I didn't want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). 5. Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 6. He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. 7. He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room, he (stand) up. 8. The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game. 9. My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitt's Pekinese attacked him. 10. When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30. 11. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office. 12. A. What you (think) of his last book? ~ B. I (like) it very much. 13. I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness. 14 He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 15 He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water. 16. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand. 17. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed. 18. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph. 19. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)? 20. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father's step. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books. 21. He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him. 22. He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow). 23 I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching. 24. Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time. 25. A. How you (damage) your car so badly? ~ B. I (ruffle) into a lamp-post yesterday. 26. As he (let) into the bus it (start) suddenly and he (fall) backwards on to the road. 27. I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up. 28. When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock. 29. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first, because I (nor wear) my glasses. 30. When I came in they (sit) round the fire. Mr Pitt (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs Pitt (knit), the others (read). Mrs Pitt (smile) at me and (say), 'Come and sit down.' 31. While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats. 32. The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different directions. 33. She was very extravagant. She always (buy) herself new clothes. 34. Her mother often (tell) her that she

(spend) too much money but she never (listen). 35. Whenever the drummer (begin) practising, the people in the next flat (bang) on the wall. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or Past Continuous tense. 1. Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock. 2. To get home he (have to) go through a field where a badtempered bull usually (graze). 3. This bull normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off. 4. This (annoy) the bull, who immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith. 5. Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run) away as fast as he could. 6. The bull (stop) and (begin)to attack the umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith escaped. 7. When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her she (turn) and (smile) at him. 8. Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting conversation with Mr Pitt. 9. The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door. 10. When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Murder in the Cathedral. 11. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop). 12. When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon as she (see) me she (wave) and (shout) something, but I couldn't hear what she (say) because everybody (make) such a noise. 13. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes. 14. She said that the car (travel) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid. 15. She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another. 16. While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue. 17. A. When I (see) him he (paint) a portrait of his wife. ~ B. You (like) it? ~ A. He only just (start) when I (see) it, so I couldn't judge. 18. A. I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. ~ B. Who (be) tried? ~ A. A man called Bill Sykes. ~ A. Was he acquitted? ~ B. I don't know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave). 19. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself. 20. As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car. 21 A. I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? ~ B. I (use) a stick because I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a horse. ~ A. Whose horse you (ride)? 22. The floor was covered with balls of wool. Obviously Mrs Pitt (knit) something. 23. Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself. 24. While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbrella and (go on watering. 25. I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank. 26. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. It looks very old. I wonder who it (belong) to? 27. When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where she (go) and she (say), 'London', but I don't think she (speak) the truth because there (not be) any train for London at that time. 28. The tailor said, 'Your suit will be ready on Monday.' But when I (call) on Monday he still (work) on it. 29. The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys, who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and (hope) for the best. 30. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. 'You (smoke) when I (come) in?' he (ask). 31. While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes and I (have to) walk home in my swimsuit. 32. The men (say) that they (work) on the road outside my house and that they (want) some water to make tea. 33. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. 34. At 3 a.m. Mrs Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. 35. A. Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. ~ B. I'm sorry. I (not know) that you still (read) it. 36. I (come) in very late last night and unfortunately the dog (wake) up and (start) to bark. This (wake) my mother who (come) to the top of the stairs and (say), 'Who is there?' I (say), 'It is me,' but she (not hear) me because the dog (bark) so loudly, so she (go) back to her room and (telephone) the police. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or the Simple Past tense. In some sentences the Present Perfect Continuous is also possible. 1. A. This is my house. ~ B. How long you (live) here? ~ A. I (live) here since 1970. 2. He (live) in London for: two years and then (go) to Edinburgh. 3. A. You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~ B. Yes, my mother (insist) on it. 4. But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since. 5. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays. 6. My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy. 7 A. I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. ~ B. You (see) the Loch Ness monster? 8. I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is. 9. He (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 10. Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca. 11. A. When he (arrive)? ~ B. He (arrive) at 2.00. 12. You (lock) the door before you

left the house? 13. I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much. 14. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work. 15. A. I never (drink) whisky. ~ B. Well, have some now. 16. I (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp. 17. A. The clock is slow. ~ B. It isn't slow, it (stop). 18. Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them. 19. I (leave) home at 8.00 and (get) here at twelve. 20. I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an apprentice. 21. He just (go) out. 22. He (go) out ten minutes ago. 23. A. You (have) breakfast yet? ~ B. Yes, I (have) it at 8.00. 24. I (meet) him last June. 25. You (see) the moon last night? 26. The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyone (enjoy) it very much. 27. The play just (begin). You are a little late. 28. A. The newspaper (come)? ~ Yes, Ann is reading it. 29. The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this morning. 30 It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer. 31. Cervantes (write) Don Quixote. 32. We (miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk. 33. He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year. 34. Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years. 35. Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the country. 36. A. You (be) here before? ~ B. Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. ~ A. You (have) a good time? ~ B. No, it never (stop) raining. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or Simple Past tense. Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the preceding verb. 1. A. Where is Tom? ~ B. I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he'd be in for dinner. 2. A. I (buy) this in Bond Street. ~ B. How much you (pay) for it? ~ A. I (pay) 100. 3. A. Where you (find) this knife? ~ B. I (find) it in the garden. ~ A. Why you (not leave) it there? 4. A. I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? ~ B. No, I'm 'afraid I . . . . When you last (wear) them? ~ A. I (wear) them at the theatre last night. ~ B. Perhaps you (leave) them at the theatre. 5. A. Do you know that lady who just (leave) the shop? ~ B. Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a customer of yours? ~ A. Not exactly. She (be) in here several times but she never (buy) anything. 6. A. He (leave) the house at 8.00. ~ B. Where he (go)? ~ A. I (not see) where he (go). 7. A. He (serve) in the First World War. ~ B. When that war (begin)? ~ A. It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years. 8. A. Who you (vote) for at the last election? ~ B. I (vote) for Mr Pitt. ~ A. He (not be) elected, (be) he? ~ B. No, he (lose) his deposit. 9. A. You (like) your last job? ~ B. I (like) it at first but then I (quarrel) with my employer and he (dismiss) me. ~ A. How long you (be) there? ~ B. I (be) there for two weeks. 10. A. I (not know) that you (know) Mrs Pitt. How long you (know) her? ~ B. I (know) her for ten years. 11. That is Mr Minus, who teaches me mathematics, but he (not have) time to teach me much. I only (be) in his class for a week. 12. A. You (hear) his speech on the radio last night? ~ B. Yes, I . . . ~ A. What you (think) of it? 13. A. I (not know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long? ~ B. Yes, I (be) here two months. ~ A. You (be) to the Cathedral? ~ B. Yes, I (go) there last Sunday. 14. A. You ever (try) to give up smoking? ~ B. Yes, I (try) last year, but then I (find) that I was getting fat so I (start) again. 15. A. You (see) today's paper? ~ B. No, anything interesting (happen)? ~ A. Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road. 16. A. Mary (feed) the cat? ~ B. Yes, she (feed) him before lunch. ~ A. What she (give) him? ~ B. She (give) him some fish. 17. A. How long you (know) your new assistant? ~ B. I (know) him for two years. ~ A. What he (do) before he (come) here? ~ I think he (be) in prison. 18. A. I (not see) your aunt recently. ~ B. No. She (not be) out of her house since she (buy) her colour TV. 19. A. The plumber (be) here yet? ~ B. Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. ~ A. What he (do) in that time? ~ B. He (turn) off the water and (empty) the tank. 20. A. Where you (be)? ~ B. I (be) out in a yacht. ~ A. You (enjoy) it? ~ B. Yes, very much. We (take) part in a race. ~ A. You (win)? ~ B. No, we (come) in last. 21. A. How long that horrible monument (be) there? ~ B. It (be) there six months. Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far nothing (be) done. 22. A. I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it? ~ B. No, I . . . . Is it like the book? ~ A. I (not read) the book. ~ B. I (read) it when I (be) at school. ~ A. When Tolstoy (write) it? ~ B. He (write) it in 1868. ~ A. He (write) anything else? 23. A. Hannibal (bring) elephants across the Alps. ~ B. Why he (do) that? ~ A. He (want) to use them in battle. 24. A. Where you (be)? ~ B. I (be) to the dentist. ~ A. He (take) out your bad tooth? ~ B. Yes, he . . . ~ A. It (hurt)? ~ B. Yes, horribly. 25. She (say) that she'd phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not phone) yet. 26. A. I just (receive) a letter saying that we (not pay) this quarter's electricity bill. I (not give) you the money for that last week? ~ B. Yes, you. . . but I'm afraid I (spend) it on something else. 27. A. How long you (be) out of work? ~ B. I'm not out of work now. I just (start) a new job. ~ A. How you (find) the job? ~ B. I (answer) an advertisement in the paper. 28. A. You (finish) checking the accounts? ~ B. No, not quite. I (do) about half so far. 29. A. I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? ~ B. I'll get you one. How it (happen)? ~ A. I was chopping some wood and the axe (slip). 30. A. How you (get) that scar? ~ B. I (get) it in a car accident a year ago. 31. A. You (meet) my brother at the lecture yesterday? ~ B. Yes, I . . . . We (have) coffee together afterwards. 32. He (lose) his job last month and since then he (be) out of work. ~ B. Why he (lose) his job? ~

A. He (be) very rude to Mr Pitt. 33. A. What are all those people looking at? ~ B. There (be) an accident. ~ A. You (see) what (happen)? ~ B. Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry. 34. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer. 35. Originally horses used in bull fights (not wear) any protection, but for some time now they (wear) special padding. 36. That house (be) empty for a year. But they just (take) down the 'For Sale' sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it. Complete. Read this entry from Dr.Owens field journal about an elephant she calls Grandad. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Progressive form of the verbs in parentheses. We _________________ (hear) about Grandad since we arrived here in Amboseli Park. He is one of the last Tuskers. Two days ago, we finally saw him. His tusks are more than seven feet long. I __________ never __________ (see) anything like them. Grandad _____________ (live) here for more than sixty years. He _____________ (experience) everything, and he __________________ (survive) countless threats from human beings. Young men ______________ (test) their courage against him, and poachers ______________ (hunt) him for his ivory. His experience and courage __________________ (save) him so far. For the last two days, he _________________ (move) slowly through the tall grass. He __________ (eat) and ____________ (rest). Luckily, it _________________ (rain) a lot this year, and even the biggest elephants _________________ (find) enough food and water. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous tense. (In some cases either could be used.) 1. We (walk) ten kilometres. 2. We (walk) for three hours. 3. You (walk) too fast. That's why you are tired. 4. I (make) sausage rolls for the party all the morning. 5. A. How many you (make)? ~ B. I (make) 200. 6. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. 7. He (not stop) eating since he arrived. 8. The driver (drink). I think someone else ought to drive. 9. I (pull) up 100 dandelions. 10. I (pull) up dandelions all day. 11. A. What you (do)? ~ B. We (pick) apples. 12. A. How many you (pick)? ~ B. We (pick) ten basketfuls. 13. I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I don't like any of them. 14. He (sleep) since ten o'clock. It's time he woke up. 15. He (ride); that's why he is wearing breeches. 16. I (ride) all the horses in this stable. 17. What a lovely smell! Mary (make) jam. 18. The students (work) very well this term. 19. I only (hear) from him twice since he went away. 20. I (hear) from her regularly. She is a very good correspondent. 21. I (grease) my car. That's why my hands are so dirty. 22. I (polish) this table all the morning and she isn't satisfied with it yet. 23. I (work) for him for ten years and he never once (say) 'Good morning' to me. 24. He (teach) in this school for five years. 25. I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this. 26. A. Why you (be) so long in the garage? ~ B. The tyres were flat; I (pump) them up. 27. I (pump) up three tyres. Would you like to do the fourth? 28. I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. 29. He (cough) a lot lately. He ought to give up smoking. 30. A. You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged! ~ B. That's not new; I (know) it for ages! 31. I (try) to finish this letter for the last half-hour. I wish you'd go away or stop talking. I hardly (say) anything. 32. The driver of that car (sound) his horn for the last ten minutes. 33. It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match (be) postponed. 34. He (hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not dare) to ask for it yet. 35. Mr Smith, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You (help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you? 36. A. Why you (make) such a horrible noise? ~ B. I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing stones at her window. ~ A. You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door. Put the verbs into the correct form, the Past Perfect or Past Simple. 1. Jane (to wash) all the test-tubes after she (to complete) the experiment. 2. He (to do) the cleaning by 6 o'clock yesterday. 3. After the stewardesses (to serve) lunch to the, passengers, they (to calm) down. 4. I (not to have) my watch, so I (not to know) the exact time. 5. He (to feel) sick because he (to eat) too much. 6. She (to finish) her report, and was feeling rather tired, so she (to go) to bed. 7. By two o'clock he (to answer) all the letters he, (to receive). 8. The bus (to leave) before I (to reach) the bus station. 9. As soon as they (to finish) breakfast, they (to run) out to play. 10. When we (to meet) our friends they (already to know) the news. 11. When you (to call) me, I (not yet to do) the sum. 12. She (to intend) to make a cake for you, but she (to run) out of time. 13. Hardly we (to go) to bed when somebody (to knock) at the door. 14. No sooner she (to come) than she (to fall) ill.

Use the cues in brackets and the Past Perfect Continuous to explain the situations. Example 1 His arms were sunburnt because he had been sitting in the sun all day. 1. His arms were sunburnt. (sit in the sun all day) 2. She was very tired. (work for hours without a break) 3. Their clothes were muddy. (play football) 4. She was fired. (not come to work on time) 5. She was very angry. (wait for her boyfriend for half an hour) 6. His ear ached. (talk on the phone for hours) 7. He was covered in oil. (repair his car all afternoon) 8. She was scared stiff. (watch a thriller on TV) Write two explanations for each situation (1-5), one in the Past Perfect, and one in the Past Perfect Continuous. Example 1 She had been eating too many sweets. She had dropped her keep-fit classes. 1. Sharon put on five pounds. 2. Steve was feeling down. 3. Jacks shirt was torn. 4. Ann failed her final exam. 5. Emily and Tessa were very excited. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. We couldnt open the door because it (snow) heavily all night. 2. She looked shocked and she said she (see) a UFO. 3. Billy had a black eye and Joes lip was cut they (fight). 4. John decided to complain as his neighbours (have) parties every day for two weeks. 5. Jill looked great she (lose) a few pounds and (put on) a smart evening dress. 6. Sheilas eyes were red and swollen as if she (cry) all night. Use the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. It is midnight. I (study) for five straight hours. No wonder I'm getting tired. 2. It was midnight. I (study) for five straight hours. No wonder I was getting tired. 3. Jack suddenly realized that the teacher was asking him a question. He couldnt answer because he (daydream) for the last ten minutes. 4. Wake up! You (sleep) long enough. Its time to get up. 5. At least two hundred people were waiting in line to buy tickets to the game. Some of them (stand) in line for more than four hours. We decided not to try to get tickets for ourselves. Put the verbs into the correct form, the Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Past Simple or Past Continuous. 1. The workers (to be) on a strike for three weeks when the agreement on pay (to be reached). 2. When she got results of her medical tests, she realised, that she (be feeling) ill since she (to be) on holiday. 3. The door was unlocked. She (to wonder) who (leave) the door open. 4. He (to play) football when the ball (to hit) his head. 5. He (to drive) to work for half an hour when suddenly his car (to break) down. 6. When he arrived at the office he (to discover) that he (to leave) all the necessary papers at home. 7. She looked tired. She (to type) letters all morning. 8. Yesterday afternoon it (still to rain) when I (to get) home. 9. He (to clean) the car when the phone rang, so he (not to answer) it. 10. When I (to be) little, my mother (to use) to feed me. 11. Janes clothes were wet. She (to wash) her dog. 12. Jerry (to be) nervous, for he (never to flow) in an aeroplane before. 13. I (never to like) going to the cinema on my own when I was a teenager. 14. Kate -(to dance), but when she saw a newcomer she (to stop). Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, the Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Past Simple or Past Continuous. 1. He (give) me back the book, (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much; but I (know) that he (not read) it because most of the pages (be) still uncut. 2. When he (see) his wife off at the station, he (return) home as he (not have) to be at the airport till 9.30. 3. He (not have) to pack, for his wife already (do) that for him and his case (be) ready in the hall. 4. He (not have) to check the doors and windows either, for his wife always (do) that before she (leave) the house. 5. All he (have) to do (be) to decide whether

or not to take his overcoat with him. In the end he (decide) not to. 6. At 8.30 he (pick) up his case, (go) out of the house and (slam) the door behind him. 7. Then he (feel) in his pockets for the key, for his wife (remind) him to double-lock the front door. 8. When he (search) all his pockets and (find) no key he (remember) where it (be). 9. He (leave) it in his overcoat pocket. 10. Then he (remember) something else; his passport and tickets (be) in his overcoat pocket as well. 11. I (arrive) in England in the middle of July. I (be told) that England (be) shrouded in fog all year round, so I (be) quite surprised to find that it was merely raining. 12. I (ask) another passenger, an Englishman, about the fog and he (say) that there (not be) any since the previous February. 13. If I (want) fog, he said, I (come) at quite the wrong time. 14. However, he (tell) me that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftsbury Avenue. 15. He (admit) that he never (buy) fog there himself but (assure) me that they (sell) good quality fog and that it (not be) expensive. I suppose he was joking. 16. When the old lady (return) to her flat she (see) at once that burglars (break) in during her absence, because the front door (be) open and everything in the flat (be) upside down. 17. The burglars themselves (be) no longer there, but they probably only just (leave) because a cigarette was still burning on an ornamental table. 18. Probably they (hear) the lift coming up and (run) down the fire escape. 19. They (help) themselves to her whisky too but there (be) a little left, so she (pour) herself out a drink. 20. She (wonder) if they (find) her jewellery and rather (hope) that they had. 21. The jewellery (be given) her by her husband, who (die) some years before. 22. Since his death she (not have) the heart to wear it, yet she (not like) to sell it. 23. Now it (seem) that fate (take) the matter out of her hands; and certainly the insurance money would come in handy. 24. I (put) the 5 note into one of my books; but next day it (take) me ages to find it because I (forget) which book I (put) it into. 25. A woman (come) in with a baby, who she (say) just (swallow) a safety pin. 26. I (think) my train (leave) at 14.33, and (be) very disappointed when I (arrive) at 14.30 and (learn) that it just (leave). 27. I (find) later that I (use) an out-of-date timetable. 28. He (park) his car under a No Parking sign and (rush) into the shop. When he (come) out of the shop ten minutes later the car (be) no longer there. 29. He (wonder) if someone (steal) it or if the police (drive) it away. 30. It (be) now 6 p.m.; and Jack (be) tired because he (work) hard all day. 31. He (be) also hungry because he (have) nothing to eat since breakfast. 32. His wife usually (bring) him sandwiches at lunch time, but today for some reason she (not come). 33. He (keep) looking at her, wondering where he (see) her before. 34. I (look) out before I (go) to bed and (see) a man standing on the opposite pavement watching the house. 35. When I (get up) the following morning he (be) still there, and I (wonder) whether he (stay) there all night or if he (go) away and (come) back.
Choose the best variant: a) Hes gone/Hed gone/He was going shopping. Hell be back soon. b) We were late and the match started/had started/has started. c) Teresa has never seen/never saw/was never seeing this film before. d) They were having/had/have had a picnic when it started to rain. e) Did you do/have you done/Were you doing the washing-up yet? f) Hes wet because he swam/hes been swimming/he had swum. g) I crashed/Id crashed/Ive crashed your car last night. Im really sorry. h) Had you met/have you met/Did you meet Jim Ward yesterday? i) Im/I was/Ive been in Rome since June. j) The dogs were barking and the kids had laughed/were laughing/have laughed as I walked into the room.

Complete the text with appropriate past tenses of the verb in brackets. Ken Coates (1) was enjoying (enjoy) his 52nd birthday at the Kings Arms in Aston. He (2) _____________ (play) in a local pool championship in a room at the back of the pub. Ken (3) ________________ (play) well for half an hour and (4) _____________ (win) three of the first five games. He (5) __________ (put) down the glass he (6) __________ (drink) from and (7) ____________ (get) ready to pot the black to win the final game when his false teeth (8) ______________ (drop out). Unfortunately, instead of potting the ball, he (9) ___________ (pot) his own false teeth! Kens wife, Alice, who (10) _____________ (watch) the championship all night, immediately (11) _________________ (rush) to help her husband. She (12) _____________ (put) her hand in the pocket to fish out the false teeth when disaster (13) ______________ (strike). Alices hand got stuck in the pocket and she (14) _____________ (can not) get in out again. Finally, after Ken (15) ____________ (make) an emergency phone call, the fire officers (16) _______________ (arrive) on the scene. With the help of a power saw and some washing-up liquid, they (17) ________ (free) Alices hand. Poor Ken, he (18) ________________ (try) to win the championship for years, said a friend.

In the replay, Ken (19) _______________ (play) terribly. I think he (20) _______________ (worry) about his teeth again.

From the given situation, make up a "chain story." One person begins the story; then others continue the story in turn using certain cue words. Example: (Pierre) had a terrible day yesterday. The trouble began early in the morning. His alarm clock rang at 7:00. Cue: when StudentA: When his alarm clock rang, he got out of bed and stepped on a snake. He was nearly frightened to death, but the snake slithered away without biting him. Cue: after Student B: After the snake left, Pierre got dressed in a hurry and ran downstairs to have breakfast. Cue: while Student C: While he was running downstairs, he fell and broke his arm. etc. Work in pairs. Use the cues and the past tenses to write about a disastrous day trip. Mr and Mrs Smith never (be) abroad so (decide) to go on a no passport day trip to France they (go) through Channel Tunnel and (arrive) in Boulogne first (go) shopping then sightseeing in the afternoon they (decide) to visit some friends in Lille they (go) to the station (not learn) French at school so (not understand) the announcements at the station (get) on the wrong train while they (have) a nap on the train, it (cross) the border with Germany German police (ask) for their passports they (say) they (leave) them at home the police (put) them on a train back to Boulogne Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous or the Future Simple. The be going to form could be used here instead of the Present Continuous, but for the sake of simplicity students are advised to use only the two tenses first mentioned.) 1. I am sure that I (recognize) him. 2. I (see) her tomorrow. 3. He (play) in a tennis match on Friday. 4. She (come) back on Monday. 5. I (go) again next year. 6. We (know) tonight. 7. You pay and I (owe) you the money. 8. I believe) it when I see it. 9. I (have) my car repainted next week. 10. I hope that you (have) a good time tomorrow. 11. His speech (be) broadcast tonight. 12. The window-cleaner (come) at eight tomorrow. 13. Tom (catch) the 7.40 train. 14. A. Where you (meet) them? ~ B. I (meet) them at midnight in the middle of the wood. 15. What horse you (ride) tomorrow? 16. Look! I've broken the teapot. What Mrs Pitt (say)? ~ B. She (not mind); she never liked that one. 17. I've left the light on. It (matter)? 18. He (not forget) to come. 19. He (leave) in a few days. 20. I (remember) it. 21. If you drop that bottle it (break). 22. I never (forgive) him. 23. I'm sure that you (like) him. 24. They (lay) the foundations next week. 25. You (see) a signpost at the end of the road. 26. A. He has cut my hair too short. ~ B. Don't worry; it (grow) again very quickly. 27. You (understand) when you are older. 28. The cat (scratch) you if you pull its tail. 29. I (be) back at 8.30. 30. If he doesn't work hard he (not pass) his exam. 31. She (go) on a cruise next summer. 32. I (move) to anew flat next week. 33. A. I am sorry that the child saw the accident. ~ B. I don't think it matters. He soon (forget) all about it. 34. I (wait) here till he comes back. 35. He (not write) to you unless you write to him. 36. There (be) a big meeting here tomorrow. 37. A. The fire has gone out! ~ B. So it has. I (go) and get some sticks. 38. A. Did you remember to book seats? ~ B. Oh no, I forgot. I (telephone) for them now. 39. A. He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. ~ B. I'm sorry to hear that. I (send) him some grapes. 40. I've hired a typewriter and I (learn) to type. 41. I see that you have got a loom. You (do) some weaving? Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present or future). 1. When he (return) I'll give him the key. 2. He'll be ready as soon as you (be). 3. I'll stay in bed till the clock (strike) seven. 4. She will be delighted when she (hear) this. 5. When the laundry comes I (have) some clean handkerchiefs. 6. I shan't buy tomatoes till the price (come) down. 7. Stay here till the lights

(turn) green. 8. When it (get) cold I'll light the fire. 9. The lift (not start) until you press that button. 10. She'll have to behave better when she (go) to school. 11. When you look at yourself in the glass you (see) what I mean. 12. He (be) here before you go. 13. I (lend) you my cassette recorder whenever you want it. 14. He (wake) up when we turn the lights on. 15. He (ring) us up when he arrives in England? 16. He will wash up before he (go) to bed. 17. I won't come to London till the bus strike (be) over. 18. I (give) the children their dinner before he (come) home. 19. They will be astonished when they (see) how slowly he works. 20. I'll pay you when I (get) my cheque. 21. I (go) on doing it until he tells me to stop. 22. I'll buy that house when I (have) enough money. 23. You (fall) rapidly through the air till your parachute opens. 24. We'll have to stay here till the tide (go) out. 25. When the Queen (arrive) the audience will stand up. 26. When the fog (lift) we'll be able to see where we are. 27. The refrigerator (go on) making that noise till we have it repaired. 28. As soon as the holidays begin this beach (become) very crowded. 29. The car (not move) till you take the brake off. 30. The alarm bell (go on) ringing till you press this button. 31. As soon as she (learn) to type I'll get her a job. 32. Look before you (leap). 33. We (have) to stay on this desert island till we can repair our boat. 34. Don't count on a salary increase before you actually (get) it. 35. When winter (begin) the swallows will flyaway to a warmer country. 36 We can't make any decision till he (arrive) here. Read this paragraph. Find and correct seven mistakes in the use of the Future Continuous. In the future robots will be perform more and more tasks for humans. This will be having both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, while robots will be doing the boring and dangerous jobs, humans will be devoting more time to interesting pursuits. In this way robots is going to be making life a lot easier for humans. On the other hand, the widespread of robots is going create a lot of future unemployment. People will loosing their jobs as robots fill their positions. And some robots could even become dangerous. Im afraid that in the not-too-distant future, robots will be operating nuclear power stations! And before too long, robots are going to be fight in wars. Although, on second thought, that will be better than humans killing each other! II. Complete the sentences. Use the Future Perfect or the Future Perfect Continuous. Choose between affirmative and negative. 1. By 2012, they (to buy) ____________________________ a new car. 2. By 2015, they (to live) ____________________________ in their own house for three years. 3. By Traviss first birthday, Tom (to graduate) _______________________________ 4. By 2017, (to attend) ___________________________________ school for four years. 5. By 2019, they (to buy) __________________________________ another car. 6. They (drive) ______________________________________ their old car for eight years by then. 7. By 2020, Linda (open) __________________________________ her business. 8. They (save) _________________________________________ for two years by 2020. 9. By retirement, the couple (accomplish) __________________________________ a lot. III. Continue the sentences: Future Continuous or Future Perfect. 1. Tomorrow afternoon Im going to play tennis from 3 oclock until 4:30. So at 4 oclock tomorrow I ....... 2. You want your friend to give Tom a message this afternoon.(you/ visit/Tom this afternoon?) 3. Tom and Ann are going to the cinema. The film begins at 7:30 and it is already 7: 20. And it will take them 20 minutes to get there. When they get there (the film/already/start). 4. Tom is on holiday. He has very little money and he is spending too much too quickly. Before the end of this holiday (he/spend/all his money). 5. You want to use your friends typewriter tomorrow evening. (you/use/your typewriter tomorrow evening?) 6. John came to Britain from the US nearly three years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly three years since he arrived. Next Monday (he/be/here/ exactly three years.) Complete these predictions about the world in 2020 by putting the verbs in brackets either in the Future Perfect or Future Continuous. 1. people (use) solar energy extensively 2. people (use) up all natural resources of oil 3. people (travel) into space on a regular basis 4. traditional farms (disappear)

5. many new galaxies (discover) IV. Fill in with an appropriate future tense. 1. We (to work) ____________________________ hard this time tomorrow. 2. He (to pass) ____________________________ his examinations before you return from Chisinau. 3. They (to learn) ___________________________ English and German for ten months by the first of July. 4. The expedition (leave) ___________________________ for the North by April. 5. She (to take) ______________________________ a music lesson at this tomorrow. 6. By 6 she (to take) ________________________________ her lesson. 7. She (to take) ___________________________________ two lessons this week. 8. At 5:30 she (to take) ________________________________ her lesson for forty minutes. 9. They (to build) ________________________________ a new club in our street. 10. They (to build) __________________________________ it when you are in the country in summer. Comment on the use of the Future Indefinite, the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect and the Future Perfect Continuous in the past. 1. He knew she would work at the library in the evenings. He knew she would be working at the library at 9 in the morning. He knew she would have done her work by 4 oclock. He knew she would have been working for some hours before he came to the library. 2. She said she would begin typing the article at 10 oclock in the morning. The article is not long. She said she would still be typing it at 11 oclock; she would have been typing it for two hours by 12; and she would have finished typing the article by 12:30. EXERCISES (different tenses) Match the sentences (1-7) with the situations (a-g) 1. Have you been playing football in the rain again? 2. I play football every day. 3. Im playing a football game on the computer. 4. Im playing a football match at 10 oclock. 5. Ive already played and won 20 games. 6. I was playing a football when I fell badly. 7. I had played 40 games when I was injured for the first time. a) a professional footballer talking about his job b) a patient talking to the doctor c) someone giving an excuse why they cant help someone now d) someone saying how good they are e) someone explaining why they cant go shopping the next day f) a retired footballer looking back on his career g) a mother to a boy whose clothes are muddy Write the correct tense form of the verbs in brackets: a) Charlie (drive)_____________________________________when the accident happened. b) What on earth (you/do)_______________________________? You are covered in mud! c) Marta (not/ride)______________________________a camel before and she was terrified. d) (you/ever/see)________________________the Black Sea? I hear its incredible beautiful. e) How long (you/learn) ______________________________________________ English? f) Our hamster (die) _________________________________________________last week. g) Shakespeare (write) _____________________________________poems as well as plays. h) I (just/speak) ______________________________________to Jan. She told me the news. i) The jury (not/agree) ___________________________________with the judges decision. j) I (read) ____________________________________________a book when she called me. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form:

Angus Pym____________ (wake) up on the dot of six oclock, as he always________(do), no matter where he _________(be) or what he _________(do)_____________the previous day. His first thought was the realization that he ________________still (wear) shirt and trousers, and when his eyes______________(fall) on the reports piled up around him on the bed, the events of the previous evening_____________(come) back to him. He________(go) to his club for supper, ____________just (finish) his steak and______________(look) forward to a splendid turkey when his meal was rudely interrupted by a call from M., his controller. After an ice-cold shower, Pym _____________ (think) carefully about which suit to put on. He________ (see) M at nine oclock that morning, and he ________(want) to make a good impression. Glancing at himself in the mirror, he_____________ (notice) that he___________(put) on weight recently. He______________(have) to pay more attention to his diet in the future. An hour later, as he___________(drive) through the rush-hour traffic on his way to meet M, Pym ________________carefully(consider) the contents of the files. So Zircon, the organization which sought to control the free western world, was back in business? Its founder, Leon Brown, was dead. Pym ______________ (know) this, because he _________________personally (arranged) his death. But who_________________ (control) Zircon now? Doubtless M ______________ (tell) him. Correct any mistakes where it is necessary: a) Have you seen Martin yesterday? b) When I reached the station, the bus already left. c) It snows all day. Im fed up with it. d) John is here since last Wednesday e) Did you ever go to China? f) At three oclock last night, the children slept. g) Bill was having a shower when the phone was ringing. h) Fred is not here. He has been to Geneva. i) I wasnt understanding what the teacher said today. j) Oh no! You just broke my computer! k) When have you stopped drinking coffee? l) You looked tired last night. Yes, I had been. m) Did the rain stop yet? n) They have been knowing each other for a couple of weeks. o) When I got home, Jym is playing the piano and Sam watches TV. Complete the text with the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets. I suppose that, in many ways, I (1) _______________ (be) lucky since the day I was born. I was born two months premature and I was very ill, but somehow I (2) ____________ (survive). Then, when I was three, I (3) __________ (fall) into a pond on a farm I (4) _______________ (stay) at. My mum (5) ____________ (go) into hospital for an operation and some friends (6) ___________ (look after) me at the time. Luckily, a man (7) ____________ (work) near the pond and he (8) ____________ (pull) me out! Now Im in my last year at school and all my friends (9) ___________ (think) Im very Lucky. For example, I (10) ___________ (win) money on the lottery four or five times and I usually (11) ________ (beat) everybody at cards. I cant say Im very hard-working, but I (12) ______________ (do) well at exams the right questions always come up. Im also Lucky in Love and I (13) ___________ (go out) with an amazing girl for the last six months. I hope my Luck (14) ________________ (continue) in the future. I (15) (take) my university entrance exams in the summer and as soon as I (16) ______________ (finish) them, I (17) ___________ (travel) for a couple of months. Then, hopefully, I (18) ___________ (study) architecture at university. Take turns to say the sentences about your life using the time expressions below. Example: I usually play basketball on Tuesday night. usually, never, now, this weekend, last year, in the future, next year, in 19999, for three weeks, since, at ten oclock, twice a week, when, while, recently, for a year now. ACTIVE TO PASSIVE

Put the following into the passive voice. The agent should not be mentioned except in numbers 11 and 28. 1. You should open the wine about three before you use it. 2. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice. 3. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit. 4. We use this room only on special occasions. 5. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission. 6. In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles. 7. Someone switched on a light and opened the door. 8. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife. 9. They are pulling down the old theatre. 10. Why didnt they mend the roof before it fell in? 11. The mob broke all the shop windows in recent riots. 12. The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not returning books. 13. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime. 14. Someone will serve refreshments. 15. People must not leave bicycles in the hall. 16. Members may keep books for three weeks. After that they must return them. 17. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door. 18. Ive bought a harp. They are delivering it this afternoon. (Do not change the first sentence) 19. Someone has already told him to report for duty at six. 20. They rang the church bells as a flood warning. 21. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information. 22. People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten years ago. 23. The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month. 24. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun. 25. It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child. 26. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered $20 reward for him. 27. The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine. 28. They make these artificial flowers of silk. Put the following into the passive, mentioning the agent where necessary. 1. They feed the seals at the zoo twice a day. 2. Who wrote it? 3. Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry has washed. 4. He expected us to offer the job. 5. They showed her the easiest way to do it. 6. Lighting struck the old oak. 7. Titian couldnt have painted it as people didnt wear that style of dress till after his death. 8. A jellyfish stung her. 9. The author has written a special edition for children. 10. Judges used to carry sweet herbs as a protection against jail-fever. 11. What did he write it with? ~ He wrote it with a matchstick dipped in blood. 12. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot. 13. Did the idea interest you? 14. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will. 15. Beavers make these dams. 16. They used to start these engines by hand. Now they start them by electricity. 17. Most people opposed this. 18. Students are doing a lot of the work. 19. The Prime Minister was to have opened the dry dock. 20. They recommended opening new factories in the depressed area. (Use should.) 21. The closure of the workshops will make a lot of men redundant. 22. Anyone with the smallest intelligence could understand these instructions.

23. We will not admit children under sixteen. 24. Boys of sixteen to eighteen are to man this training ship. 25. A rainstorm flooded the gypsies camp. 26. The howling of wolves kept him awake all night. 27. They suggested making the tests easier. (Use should.) 28. Children couldnt have done all this damage. PASSIVE TO ACTIVE Turn the following sentences into the active voice. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied. 1. This speed limit is to be introduced gradually. 2. Why dont you have your eyes tested? (... get an optician to ...) 3. The runways are being lengthened at all the main airports. 4. It is now 6 a.m. and at most of the hospitals in the country patients are being wakened with cups of tea. 5. Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes. 6. By tradition, any sturgeon that are caught by British ships must be offered to the Queen. 7. This notice has been altered. 8. The owners went away last March and since then their houseboat has been used continuously by squatters. (Use a continuous tense and omit continuously). 9. The damaged ship was being towed into harbour when the towline broke. 10. Have a lift put in and then you wont have to climb up all these stairs. 11. Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but this was cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds which was made in the second six months. 12. Evening dress will be worn. 13. The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land. 14. Someone will have to be found to take her place. 15. He was made to surrender his passport. 16. This rumor must have been started by our opponents. 17. My paintings are to be exhibited for the first time by New Arts Gallery. 18. This scientific theory has now been proved to be false. 19. The car which was blown over the cliff yesterday is to be salvaged today. 20. The house where the dead man was found is being guarded by the police to prevent it from being and the interfered with. 21. Why wasnt the car either locked or put into the garage? 22. It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on roads. 23. Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank. Rewrite this newspaper report using passive structures when they are more suitable. Museums used to be dull and dusty places. Then along came a man called Frank Gehry. They awarded Frank Gehry, the architect of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture last week. People have called him a 17 th century Baroque architect of the 21st century. His latest building is the Experience Music Project in Seattle. He designed it to look like an electric guitar that someone had melted. Not surprisingly, when they opened the building, someone labeled him the King of BaroquenRoll. Use the passive form of the verbs in the first set of parentheses to complete this report. Include the agent only if absolutely necessary. Modern Reader Newsletter Do you know...? Modern Reader (found) (A. J. Thompson) ten years ago. At first it (print) (the printer) only in English. Today it (publish) (the publisher) in three foreign-language editions. It (read) (readers) in more than ten countries. Since 2000, twenty new employees (hire) (our international offices) Back at home, ten new computers (purchase) (the company) last month.

They (use) (our writers) to write our award-winning articles. Modern Reader (advertise) (advertisers) all over the world. Our editorial staff (interview) (Live at Ten TV) last month. The interview (see) (millions of viewers).

Complete the text with the verbs in brackets in a suitable form, active or passive. Virtual Reality Art Examples of the new virtual reality art (1) ____________ (show) at the Inter Communication centre in Tokio. The Cave (2) ____________ (build) at a cost of over $1 million. The viewer (3) _________ (put on) special glasses and (4) ____________ (confront) by a wooden puppet. If the puppet (5) ___________ (move), the three dimensional world (6) ___________ (twist) and (7) ___________ (turn). This moving world (8) ________________ (accompany) bay music and sounds. A similar exhibit (9) _________ (build) in the USA. Computer graphics (10) _____________ (combine) with 3-D images WHCH (11) _________ (project) on the walls and ceiling, and the viewer (12) ___________ (take) on a tour of what seems like another dimension. As one expert (13) ________________ (point out) recently, the rise of the Nintendo generation (14) ______________ (cause) art and game cultures (15) ___________ (merge). MODAL VERBS Complete these paragraphs with can, could, or be able to. Choose between affirmative and negative. 1. Steve is enjoying his computer class. Two weeks ago, he __________ even use the mouse, but now he __________ edit his homework. By next week, he ________ do research on the Internet. 2. Eleni misses her family in Greece. She __________ visit them for years, but they just got an e-mail account, so now they _________ keep in touch daily. 3. I _________ understand how to set up a presentation. The software instructions do not help. I think Ill take a professional development course. In a few months maybe I __________ make that presentation. 4. Mike and I _________ get along since we started this business. He ________ work alone (he needs people), and I __________ work in a group (I have to work alone). I hope we __________ work out our problem soon. 5. We have been looking for him for three hours, but we _____ not find him. 6. If you enter this room, you ____ see very interesting things. Find the mistake in each item and correct it. 1. Can he comes on the train with me or does he need a ticket? 2. Im sorry, he couldnt. Only passengers can board the train. 3. Could I changed seats with you? 4. Yes, you could. Go right ahead. Im getting off soon. 5. Mom, may I to have some candy? Im hungry. 6. No, you maynt. Im sorry, but youve already had enough candy. 7. Do you mind if he play his computer game? 8. Yes, I do. He can play if he wants. It wont bother me. 9. Im still hungry. Can well get a sandwich soon? 10. Not at all. We can go find the club car. Read this students journal. Find and correct seven mistakes in expressing ability. Today in my Will B. Happy Teamwork course, I learned about work styles Drivers and Enthusiasts. Im a driver, so I can make decisions, but Im not able listen to other peoples ideas. The Enthusiast in our group can communicates well, but you cant depend on her. Now I understand what was happening in my business class last year, when I couldnt felt comfortable with my team. I thought that they all talked too much and didnt able to communicate efficiently. I could get an A for the course, but it was hard. I can do a lot more alone, but some jobs are too big for that. Our instructor says that soon the Drivers will able to listen and the Enthusiast could be more dependable.

Read these requests from Marcias boss and Marcias answers (in dark print). Find and correct the mistakes in making and responding to requests. From: Marcia Jones To: John Sanchez The meetings are going well but they have been extended a day. Could you call please Doug Rogers to try to reschedule our sale meeting? Not at all. Ill do it right away. Well need three extra copies of the monthly sales report. Would you ask Ann to take care of that? Yes, I would. (Ann Could you do this?) I hate to ask, but would you mind to work on Saturday? Well need the exam time to go over the new information Ive got. Sorry, but I couldnt. My in-laws are coming for a visit. But Bob Lin says he can come in to the office to help out. One last thing. I was going to pick up those new business cards, but I wont be back in time. Would you mind doing that for me? Yes, I would. Ill stop at the printers during my lunch break. Read this advice for job seekers. Complete it with the correct words. Want or need a new job? Whens the best time to start looking? Right now! You (ought to/d better not) delay, or youll start to feel stuck. These tips will help: A lot of people wait until after the holidays to look for a job. That means less competition for you right now. You shouldnt/ should wait! Too busy at work to schedule interviews? Early morning interviews have fewer interruptions. You should/d better ask for interviews before nine oclock. If you are laid off, youd better/ shouldnt take a lower-paying job just to get work. If your new salary is low, your employer wont appreciate your skills. If possible, youd better not/ should ask for a salary that matches your skills. However, money isnt everything! You ought to/d better not take a position with a company you dislike, or you wont do a good job there. Dont talk about salary too soon. Youd better/ shouldnt wait learn about the job and talk about your skills first. VI. Kims boss has invited him to dinner at his home. Complete Kims conversation with his friend. Use should, ought to, or had better and the words in parentheses. Choose between affirmative and negative. K: (how/ dress?) ___________________ In a suit? S: You dont have to wear a suit. (look/ neat) ________________ , but you can wear casual clothes. K: (What time/ arrive?) ___________________ S: Its really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are expecting you at 7:00, so (arrive after 7:15) ___________________ . Its OK to be a little late, but dont male them wait too long for you! K: (bring a gift?) _____________________ S: Yes, but get something small. (buy an expensive gift) _________________ . It would embarrass them. K: (What/ buy?) _____________________ S: I think (get some flowers) ______________________. Read this letter. Find and correct five mistakes in expressing advice. Dear son, We are so happy to hear about your new job. Congratulations! Just remember you shouldnt work too hard. The most important thing right now is your schoolwork. Maybe you only oughta work two days a week instead of three. Also, we think youd better ask your boss for time off during exams. That way youll have plenty of time to study. You would better give this a lot of careful thought, OK? Please take good care of yourself. Youd not better start skipping meals, and you definitely shouldnt worked at night. At your age, you

will better get a good nights sleep. Do you need anything from home? Should we send any of your books? Let us know: With love, Mom and Dad. Find and correct six mistakes in expressing necessity. Dear Sara, How are you doing? Weve been here about six weeks. Its strange living in the suburbs. Theres no public transportation, so youve get to drive everywhere. I had to signs up for drivers ed this semester so I can get my license by summertime. Its the law here that everyone musts wear a seat belt. I used to hate to buckle up, but with the traffic here, I have changed my mind. There are a lot of freeways, and youve gotta know how to change lanes with a lot of fast traffic. Even my Mom have had to get used to it. Dad works at home, so he hasnt has to do a lot of driving. Im having a lot of trouble with Doom. You got to write to me and tell me how to get past the fifth level! Jim Translate the following sentences paying attention to the difference between the modal verbs may and must. 1. What you tell me may be true. 2. There must be something wrong in it. 3. But you might not be speaking the truth. 4. Something might turn up. One never knows. 5. The boy must be forty now. 6. I can see you must be very upset, she said gently. 7. You must be imagining this. 8. I hope I may call on you again. 9. Well, it must have been about ten. I cant say exactly. It might have been later. 10. This man must be mad, the traveler thought. 11. He must have gone back to town last night or early this morning. 12. The window may have been left open after his departure. 13. There may be something missing. 14. You must be starving. 15. Much valuable time may have been lost. Use cant + Present/Perfect Infinitive to express impossibility. Model: John cant have broken another window. 1. Jack broke another window. 2. I dont think this boy speaks Japanese. 3. I dont think the pupils have finished all the exercises. 4. Its impossible for that man to have said that. 5. She knows our hiding place. 6. Peter saw a huge fish. 7. The girls made many mistakes. 8. I dont think the boys are in the garden. Express past possibility by using may/might + have + Past Participle or must + have + Past Participle according to the meaning: 1. Do you know if it rained in the mountains? 2. Margaret didnt bring me the book. (to forget it).3. Do you know if Mary arrived? 4. Do you know if the children saw that film? 5. The cake is not on the table. (the boy/to eat it). 6. Do you know if Matthew learnt that poem by heart? 7. The little girl didnt find her key. (to lose it). 8. Do you know if that patient recovered? 9. Albert didnt want to go to the cinema. (to see the film). 10. Our friends havent arrived yet. (to miss the train). 11. Do you know if the kids fell asleep? 12. The dog raised its head. (to hear us). 13. Jack didnt buy that car. (to be too expensive). 14. Do you know if the boy won the match? 15. The old woman was very sad. (to hear the bad news). 16. His neighbour had a terrible accident. (to fall asleep while driving his car). 17. The ball is no longer under the tree. (somebody/to take it). 18. Do you know if Jane bought a new umbrella? Comment on the following sentences using may/might or cant: 1. Perhaps youll find her there. 2. Perhaps she sold her car. 3. I think she knows him. 4. I dont believe they found out the truth. 5. I am sure the teacher has corrected our papers. 6. Perhaps your neighbour was not at home. 7. Maybe Jack is ill. 8. Perhaps the hunter shot that wolf. 9. Maybe Jack knows the poem by heart. 10. I am sure that this girl doesnt live in this house. Comment on the following sentences using might + Present/Perfect Infinitive to express reproach. 1. She doesnt get up early. 2. You didnt learn the lesson. 3. The boy didnt greet the old woman. 4. Mary doesnt work hard. 5. You were not attentive. 6. You dont hurry. 7. Father doesnt give up smoking. 8. You didnt bring me my coat. 9. The sick man didnt take that medicine. 10. My sister doesnt lock the door.

Fill in the blanks with must or have to. Sometimes it is possible to use either: 1. The pupils in our primary school _____ wear uniforms. 2. If you want to get a good mark, you _______ work hard. 3. He couldnt come here yesterday because he _______ repair his bicycle. 4. In Romania traffic _______ keep to the right while in England it _________ keep to the left. 5. I am sure Tim will be punctual because he _____ to catch the early train. 6. This girl _______ earn her living since she was fifteen. 7. If you didnt want to write your homework yesterday, you _______ write it today. 8. I dont think we can play tennis tomorrow. We ________ go shopping. 9. I know that he doesnt like going to school, but he __________. 10. As the manager was ill, we _________ postpone our meeting. Fill in the blanks with mustnt or dont/doesnt have to: 1. I tell you this secret but you _________ tell anybody about it. 2. We still have plenty of time so we _______ hurry. 3. You ___________ cross the street till the traffic light is green. 4. I think your leg is broken. You _______ move it. 5. We have enough bread, so you _______ go to buy any. 6. I may get up later on because I __________ go to school today. 7. Granny is sleeping, so we ________ make any noise. 8. It isnt raining any longer, so you __________ take your umbrella. 9. Tom, you ___________ be late for school again! 10. The weather is fine today, so we _________ put on our warm clothes. 11. You _________ stop your car on the zebra crossing. 12. Are you going to read that letter? No, I ___________ Its not mine. 13. We ___________ get up so early. The taxi will come at 8 oclock. 14. She ___________ enter this building without permission. 15. You __________ go to the theatre if you dont want to. Fill in the blanks with mustnt or neednt according to the meaning: 1. People _________ walk on the grass. 2. We __________ take our umbrellas; the rain has stopped. 3. If he hasnt finished the book yet, he __________ return it this week. 4. We _________ talk in a library. 5. She ____________ get up so early. It doesnt take her longer than ten minutes to get to the station. 6. The president of a country ____________, openly at least, take sides in politics. 7. Children ___________ run in the street. 8. Think it over. You __________ decide right now. 9. You _________ help me with this exercise. I can do it myself. 10. We ___________ feed animals in a zoo. Fill in the blanks with didnt need to/neednt have + Past Participle according to the meaning: 1. You _____________ (to tell) her that; you see she is crying now. 2. I ___________ (to knock) on the door because it was already open. 3. She __________ (to take) a taxi because she still had a lot of time to get there. 4. We ___________ (to stop) here; the policeman has seen us. 5. I ____________ (to wait) long because they came back home very quickly. 6. You ___________ (to pay) him so much money; it couldnt be more than five dollars. 7. We __________ (to water) the flowers because it had rained an hour before. 8. She ______________ (to stay) up so late; now she is very tired. 9. You ________________ (to mention) anything about the child. Now she understands that we have discussed about him. 10. I ____________ (to show) my identity card because he had recognized me. SUBJUNCTIVE Work on the model: E.g. We go to school six days a week. (five days) = > I wish we went to school five days a week. He bought an old car. (new) = > I wish he had bought a new car. 1. You know how to speak Italian. (Spanish, too) 2. He painted the walls blue. (white) 3. My application for that job was rejected. (accepted) 4. She seldom goes to the theatre. (more often) 5. My father drinks very much coffee. (less) 6. It was an expensive camera. (cheap) 7. Tom came to the party. (his wife, too). 8. Alice is present. (her friend, too) 9. I arrived at work late this morning. (in time) 10. We have a small house. (big). Translate the following sentences into English: 1. A dori s pot s o ajut pe sora ta. 2. A dori s tiu unde locuiete. 3. A dori s fiu milionar. 4. A dori s nu se mai repete acest lucru. 5. A fi dorit s fiu anunat de acest lucru n prealabil. 6. Profesorul ar fi dorit ca noi s nu fi fcut att de multe greeli n lucrare. 7. Mary ar dori s fie la mare acum. 8. A dori s fi avut bani s cumpr tabloul. 9. A fi dorit ca ei s nu m vad acolo. 10. A fi dorit s am asemenea prilejuri cnd eram mai tnr. 11. Se comport ca i cum ar fi stpnul casei. 12. Mary arta ca i cum ar fi bolnav. 13. Te

plimbi ca i cum nu ai avea ore astzi. 14. mi pui aceste ntrebri ca i cum m-ai vedea pentru prima dat. 15. Miroase n cas ca i cum am fi ntr-o farmacie. 16. Te uii la mine ca i cum n-ai ti despre cine vorbim. 17. M simt ca i cum toat lumea s-ar uita la mine. 18. Femeia merse mai departe ca i cum nu l-ar fi observat pe cel care o urmrea. 19. Andrew pete ca i cum l-ar durea piciorul. 20. Pamela vorbete franuzete ca i cum ar fi fost crescut n Frana. Use Past or Perfect Subjunctive after even if/ even though according to the meaning: 1. I wouldnt to that even if she (to give) me a lot of money. 2. Even though they (to lend) him their new dictionary, he couldnt have translated such a difficult text. 3. Even if someone (to be) to leave me 10,000 pounds I would not be able to fulfil my lifelong ambition. 4. He wouldnt have acted differently even if he (to know) the real situation. 5. Angela wouldnt marry this man even though he (to be) rich. 6. Even if Doris (to come) here, she couldnt help us. 7. I wouldnt have told her the truth even though she (to ask) me to do that. 8. Even if he (to get up) earlier he wouldnt have gone on the trip because of such bad weather. 9. Even though you (not to tell) me anything I would realize that there something wrong with you. 10. I would havevbought tickets even if I (to have) to stand in the queuevfor hours. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Subjunctive. 1. He didnt switch on the light lest his wife _____________ (wake) up. 2. Do you consider it right that these people ______________ (be treated) like that? 3. All good luck __________ (attend) you! 4. She left orders that it _____________ (changed) at once. 5. David works hard so that he __________ (pass) this difficult exam. 6. She is shocked that such a thing _____________ (happen) in her house. 7. However much money you ___________ (have), dont spend it in one day. 8. You insisted that she _________ (be) present, too. 9. She suggests that our work ____________ (be finished) at once. 10. I propose she __________ (be asked) to resign. 11. It is quite wrong that people ____________ (forced) to say what they dont want to. 12. He hurried so that he ____________ catch the train. 13. Give him my new address so that he ____________ (answer) my letter. 14. Whatever she ____________ (say) about me, dont believe her! 15. Whoever he ___________ be, dont open the door! 16. ___________ all your dreams come true. 17. You urge that she ____________ (start) learning English. 18. I wish he __________ (make) so many mistakes. 19. She insists that everybody ___________ (bring) the dictionaries to school. 20. They look as if they _________ ill. 21. It is important that she __________ (arrive) there before noon. 22. It is high time they __________ (tell) us the truth. 23. I gave orders that the prisoner _____________ (set) free at once. 24. I wish she _________ (speak) Italian more fluently. 25. No matter how difficult a problem __________ (be), you should try to solve it. 26. It is scandalous that they __________ (be treated) like that. 27. Should the weather __________ (be) fine tomorrow, we will all go fishing. 28. It is shocking that some people __________ (live) in such houses. 29. We spoke in a whisper lest mother ___________ (hear) us. 30. They demanded that you ___________ (be) on time. 31. I demand that she ____________ (tell) the truth. 32. It is quite wrong that pupils ___________ be obliged to wear uniforms. 33. They hurried lest they __________ (be caught) by the rain. 34. However important this matter ____________ be, we cant discuss it now. 35. Though she _____________ (be) at home, she will not answer the phone. 36. God ___________(bless) you! 37. Devil _____________ (take) you! 38. Long _________ (live) peace all over the world! 39. Heaven ___________ (help) them! CONDITIONAL Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: type I 1. If I see him I (give) him a lift. 2. The table will collapse if you (stand) on it. 3. If he (eat) all that he will be ill. 4. If I find your passport I (telephone) you at once. 5. The police (arrest) him if they catch him. 6. If he (read) in bad light he will ruin his eyes. 7. Someone (steal) your car if you leave it unlocked. 8. What will happen if my parachute (not open)? 9. If he (wash) my car Ill give him $10. 11. If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine. 12. If you (not go) away Ill send for the police. 13. Ill be very angry if he (make) any more mistakes. 14. If he (be) late well go without him. 15. She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this. 16. If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea. 17. If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once. 18. If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybodys way. 19. Hell be late for the train if he (not start) at once. 20. If you come late they (not let) you in. 21. If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says. 22. Unless he (sell) more he wont get much commission. 23. If I lend you $10 when you (repay) me? 24. Well have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 25. If he (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 26. Ice (turn) to water if you heat it. 27. If the house (burn) down we can claim compensation. 28. If you (not like)

this one Ill bring you another. 29. Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident. 30. Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 31. If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else? 32. If you (not believe) what I say, ask your mother. 33. If he (like) the house will he buy it? 34. If you will kindly sit down I (make) enquiries for you. 35. Unless I have a quiet room I (not be able) to do any work. 36. She wont open the door unless she (know) who it is. 37. Should you require anything else please (ring) the bell for the attendant. Conditional sentences: type 2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. 2. If I (know) his address Id give it to you. 3. He (look) a lot better if he shaved more often. 4. If you (play) for lower stakes you wouldnt lose so much. 5. I shouldnt drink that wine if I (be) you. 6. More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate. 7. If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 8. If someone (give) you a helicopter what would you do with it? 9. I (buy) shares it that company if I had some money. 10. If he (clean) his windscreen hed be able to see where he was going. 11. If you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 12. If you (not belong) to a union you couldnt get a job. 13. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery Id give up my job. 14. What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house? 15. I could tell you what this means if I (know) Greek. 16. If everybody (give) $1 we would have enough. 17. He might get fat if he (stop) smoking. 18. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). 19. If you (see) someone drowning what would you do? 20. I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for. 21. If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often. 22. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree. 23. If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice. 24. If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster. 25. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you (remove) that screw. 26. I (keep) a horse if I could afford it. 27. Id go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route. 28. If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches there might be less violence. 29. I (offer) to help if I thought Id be any use. 30. What would you do if the lift (gets) stuck between two floors? 31. If you (paint) the walls white the room would be much brighter. 32. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? 33. If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spend) those six weeks? 34. You wouldnt have so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. 35. Id climb over the wall if there (not be) so much broken glass on top of it. Conditional sentences: type 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1. If I had known you were in hospital I (visit) you. 2. The ground was very soft. But for that, my horse (win). 3. If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier you would have got a seat. 4. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week. 5. But for his quickness I (be) killed. 6. I shouldnt have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. 7. If he had slipped he (fall) 500 meters. 8. If he had asked you, you (accept)? 9. If I (had) a map I would have been all right. 10. If I (know) that you were coming Id have baked a cake. 11. I (offer) to help him if I had realized that he was ill. 12. If you had left that wasp alone it (not sting) you. 13. If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldnt have come with you. 14. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). 15. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. 16. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. 17. If you (not sneeze) he wouldnt have known that we were there. 18. If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better. 19. The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door. 20. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. 21. If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you. 22. If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. 23. I shouldnt have eaten it if I (know) that there was ginger in it. 24. If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded. 25. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. 26. If you hadnt been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt. 27. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. 28. She had a headache; otherwise she (come) with us. 29. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) down the wrong street. 30. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what was missing. 31. Rome (be captured) by her enemies if the geese hadnt cackled. 32. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 33. I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way. 34. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going. 35. They would have forced their way into the house if I (not call) for help. 36. If he had put out his pipe before putting it in his pocket he (not burn) a hole in his coat.

Conditional sentences: all types Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1. If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar dont mention it to anyone. 2. If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration. 3. What (happen) if I press this button? 4. I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then. 5. If you go to Paris where you (stay). 6. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)? 7. The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick. 8. If the milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints. 9. Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there. 10. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much. 11. What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm? 12. If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldnt have answered the wrong question. 13. I could repair the roof myself if I (have) a long ladder. 14. Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad. 15. If you were made redundant what you (do)? 16. Well have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here. 17. If you shake that bottle of port it (not be) fit to drink. 18. Ill probably get lost unless he (come) with me. 19. You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly. 20. If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you. 21. If she (leave) the fish there the car will get it. 22. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody (fall) into it. 23. Youll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes. 24. If I had known that you couldnt eat octopus I (not buy) it. 25. If they (hang) that picture lower people would be able to see it. 26. She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadnt such high heels. 27. I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty. 28. If you had touched that electric cable you (be) electrocuted. 29. If the story hadnt been true the newspaper (not print) it. 30. I (not buy) things on the installment system if I were you. 31. Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambulance, or Fire Brigade. 32. You (not be) any use to me unless you learn to type. 33. If anyone attacked me, my dog (jump) at his throat. 34. If he were in he (answer) the phone. 35. The ship would have run aground if the pilot (make) one mistake. 36. I shouldnt have taken your umbrella if I (know) that it was the only one you had. Make conditional sentences about these situations (1-6). Example: 1. If he hadnt taken drugs, he wouldnt have been banned. 1. Ben Johnson took drugs => he was banned from sport 2. athletes earn a lot of money => they train hard 3. someone will run 100 meters in 9.3 seconds => nobody will believe it 4. Gabriela Szabo is very fit => its easy for her to run long distances 5. an athlete will win four gold medals in athletics => they will be a record breaker 6. in 1980 the Olympic Games were organized in Moscow => the USA didnt take part. Write answers to the questions. 1. What would the situation be now: a) if performance-enhancing drugs hadnt been developed? b) if penicillin hadnt been discovered? c) if the computer hadnt been invented? d) if the Second World War had never broken out? 2. What would or would not have happened in the past: a) if football was a less popular sport? b) if the Americas and Europe were one continent? c) if people didnt like traveling? d) if the sun was closer to the Earth Use the cues to write mixed conditional sentences. Example: If John werent so tall, he wouldnt have had to have the doors in his house changed. 1. John is seven foot tall => he had to have the doors in his house changed he joined a basketball team at school he had problems finding a date for a school disco 2. Jessica has been a world-class gymnast since she was 11 she suffers from spine problems she is a famous person now she is able to support her family financially.

Write about three things that you did or didnt do, or that happened or didnt happen to you in the past and what the present consequences are. Use mixed conditional sentences. Example: If I had started to play tennis when I was ten, I could be o champion now. Complete the conditional sentences using a suitable form of the verbs in brackets. 1. If Fleming ______________ (not leave) bacteria in a dish, he wouldnt have discovered penicillin. 2. Have you seen your horoscope? I ___________ (not go) out this afternoon if I were you! 3. If you ____________ (not go out) in the rain, you wouldnt have caught a cold. 4. Many athletes ________________ (not break) records if they hadnt used drugs. 5. Unless we control `doping`, the original spirit of the Olympics ____________ (disappear). 6. If you laid out flat the grey matter of a human brain, it _______________ (cover) an office desk! 7. If you have a headache, why ______________ you _____________ (not take) an aspirin? 8. If farmers used the new types of plants, they ______________ (have) crops that can resist disease. 9. If plants were engineered in the right way, they ________ (have) the taste and consistency of meat good news for vegetarians! 10. If we had not bred from the wolf, the astonishing range of dogs _______________ (not exist). Write sentences about what life would be like now if these things had not been invented or discovered. Use mixed conditional sentences. electric lightbulbs, a vaccine for cholera, printing, penicillin, the atomic bomb, computers, guns, the wheel, cloning, cars Example: If electric light bulbs hadnt been invented, we would still have to use candles. Complete these sentences saying what things would have happened in the past if the world was different. Use mixed conditionals. Example: If the Earth was covered by sea, humans would not have evolved. 1. If the Earth was covered by sea, ... 2. If humans had small brains, ... 3. If spaceships could travel at the speed of light, ... 4. If humans lived 200 years, ... 5. If there were intelligent robots, ...

NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB Fill in the blanks with the Short or Long Infinitives of the verbs in brackets: 1. I wanted ____ home earlier. (to go). 2. She made me ______ that incident again. (to think of). 3. Our friends are expected _____ this evening. (to arrive) 4. Im sure theyll be able ______ all the exercises. (to do) 5. Would you like ______ with us? (to come) 6. Could you _____ this problem to me? ( to explain) 7. They must _____ this poem by heart. (to learn) 8. She seems _____ the truth. (to know) 9. I told her _____ care of her new book. (to take) 10. When she was a pupil, she used ______ a uniform. (to wear) 11. Let me _____ you something interesting. (to tell) 12. My brother happened _____ at home at that moment. (to be) 13. How dare she _____ such nonsense? (to talk) 14. They persuaded her ____ her leaving. (to postpone) 15. I refused _____ this question. (to answer) 16. I will help him ____ his luggage. (to carry) 17. As it was rather late, I had _____ (to leave) 18. May I _____ to bed now? (to go) 19. I suggested to him _____ for some minutes (to wait) 20. It is better _____ sure than sorry. (to be) Paraphrase the following sentences using the Nominative + the Infinitive according to the model: It seems that she knows you. She seems to know you. 1. We know that she speaks three foreign languages. 2. It so happened that they all were absent. 3. Everybody expected that the singer would sing his famous song. 4. It is believed that the thief stole a large sum of money. 5. It was said that you were fond of music. 6. We are certain that Tom managed to arrive there on time. 7. It appears that you are right. 8. It was proved that she was lying to us. 9. It turned out that his grandmother was the owner of that castle. 10. It is supposed that she knows many interesting things about that expedition.

Translate the following sentences containing the Accusative + the Infinitive into Romanian: 1. They wanted us to go there as soon as possible. 2. She imagined me to be ill. 3. They forbid you to call on us. 4. I expect him to arrive here in a weeks time. 5. I will let you know about this matter when I get there. 6. She convinced me to join them on the trip. 7. Her funny hat always made me laugh. 8. They enabled us to attend that famous mans lecture. 9. I urged him to tell her the truth. 10. Im sure you will manage to persuade him to stay here one week longer. 11. It is necessary for them to buy all these books. 12. Why did you oblige her to keep this secret for such a long time? Answer the following questions by using the Infinitive to express purpose: 1. Why did Mary go to the post office? (post a letter) 2. Why did you go into the garden? (plant some trees) 3. Why do you learn the new words? (translate this poem) 4. Why did Jane go to the window? (shut it) 5. Why did the boy come to school so early? (write his homework) 6. Why will she take a taxi? (catch the train) 7. Why did the children hurry? (not to miss the bus) 8. Why do you talk in a whisper? (not to wake up the children) 9. Why does mother go to market? (buy some vegetables) 10. Why did father borrow this money? (buy a boat) Use the verbs in brackets in the Gerund: They admitted (to be) rude. 2. You suggest (to play) chess. 3. She avoided (to mention) his name. 4. They stopped (to talk) about that matter. 5. Jane risks (to lose) a large sum of money. 6. We delayed (to go) to the seaside. 7. Now we can remember (to see) them somewhere. 8. He regretted (to say) such a thing. 9. I postponed (to meet) them. 10. Would you mind (to ring) me up later? 11. They cant help (to worry) about such events. 12. The two girls began (to sing). Replace the Infinitive by the Gerund according to the model: It is nice to swim Swimming is nice. 1. It is comfortable to sit by the fireside. 2. It is unpleasant to sleep on the door. 3. It is difficult to do such exercises. 4. It is illegal to drive without a license. 5. It is tiring to drive at night. 6. It is dangerous to climb those rocks. 7. It is exciting to travel by plane. 8. It is expensive to eat in restaurants nowadays. 9. It is useful to learn English. 10. It is enjoyable to eat fresh fruit. Use the Infinitive or the Gerund of the verbs in brackets: 1. We dont wish (to reveal) our plans to you yet. 2. Has she finished (to read) the article yet? 3. Would you mind (to open) that window? 4. Our friend plans (to spend) a few weeks abroad. 5. When Alice was little, she enjoyed (to watch) cartoons. 6. They demanded (to see) our report immediately. 7. We avoided (to mention) his name that evening. 8. She hopes (to visit) Paris soon. 9. The boy admitted (to know) the name of that man. 10. His aunt always tends (to exaggerate) things. 11. Did Albert forget (to tell) you the news? 12. You seem (to understand) me now. 13. He doesnt advise (to go) there today. 14. They would appreciate (to receive) our reply this week. 15. The boys wanted (to explain) to us what had happened. 16. They didnt expect (to meet) us there. 17. She denied (to live) in that house. 18. Did they offer (to help) you? 19. You should postpone (to visit) your friend. 20. We cant stand (to hear) this mans complaints again. Use the verbs in brackets in the right continuous tense: 1. When it started to rain, we (to walk) in the park. 2. Our friends (to come) here tomorrow. 3. What your sister (to do) now? 4. This time tomorrow we (to have) a test. 5. My brother (to work) in the garden for more than two hours. 6. When mother came home, the children (to sleep). 7. This old man always (to complain) about everything. 8. When we got there, it (to snow) for several hours. 9. My brothers (to play) football since they came back from school. 10. If we were not so busy, we (to watch) TV now. Work on the model: The boy is very tired. He is sitting on the bench. The boy sitting on the bench is very tired. 1. At the gate there was a man. He was talking to a little child. 2. The books were on the top shelf. They belonged to my sister. 3. I chose a large room. It overlooked the park. 4. We listened to the birds. They were singing in the trees. 5. Yesterday I saw a dog. It was running after a cat. 6. Do you see the photo? It is lying on the floor. 7. Suddenly they heard a noise. It was coming from the street. 8. They saw a girl. She was

picking flowers. 9. At last we found the path. It led to the chalet. 10. My sister told me five words. They ended in the letter t. Use the Accusative + Present Participle according to the model: The girl is singing. I hear... I hear her singing. 1. The cake was burning. I smelt... 2. We are dancing. Tom sees... 3. The children were crossing the street. Mother noticed... 4. The train was moving. We felt... 5. The tennis-player is serving. We watch... 6. A stranger was talking to the policeman. She observed... 7. Something was happening there. They sensed... 8. The baby is crying. I hear... Use the Nominative + Present Participle according to the model: I noticed a ship, which was approaching the shore. A ship was noticed approaching the shore. 1. I heard that Mary was playing the piano. 2. They noticed a boy who was running in the street. 3. They see that the patient is bleeding. 4. We spotted a strange object, which was flying in the sky. 5. They see a man who is lying on the bed. 6. They hear a strange noise, which is coming from the garden. 7. They noticed a woman who was trying to steal some jewels. 8. Somebody saw the thief who was killing a policeman. From each pair of sentences make one sentence according to the model: I was walking in the park. I was listening to the birds. I was walking in the park listening to the birds. 1. The boy was running. He was looking back. 2. The children were sleeping. They were dreaming of something nice. 3. I was singing. I was looking out of the window. 4. The soldiers were marching. They were singing. 5. You were knocking at the door. You were thinking about the sick woman. 6. We were talking. We were admiring the landscape. 7. Father was sitting in an armchair. He was reading the newspaper. 8. A man was standing in front of our gate. He was looking at his watch. 9. I was driving my car. I was whistling an old song. 10. We were translating the text. We were looking the new words up in a dictionary. Join the sentences below according to the model: I wrote my homework. I went to school. Having written my homework, I went to school. 1. I opened the box. I took some jewels. 2. The boys had their breakfast. They went fishing. 3. The children said good night. They went to bed. 4. She locked the door. She left the house. 5. I chose a summer dress. I paid at the cashiers desk. 6. They borrowed a large sum of money. They bought a big house. 7. We received the telegram. We went to the railway station. 8. I found her address. I wrote her a long letter. 9. You understood the joke. You started to laugh. 10. Mary finished her dress. She put it on. Change the adverb clauses to modifying phrases. Work on the models: Because Lucy was busy, she couldnt go for a walk. - Being busy, Lucy couldnt go for a walk. Because he had learnt the lesson, he answered all the teachers questions. - Having learnt the lesson, he answered all the teachers questions. 1. Because Peter lives far from school, he must get up very early. 2. Because Albert had read that book, he could tell the story to his sister. 3. Because I am well again, I may leave the hospital today. 4. Because you can speak English fluently, you can work as a guide for foreign tourists. 5. Because your sister was tired, she went to bed. 6. Because mother didnt finish cooking the dinner, she asked us to wait. 7. Because father repaired the engine of our car, we could continue our trip. 8. Because I know her very well, I expect her to apologize for what she did. 9. Because granny lost her glasses, she couldnt watch TV. 10. Because we didnt write our homework, we got a bad mark. From each pair of sentences make one sentence according to the model: The money is on the table. It has been found by my sister. The money found by my sister is on the table. 1. The cakes are very good. They were made by my sister. 2. The compositions are very interesting. They were written by my classmates. 3. The toy-horse is very nice. It was bought by Matthew. 4. The portraits are

very expensive. They were painted by John. 5. These exercises contained many mistakes. They were done by my cousin. 6. Nick showed me a car. I had been bought three days before. 7. Well apply a new method. It was invented by a friend of mine. 8. The solutions are very good. They are suggested by our teacher. 9. These books are boring. They were read by us. 10. The albums are very expensive. They were printed in our town. Use the Accusative + Past Participle: 1. During that match, Fred got (his leg; to break). 2. They want (their car; to repair) as soon as possible. 3. This experiment made (she; to know) all over the world. 4. When he returned from the seaside, he found (his house; to destroy). 5. I wish (this painting; to restore). 6. The teacher wanted (our test; to complete) in ten minutes. Use the Accusative + Past Participle after causative have and translate then the sentences into Romanian: 1. Can I have (this document; to photocopy), please? 2. My daughter must have (her eyes; to test) on Friday. 3. Can we have (our car; to repair) by 5 oclock? 4. Henry will have (his hair; to cut) this afternoon. 5. We had (our room; to decorate) last week. 6. The Smiths will have (a new house; to build) soon. 7. Peter has just had (his new novel; to print). 8. Paul had (his car; to service) a few days ago. 9. We must have (our chimneys; to sweep) every spring. 10. I have had (my windows; to clean) today. Turn into the Passive Voice: 1. Mother wakes me at 7 oclock every morning. 2. Fred will meet her at the station. 3. Little Jane has broken a vase. 4. Jerry was carrying our suitcase. 5. I would translate this text if I knew all the words. 6. She went home after she typed all the letters. 7. The teacher is asking me a lot of questions. 8. I gave her some flowers. 9. I offered mother five white roses. 10. This girl makes very good cakes. Fill in the blanks with the Past Participle of the verbs in brackets. Translate the sentences into Romanian: . . 1. Have you ever ________ (to see) such a strange thing before? 2. My friend said that she had ________ (to buy) tickets for that show. 3. By 7 oclock we will have __________ (to finish) our homework. 4. This house was ______ (to build) in 1980. 5. All the people __________ (to mention) had to leave the room. 6. America was _________ (to discover) in 1492. 7. I wished they had ___________ (to arrive) there before us. 8. But for the fog, we could have ____________ (to reach) the village in less than two hours. 9. __________ (to scare) by the dogs, the boys started to cry. 10. I explained to my sister that I would give her that book after I had ____________ (to read) it. MODAL WORDS Point out the modal words and define their meaning. Translate the sentences. 1. Manson's nature was extraordinarily intense. Probably he derived this from his mother... 2. You come quickly to a resolution, Mr. Racksole. But perhaps you have been considering this question for a long time? 3. Certainly it was astonishing that, she should be preoccupied with her schemes for the welfare of Constance... 4. Unhappily a terrible storm broke out before the travellers had reached the place of their destination. 5. Evidently she treated this experienced and sad woman of fifty as a young girl. 6. Fortunately there were few people at the morning surgery. 7. Silly, silly Phillip! Of course, it would have been different if they had married; he would naturally have taken it [the money]. 8. He became conscious of something very near him; indeed, nearly above his head.

THE INTERJECTION Point out all the interjections and say whether they are emotional or imperative. 1. "The Boers are a hard nut to crack, uncle James." "Hum!" muttered James. "Where do you get your information? Nobody tells." 2. "Oh! My eye!" he said looking very lowspirited, "I am sorry for that." 3. "Good Lord!" said Fleur. "Am I only twenty-one? I feel forty-eight." 4. "Good Heavens!" cried my mother, "you'll

drive me mad!" 5. Heavens! How dull you are! 6. "Oh, Karen," he said, "it's good to have you around!" 7. Alas! The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window. 8. A man jumped on top of the barricade and, waving exuberantly, shouted: "Americans! Hurrah." 9. Hallo, Michael I'm rather late; been to the club and walked home. 10. Ah! You are both of you good-natured. (Sheridan) 11. "Hark!" cried Dodger at this moment, "I heard the tinkle," catching up the light, he crept softly upstairs. 12. "Who is that?" she cried. "Hush, hush!" said one of the women, stooping over her... 13. Well, I don't like those mysterious little pleasure trips that he is so fond of taking. 14. Now, Maria, here is a character to your taste... 15. Here! I've had enough of this. I'm going. THE PREPOSITION Fill in the blanks with the prepositions at, in or on to express place: I. Nobody was... home. 2. His flat was... the third floor. 3. She had less than two dollars her pocket. 4. He lives ... 62 Berkeley Street. 5. Stratford lies ... the River Avon. 6. Mother is not... the kitchen, she must be ... the garden. 7. There are a lot of printing mistakes ... this page. 8. We could see a tall tree ... the middle of the island. 9. She will spend about ten days ... the seaside. 10. You will have to meet her ... the airport. 11. They found an interesting article ... that magazine. 12. A bird ... the hand is worth two... the bush. (proverb) 13. There were some very old books... the top shelf. 14. That afternoon there were a lot of people ... the stadium. 15. They walked ... beach for a long while. 16. There was a strange sound ... the back of the car. 17. Her brother was still ... hospital. 18. When we saw so many people... the platform waiting for the train, I understood that we had to stand the queue for the tickets. 19. We stopped ... the bottom of the hill for a rest. 20. They helped their grandparents... the farm. Complete each sentence using the most suitable prepositions. Sometimes more than one answer is possible: in; inside; into; off; on; onto; out of; outside 1. The cat jumped... the roof of the car. 2. There is a taxi rank just... the railway station. 3. I saw nobody... the room. 4. Tom fell ... the ladder when he was trying to pick up some apples. 5. Kerry came... the house, got... her car and drove away. 6. My sister usually goes to school... the bus. 7. Wait a little ...: the story is on the... pages of the newspaper. 8. The car ran... the wall. 9. Fish can't live... the water. 10. The ship is anchored a mile... the coast. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions at, in or on to express time: 1. My brother was born ... 1984. 2. They saw a good film ... Friday. 3. Is she doing anything special... the week-end? 4. Let's meet again... the 1st. That's Sunday. 5. ... seven o'clock my sister was still sleeping. .6. The two children started to laugh ... the same time. 7. I did that exercise... ten minutes. 8. Some children don't see their parents very often ... ; usually... Christmas. 9. Ch. Dickens lived ... the 19th century. 10. She hears a lot of noises... night. 11. I always have a lot of guests... my birthday anniversary. 12. Lucy got married ... 22, which is a good age to get married. 13. Somebody rang me up ... midnight. 14. I reminded her to be present... 10 o'clock ... the morning. 15. Her cousin graduated from school ... 1980 ... the age of nineteen. 16. They always go to church ... Easter morning. 17. The plane will be taking off ... a few minutes. 18. My neighbour is a mechanic but he is out of work... the moment. 19. I wanted to talk to her, but she was in town ... that time. 20. Julie often goes to concerts ... Friday evenings. Complete the sentences using the prepositions during, for or in. Sometimes more than one answer is possible: 1. We waited in the rain... almost half an hour. 2. People couldn't get cigarettes... the war. 3. I saw several plays... my stay in London. 4. Yesterday it rained... four hours. 5. Mike is going to leave the town... a few days. 6. Our manager will be in Boston... the next five days. 7. Jack broke his leg... the match. 8. They were in Paris... two weeks last summer. 9. You can walk from this place to the town centre... a quarter of an hour. 10. We are meeting ... a week's time. Complete the sentences using the suitable preposition. 1. Beryl, sitting the window, fanning her freshly washed hair, thought she had never seen such a guy. 2. If Alice had blacked her face a piece of cork before she started, the picture would have been complete. 3. Alice was going tea with Stubbs, who'd sent her an "invite" the little boy. 4. She went to the shop to get

something her mosquitoes. 5. You might have been attacked cannibals. 6. Mice did wish there'd been a bit life the road. 7. It made her feel so queer, having nobody her. 8. She pulled her gloves, hummed herself, and said the distant gum tree, "Shan't be long now." 9. Mrs. Stubbs's, shop was perched a little hillock just off the road. 10. It had two big windows eyes, a broad veranda a hat, and the sign the roof. 11. Even then it was the rarest thing to find the left that belonged the right. 12. So many people had lost patience and gone with one shoe that fitted and one that was a little too big. 13. The two windows, arranged the form of precarious pyramids, were crammed so tight, piled so high, that it seemed only a conjuror could prevent them toppling over. 14. and he sighed and took her his arms again. 15. With her broad smile and the long bacon knife her hand she looked like a friendly brigand. 16. Tea was laid the parlour table. 17. Alice sat down the edge of a basket-chair while Mrs. Stubbs pumped the stove still higher. 18. Suddenly Mrs. Stubbs whipped the cushion a chair and disclosed a large brown paper parcel. 19. her right stood a Grecian pillar with a giant fern tree either side of it. 20. "Yes," she said thoughtfully, but I don't care the size. 21. Alice jumped away the word like a cat. 22. It was bright pink where it began and then it changed apricot, and that faded the colour of a brown egg. 23. They glanced one another like conspirators. 24. Isabel stood up her excitement and moved her elbows like wings. 25. Little Rags put the King of Diamonds. 26. She had hardly any cards left. But when she and Kezia both had one, Kezia waited purpose. 27. The others made signs Lottie and pointed. 28. Lottie turned very red; she looked bewildered and last she said, "Heehaw! Kezia." 29. They were the very thick of it when the bull stopped them, holding his hand. 30. "Whatever did we shut the door?" she said softly. 31. they were playing, the day had faded; the gorgeous sunset had blazed and died. 32. And now the quick dark came racing the sea. 33. They were frightened to look the corners of the washhouse. 34. The blinds pulled down; the kitchen fire leapt in the tins the mantelpiece. 35. But Jonathan only answered, "A little love, a little kindness" and he walked his sister-in-laws side. 36. Linda dropped into Beryl's hammock the tree and Jonathan stretched himself the grass her. 37. The voices children cried the other gardens. 38. A fisherman's light cart shook the sandy road, and from far away they heard a dog barking; it was muffled as though the dog had its head in a sack. 39. If you listened you could just hear the soft swish of the sea full tide sweeping the pebbles. 40. Linda was so accustomed Jonathan's way of talking that she paid no attention to it. 41. The" Hum" was so deep. It seemed to boom the ground. 42. Looking him as he lay there, Linda thought again how attractive he was. 43. What was the matter with Jonathan? He was always full new ideas, schemes, etc. 44. The new fire blazed in. 45. "It seems me just as imbecile, just as infernal, to be in the office on Monday," said Jonathan. 46. To spend all the best years of one's sitting on a stool nine five. 47. "Tell me, what is the difference my life and that of an ordinary prisoner? 48. The only difference I can see is that I put myself jail and nobody's ever going to let me. 49. I dash the walls, dash the windows, do everything God's earth, fact, accept fly out again. 50. There's the window or the door or whatever it was I came in. 51. "it's not allowed, it's forbidden, and its the insect law, to stop banging and flopping and crawling up the pane even for an instant. 52. What are you smiling? 53. Why does one feel so different night? 54. Lightly, stealthily you move your room. 55. You take something off the dressing-table and put it down again a sound. 56. You're not very fond your room. You never think it. You're and, the door opens and slams. 57. You sit down the side your bed, change your shoes and dash out again. 58. He leapt the flower-bed and seized her his arms. 59. "Forgive me, darling, forgive me," stammered Stanley, and he put his hand her chin and lifted her face him. 60. But now she was another difficulty. THE CONJUNCTION Point out all the coordinating conjunctions and define the group each belongs to. 1. The stranger had not gone far, as he went after him to ask the name. 2. Be quick, or it may be too late. 3. real accuracy and purity she neither possessed, nor any number of years would acquire. 4. Mrs. Septimus Small let fall no word, neither did she question June about him. 5. The river was not high, so there was not more than a two or three mile current. 6. It seemed to him that he could contrive to secure for her the full benefit of both his life insurance and his fire insurance... 7. Karl is solid and extremely certain of himself, while Joseph on the other hand, though no less certain of himself, is a good deal less solid. 8. He could see no one, and he began to believe that either his instinct had deceived him, or else that the shadowing was over. 9. But for a long time we did not see any lights, nor did we see the share, but rowed steadily in the dark riding with the waves.

THE PARTICLE Point out the particles and define the group each belongs to. 1. It is just because I want to save my soul that I am marrying for money. 2. Rosa feared this power, but she enjoyed it too. 3. Oh, doctor, do you think there is any chance? Can she possibly survive this last terrible complication? 4. We merely want to see the girl and take her away. 5. I shall also try to be there at ten. 6. Dont come any nearer. Youre at just the right distance. 7. He had taken up with it solely because he was starving. 8. Just then the telephone rang. 9. He needed the peculiar sympathy that a woman alone can give. 10. She ought to have written at once and told him exactly what had happened. 11. I think hes been a simply perfect father, so long as I can remember. 12. They did not even look at him.

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE KINDS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance. A. Presently, looking along the road, she [Kezia] saw two little dots. Now she could see that they were, the Kelveys... Hello, she said to the passing Kelveys. You can come and see our dolls house if you want to . . .But at that Lil turned red and shook her head quickly. Why not? asked Kezia. Lil gasped, then she said, Your ma told our ma you wasnt to speak to us. Oh, well, said Kezia. She didnt know what to reply. It doesnt matter Come on. Nobodys looking. ... Dont you want to? asked Kezia... Kezia led the way. Like two little stray cats they followed across the courtyard to where the dolls house stood Ill open it for you, said Kezia kindly. She undid the hook and they looked inside. Theres the drawing-room and the dining-room and thats the Kezia! Oh, what a start they gave! It was Aunt Beryls voice. Run away, children, run away at once. (Mansfield). B. Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by Is this Mrs. Scotts house? and the woman smiling queerly, said It is my lass. Oh, to be away from this! She actually said Help me God! as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered in anything, one of those womens shawls even! Ill just have the basket and go, she decided. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied. Then the door opened. A little woman in black showed in the gloom. Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?" But to her horror the woman answered, Walk in, please, miss," and she was shut in the passage. "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. I only want to leave this basket." The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. "Step this way, please, miss," she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. 2. Point out one-member and two-member sentences. Say a) if they are extended or unextended, b) if the two-member sentences are complete or incomplete. A. 1. Ben closed his eyes to think clearly for a moment. 2. Two cups of coffee, please,... young Flynn timidly ordered. What else do you want? Jam turnover. (Coppard). 3. Why did you leave her [baby] in that mill? Out of the rain. In her pram? Naturally. Shes asleep. ...The mystery was awful and complete. Abandoned perambulator! Total disappearance of a baby! Horror! Martyrdom! Death! (Bennett). 4. Scene I A room in Harley Street furnished as the Superintendents Office in a Nursing Home. (Berkeley). B. 1. He stared amazed at the calmness of her answer. 2. We must go to meet the bus. Wouldn't do to miss it. 3. Obedient little trees, fulfilling their duty. 4. Lucretius knew very little about was going on in the world. Lived like a mole in a burrow. Lived on his own fat like a bear in winter. 5. He wants to write a play for me. One act. One man. Decides to commit suicide. 6. A beautiful day, quite warm. 7. What do you want? Bandages, stuff for wounded. 8. How did he look? Grey but otherwise much the same And the daughter? Pretty. 9. And the silence and the beauty of this camp at night. The stars. The mystic shadow water. The wonder and glory of all this. 10. Ill see nobody for half an hour, Macey, said the boss. Understand. Nobody at all. 11. Mother, a mans been killed. Not in the garden? interrupted her

mother. Garden at the manor house. A flight of grey stone steps leads up to the house. The garden, an old fashioned one, full of roses. Time of year, July. Basket, chairs, and a table covered with books, are set under a large yew tree. C. Find in an English text 4 examples of a two-member sentence: a) complete, b) incomplete, c) extended, d) unextended: 2 examples of a one-member sentence: a) extended, b) unextended. KINDS OF QUESTIONS 3. Define the type of question. 1. Lady Bracknell: Where did the charitable gentleman . . . find you? 2. Gwendolen: How long do you remain in town? 3. Jack: What on earth are you so amused at? 4. Algernon: Do you really keep a diary? 5. Gwendolen: I may call you Cecily, may I not? Cecily: With pleasure! Gwendolen: And you will always call me Gwendolen, wont you?Cecily: If you wish. Gwendolen: Then that is quite settled, is it not? (Wilde). 6. Wont you sit down? said Josephine. (Mansfield). 7. Theres no point in my seeing your people, is there? (Berkeley). 8. Is the poem The Cloud written by Shelley or by Byron? 4. Make up sentences of different types (declarative, imperative, exclamatory, all kinds of interrogative sentences) using the given words. 1. of, have, the, map, a, at, look, England. 2. be seen, Englands, the, may, cliffs, mainland, white, from. 3. sea, far, London, from, is, the? 4. close, arent, the, Wales, are, they, mountains, sea, to, in, the, quite. 5. weather, how, the, beautiful, is, calm, in, sea! 6. ancient, this, lose, of, post-card, dont, picture, castle, an. 7. is, a, landscape, this, picturesque, what! 8. centuries, invaded, the, what, in, tribes, Britain, VVI? 9. the, did, the or, Anglo-Saxons, win, the, of, battle, Hastings, Normans? 10. survives, the, in, Celt, language, of, some, Scotland, parts, and, Ireland. 5. Ask questions to which the parts of the sentences or the whole of the sentences given in bold type are the answers. 1. The first settlers in Britain belonged to the Celtic tribes. 2. The actual conquest of Britain by Rome did not take place before the 1st century of our era. (general, disjunctive). 3. We do not know the details of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. (general, disjunctive). 4. Numerous patients come to Bath to keep up health. 5. For those who seek a boisterous holiday Devonshire provides everything that could be wished for: golf, bathing, excursions, and trips. 6. Windsor Castle has been the home of English kings for nine hundred years. 7. The Castle stands upon a hill commanding the River Thames. 8. It is impossible to live

anywhere in Britain far from the sea. (general, disjunctive). 9. In the month of August numerous yachting regattas may be seen near the Isle of White. 10. We shall see the highest tide if we come to the shore in full moon. 11. There are numerous kinds of strange seaweeds in the sea. (general, disjunctive). 12. Man has fished from earliest times. (general, disjunctive). 13. Although rather close to London, Epping Forest is the home of such wild creatures as foxes and deer. 14. The journey from London to the sea-shore does not take more than an hour. (general, disjunctive). 15. Hastings has a high reputation in the world of music by reason of its annual Festival. 6. Change the following declarative sentences into disjunctive questions. Model: He is not ill. He is not ill, is he? 1. She is a talented singer. 2. Youll tell us about it. 3. He can swim. 4. Theyve come. 5. You saw him last night. 6. There is some time left. 7. It snowed hard yesterday. 8. Youll have to write to him at once. 9. He must have a good rest. 10. She was greatly astonished. 11. He doesnt speak French. 12. They havent come yet. 13. He didnt ring you up yesterday. 14. They werent at home. 15. She wasnt long. 16. They are not here. 17. She isnt clever. 18. There isnt much time left. 19. Im not good at algebra. 20. We shant go to the concert. 21. She bought a new hat. 22. They live at the corner of our street. 23. We hadnt been interested in it. 24. They didnt listen in last night.25. This photo was taken long ago. 26. She couldnt recollect your address. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE THE SUBJECT 7. Point out the subject. State what it is expressed by. Translate the sentences into Romanian. 1. Mary brought in the fruit on a tray ... (Mansfield). 2. Thinking wont help. (Mansfield). 3. From five to six is my real working time. (Shaw). 4. Captain Shotover: You frequent picture palaces. Mangan: Perhaps I do. Who told you? (Shaw). 5. Nobodys well in this world. (Coppard). 6. The wind blew down from the headland ... (Du Maurier). 7. Finding you has not made any difference, has it? (D Maurier). 8. The boat has been there, all these months. No one has moved anything. (Du Maurier). 9. ...Someone must have been talking ... You cant stop these people (Du Maurier). 10. Two is company, three is none. 11. The rhododendrons were upon us ... Already they looked a little over-blown, a little laded.(Du Maurier). 12. One of the second-class passengers has a room in the house... (Maugham). 13. Those are your clerks initials, arent they? (Berke ley). 14. Unfortunately the innocent are always involved in any conflict. (Greene). 15. One never knows another human being. (Greene). 16. All is well, said that sleeping lace ... But all the same you had to cry . .. (Mansfield). 17. The three reached the Museum Hotel after one oclock. (Cronin). 19. The sick do not ask if the hand that smooths their pillow is pure. 8. State with what meaning the pronouns one, we, you, they are used in the function of the subject. Translate the sentences. 1. One must spare other peoples feelings. 2. You cannot do different kind of work at a time. 3. We often see other peoples faults without seeing our own. 4. They say the weather will change soon. 5. We rather say Its me, not Its I 6. One should be careful when swimming in an unknown river. 9. State the nature of it. Translate the sentences. 1. It was a rare tonic to see Con again ... (Cronin). 2. It was possible to see the hen-house from the window of her bedroom ... (Bates). 3. I looked at my watch. It had gone eleven. (Greene). 4. You heard the news? Yes. Its a terrible thing, he said, terrible. (Greene). 5. It was dark in the hall. (Mansfield). 6. It was

she who had stopped the car ... (Galsworthy). 7. Mr. DArcy, she said, what is the name of that song you were singing? Its called The Lass of Aughrim, said Mr. DArcy ... (Joyce). 8. It cast a gloom over the boat, there being no mustard. (Jerome). 9. The telephone rang. I went to answer. It was Joe Bjornson. (Scheurweghs). 10. How far is it from your house to the river? 11. Who is there? Its only me and my friends. (Scheurweghs). 12 ... it was the steppe that seemed unreal. (Lessing). 13. It was the dignity that checked my tongue. (Lessing). 14. This was the Old Chiefs country, he said. It stretched from those mountains over there way back to the river (Lessing). 10. Insert it or there. Comment on their use. Translate the sentences. 1. In the evening of that day __________ rained heavily. I went to the post office, and as I stood on the steps, umbrellaless ... a little, hesitating voice seemed to come from under my elbow. I looked down___________ was the First of the Barons with the black bag and an umbrella. He was asking me to share the latter. Now, __________is something peculiarly intimate in sharing an umbrella. is apt to put one on the same footing as brushing a mans coat for him. When we arrived at the pension ____________was very nearly an open riot ___________ was very friendly of the Herr Oberlehrer to have sent me a bouquet that evening. 2. ____________ s such a mistake, sighed Airs. Spears. To be weak with children when they are little ____________ is nothing like handing them over to their father. Then you dont whip them yourself? Never, I dont think ___________s the mothers place to whip the children, __________s the duty of the father. 3. ___________had been a bad day at the office. He was hot, dusty, tired out. In the corner of the drawing room _________was a picture, and on the top shelf stood a brown bear with a painted tongue. __________ seemed in the shadow to be grinning at Dickys father ___________ was nearly dark in the garden. (Mansfield). 4. The weather seemed to break this afternoon. ___________s the last of the heat waves for this summer. __________was hot in London, I said. The stars raced across the sky. _________were threads of cloud too ... _________ were woods about me, ___________was no Happy Valley. _________were nettles in the garden ... 5. ____________ is the middle of July. _________ is hot. ___________ is 30 degrees above zero. _________ is no wind. ___________ are no waves on the sea. ___________ is so pleasant to bask in the sun. ____________ are many people on the beach. __________ is on such hot days that I like to bathe most of all. 6. Look! _________ is a nest over your window! I know ___________is a swallows nest. __________ came in spring and built a nest here. Now ________ are some little swallows in it. ___________ is interesting to watch them. _____________ is the swallow that I like most of all the birds. 7. ___________ is late. ____________is 12 oclock at night. ____________ is very bad to go to bed so late. I can never go to bed in time: ____________is so much work to do. THE PREDICATE 11. State the kind of the predicate. 1. Are you a Devonshire girl? (Galsworthy). 2. That night he slept like a top ... (Galsworthy). 3. The little boy was silent. (Galsworthy). 4. 1 can skin rabbits. (Galsworthy). 5. ... I went on holding his cold hands. (Du Maurier). 6. The mast began to shiver, began to crack. (Du Maurier). 7. It seems so odd to us (Du Maurier). 8. ... I couldnt help walking with my shoulders bent. (Greene). 9. The two guards looked at me ... (Greene). 10. 1 had a drink of brandy. (Greene). 11. His father might be dead. 12. On the first of October he was able to tell her to refurnish the house. (Cronin). 13. You werent allowed to retreat. (Aldington). 14. The signal officer made a face. (Aldington). 15. We dont have the same trouble.. 16. Gerald: I dont understand you now. (Wilde). B. Find in an English text sentences containing different kinds of the predicate. 12. Point out the simple and the compound predicate. 1. We shall be very pleased. (Galsworthy). 2. They would never have found her there. (Du Maurier). 3. Within ten minutes he had been awakened by his servant. (Aldington). 4. Ive gone lame. (Galsworthy). 5. She was moaning and crying. (Maugharn). 6. The doctor was feeling wan and nervous. (Maugham). 7. By this time to-morrow shell be gone. (Maugham). 8. The gramophone which had been silent for so long was playing ... (Maugham). 9. It wouldnt have been very nice for the Davidsons to have to mix with all that rough lot in the smoking-room. (Maugham). 10. My memory comes to the surface again ... at Malta, where I am being rushed by an Orient liner ... (Shaw). 11. Ive been trying to get in touch with you all afternoon ...

(Cronin). 12. Everything seemed new and clear ... 13. He had been polite enough to the Macphails during the journey. (Maugham). 14. The sick man had been brought ashore ... (Maugham 13. Point out the link-verb of the compound nominal predicate. Translate the sentences. 1. He looked pale and tired. ( Mauriec). 2. He smokes one hundred and fifty pipes every day. That sounds a lot. (Greene). 3. What is Diolaction? I said. It sounds like condensed milk. (Greene). 4. He looked puzzled and suspicious. (Greene). 5. Please, keep quiet. 6. Arguments proved useless the old man was impla cab ... (Cronin). 7. It was growing twilight. (Bates). 8. Davidson looked scared, and his yellow drawn face went paler. (Aldington). 9. That peaceful sky hung arched over a desperate death- struggle of the nations. 10. This excess of caution seemed positively lunatic to troops coming straight from the front line ... Aldington). 11. Her mind was really getting muddled. (OCasey). 12 Her lips quivered as she sat silent. (OCasey). 13. He felt very conscious now ... 14. With this effort from his neck he passed out again, and this time into the furious black pain that seemed to last too long, although he remained half aware of it. 15. The blanched skin was slowly turning pink. 14. Insert the appropriate link-verbs (to look, to feel to be, to go, to stand, to break, to get, to seem, to grow to become) 1. I ___________ very lonely myself sometimes. 2. He landed perfectly and while the hound ___________ baffled flung him self at his hind-quarters... 3. The he was frightened: she __________ so pale. 4. Her short, red-brown hair had wildly loose. 5. Something horrible might happen ... and the money be snatched from her very lingers. Oh, she would _________ mad then! 6. He _________ very short. 7. Looking round the restaurant she _____________ sure that no other woman there ... had as much as thirty pounds in her handbag. 8. Returning home in the afternoon she __________ conscious of her own betraying radiance. 9. Repton shrugged his shoulders, but he _________ happier. 10. She ___________ limp with her suppressed fear. 11. I _________ ten, replied the flustered boy. 15. Point out the predicative and state what it is expressed by. 1. ... Now the only thing to do is to admit the error. 2. My hand was hot, damp. (Du Maurier). 3. Hes a sticky sort of chap. (Pu Maurier). 4. The air was full of thunder. (Pu Manner). 5. I hope Dominguez is well? (Greene). 6. 1 was asleep at first, and then I didnt want to be disturbed. But I am disturbed, so come in, (Greene). 7. Phuong had probably only shown the letter as a kind of boast it wasnt a sign of mistrust. (Greene). 8. Shes no child. Shes tougher than youll ever be. (Greene). 9. Dont be an old stay-at-home (Cronin). 10. All morning he was in a mood of high satisfaction. 11. They were wider apart than before. (Cronin). 12. Thats all, he said. (Pu Manlier) 13. It was all gone; and he was forty-three. 14. He felt for a bunch of keys in his pocket. (Bates). 15. 1 felt physically sick. It was a long time since I had received a letter from my wife. I ... could feel her pain in every line. (Greene). 16. Comment on the use and the meaning of the given verb in the sentences of every group. Translate the sentences. to turn 1. M Macphail bent down ... and turned the body over. 2. The metallic blonde at the next table turned to her companion with a smile of amusement. 3. She wants to turn over a new leaf. 4. Andrew turned giddy. to give 1. Why didnt you give it [the telegram] to me? 2. The girl gave a little gasp. to cease 1. The dog has ceased barking. 2. The minis ceased. will 1. We cannot work, we cannot think, unless our stomach wills so. 2. She was so experienced in a boat. Yes, Frith ... But accidents will happen 3. Will you pass me the bread, please? 4. ... The jury will believe that at the inquest too. Phillips will tell them so. shall 1. I shall be of age next year. 2. Shall I write? Shall he help you? 3. Do have a short rest! You shall fall ill if you go on working like that.

to fall 1. At last they the dogs fell on each other with terrible fury... 2. Dr. Macphail did not answer, and presently he fell asleep. 3. But soon he fell into a walk, then ran, and then walked again. 4. Ben fell back clumsily on to the two- inch coral edge of the water-line. to keep 1. I hid the paper under the cushion of the chair ... But I could not keep the morning editions from him. 2. He kept very still, and when he breathed out he kept the valve well into the coral behind him so that the air bubbles ... did not frighten them [sharks] off. 3. The perpetual harassing fire had kept him on the alert day and night. B) Find in an English text: 1) examples with the verb to be used a) as a notional verb in the function of a simple predicate, b) as an auxiliary verb, c) as a link-verb, d) with a modal meaning; 2) four examples with the verb to have used a) as a notional verb in the function of a simple predicate, b) as part of a phraseological unit, c) as an auxiliary verb, d) with a modal meaning; 3) four examples with the verb to do used a) as a notional verb, b) as an auxiliary verb, c) to emphasize the meaning of the notional verb; d) as a verb-substitute; 4) examples with the verbs to come, to turn, to get, to feel, to keep, to grow, to look, to sound. a) as notional verbs, b) as link-verbs. 17. Comment on the kind of the predicate as in the given model. Model: Ben ... took a quick look to see that Davy was not ill ... and went to sleep. took a quick look a simple predicate expressed by a phraseological unit; was ... ill a compound nominal predicate ex pressed by the link-verb was and its predicative, the adjective ill; went to sleep a compound verbal predicate of aspect containing the finite verb to go, which expresses the beginning of the action, and an infinitive. 1. When he came on deck next morning they were close to land. (Maugham). 2. In fancy he ... saw himself and her stealing forth at night ... till London swallowed them up, and the dreams of love came true. (Galsworthy). 3. Hello, Davison! You look hot. Have a cup of tea? (Aldington). 4. Youve been a little brick, Chris, the whole way through our bad times. (Cronin). 5. Father Brown made no answer. (Chesterton). 6. He had no impulse to explore the countryside. (Warner). 7. He was afraid of arriving home alone ... He began to loiter on purpose to be noticed ... (Greene). 8. He seemed scared about something. (Greene). 9. A table had been set up under a tree ... (Lawrence). AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH THE SUBJECT 18. Use the appropriate form of the verb. Translate. 1. There (was, were) many people in the hall. 2. My school-mate and my new fellow-student (has, have) met at my place lately. 3. a) Our old teacher and friend (is, are) dangerously ill. b) Our old teacher and our young friend (is, are) dangerously ill. 4. When (is, are) your grandson and your granddaughter coming to see you? 5. a) The family (was, were) sitting round the table. b) The family (was, were) numerous. 6. The newly married couple (was, were) warmly congratulated by all their friends. 7. A number of people (was, were) standing on the river bank. 8. The number of books in my library (has, have) increased. 9. The two Gentlemen of Verona (is, are) a comedy by Shakespeare. 10. Two young men (was, were) smoking in the corridor.

11. The red and green plaid (is, are) on the sofa. 12. The grey and the black puppy (was, were) sleeping on the rug. 13. A lecture and a report on this subject (is, are) to be delivered on Friday. 14. The cattle (was, were) grazing in the field. 15. Twenty dollars (is, are) not much for this nice coat. 16. All the things (is, are) packed up. 17. Everything (is, are) packed up. 18. If one (works, work) hard, one (makes, make) progress. 19. Gymnastics (strengthens, strengthen) ones health. 20. The wounded (was, were) transported to the hospital. 21. The works (consists of, consist of) different shops. 22. Another three metres (was, were) bought for the girls dress. 23. No news (is, are) good news. 19. Comment on the use of the predicate-verb in the singular or in the plural. 1.... His people in Oughterard were written to. (Joyce). 2. After all it was his own fifty pounds ... 3. Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. (Joyce). 4. There stand three young men ... (Shaw). 5. The fleet drops behind ... (Shaw). 6. We found that the band had arrived, and were standing about in the hall rather pink in the face. ... The band were to be our guests for the night, and after we had welcomed them ..., the band were borne off to their quarters ... (Du Maurier). 7. Mr. Murdstone and I were soon off. (Dickens). 8. Before Brodie could speak he added: How are all the family? (Cronin). 9. The Mungo Clothing Company have taken the, shop next door to your husband (Cronin). 10: Oh, you [the unemployed] werent to have been paid. The North East [Company] never pay their crowds. (Mansfield). THE SECONDARY PARTS OF THE SENTENCE THE OBJECT 20. Comment on the kind of the object and say what it is expressed by. 1. You can leave your homework in the meantime. (Cronin). 2. Shes capable of deciding. (Greene). 3. Mr. Heng sent a polite verbal reply. (Greene). 4. She was leaning on the banisters, listening to something. (Joyce). 5. One must leave some goal for succeeding generations. (Berkeley). 6. And I shall go on lighting for the trust reposed in me by the dead. (Berkeley). 7. What would she think of him doing that, when everything ... depended on his not checking the foreman? (Galsworthy). 8. But the one revelation that always hurt her was his conception of his father as someone ... who knew wonderful things but didnt like to talk. (Wilson) 21. Oral exercise on the position of the indirect object. Place the direct object before the indirect object to make the latter more prominent. Use the preposition to or for. Model: Give me the book. Give the book to me. 1. Show the children this wonderful picture book. 2. Tell somebody else this funny story. 3. Send her people a telegram. 4. Write his patents a letter of congratulation. 5. Cant you lend him a small sum of money? 6. Dont forget to buy your grandmother a new pair of spectacles in a leather case. 7. Bring us your family photos. 8. Dont give me back the money; it isnt mine. 9. Pass him the butter. 9. You neednt return him the book: it belongs to his sister. 11. Show her the snapshots, Ive seen them already. 12. Buy him a bicycle, his sister has got one.

22. A. Point out the object; define the kind of the object. I. Read it! Read it to everybody! She used to read to rue while I was working. 2. Write this word! Write a few words to them! Write to him, he will be so glad to hear from you. 3. Sing a song! She sang some old Irish songs to the grateful listeners. Wont you sing to us? B. Insert the preposition to where necessary. 1. Explain ____ me how to do it. 2. My sister related ____ me all that had happened. 3. 1 often lend my dictionary ____ my friend. 4. He can prove this ____ everybody any moment. 5. He did not suggest ____ them that they should do it. 8. Describe ____ us all the details of the accident. 7. The author dedicated ____ the memory of his parents all the poems collected in the book. 8. These poems are ascribed ____ the pen of a young and gifted poet. 9. He introduced ____ his aunt all his young friends. 10. Can you lend ____ me your raincoat, please? 11. Has the doctor prescribed ____ you any new medicine? 12. We sent ____ her a basket of beautiful flowers. 13. Dont send the money ____ me, send it ____ your grandmother. 14. Give it ____ me. 23. A. Make up sentences with the verbs which may have two direct objects (to ask, to answer, to envy, to forgive, to strike, to excuse, to teach). B. Complete the following sentences (add a cognate object, using it with the attribute given in brackets). 1. The young man died ... (of a hero) 2. The old man sighed ... (deep). 3. He has lived ... (long and interesting). 4. After the excursion we all slept ... (sound). 5. Listening to the funny story he laughed ... (hearty). 6. Looking at the baby the mother smiled ... (happy). 7. He struck his enemy ... (deadly). 8. The troops won ... (glorious). 24. A. Make up sentences using the following words. 1. you, his, he, to, owes, success. 2. these, show, us, post-cards, to. 3. to, write, people, a, his, letter. 4. boy, explain, difficult, to, sum, the, this. 5. dictionary, her, give, my. 6. secretary, the, your, to, application, hand in. 7. your, buy, this, for, teddy bear, girl, little, wonderful. 8. it, do not, him, about, tell. 9. children, the, read, to. 10. girl, parents, introduce, this, to, young, your, charming. 11. work, suggest, them, method, to, the, of, right. 12. valuable, whom, this, does, to, belong, thing? B. Find in an English text some sentences with a) a direct object, b) two direct objects, c) a direct and an indirect object, d) an indirect object (without a direct object).

25. Ask a question on the prepositional object and its attribute, if any, as in the model. Model: I am greatly interested in this problem. What are you interested in? What problem are you interested in? 1. A symphony usually consists of four parts. 2. This collection of stamps belongs to my friend. 3. My decision depends on the state of my health. 4. My parents objected to my buying a motorcycle. 5. The reporter referred to our professors works. 6. Everybody spoke of the talented pianist. 7. The newspapers commented upon the proceedings of the conference of physicists. 8. They agreed upon the terms of the contract. 9. The students listened with great interest to the lecture on the international situation. 10. We were waiting for the 5.30 train. 11. The dean sent for the monitor of our group. 12. I looked for my green bag everywhere. 26. Point out the complex object. State what components the complex object consists of. Translate the sentences. 1. Sun didnt mind people not noticing him much.. (Mansfield). 2. And then, as by a miracle, the pigmy chest, which his hands enclosed, gave a short convulsive heave ... it almost made him faint. (Cronin). 3. Weve dreamed of him succeeding old Palmerston as the Head of the Governmentbrought to the highest position in the country by us. (Berkeley). 4. She heard him absolutely roaring. And do you expect me to pay for this gimcrack excursion of yours? 5. Buried. You two girls had me buried She heard his stick thumping. 6 He did not want anybody to know, 7. You know that she took offence at the poor dear boys ever being born. (Dickens). 8. I will not sit here and hear such comparisons made. With that she stalked out, and made the door bang after her. (Dickens). 9. I shant even wait for it to be emptied. (Mansfield). 10. I only say, he resumed, ... that I disapprove of your preferring such company as Mistress Peggotty. (Dickens). 27. A. Insert a verb suitable to be followed by a complex object (to insist, to make, to keep, find, to wait, to hear, to want, to expect, to see, to let, to get). 1. Nothing will ________ me believe it was true. 2. I ________ him laughing loudly. 3. The father ________ his son to be an educated man. 4. I shall never be able to ______ my packing done by myself. 5. I am not going _______ you go home alone so late at night. 6. We _______ them cross the bridge. 7. We ______ him to come soon. 8. The public were ________ for the curtain to rise 9. He ________ them walking along a shady alley. 10. I didnt intend to ______ you waiting. 11. They _______ on my writing another letter. B. Complete the sentences giving the second element of the complex object. 1. 1 must have my hair 2. Nobody expected you ... 3. We shall get your luggage... 4. He waited for us ... 5. You cant rely on his 6. She watched the swallows ... 7. I suppose it ... 8. She considered herself ... 9. We were surprised at your THE ATTRIBUTE 30. Point out the attribute and say what it is expressed by. 1. Perhaps one day you will have a reason for writing about it. (Greene). 2. Horn made him a sign to come on to the veranda. 3. We used to have a very good horse and trap at home, said Aunt Julia sadly The neverto- be -forgotten Johnny said Mary Jane, laughing (Joyce) 4. They were strangers; they couldnt be expected

to understand that father was the very last person for such a thing to happen to. (Mansfield). 5. On another occasion ... the same dear baby ... was the innocent occasion of Miss Murdstones going into a passion. (Dickens). 6. ... he realised suddenly ... that it wasnt fear of being caught that worried Davy but fear of being left alone. 7. That night in the surgery there were three patients, two of whom paid him the three and six penny fee... He had, in his first days practice, earned the sum of ten and six, (Cronin). 8. She looked at me ... with the slightest possible content a fancy-not-recognising-that-at-the-first glance expression. (Mansfield). 9. And Bertha smiled with that little air of proprietorship that she always assumed while her women friends were new and mysterious. (Mansfield). 10. I think I come across the same idea in a little French review quite unknown in England. 11. She was a well made woman of about fifty ... She had the look of a woman well-fed, well-taken-care-of ... (Cronin). 14. Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great English humorist tells tales out of an artists sheer love of story telling. (Delmer). 15. Bennett was the first to realize that the grey-skied region, known as the Potteries, contained excellent copy for a series of novels. (Delmer). 16. They must have a roof to cover them, a house to shelter them ... (Cronin). 31. Place the attributes in the proper order in relation to the noun they modify. Model: a hut, wooden, small a small wooden hut 1. A man handsome, grey-haired; 2. a building ancient, dilapidated; 3. a woman sick, old; 4. an alley shady, broad; 5. a girl little, thin, with big eyes; 6. a plant tropical, fragrant; 7. a cliff lonely, about 20 feet high; 8. baby two-year- old, charming, this; 9. cousins his, both; 10. a leaf faded, oak; 11. a plaid checked, Scotch, woollen; 12. music sweet, exquisite, but quite unfamiliar to the listeners; 13. the pianist talented, admired by the public; 14. a report made by our professor, interesting, on modern English writers; 15. photo taken about 10 years ago, my schoolfellows; 16. a ladyGerman, middle- aged, stout; 17. cap favourite, my, old; 18. spectaclesold, my, in an old leather case; 19. a doctor very experienced, well- known; 20. a story told by a friend of mine, interesting. 32. Ask questions on the attributes in bold type. (The interrogative words for use: what, which, whose, what kind of, what sort of, how much, how many). 1. He is a conscientious student. 2. Bus number 2 will take you as far as the Opera House. 3. This is a book on architecture. 4. Cold winds blow from the North. 5. This is my brothers tennis racket. To play tennis we must have four balls. 6. He drinks very much milk. 7. Give me the book on the left. 8. He lives in that house at the corner of the street. 9. They live in a new house of modern construction. 10. There are ten students in our group. 11. The meeting will take place in room 32. 12. You mustnt lift heavy things. 13. I like salt biscuits. 14. Ill go by the 3.30 train. 15. My friend spent two years in the North. 16. He delivered an interesting lecture. 17. Your brother is a most amusing companion. 18. She had a tiny brown spaniel puppy in her arms. 19. An old orchard of apple-trees stretched down to a stream. 33. A. Point out the attribute. State what it is expressed by. Translate the sentences. 1. There was nothing to say. 2. She was the first to help me. 3. I have a lot of things to see to. 4. There is nothing more to be done. 5. I have no intention to follow them. 6. Scientists from different countries will be present at the conference shortly to open in our city. 7. I hope to attend all the lectures to be delivered on this subject. 8. There is not a second to be lost. B. Find in an English text sentences including an attribute expressed by 1) an adjective, 2) a pronoun, 3) a numeral (cardinal or ordinal), 4) a noun a) in the common case, b) in the genitive case, 5) a prepositional phrase, 6) an adverb, 7) Participle I or II or a participial phrase, 8) a prepositional gerundial phrase or a prepositional construction, 9) an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or an infinitive construction, 10) a quotation group. 34. A. Make up sentences with detached attributes using the given words. Model: dismal cave, dark and cold.

We found ourselves in a dismal cave, dark and cold. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. big man, broad-shouldered and heavy. nice young girl, very graceful and elegantly dressed. unknown lane, long and narrow. modern building, built of glass and concrete. nice room, light and clean. small kitchen, cosy and tidy.

B. Make up sentences, using the following words and phrases as detached attributes. rather high-flown; terrified by the accident; sick and tired; greatly surprised, quite depressed; fresh and jolly usually so considerate (of) ...; engaged in his work. 35. A. Point out the close and the loose apposition. 1. Maidenhead, a river resort, is on one of the River Thames... 2. The town of Windsor is a typically English town. (Britain) 2. William Langland, the humanitarian poet of the 14th century, deeply felt the social evils he saw around him. 3. Side by side with Langland lived another great English reformer, John Wycliff, one of the intellectual forces of the 14th century. 3. The poet Pope was Shakespeares second editor. 4. Jerome K. Jerome set England laughing ... with a farcial but exceedingly well- written story Three Men in a Boat. 5. The well known personage Sam Weller was Mr. Pickwicks witty, light-hearted, shrewd and faithful servant, a kind of Cockney Sancho Panza. 6. That is his father, Sir Robert, a perfectly honest old cavalier. (Chesterton). THE ADVERBIAL MODIEIER 36. State the kind of the adverbial modifier. Say what the adverbial modifier is expressed by. 1. I heard him knocking, so I ran upstairs to let him in. (Greene). 2. All at once the sheep-dog leapt to its feet. (Bates). 3. Ben was too busy to hear him now ... 4. Gabriel tried to cover his agitation by taking part in the dance with great energy. (Joyce). 5. Im here; Im working, morning, noon and night. (Berkeley). 6. Sophie pulled out the dress without saying anything. (Huxley). 7. There was a road to Cairo which went west across the desert. 8. They went down the stairs side by side. (Maugham). 9. Sometimes it is a joy in the very heart of hell to tell the truth. (Chesterton). 10. I believe that I began to know that there was something about my aunt, notwithstanding her many eccentricities and odd humours, to be honoured and trusted in. (Dickens). 11. Your hands are like snowdrops, Mary ... They are cool like snow itself. 12. She hung her head a little, conscious of her own deficiencies and the oddity of her up-bringing ... (Cronin). 13. Lord Darlington: ... Gogo out of this house, with head erect, with a smile upon your lips, with courage in your eyes. (Wilde). 14. Here Nessie burst into the room like a young foal ... (Cronin). 15. Then in a moment she looked up, as though seeing him for the first time. (Cronin). 16. She sat down on the edge of the table, swinging her legs, watching me (Du Maurier). 17. She paused, her eyes never leaving my face. 18. Everybody coming in time, we shall begin the discussion at 3 oclock.

37. Point out the adverbial modifiers and state their kinds: 1. A long, soft ripple of wind flowed over the corn... 2. Yesterday I passed by an elm avenue... 3. ...the gardeners were busily potting out spring flowers. 4. The lines of the mountains were sharply defined against the profound blue. 5. Winter set in early and unexpectedly with a heavy fall of snow. 6. I quite understand you. 7. I was stiff with long sitting, and bewildered with the noise and motion of the coach... 8. The rest of the conversation is not important enough to be here related. 9. In case of your absence I shall leave you a note. 10. Even Miriam laughed in spite of herself. 11. Before switching on the electric light he pulled down the blind and drew the heavy curtain across the window. 12. She could run like an Amazon. 13. The gale had freshened since noon... and now blew with the strength of a hurricane... 14. She told me we must part, and told me why ... 15. I was completely happy. 16. Youve been working too hard lately. 17. He stood still a long while, surveying the hillside. 18. Martin talked for fifteen minutes with him... 19. By this time it was getting dark and snowing pretty heavily. 20. The stars were very bright. 21. I think its pretty easy, Nick. 22. I entirely agree with you. 23. Notwithstanding the cold weather, Henry Bosmans face glowed like the heater in his chambers... 24. They were walking eastward. 25. The door was not fastened within... 26. We shall be friends in spite of separation... 27. Outside it was getting dark. 28. Dessie stopped for a moment to ease her back. 29. He moved down the stream a few steps... 30. I flushed simply from being spoken to ... 31. Around them, in the alder clumps, the primroses grew in great profusion. 32. She strained her ears to catch the words. 33. Mrs. Pratt had driven to Winster to see her mother... 34. She walked briskly. 35. The sky had partly cleared, but was very gloomy ... 36. Mauki no longer weighs one hundred and ten pounds. 37. He therefore gave his horsemen orders to advance. 38. He was now a hundred yards from the water... 39. The unexpected offer of shelter was too unexpected to be resisted. 40. Once more he passed my table without stopping. 41. It was very interesting to me to see them together not only on account of their mutual affection, but because of the strong personal resemblance between them ... 42. Ben was too busy to hear him now... 43. She started the car, and, ... drove at full speed. 44. Being asked to sit down he laid his hat and stick on the table... 45. I thought I should sleep well being tired; but I didnt. 46. He stood on the porch sunning himself. 47. When dressed, I sat a long time by the window. 48. I did as requested. 49. Nobody spoke unless spoken to... 50. He is extremely well read though very young. 51. If necessary, I shall come tomorrow. 52. Little bare-legged children ran about him, playing on the grass.

38. Insert the adverbial modifier in the appropriate place. (Give more than one variants if possible). 1. It will be raining hard (soon). 2. The climate has been damp (always, in these parts). 3. It rains in autumn (usually). 4. There is no deep river, except the Tamar (on the southern coast of England). 5. The tourist put all the equipment which may be necessary during the tour (into his bag). 6. The ascent of the mountain peak will begin (early in the morning). 7. Ring me up (before leaving the town). 8. One strengthens ones health (by mountaineering). 9. I shall sleep much and take long walks (instead of taking medicine). 10. One must have a good rest (after training). 11. We sat down to table and had a hearty meal (on returning home). 12. He jumped at the offer (being invited to spend his vacation in a mountain-camp). 13. We shall go on an excursion (weather permitting). 14. We returned to the camp (the sun setting behind the mountains). 39. Insert the adverbial modifiers in their proper place. To his orderly he was cold and ... indifferent (at first). ... the change came (then, gradually). He might have changed his man (easily). He looked direct at his orderly (now, very rarely). ... As the young soldier moved, the elder watched him (unthinking, about the apartment). And an undiscovered feeling had held between the two men (from that time). The orderly was afraid of really meeting his master (henceforward). So he stared past his master (always)... He had served the Captain, and knew his duty (for more than a year). This he performed (easily) ... This irritated the officer (more and more). I flew into a rage with the young soldier (sometimes), and bullied him. The words pierced to his intelligence (never). He had a scar on his left thumb. The officer had suffered from it (long). The Captain grew irritable (madly). He flung a heavy military glove into the young soldiers face (once). The youth tried to keep him self intact (instinctively) ... The youth was frightened (deeply). (Lawrence) 40. Ask questions on the adverbial modifiers in bold type. 1. All the preparations happily completed, we left for the South. 2. I see them twice a week. 3. One must handle this apparatus with great care. 4. After a good rest I can go miles. 5. The tourists were tired having covered over 30 miles that day. 6. She opened the window to air the room. 7. We have been living here since 1930. 8. The sailor ran to the front of the boat. 9. Rumours of his doings reached his relations from time to time. 10. In the fable the ant spends the summer gathering its winter store. 11. He opened the door for me to pass. 41. Make up sentences of your own using the following word combinations as adverbial modifiers. 1) of time or frequency: from time immemorial, since then, when a boy, when questioned, on returning home, from time to time, from that day on, in a day or two, not until, it was done, on that unforgettable day, with the flush of dawn; 2) of place or direction: behind the house, in front of the house, in the distance, at a distance, across the street, at the corner of the street, at the top of the page, at the bottom of, downstairs; 3) of manner or attending circumstances: on purpose, by chance, without a glance, with his fists clenched, with tears streaming down her cheeks, in a whisper, full of indignation, side by side, as if to stop him, never to come back; 4) of degree or measure: rather (well, badly, etc.), greatly (surprised, astonished, disappointed, etc.), to perfection, particularly, deeply, fairly well, over head and ears; 5) of cause: quite worn out, because of ones carelessness, not being able to, there being no time left, it being late; 6) of condition: weather permitting, but for (ones help, advice, kindness, etc.), if possible (necessary, obligatory), if (unless) discovered (asked, required, etc.); 7) of comparison: as if asleep (in doubt, etc.), like (all elderly people, all his relatives; a child, etc.); 8) of concession: difficult as it was, in spite of (the difficulties, the nasty weather, etc.), although quite tired (much weaker, etc.), notwithstanding his success (promise, etc.);

9) of purpose: for you to (have it, see it, etc.), in order to soothe the baby (to make it clear, etc.), lest he should forget it. DETACHED PARTS OF THE SENTENCE 42. Point out and define the detached parts of the sentence. Translate the sentences. 1. He was so earnest in his manner that, despite her apathy, Mary found herself thanking him ... (Cronin). 2. In spite of himself, he watched him, gave him sharp orders (Lawrence). 3. Then the orderly shut himself off ... and waited, with sullen, flushed face, for the end of the noise. (Lawrence). 4. Dandy and Winter showed, so far, no signs of the bankruptcy prophesied for them by Soames ... (Galsworthy). 5. Presently he came to a standstill, with his hands deep plunged into his pockets and his shoulders hunched. (Galsworthy). 6. Between Michael and his senior partner a gulf was fixed, not less deep than that between two epochs ... (Galsworthy). 7. There he was, in his shabby overcoat, with his pale narrow face, and his disproportionately large eyes, and his sloping shoulders. (Galsworthy). 8. Jose! she said, horrified, however are we going to stop everything? (Mansfield). 9 He, however, was a gentleman, with long, fine hands and cultivated movements. 10. Michael moved his nostrils ... but he could catch no scent, except incense. (Galsworthy) Find in an English text sentences with the following detached members: a) a detached adverbial modifier. b) a detached attribute, c) a detached object. 43. Point out homogeneous parts, define them and state what they are expressed by. 1. She was wearing a black pleated skirt and a bright red blouse of very fine poplin. (Braine). 2. It was a low, pleasant laugh. (Braine). 3. Vaults closing! Samuel would say and yawn. (Bennett). 4. Was he unaware that his wife was the proudest and the most obstinate woman on earth ...? (Bennett). 5. She turns round and looks at her husband. (Wilde). 6. Algernon: Ah! that must be Aunt Augusta. Only relatives or creditors ever ring in that Wagnerian manner. (Wilde). 7. They could not have moved or spoken since he went. (Maugham). 8. He raised her to her feet and partly dragging her, partly carrying her, got her downstairs. (Maugham). 9. He has asked his questions querulously but sternly ... (Aldridge). 10. Regret for the past and the future is the same. 11. But again Ashurst smiled and shook his head. (Galsworthy). 12. She was walking on before him so lightly and so erect ...(Joyce). 13. Once he was caught in a knot of children running away from some thing or somebody .. (Greene). 14. Sophia got the kettle and washed it up. (Bennett). 15. There was starlight, but no moonlight. (Greene). 16. The third [girl] was perhaps seventeen, tall and fair- haired too. (Galsworthy). 17. In the silence Gabriel could hear the falling of the molten wax into the tray and the thumping of his own heart against his ribs. (Joyce). 18. Then, suddenly raising herself on tiptoe and resting her hands lightly on his shoulders, she kissed him. (Joyce). 19. He was both curious and eager to have more precise information of his friends of the previous evening. (Cronin). 20. Digging went on through Tuesday and Wednesday. (Warner). 21. I watched him read his letters, saw him frown at one, smile at another ... (Du Maurier). 44. Point out homogeneous parts and state how they are connected. 1. Both he who chooses heads and he who chooses tails are equally at fault ... (Greene). 2. Nobody ever saw Chirac or the old sail. (Bennett) 3. The room was plainly visible as commodious, comfortably, though not agreeably furnished. (Cronin). 4. She was sitting in a chair idly, neither reading nor sewing ... (Maugham). 5. She accused Robert of either taking the ornament or breaking it and concealing the breakage. (Du Maurier). 6. That night Ashurst hardly slept at all. He was thinking, tossing and turning. Next morning he got his cheque cashed, but avoided the shop of the dove-grey dress ..., and, instead, bought himself some necessaries. (Galsworthy). 7. But I was more afraid of the pain than of the partisans ... (Greene). S. A moment later she pulled back the bolt of the bedroom door and then turned the key and opened the door and stood on the landing outside (Bates). Find in an English text some sentences containing homogeneous parts. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

45. Analyse the following sentences according to the form given. Model: Clarice was waiting for me in my bedroom. It is a simple extended sentence. Clarice is the subject expressed by a proper noun was waiting is a simple predicate expressed by the verb to wait in the Past continuous tense, singular. for me is a prepositional object expressed by a personal pronoun, first person, singular, in the objective case, preceded by the pre position for. in my bedroom is an adverbial modifier of place expressed by a prepositional phrase. 1. Mary shook off her mantle with a shrug of her shoulders. (Cronin). 2. Passengers getting out of the open doors were bowled along the platform. 3. Trasker had been watching her with an inexplicable flush on his face ... (Wilson). 4. Dinner at the Traskers had become by this time almost a family routine for the Gorins. (Wilson). 5. Several shutters were put up in the windows of the shop to indicate a death. (Bennett). 6. The customer sent up by Constance had occupied the surface of her life for ten minutes, trying on hats. (Bennett). 7. She saw him put a piece of folded white paper on the top edge of the screening box and flick it down to her. (Bennett). 8. This was a disagreeable way of putting the business. (Dickens). 9. The two women stood side by side looking at the slender, flowering tree. (Mansfield). 10. She had to talk because of her desire to laugh. (Mansfield). 11. One winter afternoon she had been buying something in a little antique shop in Curzon Street. (Mansfield). 12. I opened the knife, and cut a: length of twine, and came back into the room again. 13 This time he allowed me to touch him and pull hold of his collar. (Du Maurier). 14. Most of the western rivers flow down a steep slope near the sea and are short and rapid. (Wide World Reader). 15. The southern rivers also rise near the coast and have short and rapid courses. (Wide World Reader). 16. The valley of the Tweed is remarkable for its magnificent trees. 17. The ebb flows to and from the great shallow of the North Sea produces an alternating tidal race, running with a speed of from six to ten knots an hour. 18. The contrast between the south-east and the north-west of Brit ain depends on a fundamental distinction in rock structure. 19. The well known cyclone on the 28 of December in 1879 was a real storm, the wind amounting in some places to a severe gale. 20. From the Pennine Chain good building stone, marble, and lime are obtained in large quantities. 21. Birmingham, Englands Second City, has the reputation of being able to make anything from an ancient relic to the automobile. 22. Stratford is an irresistibly attractive country town. THE INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS OP THE SENTENCE 46. Point out the independent elements, define them and say what they are expressed by. 1. Have one each, my dears, said cook in her comfortable voice. (Mansfield). 2. That was, so to speak, another gift from Warley. (Braine). 3. Hello, Eva, I said. Hello, Alice:.. (Braine). 4. Well, Miss Spencer, she greeted the former Baroness Zerlinski. (Bennett). 5. To do that lady justice, Miss Spencer bore the surprising ordeal very well. (Bennett). 6. But, on the whole, England has a gently sloping surface. 7. Oh, father! cried Nella, what a lot of mustard you have taken! (Bennett). 8. At length the reply from Mr. Murdstone came ... (Dickens). 47. Point out the parenthesis and state what it is expressed by. 1. He is my husband, and, of course, I do what he tells me. (Bennett). 2. As it was, Nella departed with surprising docility. (Bennett). 3. He looked at her in sullen amazement, but refused, none the less, to be diverted from the issue. 4. She glanced, sideways, at the old couple. Perhaps they would go soon. (Mansfield). 5. Gerald: They [women] are awfully interested, certainly, in things we dont care much about.

6. Needless to say, the total was more and not less than a thousand francs. (Bennett). 7. ... But theres no chance here, Mrs Bicket. Besides, he couldnt make two ends meet on this job, he told me. (Galsworthy). 8. According to your theory, were in a mighty soulful era. (Galsworthy). 9. To tell you the truth, I dont like to get up early. 48. A. Insert an appropriate word (word combination) as a parenthesis evidently, in fact, by the way, judging by ..., to cut a long story short, may be, besides, luckily, in my opinion, to tell the truth). 1. __________he is quite ill. 2. __________they got married. 3. __________ I dont like it. 4.____________ N. is the best violinist Ive ever heard. 5. __________I found out much later that I had been wrong. 6. Dont worry, __________she will come soon. 7. I have much work to do for to-morrow, __________my mother is unwell, so I must leave at once. 8. ____________ the driver managed to avoid knocking down the old man. 9. You have ____________been working very hard, you look so tired. 10. ____________Henry, how old is your sister? B. Make up or find sentences using the following words and word combinations as a parenthesis: a) modal words (such as: perhaps, maybe, certainly, etc.); b) adverbs (such as: besides, still, anyway, moreover, firstly, etc.); c) prepositional phrases (such as: in truth, at least, etc.); d) infinitive and participial phrases (such as: to be frank, to be quite plain, etc., generally speaking, judging by your words, etc.). THE COMPOUND SENTENCE 49. Point out sentences with a) syndetic and b) asyndetic coordination. Comment on the types of coordination and on the conjunctions used in a). 1. I would not listen to her, I thought her hard and cruel. (Du Manner). 2. She put her hands up to her cheeks, but her eyes seemed to look right into his. (Galsworthy). 3. He went up to his bedroom to get a book, and his heart began to beat violently, for she was in there making the bed. (Galsworthy). 4. The cuckoos and a thousand birds were singing; the little streams were very bright. (Galsworthy). 5. Spreading four square in the midst of the British Kingdom is the inland Irish Sea; while for six hundred miles off the north western shores is the border of the ocean. (Mackinder). 6. In Britain even the leeward slopes receive abundant moisture; yet the rain-shadows to eastward and north-eastward of the hills are distinctly indicated upon the map. (Mackinder). 50. Point out the coordinating conjunctions connecting a) the clauses of the compound sentences and b) those connecting the homogeneous members of the simple sentences. 1. Miss Sharp only folded her own hands with a very frigid smile and bow, and quite declined to accept the proffered honour. (Thackeray). 2. A seed-cake and a bottle of wine were produced in the drawing-room and these refreshments being partaken of, Miss Sedley was at liberty to depart. (Thackeray). 3. He must go, or they would overtake him. (Lawrence). 4. If you meant to be a guest, you or your courier gave your card to Miss Spencer. 5. Racksole tried to catch the waiters eye, but could not. (Bennett). 6. She wanted to come and see you before, but she and Maxim have been so busy. (Du Maurier). 7. Neither she nor I could pick up any information on the subject. (Dickens). 8. Mrs. Septimus Small let fall no word; neither did she question June about it. (Galsworthy). 51. Comment on the meaning of the coordinating conjunction and (addition, succession or simultaneity; causative-consecutive or adversative meaning).

1. Rebeccas mother had had some education somewhere, and her daughter spoke French with purity and a Parisian accent. (Thackeray). 2. She had already taken leave of him once ...; and now she had nothing to say, nothing whatever. (Bennett). 3. On the instant she straightened up, and her eyes filled with a great pain. (Dreiser). 4. They were all tremendously great men, and the so-called experts were all tremendously sure they were right. (Berkeley). 5. A padding of unshod hoofs came up the lane, and three dim, dark shapes passed ponies on an evening march. (Galsworthy). 6. The catastrophe came, and she was brought to the Mall as to her home. (Thackeray). 7. Susan was a princess and I was the equivalent of a swine-herd. 8. There was a pane missing in the kiosk and a cold wind blew in. 9. That poor boy asked me to help him to get a chance to propose and I sent them out for a walk. (Berkeley). 10. Constance, in addition to the sciatica, had caught a sneezing cold, and the act of sneezing caused her the most acute pain. (Bennett). 11. He laughed, and so did she. (Dreiser). 12. Then the bazooka shell burst on the tower and I was on my face again. (Greene). 13. ... theyve been married nearly ten years and they havent had any children. (Braine) 52. Make up one compound sentence by joining two simple ones with the help of the conjunction. Model: You dont like to have a tooth pulled out. I dont like to have a tooth pulled out. You dont like to have a tooth pulled out, and I dont like it either. 1. You have not been to London. I have not been there. 2. She does not like jazz-band. My people do not like jazz-band. 3. I never take medicine. She does not take medicine. 4. She is not fond of such kind of poetry. I am not fond of it. 5. My aunt never goes to football matches. My grandmother never goes to football matches. 6. You never make spelling mistakes. My friend never makes spelling mistakes. 7. I do not go to-the South in July. My sister does not go to the South in July. 53. Join the following sentences into one using the conjunction so or neither. (Mind the order of words in the second clause of the compound sentence). Model: I am going to hear this concert. My sister is going to hear it too. I am going to hear this concert, so is my sister. Bananas dont grow in the North. Pine-apples dont grow in the North either. Bananas dont grow in the North, neither do pine-apples. 1. He would have liked to be present at that lecture. I should have liked to be present at the lecture too. 2. I have never been to Scandinavian countries. My children have never been to Scandinavian countries either. 3. You are not responsible for this accident. Your husband is not responsible for it either. 4. But for the meeting I should have been at the concert yesterday. My fellow-students would have been there too. 5. I am greatly interested in this subject. My friend is also interested. 54. Using suitable coordinating conjunctions, convert the following simple sentences into compound ones. 1. It being stuffy in the room, I opened the window. 2. Thanks to the drivers skill, the old man was not knocked down. 3. Our work being completed, we may have a good rest. 4. For all his experience in this branch of science, he is sometimes compelled to consult the professor. 5. In spite of the snowstorm in the mountains, the geologists managed to carry out their work. 6. She spoke to me in low voice to avoid disturbing the patient. 7. He blamed nobody except his younger brother. 8. Except the pianist himself all the people found the concert to be a success.

9. That day the sea was too stormy for people to bathe. 10. During the holidays I went to Moscow to see an old friend of mine. 11. It being a nice little place, the host and the hostess were rather proud of it. 12. But for the umbrella he would have come home drenched and would have caught cold. 55. Complete the following so that compound sentences should be formed. 1. Take the lid off the pan, or else (the soup, to boil over). 2. Some people like hot weather, whereas (others, cant stand...). 3. Either you will buy the tickets, or (I, to ask ...). 4. You are inexperienced, hence (you, cant judge ...). 5. She is small and thin, while (her children, to be ...). 6. Both the friends were fond of music, so (they, to talk...). 7. I asked them to stay some days more, still (they, to make up ones mind ...). 8. The train started at 5 a. m., therefore (we, to get up ...). 9. He was quite a young boy, nevertheless (everybody, to respect ...). 10. Neither a telegram was sent, nor (a letter, to be written). 11. I met him somewhere, but ( not to remember ...). 13. She is a delicate child, while (her brother, to be ...). 14. He was not much afraid, yet (he, to ask ...). THE COMPLEX SENTENCE SUBJECT, OBJECT AND PREDICATIVE CLAUSES 56. Point out subject clauses and the connectives they are introduced by. 1. Whatever he thought of her would not go beyond him. (Galsworthy). 2. ... How that woman ever got into it [the world] with that name, is unaccountable to me. (Dickens). 3. What you ask is impossible. (Wilde). 4. What we want is rest, said Harris. (Jerome). 5. One night my fathers big red land was trampled down by small sharp hooves, and it was discovered that the culprits were goats. 6. What awakened him was the engine coughing. (Aldridge), 7. Is it to be hinted to me that I want in affection for my precious treasure ... (Dickens). 8. Its very strange, said Mr. Dick ..., that I never can get that quite right (Dickens). 9. Which side wins does not concern us here. (Shaw). 10. Its a good thing she went away with you. (Greene). 11. Whether I was her rival in sport or in studies seemed equally bad in her eyes. A. Find in an English text some complex sentences containing a subject clause introduced by a) the conjunctions that, whether; b) the conjunctive pronouns who, which, what and by the conjunctive adverbs where, when, how, why. 57. Point out predicative clauses; state by what connectives they are introduced. 1. I had said the name ... It was as though I had taken a purge and rid myself of an intolerable pain. (Du Maurier). 2. To blow the bridge at a stated hour based on the time set for the attack is how it should be done. (Hemingway). 3. The provoking thing was that ... Bertha couldnt make her out. (Mansfield). 4. This was not how the object itself would look: this was the image in a mirror, reversed. (Greene). 6. And this is what he remembered. (Gals worthy). 7. Dr. Macphails first thought was that something had happened to Miss Thompson. (Maugham). 8. The trouble was ... he got mixed up. (Greene). 9. We are just as we were, said Adrian, friends. (Galsworthy).

58. Define the kind of the subordinate clauses; isolate that which appears to be the principal clause. 1. What has happened to me is exactly what I willed to happen. 2. What annoyed me the most about him was that he stood four inches above me and was broader across the shoulders. (Braine). 3. What she simply couldnt make out what was miraculous was how she should have guessed Miss Fultons mood so exactly and so instantly. (Mansfield). 4. What weve got to decide now, however, is whether we really do trust Kate or not. (Mansfield). 5. What I mean is people dont suddenly for no reason have violent headaches. (Du Maurier). 6. What I mean is that you cant go cutting everybody. (Shaw). 59. State whether the object clauses are introduced asyndetically or syndetically; in the latter case pick out the connectives. Translate the sentences. 1. You must do whatever your conscience tells you to be right, Dr. Gumming. (Berkeley). 2. What Miss Fulton did, Bertha didnt know. (Mansfield). 3. What is to guarantee that my orders are not changed? (Hemingway). 4. She found that I listened to what she said. 5. I do not blame the dog because I take it that it is his nature. (Jerome). 6. I only want you to re - member what you have seen, he said ... (Greene). 7. I couldnt tell who the speakers were. (Greene). 8. One can allways tell from a womans bonnet whether she has got a memory or - not. (Wilde). 9. I hope I shall remember that. (Wilde). 10. I think there must have been thunder in the air (Wilde). 11. Nella inquired where the Baroness meant to take lunch. (Bennett). 12. I dont see why a man should think he is pleasing a woman enormously when he says to her a whole heap of things that he doesnt mean. (Wilde). 13. I see how it is. 14. I was horribly afraid lest some one might walk up Salisbury Lane ... (Bennett). 15. I wondered if the bishops wife saw the flush on my face ... (Du Maurier). 16. Andrew, I am exceedingly sorry I allowed you to call on us. (Shaw). 17. Dinny felt suddenly that she was on very thin ice. (Galsworthy). 18. Im terribly glad Ive met you at last. (Galsworthy). Find in an English text some complex sentences containing an object clause. 60. A. Join the following simple sentences into one complex sentence containing a subject, an object, or a predicative clause. 1. What kind of books are you fond of? I should like to know it. 2. He told us many things about his journey. We are greatly interested in it. 3. His children should be decent and educated people. He dreams about it. 4. What was going on in the street? I wondered at it. 5. Travelling by land is more interesting than travelling by sea. I dont think so. 6. He will keep his word. You may rely on it. B. Complete the following sentences supplying subject, object, or predicative clauses. 1. He has made up his mind ... 2. 1 didnt hear ... 3. A little bit of pluck is 4 The trainers instructions to the sportsman were 5. It was of vital importance 6. The trainer explained to them ... 7. Ill do just 8. His aim was ... 9. I take it ... 10. It is a pity ... 11. Do you understand...? 12. He felt ... 13. See to it 14. ... I really cannot imagine. ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES 61. Define the kinds of attributive clauses; translate the sentences. 1. It was the hour of rest in the immense courtyard which lay open to the sky. (Greene). 2. The procession of cars was well ahead of us by the time we started. (Greene). 3. Then Harris, who was sitting next the window, drew aside the curtain and looked out upon the street. (J. K. Jerome). 4. There is no doubt that my wife was bitterly jealous. (Conan Doyle). 5. There are times when all of us are afraid of him. (Conan Doyle). 6 I have no distinct remembrance whether it pleased or frightened me. (Dickens). 7. I had a strong impression that my company was not wanted. (Greene). 8. We were expected to work all the time, which appears reasonable enough. 9. She was very much afraid of her husband, who treated her with a harshness for which I frequently reproached him. (Conan Doyle). 10. In the distance lay the park, where the trees were weighted with snow. (Joyce). 11. A similar revolver she concealed in Miss Dunbars wardrobe after discharging one barrel, which she could easily do in the woods without attracting attention. (Conan Doyle).

62. Pick out the attributive clauses; point out the words the clauses refer to; say whether the clauses are introduced a) asyndetically, b) syndetically define the connectives. 1. Perhaps he was just killed by someone who wanted his money. (Greene). 2 Gabriel went away to a remote corner of the room where Freddys mother was sitting. (Joyce). 3. She has an opportunity which is offered to very few of us. (Maugham). 4. Ben ... was having trouble with the valve that supplied the right amount of air. (Aldridge). 5. That was the knife he had had no time to use. 6. Those were the days when there was something like singing to be heard in Dublin. (Joyce). 7. He wanted to explain all he had felt and thought. 8. She belonged to a world about which he knew nothing at all. (Greene). 9. They had agreed that during the first evening they would avoid asking questions about how and why Emil had left Vienna. (Warner). 10. The only person in the household with whom he seemed to feel at ease was Hannah. (Warner). 11. I felt the same walking down Piccadilly after the war as I did as a youngster back from India. (Galsworthy). 63. A. Insert: who, whose, whom, which, that. 1. When he reached Andrew, _________ he had seen from halfway down the street, he gave a theatrical start of recognition, (Cronin) 2. The most- markedly transverse river in Wales is the Wye, __________ general direction is south eastward. (Mackinder). 3.This marriage __________ for obvious reasons must inevitably take place ... will not give me a name ___________ will be really, rightly mine to bear. (Wilde). 4.Cam bridge is one of the great architectural glories of England. Those ____________ claim that it is more beautiful than Oxford were educated locally. (Britain). B. Translate: 1. He is not such a timid person as you think him to be. 2. In the picture gallery there -were such pictures as we had never seen before. 3. Your son is fond of such books as I liked in my childhood. 64. A. Omit the relative pronouns or adverbs where possible. 1. Tell me the title of the book that you have just mentioned. 2. I did not notice the person who has left the purse - here. 3. The person whose purse we have found will be informed about it. 4. You will like the place where we are going to. 5. A dog that barks never bites. 6. I am still under the impression of the concert which took place yesterday. B. Find in an English text: 1. some sentences containing attributive relative restrictive clauses; 2. some sentences containing attributive relative non-restrictive clauses; 3. some sentences containing attributive non-restrictive continuative clauses which refer to the whole of the principal clause; 4. some sentences containing appositive clauses. 65. Join the following simple sentences into a complex one, using suitable connectives or asyndetically. 1. The long struggle in England between the dynasties of Lancaster and York lasted for 30 years. This struggle is known as the Wars of the Roses. 2. The only Roman theatre in Britain is on the outskirts of the town of St. Albans. There in the 1st century of our era stood the Roman town of Verulamium. 3. The City Walls have encircled the city of York since the 14th century. Along the top of the City Walls there runs a footpath. 4. King Harold was killed in the battle. His Anglo-Saxon troops were defeated by the Normans in the battle at Hastings in 1066. 5. The Norman kings ruled with the help of Norman nobles. They formed a governing body. 66. A. Complete the following sentences supplying attributive clauses. 1. He bought a collection of stamps in the shop ... 2. 1 shall never forget the day 3. I do not know the stamp ... 4. A person ... must know geography well. 5. The stamp ... has been sent to me by a friend of mine. 6. The boy ... will gladly show his collection to you.

B. Insert appositive clauses using the conjunctions that, whether or the adverbs how, why. 1. Their proposal ... cannot be realized. 2. I dont like the idea... 3. Ive got rid of the horrible fear 4. The news ... cheered us greatly. 5. His illness was the reason ... 6. The question ... seemed very important. 7. He expressed his doubt ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 67. A. Define the kinds of adverbial clauses. I. They stood waiting where they were. (Maugham). 2. When they knocked at her door Mrs. Davidson came out. 3 I did as she asked ... (Conan Doyle). 4. I cannot be at ease ... if someone else is in pain ... (Greene). 5. Eulalia was so moved that she could only weep again. (Coppard). 6. Lunch passed off better than I had dared to hope. (Du Maurier). 7. Though she had only twice seen Ferse, she recognised him at once. 8. He was furious with Mrs. Davidson and his wife because they made no effort to help. 9. I turned away, so that Frith should not see my face. (Du Manner). 10. They liked to criticise my looks ..., they liked to watch how Maxim and I behaved to each other ..., so that they could go back afterwards and discuss us ... (Du Maurier). B. Find in an English text some complex sentences containing all kinds of adverbial clauses. 68. Point out the adverbial clauses of time and place; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced. 1. He woke even before the bugle sounded. (Lawrence). 2. It was raining when we left London. (Du Maurier). 3. But why shouldnt they live here until things are settled? said Lady Cherrell. (Galsworthy). 4. Adrian left as soon as he had drunk his coffee. (Galsworthy). 5. I was back where I had been before. (Du Manner). 6. She turned to where a few yards along the pavement a long bald man impatiently awaited her. (Cronin). 7. Now that Brodie had commenced to eat it was permissible for the others to begin ... (Cronin). 8. I was now free to live and work wherever I liked. (Moore). 9. I can cut his hair while Im talking to him. (Galsworthy). 10. A sergeant was changing the sentries he came down the trench. (Aldington). 11. Come and put up with me till we get things straightened out. (Galsworthy). 12. The room was spacious ... The moment he entered it he felt that his premonition was correct. (Cronin). 13. It has not occurred to me to mention Peggotty since I ran away. (Dickens). 14. 1 shall always think so, as long as I live. (Dickens). 15. Hardly had she brought one gentleman into the little pantry behind the office ... then the wheezy hall-door bell clanged again. (Joyce). 16. Ill come anywhere you like, said Ann. 69. Point out the adverbial clauses of manner, comparison, degree and result; isolate the conjunctions by which they are introduced. 1. Once I shivered as Pyle had done. (Greene). 2 The weather was wet and cold for quite a week, as it often can be in the vest country in early summer ... (Du Maurier). 3.... I love her more than I have ever told you, far more. (Wilde). 4. The doctor put the case as reasonably as he could ... (Maugham). 5. The change was so sudden that I was shocked and a little scared. 6. He always treated boys as if they were his equals. (Moore). 7. He went into the house by the back door ... as though he had something to hide. (Maugham). 8. Lily seldom made a mistake in the orders, so that she got on well with her three mistresses. (Joyce). 9. The little fellow ... gave such a lusty shout, that the sound of it made him bashful, and he buried his face in her skirts. 70. Point out the adverbial clauses of condition and concession; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced.

1. You gave her the wounds she died of. There is the truth for your comfort, however you like it. 2. I am devoted to Maxim .., though we always bicker like cat and dog when we meet. 3. Although she said nothing I felt guilty. 4. Unless I receive this requisition in full within an hour, I shall inform the Government that I cannot continue to hold my post if you remain in yours. 5. Whatever we do we must think of him as well as of ourselves. (Galsworthy). 6. I liked his loyalty to Harding - whoever Harding was. 7. Really, it is as simple to buy a hotel or a railroad as it is to buy a watch, provided one is equal to the transaction. 8. Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. (Joyce). 71. Point out the adverbial clauses of cause and purpose; isolate the connectives by which they are introduced. 1. I called him Frank because Maxim did. (Du Maurier). 2. She asked me to leave the answer on the sundial in the garden as she desired no one to be in our confidence. (Conan Doyle). 3. I informed myself of the hour at which she left of an evening, in order that our visit might be timed accordingly. (Dickens). 4. Instinctively he turned his back more to the light lest she might see the shame that burned upon his forehead. 5. Since he seemed nervous even at the dress rehearsal, Isabel agreed not to go. (Bates). 6. Then I told her to hush, and not stir, for fear she should make him angry. (F. Bronte). 7. Ill change the ticket so that you may be able to go with the evening train. B. Make a list of the connectives used to introduce subordinate clauses of a) time, b) place, c) manner, d) comparison, e) degree, f) result, g) condition, h) concession, i) cause, j) purpose in the sentences given above. 72. Insert the appropriate conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses of time. I. We have never seen him ................. he left for the Crimea. 2. Send me a telegram ... you come. 3. .. he said it he felt it was wrong. 4. I made his acquaintance .. he had graduated from the University. 5. It had happened .. the experiment was completed. 6. Make hay ... the sun is shining. 7. Ill be glad to see you .... you come. 8. She was standing on the shore ........................ the ship was lost sight of. 9. ... had I knocked at the door ... .it swung open. 10. Stay here .... you can. 11. .. the sky began to clear up, the air grew cooler. 12. .... had I opened the gate .. the dogs began to bark. 73. A. Define the kinds of clauses introduced by where and when. 1. I like the country place where we lived last year. 2. Let us meet where we used to walk in summer. 3. It is of importance where they will spend their vacation. 4. I wondered where they intended to go. 5. The question is where they will spend their summer vacation. 6. Do you know the time when he will come? 7. Everybody was glad when he came at last. 8. I have no idea when he will come. 9. Its very important when we must start. 10. The difficulty is when we shall be able to do it. Find in an English text some sentences with where and when introducing: a) a subject clause, b) a predicative clause, c) an object clause, d) an attributive relative clause, e) an adverbial clause of place. 74. Complete the following sentences. 1. We are very fond of the little cottage where ... 2. Dont you know where ... 3. Where ... is of no importance. 4. It happened where 5. The problem to settle is where ... 6. She doesnt tell me where 7. They are quite happy where ... 8. For the last time she had a look at the house where ... 9. Where ... isnt known to a single person. 10. That is where ... 11. I should like to find such a place where 12. No plant can grow where ... 13. The day when ... was one of the happiest in my life. 14. I cant work when ... 15. Nobody knows when ... 16. When ... is not settled yet. 17. The thing to decide is when ... 18. I felt tired when ... 19. I am interested to know when 20. When ... interests me greatly. 21. The hour when has not been changed. 22. The most important thing for us is when ... 23. Dont you remember when ... 24. I shall never forget the moment when 75. State what kind of clauses are introduced by as.

1. As she was descending the dark kitchen steps she heard Amy voice ... (Bennett). 2. As Gabriel never ate sweets, the celery had been left for him. (Joyce). 3. Ill do as I like. 4. It is not so hot today as it was yesterday. 5. Women should think in moderation, as they should do all things in moderation. (Wilde). 6. Try as he might to reconstruct his changing ideas, Denny seemed fated to demolish them. (Cronin). 7. As she said those words she suddenly let fall her brush. (Mansfield). 8. She was at the station after all, standing just as he had imagined, apart from the others ... (Mansfield). 9. Gerald, come near to me. Quite close to me, as you used to do when you were a little boy ... (Wilde). 10. I went through the long drawing- room, as he had directed ... (Du Maurier). 11. But this writing- table, beautiful as it was, was no pretty toy ... (Du Maurier). 76. A. Complete the sentences supplying the principal clause in each of them. 1. Young as she is ... 2. As they were going along the road 3. As a lot of people have a liking for this health resort 4. As the wind was wrong and the waves were rather high 5. As you usually do 6. Early as it was B. Supply adverbial clauses of time, manner, cause, comparison, concession, or an attributive clause introduced by as. 1. ... the passengers began to wave their hands greeting their friends. 2. He held the oars 3. ... the sailing-boat was moving rather slowly. 4. He likes swimming almost as much 5. ... he could not move the boat against the current. 6. To steer a canoe you must-have such an oar 77. Complete the following sentences so that they should contain a subordinate clause introduced by that (so that) a) Subject clause It is necessary that . . .; It is of great importance that: b) Object clause Ive read that . . .; Everybody knows that c) Attributive relative clause: Where is the puppy that . . .; Of all the pictures I like the one that d) Appositive attributive clause: He expressed his hope that I dont quite like the idea that e) Adverbial clause of purpose: She did it that . . .; Let them know about it that

f) Adverbial clause of degree It was oppressively hot that 78. Comment on the use of so that and so... that. Define the kind of clauses. Translate. 1. Was I breathing so loudly that you could hear me? (Bennett). 2. It may be that I am too bound to him already who, robbing me, yet left me richer, so that in the mire of my life I found the pearl of price. 3. At first I was so rattled and taken aback that I was ready to think she has been led away in some extraordinary fashion. 4. A long inscription in bad Latin ... followed the course of this staircase, so that the climber read it word by word as he mounted step by step ... (Moore). 5. That bloody concrete barrack I live in now its so clean and streamlined that I wouldnt be at all surprised if it took to flight. 6. ... and boats are drawing near and passing away, so that the sunny river ... is dotted and decked with yellow, and blue, and orange ... (Jerome). 7. I wondered if it would be possible to hide ..., so that Frith ... would say Madam must have gone out. (Du Maurier) 8. At last it [the argument] grew so heated that the cook ... was called from the kitchen to be interpreter. (Lessing). 79. Complete the following sentences. 1. The more you ask him about it, the less 2. The longer you wait, the slower 3. The more rain falls, the better 4. The more he thought, the more 5. The harder one works, the better 6. The fewer questions you ask, the better 7. The longer one lives, the more 8. The taller the basket-ball player is, the easier 9. The tougher the meat is, the longer 10. The brighter the sun shines, the better 11. The nearer you come to the sea, the fresher 12. The talk will be the more unpleasant, the longer 80. Complete the following sentences supplying adverbial clauses of: a) place 1. Their cottage stands where ... 2. Fetch it from where ... 3. Id like to speak with you wherever b) time 1. We have not met since ... 2. Ill do it while ... 3. Write to me as soon as ... 4. Dont linger after ... 5. He will let you know when 6. You can have a rest as long as ... 7. They went on talking until ... 8. The moment ... they rushed downstairs. c) cause 1. I cant give my consent because ... 2. Since ... Ill not speak about it. 3. As ... it is difficult to find him at home. 4. He is very suspicious for fear that 5. Seeing that ... he left their house. d) purpose 1. We occupied the seat in the first row in order that ... 2. Put on your warm coat lest ... 3. We climbed up the hill so that e) condition 1. If ... we shall see him to-morrow. 2. They will certainly be there in time provided ... 3. Should you ... tell him about his sisters illness. 4. What will you write to him supposing ... 5. You wont have the book unless ... 6. I promise you to do it on condition f) concession 1. Tired as ... he went on working. 2. Though ... the patient felt better. 3. Whoever ... you must see him again.

h) comparison 1. He felt better than .... 2. He looked tired as if ... 3. It was not so hot as ... 4. The young girl looked as beautiful as ... 5. She remembered every corner in the garden as though 81. Convert the following simple sentences in complex ones by introducing adverbial clauses (of time, manner, cause, condition, purpose, concession). 1. In the 8th century the Anglo-Saxons suffered much because of the frequent raids of the Danish tribes. 2. In spite of the strong resistance, the Danes seized the North Western part of the country. 3 . During the reign of the Wessex king Alfred the fight of the Anglo-Saxons against the Danes was the hardest. 4. Alfred gathered his troops of free yeomen and knights to fight with the Danes. 5. Alfred stopped the advance of the Danes by paying them tribute. 6. He also built a fleet of 100 ships in order to be able to fight with the enemy on the sea. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 82. Analyse the following sentences. 1. Rather more than hall-way across from Denmark to England is a broad shoal known as the Dogger Bank, whose north-western margin has the appearance of a submerged escarpment sinking to deeper waters than those which lie south of the bank. 2. The southern end of the range in Derbyshire consists of a number of hills and dales so thinly covered with grass and small wild plants, that the bare limestone rock may often be seen. (Wide World Reader). 3 In consideration of the day and hour of my birth, it was declared by the nurse, and by some sage women in the neighbourhood who had taken a lively interest in me several months before there was any possibility of our becoming personally acquainted, first, that I was destined to be unlucky in life; and secondly, that I was privileged to see ghosts and spirits; both these gifts inevitably attaching, as they believed, to all unlucky infants of either gender, born towards the small hours on a Friday night. (Dickens). 4 I have come to the conclusion that the real reason for the author who exceeds the common span of man is that intelligent people after the age of thirty read nothing at all. (Maugham). THE COMPOUND - COMPLEX SENTENCE 83. Analyse the following sentences. 1. The place where the Roman wall ended, near the north bank of the Tyne, is called Walls-end, and from that spot much of the best coal which is sold in London takes its name. (Wide World Read ). 2. The slope of the sea-bed, which is the true, though submerged, edge of the Continent, follows the coast of Norway seaward from the North Cape, then, crossing the mouth of the North Sea, it passes outside the Shetland Islands and the Hebrides to a point some distance westward of Ireland, where it makes an inward bend. (Mackinder). 3. At Stoneleigh the Avon enters a wide and beautiful park and is joined by the River Sowe coming past Coventry only three miles to the north, but there is not a sign in this lovely wooded estate that a great industrial city lies so close. 4. A few miles farther downstream one can see Guys Cliff on which a house stands high above the gently flowing Avon, its foundations being hewn out of the solid rock, and there are innumerable excavations around the courtyard which undoubtedly served as out-houses in days gone by. 5. The Avon at Warwick is a broad and placid stream, but it would not be so if it were not for weirs which at regular intervals frequently broaden the stream out into a much wider river than it would otherwise be. 6. The weirs were built so that they should produce a head of water to operate the many mills, but the Avon was also navigable to points above Stratford, until the building of the Great Western Railway put it out of business as a means of communication. 7. It is a fact that Warwick Castle has never been a ruin, like so many of old castles, but has continually been a place of residence, therefore it is just here that one can visualize something of what England in the Middle Ages must have been like.

8. The oldest part of the castle is Caesars Tower, which was built a few years after the Norman Conquest, while other parts have been added at various times, but always in exactly the right style, so that the castle has always retained its original character. (Geographical Magazine). SEQUENCE OF TENSES 84. Comment on the use of tenses in the subordinate clauses. 1. Mary wired back that she would arrive on the following day. (Cronin). 2. All that day she did as she had told Parker she would. (Bates). 3. I wanted to know, I said, trembling, if you would buy a jacket. (Dickens). 4. Maxim rang up the next morning to say he would be back about seven. (Du Maurier). 5. Dont forget the old lady is nearly blind, said Beatrice, ...I telephoned to the nurse that we were coming so everything will be right. (Du Maurier). 6. He did not know what he was talking about. (Du Maurier). 7. And I added that I hoped she understood that it had nothing to do with me; she said that she was sure of that, but that she would speak to Tom about it when he came back (Jerome). 8. At last, Sophie. I thought you were never coming. (Huxley). 9. He could see nothing below surface at all; and ... he wondered what would happen if his father didnt come up again. 10. I rose and said to Alice that I was going. (Braine). 11. I knew it would happen one day, said Maxim. (Du Maurier) 85. Turn the verbs in italics into the Past making all the other necessary changes. 1. She cant remember what I told her. 2. Tom believes that you are right. 3. You have said that she knows you. 4. The children hope that Santa Claus will bring them many toys. 5. Jane regrets that she cant give us more details about this accident. 6. I wonder what she is going to tell us this time. 7. Fred thinks that all his friends viii come to his birthday party. 8. I dont recall what they have said. 9. We cant anticipate what he will do now. 10. I remember that I saw him somewhere. 86. Select the correct form of the verbs given in brackets: 1. Harris thought he (would buy; will buy) a new house soon. 2. Our friends asked us why the train (has not arrived; had not arrived) yet. 3. Fred admits that he still (has; had) little experience in this field now. 4.She had to promise him that she (will help; would help) them. 5. The engineer claimed that he (agrees; agreed) with the others. 6. John didnt remember what he (told; had told) me the day before. 7. I didnt know that she (must; had to) leave at 5 oclock. 8. We guess father (hasnt heard; hadnt heard) this news yet. 9. Did Jane tell you that she (is going; was going) to move to a new house? l0. We were sure that they (will come ; would come) by the evening train. 11. The pupils already knew that the teacher (has corrected; had corrected) their papers. 12. I promised her that I (will lend; would lend) her the book after I (finished; had finished) it. 13. I am sure that Thomas (will come; would come) here when he (feels; will feel) better. 14. I wish I (know; knew) what the boys (are doing; were doing) there at the moment. 15. When I (leave; will leave) school next year, I (will learn; will have learnt) here for seven years. 16. When (did you see; have you seen) him last? 17. This time yesterday you (told were telling) me how busy you (are; were) and what your plans for the future (are; were). 18. I explained that she (will be playing; would be playing) the piano at that time. 87. Use the appropriate form of the verb. 1. He told me that in all his years he never ___ so much blossom (saw, had seen). (Moore). 2. I replied that I very well, and that I she the same (am, was; hope, hoped; is, was). (Dickens). 3. In the morning Miss Murdstone ... told me I going to school (am, was). (Dickens). 4. Miss Murdstone was good enough to say on the way that she I , before I to a bad end (hopes, hoped; will repent, would repent; come, came). (Dickens). 5. I wondered what I with my day (shall do, should do). (Du Maurier). 6. I wrote and said I , replied Mary (am coming, was coming). (Cronin). 7. Joe told me you to the Legation. I thought it ____easier to talk here (have been, had been; will be, would be). (Greene). 8. I answered that I he never again (think, thought; will smile, would smile). (Jerome). 9. I thought I you (know, knew). (Jerome). 10. It unnerved him to think that she at the supper- table, looking up at him while he with her critical eyes (will be, would be; speaks, spoke). (Joyce).

88. Supply the correct tense (Present; Past Tense; Present Perfect; Past Perfect; Future) A. 1. Arnold (to be) _________________ born in a village and he (to spend) ______________ his childhood there. He (to move) ______________ to Leeds when he (to be)____________ fifteen years old and he (to live) ___________there since his sister (to get) ___________ married. 2. At present, he (to work) ___________in an office but he (to use) _____________ to work at a bank before. 3. Next year he (to go) ____________ to London to study at the University, but only after he (to finish) ______________ writing the novel he (to work) _________________ at now. 4. I (to write) _____________ to him a long letter several days ago and (to ask) ________________ him how many chapters he already (to write)____________. 5. Arnolds daughter hopes that her father (to finish) _______________ his book by the end of August. 6. I (to see) ____________her yesterday while she (to cross) _____________ the street. 7. When I (to talk) __________ to her, she (to tell) ________________ me that she (to be) ______________ very tired because she (to type) _____________ all the morning. B. 1. As soon as she (to see) ______________us, he (to stop) ____________singing. 2. The tailor (to promise) ____________ me then that my suit (to be) _____________ ready in a weeks time, 3. Why didnt you explain to them when you (to be) ______________ able to give them the money back? 4. I wondered where he (to study) _______________ and how many years before he (to take) ______________ his degree. 5. Before paper (to be) _______________ invented, people (to write) ______________ their thoughts upon various other materials. 6. History (to be) ____________ engraved on stone monuments and our knowledge of what ancient people (to do) ______________, (to be) ________________ chiefly taken from the stone tables and buildings which they (to erect) _______________. 90. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb in the correct tease: 1. The Chinese are said to be so clever that they ... gunpowder long before it ... known in Europe. 2. Galileo Galilei was persecuted because he ... that the earth ... around the sun, 3. As soon as she ... the letter, the will read it to us, too. 4. I asked the old man who ... on the bench if he ... hungry. 5. When Christopher Columbus ... America, he thought that the country which ... discovered India, and he accordingly ... it the name of the West Indies. 6. 1 will not go to bed until father ... home from the factory. 7. Last year you played tennis much better than your brother ... now. 8. Its high time you these questions. 9. I dont know precisely whether I ... on this trip next week. 10. Tom was promised that everything ... ready in due time. 11. When I ... young, I ... fishing every Sunday. 12. Ill let them know that we ... a new car soon. 13. Did you know that Mary ... two sons? 14. Your sister spoke English as if she ... in England for several years. 15. This is the dress which Mary ... last week and which she ... still now. 16. I wish my brother ... here now to help me. 17. I promised the little child that I a new toy the next day. 18. When I ... to the bookshop two days ago, I ... a book which my sister .., now. 19. I would rather you ... them my secret. 20, When I ... the window, I saw that my daughter ... with the doll, while my son ... after a cat. 21. I am sure our friend ... this text after she ... the new words. 22. That morning Jane ... to school only after she ... a big glass of milk. 23. 1 no sooner ... his face than I ... his name, too. 24. We ... anything about her since she ... to London. 25. Only then she ... that I right! 26. This time tomorrow, we TV while you ... for your exam. 27. Last week I ... three ice creams, but this week I ... only one. 28. When Bob ... little, he ... with his toys for hours. 29. You already ... all the exercises? 30. Nothing annoyed me so much as the discovery that my best friend ... to me. INDIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT STATEMENTS 91. Convert into indirect speech. 1. Nobody will ever know, on this line, we said, what you are, or where youre going ... Well, I dont know, gents, replied the noble fellow, but I suppose some trains got to go to Kingston. (Jerome). 2. The map may be all right enough, said one of the party, if you know whereabouts in it we are now. (Jerome). 3. We met your niece on the road, said Ashurst... (Galsworthy). 4. ... I dont hunt, I confessed, I learned to ride, as a child, but I dont remember much about it. (Du Maurier). 5. You know Mr. Davidson very little if you think the fear of personal danger can stop him in the performance of his duty, said his wife. (Maugham). 6. I said, Ive ordered dinner for all of you. (Greene). 7. When I met you first you had a certain expression

on your face, he said slowly, and you have it still (Du Maurier). 8. Mrs. de Winter says we shant know her, said Frank. (Du Maurier). 92. Report the following statements that you heard at 7 a.m. this morning. Do you need to change the tense? 1. Women live longer than men." I heard that... 2. "I'm hungry." Claire said that... 3. "Our galaxy contains several thousand million stars." An astronomer announced that... 4. "The 2012 Olympics will be organised in Africa." A sports expert said that... 5. "This coffee is too hot." Jonathan complained that ... 93. Insert the verbs to say or to tell in the appropriate form. 1. Harris them they could follow him if they liked ... They it was very kind of him ... (Jerome). 2. When Megan brought his tea he Whats the gipsy bogle, Megan? (Galsworthy). 3. Gretta thinks it very funny because she the word reminds her of Christy Minstrels. (Joyce). 4. me what shes trying to, he ... Cyril only wanted to you, father dear, that his father is still very fond of meringues. (Mansfield). 5. I ... Id rather hear what you were going first, said Constantia. (Mansfield). 6. Johnny her of the grand tea they had had. And while he was also her about the quarrel Mr. Sulky came tripping down the stairs. (Coppard). 7. Go and him, you go and him. (Bates). 8. Of course, I myself, he might have been detained for some reason at the American Legation ... (Greene). 9. You know all I can you about Pyle (Greene). 10. Vigotwearily, ... Hell have a terrible lot to me. (Greene). 11. He, But thats just what I him, but he always pretends not to understand French. (Greene). 12. As a friend, Vigot is there nothing you could me in confidence? (Greene). 94. Complete the following sentences. 1. I hoped (that) 2. He reminded me (that) the programme 3. They declared (that) she 4. They informed us (that) the time-table 5. She replied (that) 6. They supposed (that) 7. He imagined (that) 8. Everybody thought (that) INDIRECT QUESTIONS 95. Convert into indirect speech. 1. He ... said: Can you tell us if theres a farm near here where we could stay the night? Ive got lame. (Galsworthy); 2. Ashurst said idly: Where were you standing when you saw the gipsy bogle, Jim? (Galsworthy). 3. Good morning, she called. Is Mr. David son better this morning? (Maugham). 4. Dont you think we ought to make Mr. Horn turn her out of here? asked Mrs. Davidson. (Maugham). 5. Does anybody ever come here? Davy asked. him. Aldridge). 6. Did you find something to drink? he asked Davy. 7. Tell me, Lily, he said in a friendly tone, do you still go to school? (Joyce). 8. Why have you a piece of pencil in your ear? he asked. (Lawrence). 9. I said to Vigot, What hours are you interested in? (Greene). 10.

How old is your father? Miss Hei asked with gluttony. (Greene). 11. What is Giles going to wear to-night? I asked, or is it a dead secret? (Du Maurier). 12. How long will it take me to paint my face? asked Giles. (Du Maurier). 13. Whats the time? I said carelessly ... (Du Maurier). 14. What are you standing there for? he said, his voice harsh and queer. Didnt you hear what I said? (Du Maurier). 96. Complete the following sentences. 1. She asked if 2. She was interested to know how 3. She wondered when 4. She wanted to know where 5. She asked in wonder what 6. She wanted to find out by whom 7. They asked me why 8. She inquired what kind of 9. She would like to know on what condition 97. Convert the following into indirect speech; use different introductory verbs. Model: Do you ever work in the garden? She asked me if I ever worked in the garden. 1. What sort of flowers do you like? 2. Why have these flowers opened so soon? 3. Where will you plant those lovely poppies? 4. Have you ever seen a cherry orchard in blossom? 5. Do you water the flowers in the morning or in the evening? 6. Are tulips shade-loving flowers? 7. Who has broken the boughs of the lime-tree? 8. When do you usually sow peas? 9. Must these black currant bushes be transplanted this year? 98. Complete the following sentences supplying object clauses by arranging the given words in the proper order. 1. She, asked, dinner, I, me, if, had, my, had. 2. . I, had, where, had, lunch. 3. got up, oclock, I, at, usually, what. 4. fish, I, eat, why, not, did. 5. exhibition, we, to go, intended, when, to, the. 6. was, what, such kind of, price, shirt, the, of. 7. on, night, people, had been, previous, party, the, present, how many, the, at. 8. I that, it, how long, him, to reach, would, country place, take. 9. health-resort, them, that, ever, to, whether, had been, they, to.

10. my, bought, I, where, had, dictionary. INDIRECT ORDERS AND REQUESTS 99. Convert into indirect speech. I. Ask Miss Thompson when it would be convenient for me to see her, he said. (Maugham). 2. Sit up, he told Davy, if you want to see how to approach. Aldridge). 3. Bring me the two green, bags from the floor, he said, and keep your head covered against the sun... 4. And dont throw any stones in the water, his father said ... It frightens everything in sight. Even the sharks (Aldridge 5. And dont worry about me, he ordered the boy. (Aldridge). 6. Come along, Pyle, I said. Leave them to changer. 7. Ill come down when I am ready, I called. Go on down ... Dont wait for me. Tell Maxim he cant come in. (Du Mau rier). 8. Go and change, he said, it does not matter what you put on. Find an ordinary evening frock, anything will do. Go now before anybody comes. (Du Maurier). 9. Dont let the others see you like that, I said. Go to your bedroom and do something to your face. 10. ... Sit down for a few minutes and youll be all right, she said, wait, Ill give you a glass of water. (Du Maurier). MIXED EXERCISES ON INDIRECT SPEECH 100. Convert into direct speech. 1. He said he was very fond of travelling. 2. He said he was looking forward to visiting the place where the great Scottish poet Robert Burns had spent his early life. 3. He declared he would never forget the lovely and romantic scenes of Scotland he had seen during his visit to Britain. 4. He assured me he had been dreaming to visit all these spots of interest since he read Walter Scotts novels for the first time. He informed me that it was possible for everyone to get acquaint with all the loveliest spots of those parts. 16. He warned me against my coming, as he would be developing his films at that time. 7. She declared that mountaineering was her favourite kind of sport. 8. He tried to persuade me that long walks would do me a world of good. 9. He said he was surprised I had not been training since morning. 10. She asked me what kind of sport I went in for. 11. She was interested to know if we should take part in the running race. 12. They wondered which of the teams had a better chance of success. 13. 1 asked the t to tell me if he thought I could take part in the match. 15. I inquired of him if a stroke in cricket required great strength of the player. 16. The boy was eager to know if I had ever seen a parachutist jump from an aeroplane. 17. He asked me to tell him who was playing tennis on the court. 18. My brother wanted to find out who had lost his tennis balls.19. He asked me when I had last been to a football match. 20. He wondered whether the goal had been scored before the final whistle was given. 21. I asked her if she liked the new opera she had heard the day before.22. I wondered when she had been at the concert last. 23. Everybody wondered if the young man would agree to act the leading part in the play. 24. The young actor inquired eagerly whether we liked his acting. 25. My sister always asks me not to economize by taking cheap tickets in the last row. 26. She begged me not to be late for the concert. 27. My friend advised me to read King Lear in the original before going to see the performance of the tragedy. 28. At the theatre I was obliged to tell my neighbours not to talk during the performance. 29. I persuaded thy friend to let her daughter go to the concert as she was very fond of music. 30. A friend of mine suggested that we should take season tickets to the State Opera House. 31. The father forbade his son to go to the cinema because lie had not prepared his lessons for the next day. 32. The young man asked his parents not to worry about him saying that he might return home rather late as he had been invited to a house-warming party that night. 33. He asked me to speak more distinctly. 34. All the listeners urged the actor to recite another poem saying that they had never heard poetry recited so well. A. Convert into indirect speech. On entering the old ladys room he said, I hope I havent interrupted your work! Of course not. Sit down, please. Have a cup of tea? Thanks, Ive had my tea. She said, I havent seen you for ages. How is your wife?

She is all right now! he answered. Dont you want to come and see our baby? My wife says she is a darling. Dont you think so? Of course, I do. But I think Ill love her more when she grows up, he added. The old lady smiled, Thats a tender father! B. Find in an English text four sentences with an object clause expressing 1) indirect statements; 2) in direct questions introduced by a) the conjunction if or whether, b) a conjunctive pronoun or adverb; 3) Indirect commands or requests a) in the affirmative form, b) in the negative form. 101. Match the sentences with appropriate reporting verbs from the list. Then write the reported sentences. admit, boast, forbid, inquire, invite, order, suggest, threaten 1. We'll close credit lines if you don't reduce carbon dioxide emission. 2. OK, you're right, some poisonous chemicals did escape into the atmosphere. 3. Why don't you drop in tonight? 4. Stand up immediately! 5. I'm the best student in this school! 6. You can't use your dictionaries during the test. 7 Shall we have a cup of tea? 8. Is the bus service running according to the timetable today? 102. Use the following verbs to report the two dialogues. a) admit, advise, promise, warn Tom: I don't think you should play the game today, John. John: You're right. I'm still a little bit ill, but I promise I won't overdo it. Tom: Be careful, if you run around too much in this weather you may get another attack of flu. b) accuse, beg, complain, deny, explain, refuse Daughter: Mum, please, will you buy me this CD? I've always wanted it. Mother: Sarah, you know I can't afford it. Why do you always ask me to buy you expensive things? Daughter: That's not true. You just never buy me things that I want only those that you like!

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