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MCSER

- Mediterranean Center

of Social and Educational Research

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


ISSN 2281-4612 (online) ISSN 2281-3993 (print) Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2013

Rome, Italy 2013

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


Editor in Chief Dr. Giuseppe Motta
Executive Director, MCSER Prof. Antonello Biagini Editing Dr. Lisa Licata Editorial Assistant Dr. Maria Nouges Scientific Coordinator Prof. Giovanna Motta Graphic Design Dr. Antonello Battaglia Editorial Managing Dr. Alessandro Pistecchia

Copyright 2013 MCSER Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research CEMAS - Sapienza University of Rome ISSN 2281-4612 (online) ISSN 2281-3993 (print) Circulation 200 copies Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2013 Doi:10.5901/ajis.2012.v2n1 Publisher MCSER Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research CEMAS - Sapienza University of Rome Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Cap. 00183, Rome, Italy Tel/Fax: 039/0692913868 E-mail: ajis@mcser.org Web: http://www.mcser.org

This Journal is printed by Gruppo Atena.net Srl Via del Lavoro, 22, 36040, Grisignano VI, Italy Tel: 0039/0444613696 Web: http://www.atena.net

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2013 ISSN 2281-4612 (online) ISSN 2281-3993 (print)

About the Journal


Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal published three times a year by Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research and Sapienza University in Rome, Italy. AJIS seeks a reassessment of all the human and social sciences. The need for interdisciplinary approaches as a key to reinvigorating and integrating both teaching and learning is increasingly recognized in the academy. It is becoming increasingly clear that research is interdisciplinary. Our Journal is interested to promote interdisciplinary research in the world, to promote the exchange of idea, and to bring together researchers and academics from all the countries. Some of the areas of interest of AJIS are: Anthropology, Architectural Theory, Art History and Art Theory, Communication, Cultural Studies, Digital Humanities, Economics, Education, Environmental Studies, Legal Studies, Literature and Poetry, Linguistics, Sociology, Geography, etc. However all papers in the fields of human and social sciences are wellcome in AJIS. AJIS is open for the academic world and research institutes, academic and departmental libraries, graduate students and PhD candidates, academic and non-academic researchers and research teams. Our goal is to provide original, relevant, and timely information from diverse sources; to write and publish with absolute integrity; and to serve as effectively as possible the needs of those involved in all social and human areas. If your research will help us achieve these goals, we would like to hear from you. AJIS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supporting a greater global exchange of knowledge. All manuscripts are subject to a double blind peer review by the members of the editorial board who are noted experts in the appropriate subject area.
Editor in Chief, Giuseppe Motta Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

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Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


Editor in chief Giuseppe Motta Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

International Editorial Board


Adriana Vizental University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania Sokol Pacukaj Aleksander Moisiu University, Albania Florica Bodistean University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania Bassey Ubong Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku-Nigeria Peter M. Miller University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Femi Quadri Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku-Nigeria Abraham I. Oba Niger Delta Development Commission, Nigeria Tutku Akter Girne American University, Northern Cyprus Fouzia Naeem Khan Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Pakistan Marcel Pikhart University Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Sodienye A. Abere Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria Luiela-Magdalena Csorba University Aurel Vlaicu, Romania Eddie Blass Swinburne University of Technology, Australia Hanna David Tel Aviv University, Jerusalem-Israel Raphael C. Njoku University of Louisville, USA Ali Simek Anadolu University, Turkey Austin N. Nosike The Granada Management Institute, Spain Gerhard Berchtold Universidad Azteca, Mexico Samir Mohamed Alredaisy University of Khartoum, Sudan Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi University of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria Oby C. Okonkwor Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka-Nigeria Ridvan Peshkopia American Unievrsity of Tirana, Albania Murthy CSHN Tezpur University Napaam Assam India George Aspridis Technological Educational Institute (T.E.I.) of Larissa, Greece Jani Sota Aleksander Moisiu University, Albania Talat Islam University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan A. C. Nwokocha Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike-Umuahia, Nigeria Timm Albers University of Education Karlsruhe, Germany Nerissa Albon Monash University, Australia Pigga Keskitalo Saami University College Kautokeino, Norway

Paul Joseph Pace University of Malta, Msida, Malta / Centre for Environmental Education and Research Sandro Caruana University of Malta, Malta William J. Hunter University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Alba Dumi Ismail Qemali University, Albania Ornsiri Wimontham Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University (NRRU), Thailand

Peter Mayo University of Malta, Malta B.V. Toshev University of Sofia, Bulgaria Robertson Khan Tengeh Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa Milad Elharathi Bengazi University, Libya Basant Kumar Utkal University, India Wycliffe Amukowa Economic Policy and Education Research Centre (ECO-PERC), New Jersey, USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Articles
What Do EFL Students Think and Feel About Concordancing?.......................................................... 11

Jonathan Aliponga

A Sociosemiotic Approach of experienced and Desired Leisure. Young People Express Themselves Through Images ... 21

Anastasia Christodoulou, Eleni Kartsaka, Argyris Kyridis

Applying Critical Discourse Analysis in Translation of Political Speeches and Interviews .. 35

Mehdi Mahdiyan, Muhammad Rahbar, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini-Maasoum Adetunji Musilimu Adeyinka.

Assessment of the Quality of Urban Transport Services in Nigeria .. 49 Leadership in the Cross-Cultural ContextAnalyze of Rational Theories and Aspects of Leader Role in Long Term Characterized. The Observation of Behavior Effects in Albania ... 59

Alba Robert Dumi, Zamira Sinaj

Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Migrants in Urban Setting: A Study Conducted at City Sargodha, Pakistan .. 71

Faisal Imran, Yasir Nawaz, Muhammad Asim, Arshad H. Hashmi Paul Dela Ahiatrogah, Moses Bedwei Madjoub, Brandford Bervell Antonello Battaglia

Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on the Achievement of Basic School Students in Pre-Technical Skills 77 Italian Risorgimento and the European Volunteers 87 Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Students Achievement: Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities ... 97

Babalola J. Ogunkola Stephen Ntim

Differential Effects of Analogy Types on Retrievability and Inferential Induction in Text Comprehension .. 109 Gender Analysis Using the Empowerment Framework: Implications for Alleviating Womens Poverty in Nigeria .. 123

Hussainatu Abdullahi, Yahya Zakari Abdullahi Batjar Halili

Impact of External Appearance on Positive Social Perception .... 131 Wuz Up Wit Dat?: Exploring the Colonizing Properties of the Standard English Language and its Implications for the Denudation and Denigration of Black Survivalist and Stylistic Language, Syntax and Phonology 135

Buster C. Ogbuagu

Etnicit e Sviluppo Economico in Europa Centro-Orientale .............................................................. 155

Giuseppe Motta

Cost Management in Translation .... 161

Seyed Mohammad Hosseini-Maasoum, Mostafa Ghazanfari

An Evaluation of Students Perspectives on the Teaching and Learning of Property Investment Valuation in a Nigerian University ... 169

Namnso Bassey Udoekanem, David Odegwu Adoga, Shien Stephen Kuma

An Examination of Causes and Consequences of Conflict Between Legislature and Executive in Cross River State, Nigeria ... 179

Bassey, Antigha Okon, Raphael Pius Abia, Omono, Cletus Ekok, Bassey, Umo Antigha Ismail Zejneli, Alba Robert Dumi Ziyn Engdasew Woldab

Economic Criminality in Transition Countries- Aspects of the Legal and Economic Analysis 189 Constructivist Didactics in Teaching Economics: A Shift in Paradigm to be Exemplary Teacher . 197 Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS and Stigmatization on Women in Nigeria: Challenges for the Actualization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) . 205

Yahya Zakari Abdullahi, Hussainatu Abdullahi Michael Baffoe

Beyond Refuge: Post Acceptance Challenges in New Identity Constructions of African Refugee Claimants in Canada .. 215 Pakistan: Considering a Failed State .. 227

Md. Kamal Uddin, Md. Matiul Hoque Masud Mavis Dako-Gyeke, Razak Oduro

Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana ... 239 Impact of Albanian folklore in literature .. 253

Ermelinda Kashahu, Edlira Dhima

The Impact of Contraceptive use on Women Health: A Study of District Rawalpindi, Pakistan 257

Asma Zafar, Muhammad Asim, Irum Gillani, Nazia Malik Eda Bezhani

The Ecomomic Impact of Agricultural Products in the Albanian Exports ... 263 The 21st Century Educated African Person and the Loss of Africans Educational Identity: Towards an Afro Education Model ... 269

Wycliffe Amukowa, Caroline Vihenda Ayuya Babalola J. Ogunkola, Catherine Clifford Gentiana Kraja

Instructional Assessment Practices of Science Teachers in Barbados: Pattern, Techniques and Challenges 313 Managing Human Resources in Albanian Public Administration ....331

The Formative Values of 9-Year School Pupils in the subject "My Birthplace" (Fieri Schools Case) ... 341

Jani Sota

Ethno-Religious Conflict and Peace Building in Nigeria: The Case of Jos, Plateau State 349

Idahosa Osaretin, Emmanuel Akov Alba Robert Dumi, Lorena Alikaj

Accounting and Theories of Management, One Important Support of Albanian Reality to Distinguishing Financially Business Development in EU Countries 361 Socio-Culture Factors Responsible for Crimes Committed by Females of Adiala Jail, Rawalpindi, Pakistan . 373

Asma Zafar, Muhammad Asim, Nazia Malik, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar Azeta Tartaraj, Ervin Myftaraj

The Importance of the Price Factor in the Development of E-Commerce. Case Study B2C in Albania 379 Translation Shifts in the Persian Translation of a Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens ... 391

Seyed Mohammad Hosseini-Maasoum, Azadeh Shahbaiki Suzana Samarxhiu Gjata, Anisa Koci

A General Overview on the Nominal Predicate in English and Albanian Languages 399 Assessing the Pedagogical Competences of Teacher Educators in the Teacher Education Institution of Pakistan . 403

Tariq Mahmood, Mukhtar Ahmed, Muhammad Tanvir Iqbal Olajide S. E., Alabi, O. Titilayo, Onakoya, B. O. Ogbebor Godwin Gideon

Wealth Creation Through Real Estate Investment in Ekiti State ... 417 Effecting Community Efforts in Drug Abuse Control: A Study of Delta State Nigeria ... 429 Assessing the Quality of Examination System; Aseessment Techniques Employed at Higher Education Level in Pakistan 447

Mukhtar Ahmed, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Amin Ghuman, Khalil Ur Rehman Wain Ajao, Mayowa G. , Igbekoyi, Olushola E.

The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Volatility in Nigeria..459

E-ISSN 2281-4612 ISSN 2281-3993

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


Published by MCSER-CEMAS-Sapienza University of Rome

Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

What do EFL Students Think and Feel About Concordancing?


Jonathan Aliponga
Kansai University of International Studies, Hyogo, Japan E-mail: alipongaj@kuins.ac.jp
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v1n2p11

Abstract: Using high-speed computers, it is now possible to use concordancers, which are recognized by educators as a potentially useful tool, as a means to develop vocabulary and understand language structures in real language context. In this study, three concordancers as well as two concordancing related tasks were introduced to high proficient EFL students. Using a 20-item survey questionnaire, students perceptions of and attitudes toward the use of concordancers and the concordancing related tasks (e.g., vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks) were determined. In addition, implications of the findings for teaching and learning in EFL contexts were discussed. Keywords: concordance; concordancer; concordancing; vocabulary learning; grammar; technology

1. Introduction I have been a firm believer in the power of information technology to make teaching and learning successful. That is why a few years ago, I decided to utilize WebCT to develop course materials for my doctorate dissertation. I designed the interactive on-line materials and used them to find out if these could develop ESL students proficiency in verb tenses and discourse competence. Results revealed that the interactive on-line materials were effective in developing students proficiency in verb tenses and discourse competence. Currently I am utilizing concordancer in my EFL classroom. Concordancing is a technique in which a large body of text (called a corpus) is analyzed by a computer program to discover the regular patterns and lexical sets that are associated with a specific word or phrase (Hadley, 2001). Language corpora can be either collections of written or spoken texts; for example, collections of written texts can be extract from newspapers, business letters, popular fictions, books, or magazines, published or unpublished school essays and etc. (Hasselgrd, 2001). If planned carefully, the use of corpora can bring many benefits to students and teachers. One benefit is that it provides high speed searching tool (Chen, 2004). Unlike relying heavily on dictionaries as the main source to look up word definitions and examples which is often too laborious and timeconsuming, by using the concordance tool of corpora to search for word contexts, learners are involved in a more speedy and efficient language learning experience (Cobb, 2003). Another advantage of using corpora is that it accelerates lexical growth while promoting the noticing of word grammar as an integral part of vocabulary study (Cambrensis & Gillway, 2006). The rationale is based on the premise that students learn to use words best by encountering multiple examples of a word used in novel contexts and being guided to notice how that word is used. Willis and Willis (1996) refer to notice how that word is used as consciousness-raising. By providing learners with consciousness-raising activities, they are encouraged to think about samples of language and to draw their own conclusions about how the language works. Speaking of vocabulary, Freebody and Anderson (1981) emphasize that word knowledge is the

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E-ISSN 2281-4612 ISSN 2281-3993

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


Published by MCSER-CEMAS-Sapienza University of Rome

Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

key ingredient in successful reading in both the L1 and L2 (Cooper, 1984) contributing more to L2 academic reading success than other kinds of linguistic knowledge including syntax (Saville-Troike, 1984). As Wilkins stated as far back as 1972, Without grammar very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Lexical knowledge is important to a language, but lexical items also have grammar. As Lewis (1993) stated, Language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar. KWIC or concordance output helps to reveal not only the collocations (words that co-occur regularly), but also the colligations (grammatical patterns that co-occur regularly) of a lexical item. As Lewis recommended in TESOL Arabia Conference in 2003, we should teach words with the useful grammar included, not take things apart, presenting words out of their grammatical context. In the present study, I introduced to students the on-line concordance websites which they utilized to unlock the lexical items from the academic listening passages. Although the main skill focus of the course was listening, I integrated into the course the vocabulary that students have learned from their academic reading course. This provided students the opportunity to put into meaningful practice what they have acquired. Although there have been a number of studies showing the benefits of using concordance in vocabulary learning mentioned in the above studies, there is a limited research on examining students perceptions of and attitude toward the use of concordancer, especially in EFL contexts like Japan. Marzano (1992) points out one important dimension of learning, that is positive attitudes and perceptions about learning. Furthermore, he emphasizes that without positive attitudes and perceptions, students have little chance of learning proficiently, if at all. The goal of the present study was to determine how college students perceived the use of concordancer in the classroom and how they felt about it after using it. The specific questions this study sought to answer are: 1. What are students perceptions of the use of concordancer in the classroom? 2. What are students attitudes toward the use of concordancer in the classroom? 3. What are the implications of the results for teaching and learning? 2. Research Methodology

2.1 Participants
Participants involved in this study were ten second year college students at a private university in Hyogo, Japan. These students, who major in English language education, belonged to the high level group based on their TOEFL ITP scores. Based on the proficiency identified by the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (1985), the speaking ability of this group is advanced which is characterized by the speaker's ability to converse in a clearly participatory fashion. These students could initiate, sustain, and bring to closure a wide variety of communicative tasks, including those that require an increased ability to convey meaning with diverse language strategies due to a complication or an unforeseen turn of events.They also could satisfy the requirements of school and work situations, and narrate and describe with paragraph-length connected discourse.

2.2 Instrument
The instrument utilized in this study is a 20-item survey questionnaire. The questionnaire is divided into two parts. Part 1 has 10 items about students perceptions of the use of concordancer. The variables reflected in the statements in the questionnaire were adopted from the results of previous studies on the effects of concordancing: on vocabulary building and determining collocations (Barlow, 1996a; Cobb,

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Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


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Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

1999; Lin, 2003); on identifying useful phrases and grammatical patterns, and making generalizations about the meaning and grammatical patterns of a word (St. John, 2001; Todd, 2001; Wang, 2001); and on providing students with high speed vocabulary searching tool (Chen, 2004). The other two statements, one is about the usefulness of the worksheet or vocabulary diary for learning the general and academic vocabulary, and the other is about the usefulness of the gap-filling task for learning collocations, were adopted from Chens (2004) study. Statements 1 and 7 are about the perception of concordancer for learning vocabulary in general. Statements 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 pertain to the perception of the use of concordancer for identifying useful phrases; determining collocations; identifying grammatical patterns; making generalizations about the meaning of a word; making generalizations about the grammatical patterns of a word; and providing students with high speed vocabulary searching tool, respectively. While statement 9 pertains to the perception of the use of worksheet or vocabulary diary as being useful for learning the general and academic vocabulary, statement 10 relates to the perception of the use of gap-filling task as being useful for learning collocations. Part 2 also has 10 statements about students attitudes toward the use of concordancer. The focus of each statement in this part is the same as the one in Part 1. For example, statements 1 and 7 relate to the students attitude toward the use of concordance for learning vocabulary in general. The use of the term like to measure students attitude was adopted from the questionnaire utilized by Savignon and Wang (2003) in their study of students perceptions of and attitudes toward communicative language teaching. Responses were scored on a 5-point scale from Strongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (5). Accuracy of each statement was checked by an independent group of professors of English language. The questionnaire was piloted with a different group of similar participants to determine if there were any ambiguous or confusing items.

2.3 Procedure
This study was part of my Academic Listening I course which I taught for one semester for 15 weeks. The main goal of this course was to develop students ability to understand spoken English from North America and other English-speaking countries. To function successfully in academic environments, students need to acquire the listening skills, especially listening to lectures and conversations (www.ets.org/toefl ). Specifically, students should have the ability to listen for basic comprehension and pragmatic understanding, and they should be able to connect and synthesize information. In order to achieve these goals, students should have enough vocabulary. As mentioned earlier in this study, lexical items have grammar and lexical knowledge is important to a language (Lewis, 1993). As far as teaching is concerned, Lewis recommended that we should teach words with the useful grammar included, not take things apart, presenting words out of their grammatical context. Concordancer is useful for this purpose because it reveals not only the collocations (words that co-occur regularly), but also the colligations (grammatical patterns that co-occur regularly) of a lexical item. Taking into account Lewis recommendation, I utilized the vocabulary from the listening and reading passages in the TOEFL iBT textbook. I introduced to students three concordance websites, and concordancing related tasks such as the vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks. It took about six class meetings (1 class was 90 minutes and held twice a week) to train students how to use the concordance websites, what and how to write in the vocabulary diary, and how to construct the gap-fill tasks. One concordance website utilized in this study is the one conceptualized by Chris Greaves of Hong Kong Polytechnic and coded in PERL by Tom Cobb of UQAM Montreal, Canada (http://vlc.polyu.edu.hk/). This concordance is one of the language projects presented by the Virtual

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Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


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Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

Language Centre in Hong Kong. Users can search for language samples from various corpora such as students' academic writings, Time Magazines, the Bible, business and economy, etc. The other concordance website is the British National Corpus (BNC) (http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/). It is one of the most famous corpora consisting of 100 million collections of written and spoken language samples. Finally is the Corpus of Contemporary American English (http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/) which contains 425 million words from various sources such as magazines, newspapers, fiction, television shows, etc. The concordance diary (see Appendix B), which is referred to as concordance sheet by Chen (2004), is where students kept at least two examples of the vocabulary contexts from the concordance websites. Students chose several examples that were meaningful and comprehensible to them and kept those examples in their vocabulary diary. Regarding the gap-fill task (see Appendix C), which was also conceptualized by Chen (2004), students used the authentic contexts searched from corpora to compose a gap-fill sheet for them to work on. For example, the target word from the listening or reading passage was 'pass'. Students in pairs searched using the concordancer several collocations such as pass on, pass to, pass by, pass away, pass along, etc. Based on the contexts, they discussed the meaning of the collocations. Student volunteers wrote the collocations on the board. Then I asked them to clarify the collocations they did not understand. To maximize student participation, I asked those who understood the meaning to give situations using that collocation which other students found difficult. As a homework, students had to individually construct a multiple choice gap-fill task for each collocation (see Appendix C) using the concordance websites. In the next class, they exchanged with each other and answered the gap-fill task.To make sure students understood all the collocations in the homework, I had to conduct whole class processing for those collocations students missed to answer correctly. Students used their laptop computer to write their vocabulary diary and construct the gap-fill tasks. They saved them in the on-line share folder on the university website. 3. Results Table 1. Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Concordancing Tool for Vocabulary Learning
Perception Attitude n 10 10 mean 3.50 3.42 SD .22 t 1.23 p 0.25

p<0.05 The mean (3.50) for perceptions shows that students had positive perceptions of the use of concordancer in the listening course. This means that students thought that concordancer was useful for vocabulary learning, identifying useful phrases, identifying collocations, identifying grammatical patterns, and for challenging them to actively make generalizations about the meaning of a word and the grammatical patterns of a word. Students also perceived that concordancer provided them with high speed vocabulary searching tool. As far as vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks were concerned, students thought they were useful for learning the general andacademic vocabulary, and for learning collocations, respectively. As for students attitudes, the mean (3.42) reveals that students also had positive attitudes toward the use of concordancer in the listening course. Specifically, students had positive attitudes toward the use of concordancer for vocabulary learning, identifying useful phrases, identifying collocations,

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E-ISSN 2281-4612 ISSN 2281-3993

Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


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Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

identifying grammatical patterns, and for challenging them to actively make generalizations about the meaning of a word and the grammatical patterns of a word. Students also had positive attitudes toward the use of concordancer in providing them with high speed vocabulary searching tool. As far as vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks were concerned, students had positive attitudes toward their usefulness for learning the general and academic vocabulary, and for learning collocations, respectively. The t-test (t=1.23) shows that there is no significant difference between perceptions and attitudes. This means that students who had positive perceptions of the use of concordancer also had positive attitudes toward the use of concordancer. Pearson correlation (p=+0.25) reveals no significant correlation between perceptions and attitudes because of the small sample size (n = 10). 4. Discussion and Conclusion The results of the study show that high level EFL college students had positive perceptions of and attitudes toward the use of concordancer and concordancing related tasks (e.g., vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks) in the classroom particularly in vocabulary learning, identifying useful phrases, identifying collocations, identifying grammatical patterns, and for challenging them to actively make generalizations about the meaning of a word and the grammatical patterns of a word.The findings of this study support the results of the study of Chujo, Miura and Uchiyama (2006) whose goal was to use the corpus and CALL listening material and vocabulary learning material to improve students communicative proficiency. The findings of this study also find support in the study of Cambrensis and Gillway (2006) which found concordancer to accelerate lexical growth while promoting the noticing of word grammar as an integral part of vocabulary study. Concordancer was also efficient in that it presented multiple examples of a word at one time, and effective in drawing multiple examples of a word together in one place that highlighted certain patterns. Students in this study also had positive perceptions of and attitudes toward concordancers capability to provide them with high speed vocabulary searching tool. By using the concordance tool of corpora to search for word contexts, learners were involved in a more speedy and efficient language learning experience (Cobb, 2003). As far as vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks were concerned, students thought that the vocabulary diary was useful for learning the general and academic vocabulary, and gap-fill tasks were useful for learning collocations. Students also had positive attitudes toward the use of vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks for the above purposes. By utilizing vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks, this study has demonstrated how to create more traditional vocabulary activities (e.g., fill-in-the-blank or matching exercises) that have the added advantage of being based on authentic texts and also exposing learners to multiple, novel contexts at one time (Stevens, 1991; Thurstun & Candlin, 1998). For example, Stevens (1991) found that concordance-based vocabulary exercises can be more easily solved by learners than traditional gap-filler exercises like the gap-fill tasks in this study, suggesting they should be used if the purpose of the exercise is to reinforce the vocabulary, as opposed to testing, and if the proclivity of the teacher is to engender a sense of confidence and well-being in the students (p. 55). Although students had positive perceptions of and attitudes toward the use of concordance, vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks, the ratings were not highly positive. It took about six 90 minutes to train students to use the concordance websites as well as the vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks. This low rating might be due to the fact that students found using the concordance websites difficult. While checking students doing the concordance activities, I received feedback from many saying that finding easy-to-comprehend contexts where the vocabulary was used was difficult and time consuming. The results of this study corroborate the findings of studies on DDL activities which low proficient students found them complicated or difficult to complete (Hadley, 2002). The findings are also consistent with

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Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies


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Vol 2 No 1 March 2013

the results of the studies of Tono(2003) and Umesaki (2004) which found English concordance examples retrieved to be difficult for beginning level learners to understand . To conclude, the results of the study reveal that, despite the difficulty of using concordancer in finding comprehensible word contexts, the students had positive perceptions and attitudes toward the use of concordancer, vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks for vocabulary building, determining collocations, identifying useful phrases and grammatical patterns, making generalizations about the meaning and grammatical patterns of a word, and providing students with high speed vocabulary searching tool. An understanding of learner attitudes and their perceptions of the pedagogical benefits of concordancer and the tasks related to it will enable teachers to best utilize concordancer in the classroom in order to achieve those pedagogical benefits. 5. Limitations The ten respondents utilized in this study were all students registered in the academic listening course. Due to the small sample size, the positive perceptions and attitudes expressed for the use of concordancer and the concordancing related tasks (e.g., vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks) in order to achieve benefits (e.g. identifying collocations) cannot represent the views of students in the department in the university where the study was conducted. In addition, the respondents were high proficient and they cannot represent the views of low and average proficient students. 6. Implications Despite the difficulty students encountered, the findings suggest that the use of concordancer and the performance of the tasks such as the vocabulary diary and gap-fill tasks are useful for vocabulary building, determining collocations, identifying useful phrases and grammatical patterns, making generalizations about the meaning and grammatical patterns of a word, and providing students with high speed vocabulary searching tool. Learners have to fully comprehend that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.The results also tell us that there is a need to provide students with enough practice how to use the concordance websites and do the concordance related tasks until they become familiar with and successful using them. As far as language proficiency is concerned, the findings suggest that the contexts or corpora in the concordancers might be too difficult for low proficient or beginning level students which may demotivate them to accomplish the concordancing related tasks. References
American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (1985). ACTFL proficiencyguidelines. Retrieved from http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/otherresources/actfl proficiencyguidelines/contents.htm . Barlow, M. (1996b). Corpora for theory and practice. International Journal of CorpusLinguistics, 1(1), 1-37. Cambrensis, J. and Gillway, M. (2006).The study of selected vocabulary in context using technology to motivate learners. UGRU Journal, 3. Retrieved from http://www.ugruenglish.uaeu.ac.ae/ ugrujournal/ugrujournal_files/sr3/vocabcontext.pdf Chen, Y.H. (2004). The use of corpora in the vocabulary classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, X, (9). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chen-Corpora.html Chujo, K., Miura, S., and Uchiyama, M. (2006). Using A Japanese-English parallel corpus for teaching English vocabulary to beginning-level students. EnglishCorpus Studies, (13), 53-172. Cobb, T. (1999). Breadth and depth of lexical acquisition with hands-on concordancing. CALL Journal, 12(4), pp. 345-360. Cobb, T. (2003). Do corpus-based electronic dictionaries replace concordancers? In Morrison, B., Green,

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G.&Motteram, G. (Eds.),Directions in CALL: Experience, Experiments, Evaluation. Polytechnic University:Hong Kong. Cooper, M. (1984). Linguistic competence of practised and unpractised non-nativespeakers of English. In J.A. Alderson & A.H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in aforeign language (pp. 122-138). London: Longman. Freebody, P. & Anderson, R.C. (1981). Effects of vocabulary difficulty, text cohesion, and schema availability on reading comprehension. Technical Report No. 225. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Center for the Study of Reading. Hadley, G..(2001). Concordancing in Japanese TEFL: Unlocking the power of data-driven learning. Retrieved from http://www.nuis.ac.jp/%7Ehadley/publication/jlearner/jlearner.htm> Hasselgrd, H. (2001). Corpora and their use in research and teaching. Retrievedfrom http://folk.uio.no/hhasselg/UV-corpus.htm Lewis, M. (1993). The lexical approach. The state of ELT and the way forward. LTP Teacher Training. Lin, C. C. (2003). Learning collocations in a bilingual corpus. The Proceedings of 2003International Conference and Workshop on TEFL & Applied Linguistics (pp. 250256). Taipei: Crane. Marzano R. J., (1992).A different kind of classroom : Teaching with Dimensions of Learning Alexandria Va.: Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment. Saville-Troike, M. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement? TESOL Quarterly 18, 199-219. Savignon, S and Wang, C. (2003). Communicative language teaching in EFL contexts:Learner attitudes and perceptions. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41(3), 223-249. Stevens, V. (1991). Classroom concordancing: Vocabulary materials derived from relevant, authentic text. English for Specific Purposes,10, 35-46. St. John, E. (2001). A case for using a parallel corpus and concordancer for beginners of a foreign language. Language Learning & Technology, 5, 185203. Thurstun, J., &Candlin, C. N. (1998). Concordancing and the teaching of the vocabularyof academic English. English for Specific Purposes, 17(3), 267-280. Todd, R. W. (2001). Induction from self-selected concordances and self-correction.System, 29(1), 91102. Tono, Y. (2003) Corpus woEigoKyoikuniIkasu [What corpora can do for language teaching]. English Corpus Studies, 10: 249264. Umesaki, A. (2004) EigoGakushuu no TamenoDaikibo Corpus no Riyou [Using a large-scale corpus in the classroom]. Paper Presented at the 24th Japan Association for English Corpus Studies (JAECS) Conference, Tokyo, Japan. Wang, L. (2001). Exploring parallel concordancing in English and Chinese. Language learning &technology, 5, 174184. Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. Edward Arnold. Willis, J. and Willis, D. 1996. Consciousness-raising activities. In Willis, J. andWillis, D. (Eds.), (pp. 63-76). Appendix A Questionnaire for students

I. Perceptions of concordancing tool for vocabulary learning


1. The information provided in concordance lists was useful for vocabulary learning. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 2. Concordance lists helped me to identify useful phrases. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 3. Concordance lists helped me to identify collocations.

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Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 4. Concordance lists helped me to identify grammatical patterns. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 5. The use of concordance lists challenged me to actively make generalizations about the meaning of a word. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 6. The use of concordance lists challenged me to actively make generalizations about the grammatical patterns of a word. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 7. Concordance was useful for building vocabulary knowledge. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 8. Concordance provided me with high speed vocabulary searching tool. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 9. The worksheet or vocabulary diary was useful for learning the general and academic vocabulary. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 10. The gap-filling task was useful for learning collocations. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree

II. My attitude toward the concordancing tool for vocabulary learning


1. I liked the information provided in concordance lists because it was useful for vocabulary instruction. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 2. I liked the concordance lists because they helped me to identify useful phrases. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 3. I liked the concordance lists because they helped me to identify collocations. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 4. I liked the concordance lists because they helped me to identify grammatical patterns. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 5. I liked the use of concordance lists because they challenged me to actively make generalizations about the meaning of a word. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 6. I liked the use of concordance lists because they challenged me to actively make generalizations about the grammatical patterns of a word. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 7. I liked concordancer because it was useful for building my vocabulary knowledge.

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Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 8. I liked concordancer because it provided me with high speed vocabulary searching tool. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 9. I liked the use of the worksheet or vocabulary diary because it was useful for learning the general and academic vocabulary. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree 10. I liked the use of the gap-filling tasks because it was useful for learning collocations. Strongly Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 agree Appendix B Sample vocabulary diary (So) The President's second sentence of his State of the Union speech last year said we all know that the primary question is jobs and the economy. So they spent a year on health care. (Can look like) If Clark suffocated, why is the blanket that was wrapped around the victim's head so bloody? The B composition fluid canlooklike blood. (Sort of) It's the First Lady Michelle Obama's birthday but her husband is not gonna consider the new ABC News /Washington Post poll any sortof gift. (Look like) I have seen a picture of the baby. I have no idea. It doesn't looklike my children. (Found) We bought a house in Orlando, Florida, in January 2007, and currently owe more than what it's worth. My husband was laid off from his job, and after nine months he found new employment in New Jersey. (Kind of) They are influencing the process. They hire lobbyists. They hire public affairs firm. They contribute to candidates. They do all that kindof stuff. (Shiny) I actually disagree with Senator Baker. I agree that he is no JFK in terms of charisma and his suit is a little too shinnies and he has scared people in his little photo opportunity with the Children a few days ago. (Different shape from) I had no idea you could partly pull out an animal's insides like this. A sheep's womb is a differentshapefrom a human womb, says the surgeon." Appendix C Sample gap-fill task

Fill in the blank with the correct word. Below are the choices
Take Have See Give Measure Think Enjoy 1. My boyfriend and I both have roommates, so when my parents went out of town

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for a long weekend, we decided to ____ advantageof the empty house. 2. It is both humbling and horrifying to know that a 5-year-old with three weeks' worth of lessons under her belt is more capable than I am. But I _____ one advantage: Unlike children, who are usually forced into activities, I genuinely want to play this thing. I am looking for the joy -- yes, joy -- that comes from making music. 3. _____ of the advantageyou've got. You'll be learning all sorts of stuff for the rest of us. 4. The other five men in the room all stared at him. These were his best friends. All men of means, aside from Ryan Crawford, whose father had cut him off years before. And all were men of appetites. They _____ every advantage their names and wealth afforded them. Especially ones that involved women.

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A Sociosemiotic Approach of experienced and Desired Leisure. Young People Express Themselves Through Images.
Anastasia Christodoulou
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki E-mail: nata@itl.auth.gr

Eleni Kartsaka
Art Historian

Argyris Kyridis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki E-mail: akiridis@uowm.gr
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p21

Abstract Young people are societys driving force. They build the future and ensure its cultural, historical and biological continuity. Given the important role they play, their ability to manage their own leisure time is especially significant as regards its impact on society. A persons leisure is a concept whose dimensions and boundaries are constantly in flux. It is part of everyday life, a form of personal expression and selffulfillment, and its use may have a positive or negative impact on a person and their environment (Ghikopoulos & Christodoulou, 2007; Myrizakis, 1997). The aim of this research is to explore the manner in which adolescents perceive the experienced and desired limits to their own leisure time. More specifically, the study focused on the artistic (paintings and drawings) and verbal (accompanying written texts) codes that young people use to describe the limits of two living conditions, the leisure that they experience and the leisure that they desire. The artistic code was chosen in addition to the verbal code because these days, particularly where young people are concerned, images prevail (Willinsky, 1990). Socio-semiotics is chosen as the tool of analysis, since artistic creation, as an interpretation of the concept image, is a metalanguage, a dynamic channel that young people use to convey leisure time messages (Danesi, 2000; Halliday, 1978; Randviir & Cobley 2010). This two-pronged research project was based on the semiotic study and analysis of data (Lagopoulos & Boklund-Lagopoulou, 1992; Christodoulou, 2003) obtained from the artistic and verbal texts of adolescents between twelve and fifteen years of age. To begin with, the adolescents depicted aspects of their daily leisure artistically and attempted to accompany their artwork with a brief verbal description. They then chose photographs somehow depicting their ideal leisure time from a chart of preselected pictures whose subjects were obtained from the literature (thematic caterogies). The researchers had preselected these pictures as a means of exploring the concept of desired leisure. The study was completed in three stages: (a) a theoretical framework of free time and its analysis, (b) data analysis and (c) conclusions about the meanings that leisure (experienced and desired) has for young people. Keywords: experienced leisure, desired leisure, Greece, young people, images

1. Theoretical introduction of the study When looking at the available literature on leisure, one realizes that there is no shortage of views and

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stances on the subject, as it has to do not only with the culture of everyday life but with a lot of axes of the definition of culture (Danesi & Perron, 1999). This research has explored leisure in terms of its definition, analysis and significance of young peoples relationship with it. In the literature, then, leisure is defined based on a number of parameters. For example, leisure is the time that a person devotes to various activities when not at work (Triantafyllidis, 1998). Freedom of choice during leisure seems to be the dominant theme in the above definition (Kelly, 1981). It is unclear whether a persons activities during that time are carefree (Kouthouris, 2006) and non-obligatory (Byrne, Nixon, Mayock, & Whyte, 2006). According to Silbereisen (2004), leisure can be divided into two categories: (a) inactive leisure, which does not make a person socially active, for example watching television or listening to music, and (b) active leisure, which enhances socialisation, such as hobbies and sports. Structural recreation, as Coatsworth et al. (2005) and Hendry et al. (1993 and 2003) defined it, seems to fall within Silbereisens second category, since it refers to activities that emphasise skill development. A different categorisation divides leisure into rest and relaxation, entertainment, information, education, participation in social events, creativity, and freedom from family, professional and social obligations (Krasanakis, 1984). Leisure is often indirectly associated with consumer practices, such as shows and entertainment, which leads to the need to find new sources of income linked to mass culture and the search for enjoyment (Riesman, in Koronaiou, 1996). The above observation does not seem to apply to the younger age group, since young people do not associate free time with particular activities, but rather with hanging around (Byrne et al., 2006). Of course, there are dangers inherent in perceiving leisure as time to hang around dangers associated with the improper management of free time and especially with idleness and inactivity. Research has shown that 90% of delinquent behaviour occurs during free time, which is an argument in favour of its value and proper management (Koronaiou, 1996; Trainor et. al., 2010; Larson and Verma, in Byrne et al., 2006). Research conducted by Shaw et al. (1996) on how fifteen year olds in Canada spend their free time showed that they mainly hang around, wasting time. Similar evidence was obtained by George and Chaskin (2004) in their research on fourteen year olds in Chicago, only one quarter of which spend their leisure doing structured activities. The other three quarters prefer carefree and unstructured leisure. Theoretically, leisure activities are a springboard for young peoples participation in society and foster the conditions needed for adolescents to shape their own identities (Caldwell & Darling, in Trainor et al., 2010; Chtouris, Zissi, Papanis, & Rontos, 2006). There are activities that educate (visits to museums and monuments) and activities that entertain (holidays, games, sports) (Christodoulou, 2003:67). Interestingly, research conducted by Mahoney and Cairns (1997) showed that pupils who took part in leisure activities at their school were less likely to quit school. However, in practice and for a variety of reasons, todays youth living in Greece does not often get the chance to take part in leisure activities that entertain. One major reason is that they devote their time to gaining skills that will make them more employable in the future. Moreover, the paper presented by Eccles et al. (2003) on extracurricular activities showed that such activities aid personal development. It appears that leisure activities are often also dependent on basic social factors such as sex and social class, although, admittedly, there has not been much research on the subject (Roberts and Parsells, 1994; endry et al., 2003; Hochschild, 1997: 215; Robinson & Godbey, 1997). Thus, young people do not have time to take part in activities that educate (visits to archaeological sites and monuments) unless they are part of a schools cultural programme. Moreover, interpersonal communication (active communication) has become weaker and is being replaced by Internet communication (passive communication), with very little time devoted to sports and activities outside the home (United Nations World Youth Report 2005).

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A survey conducted in 2003, via questionnaire, on young people between fifteen and twenty-nine years of age living in urban and semi-urban areas in Greece revealed that their main leisure activities include spending time with family and friends, listening to music and watching television. There was little interest in hobbies and physical exercise, with volunteering and participation in youth clubs least popular of all (Chtouris et al., 2006) data which is also evident in this research. The same conclusions have been drawn from a survey of children and adolescents from low-income families in England, who said that they spend their time watching television out of necessity and not because they are ultimately interested in it (Ridge, in Byrne et al., 2006). 2. Method of analysis This study aims to (a) have adolescents illustrate their leisure time, (b) determine the limits to leisure during adolescence and (c) determine the extent to which adolescents (boys and girls) experienced leisure converges towards or strays from their desired leisure. The meaning system chosen for the purposes of this study was the artistic text, with the verbal text serving a supplementary role. We focused more on the iconic rather than the verbal system because most sociological survey results are drawn from written questionnaires. Our novel approach was adopted as a result of our observation that the emerging and dominant form of communication between young people today increasingly involves images (MMS, SMS, and internet). As a result, we expected that they would find conveying meanings and ideas using images a familiar concept. The survey, which took place from March to May 2010, was based on the study and semiotic analysis of artistic and verbal texts and involved one hundred adolescents (fifty boys and fifty girls) from western Thessaloniki. More specifically, the survey focused on two aspects: (a) experienced leisure and (b) desired leisure. The experienced leisure aspect focused on the analysis of one hundred artistic creations and their accompanying texts, through which the adolescents conveyed and described how they perceive the free time they experience (see two of the childrens artwork, figures 1 and 2). The adolescents were instructed to depict moments in their experienced leisure time using any materials and techniques they chose. They were not given any further guidance so that their creations would be spontaneous.

Fig. 1. How I spend my free time (girl)

Fig. 2. How I spend my free time (boy)

The second aspect, desired leisure, focused on the selection of pictures from a preselected chart. There were forty-one options, namely thirty-nine photographs representing categorised leisure activities

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that young people would ideally choose, as well as two additional options, something else and nothing. The photographs portray leisure categories obtained from the general literature (Christodoulou, 2003, Lagopoulos & Bolkund-Lagopoulou 1992). They are related to official culture, the arts, language and literature, sports, education and entertainment. More specifically, the categories examined are listed below in the order in which they appear in the preselected chart (Figure 3): (1) theatre, (2) skateboarding or another sport, (3) museums or other art and cultural centres, (4) Internet cafs, (5) computers, (6) graffiti, (7) volunteer groups, (8) family, (9) funfair, (10) cinema, (11) shopping centres, (12) excursions, (13) basketball or other sports, (14) television, (15) football matches, (16) books, poems, prose, (17) chess or other intellectual games, (18) foreign languages, (19) friends and interpersonal relationships, (20) scouts, (21) concerts, festivals or other events, (22) shopping, (23) water sports, (24) painting or other hobbies, (25) church, Sunday school, religious events, (26) rest and relaxation, (27) cycling, (28) hanging out with friends, (29) electronic games, PlayStation, (30) parties, (31) coffee shops and restaurants, (32) playing in the neighbourhood with friends, (33) chatting with friends on the telephone, (34) taking care of animals, (35) playing musical instruments, (36) taking care of my appearance, (37) going to the gym, (38) going for walks on my own, (39) dancing, (40) nothing, (41) something else. An analysis of the two aspects, experienced leisure and desired leisure, and the data obtained from the survey are presented below. 3. Data and analysis The research and analysis of leisure have an important role to play in cultural growth. In modern sociological thought, leisure is a paradigmatic field for the study of social structures, meanings and lifestyles, since it records and analyses todays dominant social time. Having and utilizing free time leads to social growth and improved quality of life, creating well rounded young people and a well rounded society in general. It is true that this study has focused on leisure as young people perceive it (primary source), rather than on the way it is manifested in the social sphere (secondary source). The research results are presented below, with the scope of the subject in mind and having taken into consideration the research objective and goals and the method of analysis applied. The analysis of the data obtained from the iconic communication system resulted in an overall table (Table 1), which presents the selected categories of experienced (EL) and desired leisure (DL) for all the individuals (boys and girls) as percentages. The codes in the table below are grouped in the order in which they appear in the preselected chart of photographs (see Figure 3). The leisure activities were grouped in broader categories based on the key principles of thematic content analysis, with the theme being the unit of analysis (Bardin, 1977; Curley, 1990; Weber, 1990, Veron, 1981; Lasswell et al. 1965; Mucchieli, 1998; Grawitz, 1981). Table 1. Overall table of experienced and desired leisure
Boys EL Leisure Activities Entertainment % 20.4 DL % 163.9 EL % 23.2 Girls DL % 180.8

1. Theatre

0.0

4.9

0.0

14.9

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3. Museums, other art and cultural centres 10. Cinema 15. Football matches 21.Concerts, festivals or other events
Sports

0.0 5.6 14.8 0.0


92.6

0.0 65.6 57.4 36.1


201.6

0.0 17.9 3.6 1.8


30.4

8.5 59.6 36.2 61.7


166.0

2. Skateboarding or another sport 13. Basketball or other sports 23. Water sports 37. Gym 39. Dance or gymnastics 27. Cycling
Computers

5.6 59.3 5.6 5.6 1.9 14.8


79.6

32.8 52.5 37.7 37.7 3.3 37.7


68.9

7.1 14.3 1.8 0.0 5.4 1.8


82.2

23.4 29.8 25.5 38.3 25.5 23.4


44.7

4. Internet cafs 5. Time on the computer


Creative Activities

5.6 74.1
42.6

29.5 39.3
39.3

5.4 76.8
60.7

10.6 34.0
63.8

6. Graffiti 16. Reading books or writing poems or prose 24. Painting or other hobbies
Playing

0.0 37.0 5.6


3.7

23.0 3.3 13.1


65.6

1.8 48.2 10.7


12.5

21.3 19.2 23.4


63.8

32. Playing in the neighbourhood with friends 17. Playing chess or other intellectual games 9. Funfair
Television

0.0 3.7 0.0


61.1

16.4 8.2 41.0


18.0

5.4 5.4 1.8


55.4

10.6 4.3 48.9


14.9

14. Television
Electronic games

61.1
16.7

18.0
50.8

55.4
3.6

14.9
17.0

29. PlayStation or other electronic games


Friends and family

16.7
38.9

50.8
86.9

3.6
62.5

17.0
168.1

8. Time with family 19. Friends and interpersonal relationships 28. Hanging out with friends 33. Telephone
Personal Time

5.6 0.0 29.6 3.7


27.7

18.0 16.4 47.5 4.9


57.4

7.1 1.8 30.4 23.2


33.9

23.4 48.9 63.8 31.9


110.6

26. I would like rest and relaxation 38. Going for walks or spending time on my own
Recreation

24.1 3.7
70.4

39.3 18.0
103.3

16.1 17.9
83.9

59.6 51.1
178.7

30. Parties

0.0

31.2

0.0

59.6

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31. Coffee shops and restaurants 35. Music 36. Taking care of my appearance
Group Activities

22.2 48.2 0.0


3.7

31.2 39.3 1.6


95.1

14.3 66.1 3.6


3.6

38.3 31.9 48.9


106.4

7. Volunteer groups 12. Trips and excursions 20. Scouts 25. Church, Sunday school, religious events
Shopping

0.0 3.7 0.0 0.0


1.9

21.3 57.4 6.6 9.8


22.9

0.0 3.6 0.0 0.0


25.0

19.2 78.7 6.4 2.1


127.7

11. Hanging out at shopping centres 22. Shopping


Supplementary Education

0.0 1.9
0.0

16.4 6.6
4.9

0.0 25.0
0.0

57.5 70.2
6.4

18. Learning foreign languages


Taking Care of Animals

0.0
0.0

4.9
19.7

0.0
0.0

6.4
25.5

34. Animals
Something Else

0.0
20.4

19.7
6.6

0.0
10.7

25.5
4.3

From the analysis of the above table, we observe that there are three types of relationship as regards experienced leisure and desired leisure for boys and girls, as shown in detail below. Reflective learners learn more effectively when they have time to consider options before responding whereas impulsive learners are able to respond immediately and take risks.

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(a) Categories with zero or low rates of experienced leisure and high rates of desired leisure (EL < DL)
For boys, EL is zero in 34% of the codes (Table 2). Table 2. Categories with zero rates of experienced leisure (boys)
Categories (Boys) Funfair Concerts, festivals or other events Parties Graffiti Volunteer groups Animals Hanging out at shopping centres Friends and interpersonal relationships Playing in the neighbourhood with friends Church, Sunday school, religious events Scouts Theatre Learning foreign languages Taking care of appearance EL % 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DL % 40.98 36.07 31.15 22.95 21.31 19.67 16.39 16.39 16.39 9.84 6.56 4.92 4.92 1.64

We note from this table that boys would very much like to have fun, go to festivals and parties, take part in volunteer groups and do graffiti (40.98% 21.31%). They would like to take care of animals, go to shopping centres, make friends and play in the neighbourhood to a lesser degree (19.00% 10.00%), and reveal little willingness to go to church, the theatre, learn foreign languages or spend time on their appearance (9.00% 1.00%). As regards experienced leisure, Table 3 indicates that boys experience their desired leisure activities at much lower rates. Table 3. Categories with low rates of experienced leisure (boys).
Categories (Boys) Cinema Trips and excursions Football matches PlayStation or other electronic games Hanging out with friends Rest and relaxation Water sports Gym Cycling Skateboarding or another sport EL % 5.56 3.70 14.81 16.67 29.63 24.07 5.56 5.56 14.81 5.56 DL % 65.57 57.38 57.38 50.82 47.54 39.34 37.70 37.70 37.70 32.79

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Coffee shops and restaurants Internet cafs Going for a walk or spending time on my own Time with family Painting or other hobbies Playing chess or other intellectual games Shopping Telephone Dance or gymnastics

22.22 5.56 3.70 5.56 5.56 3.70 1.85 3.70 1.85

31.15 29.51 18.03 18.03 13.11 8.20 6.56 4.92 3.28

Based on the above table, boys experience categories that they would like to experience more at low rates (1% 30%). More specifically, they would very much like to go to the cinema, on trips and excursions, to football matches, play games and play with friends (65% 40%). They would like rest and relaxation, going to the gym, cycling or other sports and going to coffee shops and Internet cafs to a lesser extent (39% 20% ), and are less likely to want to spend time with family, paint, go shopping, dance or do gymnastics (19% 3%). Where girls are concerned, they do not experience some categories at all (twenty-four of the total number of categories), but would like to experience them (Table 4). Table 4. Categories with zero rates of experienced leisure (girls)
Categories (Girls) Parties Hanging out at shopping centres Gym Animals Volunteer Groups Theatre Museums, other art and cultural centres Learning foreign languages Scouts Church, Sunday school, religious events EL % 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DL % 59.57 57.45 38.30 25.53 19.15 14.89 8.51 6.38 6.38 2.13

From the above table, we observe that girls would really like to go to parties, hang out at shopping centres, go to gym and take care of animals (40% 20%). They are less interested in volunteering and going to the theatre and museums (19% 10%), and show little willingness to learn foreign languages, join the scouts or go to church (9% 1%). We also note from Table 5 that girls experience categories that they would like to experience more at low rates (5% 31%). More specifically, they would really like to go on trips and excursions, go shopping, take care of their appearance, hang out with friends, and go to concerts, the cinema, the funfair and coffee shops (78% 38%). They are less interested in rest and relaxation, going to football matches, chatting on the phone, playing basketball or other sports, dancing or doing gymnastics, spending time with family, painting and doing graffiti (36% 21%), and show little interest in PlayStation and other electronic games, internet cafs and playing in the neighbourhood (21% 10%).

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Table 5. Categories with low rates of experienced leisure (girls)


Categories (Girls) Trips and excursions Shopping Hanging out with friends Concerts, festivals or other events Rest and relaxation Cinema Going for a walk or spending time on my own Funfair Friends and interpersonal relationships Taking care of my appearance Coffee shops and restaurants Football matches Telephone Basketball or other sports Water sports Dance or gymnastics Cycling Skateboarding or other sports Time with family Painting or other hobbies Graffiti PlayStation or other electronic games Internet Cafs Playing in the neighbourhood EL % 3.57 25.00 30.36 1.79 16.07 17.86 17.86 1.79 1.79 3.57 14.29 3.57 23.21 14.29 1.79 5.36 1.79 7.14 7.14 10.71 1.79 3.57 5.36 5.36 DL % 78.72 70.21 63.83 61.70 59.57 59.57 51.06 48.94 48.94 48.94 38.30 36.17 31.91 29.79 25.53 25.53 23.40 23.40 23.40 23.40 21.28 17.02 10.64 10.64

(b) Categories with high rates of experienced leisure and low rates of desired leisure (EL > DL)
For boys, experienced leisure activity rates are higher than the rates of desired leisure activities in 15% of the codes (six codes) (Table 6). Table 6.
Categories (Boys) Time on the computer Television Basketball or other sports Music Reading books or writing poems or prose Something else EL % 74.07 61.11 59.26 48.15 37.04 20.37 DL % 39.34 18.03 52.46 39.34 3.28 6.56

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We observe from the above table that boys spend a lot of time on the computer, watching television, playing basketball and listening to music (74% 48%), less time on reading books (37%), or choose to do something else. As far as girls are concerned, experienced leisure activity rates are higher than desired leisure activity rates in 10% of the codes (four codes) (Table 7). Table 7.
Categories (Girls) Time on the computer Music Television Reading books or writing poems or prose EL % 76.79 66.07 55.36 48.21 DL % 34.04 31.91 14.89 19.15

From the above table we can see that girls spend a lot of time on the computer, listening to music and watching television (77% 55%), and less time reading books (48%).

(c) Categories with equal rates of experienced leisure and desired leisure (EL = DL)
The categories for which rates of experienced and desired leisure are equal for boys (0%) are museums and other art and culture centres and nothing, which represent 5% of the total number of categories, while for girls equal rates were obtained for the category nothing, which represents 2.5% of the total number of categories. Based on the above information regarding the inequalities (<, >) and equalities (=) between experienced and desired leisure for boys and girls, we observe (in Table 8) that: (a) EL < DL is very common for both boys and girls, representing 80% and 74% of the total number of categories respectively, which indicates that young people do not experience the activities they would like to develop, such as education, fun, sports and socialisation; (b) EL > DL is very uncommon for both boys and girls, representing 15% and 10% of the total number of categories respectively, the main choices being primarily passive activities, while (c) EL = DL mainly for visiting museums and monuments, which has a zero rate. Table 8. Percentage of total number of categories
Relationship EL < DL EL > DL EL = DL Boys 80 15 5 100 Girls 74 10 2.5

4. Observations The pupils depicted their views of daily leisure using art as a medium. They arranged their compositions in two different ways. The first way focused on rendering moments of their leisure time with a human figure present in the picture and playing an important role, whereas the second way focused on

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artistically rendering leisure using objects that symbolize particular concepts. The young people described their artwork using poor vocabulary, with a strong tendency towards sarcasm and self-derision, and expressing bitterness, disappointment and a need for help. As far as the studys goals are concerned, the deduction made was that irrespective of their sex, at least in the manner in which their views were rendered in their artwork, young people divide most of their available leisure time between the computer, listening to music, watching television and reading, with no rest and relaxation, the only difference between the sexes being that boys also play basketball. In a similar study, Fitzgerald et al. (1995) showed that there is a distinct difference in the leisure time preferences of boys and girls living in Dublins poor neighbourhoods. Girls prefer going to clubs with friends, while boys prefer sports, watching television and playing video games. There is a large divergence between experienced and desired leisure. The childrens daily schedule and especially their academic obligations limit opportunities for other activities, thus making experienced leisure very restrictive, as also indicated by the young peoples verbal message that there is not enough time for activities other than schoolwork. Adolescent life seems to be full of restrictions, without many opportunities for sports, cultural education, shopping, hobbies, or to spend time with family or go on trips. De Riste and Dinneen (2005) confirm this observation, having recognized that boys and girls mainly prefer activities such as watching television and going out with their peers. They recognized basic obstacles that boys and girls in Ireland were faced with and which as a rule were overcome by people from the lower classes. The young people in the sample mainly illustrated passive activities (Internet, listening to music) and to a lesser extent active pursuits (sports, hobbies, going out with friends, coffee, drinks, watching films). This observation could indicate a lack of desire, time or social conditions for doing things with people and becoming involved in creative pursuits. It also indicates a tendency to avoid activities that broaden ones intellectual horizons and create opportunities for exposure to new people and situations. While young peoples desire to take part in activities that involve socializing is encouraging, their indication that time is the main obstacle preventing them from becoming involved in such activities reveals their inability to evaluate their available free time and to use it efficiently, and also their tendency to use lack of time as an alibi. Perhaps it is not that they do not have enough time, but that they do not know how or do not want to actively manage it. It must, however, be noted that social class may significantly influence young peoples choices in terms of how they manage their leisure. Matthews et al. (2000), Morrow (2001), Valentine et al. (1998) and Wyn and White, (1997) showed that for children from the lower classes, free time is associated with spending time on the streets, hence the term street-based leisure. Most often, children and adolescents from the lower classes do not have the money to take part in structured leisure activities (Zeijl et al. 2001). Thus, while the scientific exploration of young peoples leisure spans a wide range of scientific fields and research personnel, the fact remains that the way that young people spend their free time is basically a social factor rather than a matter of personal choice, determined by each individuals needs. In other words, an adolescents free time is burdened with specific, mainly passive, activities dictated by the social environment (school environment, family). Leisure is also prescribed by the lack of infrastructure (recreation areas at schools and universities, cultural centres, sports fields and courts, museums). It is important to note that young people do not experience in any way, and do not particularly wish to experience, religious, cultural or educational institutions such as going to church, religious events and the theatre, visiting museums and galleries and learning languages. The adolescents artwork gives rise to the speculation that their ideas and values are centred around school, without many opportunities to escape or choose whatever they want. Where the communication code is concerned, the adolescents depicted it in terms of objects, such as computers,

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the Internet, mobile or other phones and television. In other words, the concept of communication is associated with technology. On the other hand, as far is interpersonal communication is concerned, the boys and girls depicted it by drawing other people in areas such as parks, coffee shops, the gym and football fields; communication with family was depicted as taking place in the kitchen with one parent present. Lastly, the enjoyment code was drawn as occurring in places such as the cinema, in their own bedroom, at gym and in coffee shops (most of which were empty). In other words, enjoyment is associated with empty spaces and solitude. Thus, if we were to draw a profile of an adolescent as deduced from this study, we could say that young people reveal a certain sense of solitude, with one parent present with them at home; they mainly communicate and have fun using technology and consuming Internet products (music, communication), and rarely take part in group activities that entertain, exercise the body and educate. Moreover, we know that leisure activities may have a positive (mainly) or negative impact on young children and adolescents (Larson and Verma, 1999). References
Bardin, L. (1977). L' analyse de contenu. Paris: PUF. Byrne, T., Nixon, E., Mayock, P., & Whyte, J. (2006). Free time and leisure needs of young people living in disadvantaged communities. Combat Poverty Agency. Curley, K. (1990). Content Analysis. In: E. Asher, The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Edinburgh: Pergamon Press. Christodoulou, A. (2003). Semiotic and culture. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press. Chtouris, S., Zissi, A., Papanis, E., & Rontos, K. (2006). The state of youth in contemporary Greece. 14 (4), 309. Coatsworth, J.D., Hiley Sharp, E., Palen, L.A., Darling, N., Cumsille, P. and Marta, E. (2005). Exploring Adolescent Self-Defining Leisure Activities and Identity Experiences Across Three Countries, International Journal of Behavioural Development, 29(5), 361-70. Danesi, M. (2000). Semiotics in Language education, Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Danesi, M. & Perron, P. (1999). Analysing cultures. An introduction and Handbook. Indiana University Press De Riste, A. and Dinneen, J. (2005). Young Peoples Views about Opportunities, Barriers and Supports to Recreation and Leisure, Dublin: National Childrens Office. Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M. and Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Development. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 865-889. George, R. M. and Chaskin, R. J. (2004). What Ninth Grade Students in the Chicago Public Schools do in their Out of School Time. Chicago: Chapin Hall Ghikopoulos, F., Christodoulou, A. (2007). Leasure in young people in Greece. A research. In: Panepistimioupoli. Thessaloniki: AUTH, vol. 25 (in greek). Grawitz, M. (1981). Methods des sciences socials. Paris : Dalloz. Fitzgerald, M., Joseph, A. P., Hayes, M. and ORegan, M. (1995). Leisure Activities of Adolescent Children, Journal of Adolescence, 18: 349-58. Halliday, M.A.K. (1978) Language as social semiotic: The interpretation of language and meaning. London: Edward Arnold. Hendry, L. B., Shucksmith, J., Love, J. G. and Glendinning, A. (1993). Young Peoples Leisure and Lifestyles. London: Routledge. Hendry, L. B. and Kloep, M. (2003). Young People, Unprotected Time, and Overprotected Contexts: Resources, Challenges and Risks?. In Colozzi, I. and Giovannini, G. (eds), Young People in Europe: Risk, Autonomy and Responsibilities. Italy: Franco Angeli s.r.l. Hochschild, A. R. (1997). The Time Bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: etropolitan Books. Jewitt, C. and Oyama, R. (2001) Visual Meaning: a Social Semiotic Approach. In Van Leeuwen, T. and Jewitt, C. (eds), Handbook of Visual Analysis, London, Sage, pp. 183-206.

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Kelly, J. R. (1981). Leisure interaction and the social dialectic. Social Forces, 60 (2), 304-322. Koronaiou, A., (1996). Sociology of Leisure. Athens, Nissos. Kouthouris, H. (2006). Leisure, Recreation and Sports: Conceptual correlation of terms. In: Inquiries in Physical Education & Sport, 4 (1), 68-77. (in greek). Krasanaki, G., (1984). Socio pedagogical leisure. Athens. Lagopoulos, A.Ph, K. Boklund-Lagopoulou (1992) Meaning and Geography, Social Conception of the Region in Northern Greece. Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Larson, R.W. and Verma, S. (1999). How Children and Adolescents Spend Time Across the World: Work, Play and Developmental Opportunities. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 701-36. Lasswell, H., D. & Leites, W. (1965). The Language of Politics: Studies in Quantitative Semantics. New York: MIT Press. Mahoney, J. L. and Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do Curricular Activities Protect Against Early School Dropout?. Developmental Psychology, 33, 241-53. Matthews, H., Limb, M. and Taylor, M. (2000). The Street as a Third Space in Childrens Geographies: Playing, Living, Learning. London: Routledge. Morrow, V. (2001). Networks and Neighbourhoods: Childrens and Young Peoples Perspective. n Social Capital for Health Services. London: HAD. Mucchieli, R. (1998). L analyse de contenu des documents et des communications. Paris: Les Editions ESF. Myzirakis, G., (1997). Leisure of young people. Recreational and sports activities. Athens, National Centre for Social Research. (in greek). Randviir A. & Cobley P. (2010). Sociosemiotics. In Cobley P. (ed). Semiotics. Roberts, K. and Parsells, G. (1994). Youth Cultures in Britain: Middle Class Take-Over. Leisure Studies, 13, 3348. Robinson, J. P. & G. Godbey (1997). Time for life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania State University Press. Rose, G. (2007). Visual Methodologies An introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London, Sage. Roth, W., Pozzer-Ardhenghi, L, & Han, J. (2005). Critical graphicacy: Understanding visual representation practices in school science. Dordrecht, Springer. Silbereisen, R. K. (2004). Adolescents: leisure-time activities. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 122-125). Shaw, S. M., Caldwell, L.L. and Kleiber, D. A. (1996). Boredom, Stress and Social Control in the Daily Activities of Adolescents. Journal of Leisure, 28, 274 293. Trainor, S., Delfabbro, P., Anderson, S., & Winefield, A. (2010). Leisure activities and adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Adolescence , 33 (1), 173-186. Triantafyllidis, M. (1998). Dictionary of Modern Greek Language. Manolis Triantafyllidis Foundation. (in greek). United Nations World Youth Report 2005. (2005). Downloaded April 1, 2010, from Youth and the United Nations: World program of action for youth: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin /wpayleisure.htm#WYR2005. Unsworth L, (2008) (ed) Multimodal Semiotics: Functional Analysis in Contexts of Education. London, Continuum. Valentine, G., Skelton, T. and Chambers, D. (1998). Cool Places: an introduction to youth and youth culture. n: T. Skelton, and G. Valentine (eds) Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Culture. London: Routledge. Veron E. (1981). La construction des vnements. Paris: PUF. Willinsky, J. (1990) The new literacy: Redefining reading and writing in the schools,. New York: Routledge Weber, R. (1990). Basic Content Analysis. Newbury Park: Sage. Wyn, J. and White, R. (1997). Rethinking Youth. London: Sage Publications Zeijl, E., DuBois-Reymond, M. and Te Poel, Y. (2001), Young adolescents leisure patterns. Society and Leisure, 2, 379 402.

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Applying Critical Discourse Analysis in Translation of Political Speeches and Interviews


Mehdi Mahdiyan
Department of English, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran

Muhammad Rahbar
Department of English, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran

Dr. Seyed Mohammad Hosseini-Maasoum


Department of Linguistics & Foreign Languages, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran Email: hosseinimasum@yahoo.com

Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p35

Abstract From the ancient times, language has been using as an ingenious device for transmission of ideology and for manipulation of the audience minds by those who have been in power. As Kress in Van Dijk (1985: 29) states, "Ideologies find their clearest articulation in language. Hence, a powerful way of examining ideological structure is through the examination of language". Adopting Critical Discourse Analysis with particular emphasis on the framework of Fairclough (1989) and utilizing the notions of SFL by Holliday (1985), the present investigation is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between language and ideology involved in translation in general, and more specifically, to uncover the underlying ideological assumptions invisible in the texts, both source text (ST) and target text (TT), and consequently ascertain whether or not translators ideologies are imposed in their translations. The corpus consisted of President Bush speeches during the years 2005 till 2008 about the nuclear program of Iran. The data consist of ST (in English) in the form of a political interviews and TTs in the form of 8 translations in Persian. The obtained results proved the fact that the application of CDA for the analysis of the ST and TT helps the translator to become aware of the genre conventions, social and situational context of the ST and TT, and outlines the formation of power and ideological relations on the text-linguistic level. Key words: CDA, Translation Studies, power relations, ideology.

1. Introduction The issue of genre and text type has been the topic of hot debates in the field of translation. Every genre has its own conventions and approach, which distinguishes it from the other text types; therefore, only the matter of word choice and structure cannot be determining factors in the act of translation. Various text types require different techniques and strategies for translation in order to be efficient in conveying the intended message of the source text into the target text. Another important matter is the inter relatedness of the texts and the social circumstance in which they are produced. Every text will be organized according to some concepts, beliefs and ideologies of a group, community, party or a nation.

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This issue makes the translation from a source to a target trickier because the selected words, their arrangement, the structure in which they appear are not chosen haphazardly and there would be some dominant thought according to which these texts are written. Amongst different genres, political texts may appear more challenging for translation. At first, they may seem as like the other text types but the ideas behind the word choice; structure and message of these texts are complicated and subtle. Ideologies, attitudes, and feelings are expressed through language (written or spoken) and by analyzing speeches we can figure out the speaker's thoughts and emotions about or towards an event or phenomenon. The investigation into politicians' remarks and comments becomes more essential when we find out that their ideologies and intentions are not always stated clearly and explicitly. As Van Dijk (1993:29) contends, the text (written or spoken) is like "an iceberg of information," and it is only the "tip" which is really expressed in words and sentences. Therefore, he concludes that the analysis of the implicitness is very helpful in the study of the underlying ideologies. Here a fairly new branch of linguistics, which is called Critical Discourse Analysis, comes in handy to level the problem of ignoring the hidden ideologies behind a text and tries to disclose them and show the certain features away from the canon of laypeople. Because of the complexity of the discourse in terms of both structure and meanings, the understanding of text does not just come from the analysis of vocabulary, grammatical features or cohesive devices. For gaining a thorough understanding, the worldview that the author and the receptor bring to the text and both situational and inter-textual must be considered. CDA provides this opportunity to adopt a social perspective and critical thinking into investigation. Therefore, this is the main objective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to discover and shed light on the hidden part of discourse. In political discourse, words are at the service of transferring the power or ideologies of one group or nation to the other. As a consequence of globalization, political texts may be required to be translated to the other languages. Here, the task of the translator is not just rendering the linguistics features of the source text, but s/he should be aware of the underlying theories and ideologies which scaffold a political text and in some cases try to add, delete of clarify the text in order to make it comprehensible for the target text audience. Translation, although often invisible in the field of politics, is actually an integral part of political activity. (Bassnett&schaffner, 2010:22). Translation is in fact part of the development of discourse, and a bridge between various discourses. It is through translation that information is made available to addressees beyond national borders; and it is very frequently the case that reactions in one country to statements that were made in another country are actually reactions to the information as it was provided in translation (schaffner, 2004:118). The advent of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has influenced not only the branch of applied linguistics, but it has also affected Translation Studies and found its way in it. CDA sees language in a dialectic relationship with social reality, i.e. a communicative act (act of translation or interpretation) is affected by social reality and is used to sustain or change the social reality. In some cases, the orator wants to conceal a reality, in some other s/he may want to magnify it and in some others wants to show it reversely. According to CDA, the usage of text-linguistic elements reflects the text producers aims and affiliation to a special ideology, which, in its turn, may establish unequal power relations (class struggle, ideological struggle) between the participants of the communicative event. Hence, the salient aim of CDA within TS is to reveal the underlying and often implicit ideological and power relations in spoken and written discourse. Because CDA is brand new approach, it cannot be considered as a fixed theory but rather a cluster of approaches that have been started by the earlier research in functionalist and discourse analysis theories within TS. The mixture of CDA into TS has made to look at the concept of translation from a different angle. While the source text is produced in some specific socio-cultural situation in accordance with the norms and values of that society or organization, the translators socio-cultural background, linguistic

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background and experience with other texts and discourses directly affect the final product of the act of translation in target text. This may result in the fact that either translator embeds their own worldviews and ideologies in translations unconsciously or deliberately according to their own assumptions or the requirements stated in the translation brief. 2. The Nature of Translation and Text Analysis The term translation can be misleading by nature. Discrepancies can be obviously seen in viewpoints aired by different scholars regarding the definition of this key term. Munday (2001:4) argues that the concept of translation may refer to several things. First of all, it can refer to the field of translation in general, it can refer to the product, i.e. a translation of a text, and it can refer to the process of translating. The process of translating involves a translator who changes the language of an original ST into another language of a TT, i.e. changing the language code. From a different viewpoint, Schjoldager (2008: 18) regards a text as a translation involves basing it on these three postulates which the third one is as follows: there is the relationship postulate: It is assumed that the source and target texts share certain features that can be ascertained in a comparison between the two. This claim maybe generally true, but regarding translation of political discourse, it can be somehow simplistic. It does not take into consideration the ideological, social, political, and economical differences between the society in which a text was produced by a writer and the one a translator takes the text and translates it. Translation Studies, which is by definition a multilingual research field, has developed from a profession and a craft into an interdisciplinary field influenced by various branches of linguistics, comparative literature, communication studies, philosophy and a range of types of cultural studies, including post colonialism and postmodernism, as well as sociology and historiography (Munday 2008). Researchers from different theoretical backgrounds contributed to the development of the field with approaches that tended to shape the study of translation according to those diverse backgrounds. Through its long history in different parts of the world, translation practice and study have been dominated by the debate over the degree of translation's equivalence, and degree of faithfulness. Dichotomies, such as word-for-word versus sense-for-sense or literal versus free translations have surfaced in many professional and academic circles (for a review, see Munday 2008: 19-22). Such debates concerning translation theory have traditionally focused mainly on the comparison of source text (ST) and target text (TT), taking the concept of fidelity as the basic criterion. Translation Studies today is no longer concerned with examining whether a translation has been faithful to a source text. Instead, the focus is on social, cultural, and communicative practices, on the cultural and ideological significance of translating and of translations, on the external politics of translation, on the relationship between translation behavior and socio-cultural factors. In other words, there is a general recognition of the complexity of the phenomenon of translation, an increased concentration on social causation and human agency, and a focus on effects rather than on internal structures. As cited in Bassnett&schaffner( 2010:12). 3. Translation Studies and Critical Discourse Analysis The integration of discourse analysis in translation studies (TS) was initiated in the functionalist theories of translation (Munday 2001:73) which, including text analysis of the ST, aimed at the analysis of text type, language function, the effect of the translation and the participants of the translation event. The discourse analysis approach to TS applied Michael Hallidays register analysis model, which was mainly used to analyze the pragmatic functions of linguistic elements in both ST and TT, e.g. the first theoretical frameworks were proposed by Mona Baker and Julian House (ibid. 90). Halliday considers

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language use as a communicative event and describes three strands of functional meaning as ideational, interpersonal and textual meaning. Interpersonal meaning refers to use of language in order to establish a relationship between text producer and text receiver. Power is one of the rudimentary types of relationship in the analysis of interpersonal meaning. The schemes of choices made by translator from the array of the lexico-grammatical resources of language can establish the interpersonal meaning. Then notions like context, functions, culture, textuality, style, genre, and discourse which are studied in pragmatics, discourse analysis, cultural studies, and communication studies had an effect on Translation Studies. CDA is mainly used to analyze the text linguistic factors of one language and one culture. However, in translation studies this approach should be applied to both primary ST and secondary TT. CDA sees translation as a social, cultural, and political act and tries to combine these three factors to analyze both ST and TT. Most of the research which has been done within TS using CDA focuses on translation as a social action, answering questions such as: who is translating for whom, what is being translated, when is it being translated and what are the effects on the receiving culture (Chilton cited in Schffner 2002:60). According to Valden, In translation studies, CDA has an optional role and is mainly used as an auxiliary tool to the existing methodological approaches to provide a comprehensive reflection on language and culture (2007:100). CDA may become a useful means in the decision making of the translation strategy, the ST, and the TT context, cultural and social differences between source and target language communities. It also helps to know the cognitive process of translation and the contribution of the translator in the interpretation (understanding) of the source text meaning which has not been clearly described in TS. Christina Schffner (2004:136) states that it is the human communicative activity in the sociocultural settings which is common in both CDA and TS, and that texts and discourses are the product of this activity. Therefore, here the translator is not just a kind of mediator who renders one language into another, but, on the contrary, s/he produces new discourse in the TL. Unlike discourse analysts, translators create a new act of communication on a previously existing one in a new target language environment by using their own background knowledge (linguistic, social and cultural) and negotiating the meaning between the ST producer and the TT reader (Hatim& Mason 1990:2). Translations are perceived as target texts in a new socio-cultural context, which are based on a source text which functioned in its original socio-cultural context (Schffner 2004:138). Accordingly, the CDA applied to TS revolves around the role of translator in translation process on the basis of translation strategy taken by the translator and the design of target audience. Christina Schffner (2004:17) focuses on both the purpose of the translation and audience design from two angles, i.e. target audience with more or less the same knowledge of the ST subject and target audience which lacks knowledge about the ST issues. Hence, it is possible to state two main purposes in the translation: a) the translator must convey information with certain changes in the TT (According to Valdon (2007: 102) omissions, additions, permutations and substitutions may be included in the vocabulary of CDA as well, since they are connected to the editing and production processes of STs and TTs) (Dynamic approach). b) the translator conveys information in the TT with no significant changes according to wordfor-word translation strategy (static approach). To put it in a nutshell, in TS, CDA is applied to both the ST and the TT, which are taken as the products of text production, i.e. the ST producers motivated choices in the ST language and culture and the translators motivated choices for the production of a new TT in a new language and culture. There are two probable translation strategies on the basis of the text type and purpose of the translation: dynamic or static translation strategy.

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4. Translation and Political Discourse The objective of a political discourse analysis, which adopts critical goals, is to denaturalize ideologies. Denaturalization involves showing how social structures determine properties of discourse and how discourse determines social structures (Fairclough, 1995). According to Fairclough (1989), CDA aims at systematically exploring how these non-transparent relationships are factors in securing power and hegemony and it draws attention to power imbalances, social inequities, non-democratic practices, and other injustices in hopes of spurring people to correction actions. A critical discourse analyst should be able to differentiate ideology from knowledge so the concept of discourse is essential for a scientific understanding of discourse (Van Dijk, 2001). Discourses always involve power and ideologies, and because translators have different backgrounds, knowledge, and power positions, they can be interpreted differently by them. Therefore, we do not have the right interpretation whereas a more or less plausible or adequate interpretation is likely (Fairclough, 2002; Wodak & Ludwig, 1999) (cited in Nahrkhalaji, 2006:6). As translation studies can be considered as a brand new field of study, the relationship between it and political discourse has not been scrutinized. Some researches have been done to analyze this relationship applying different approaches such as textual analysis of Anna Trosborg (1997;2002) and more frequently political discourse analysis or critical discourse analysis whose leading features can be Christina Schaffner and Hatim and Mason (Christina Schffner 1997; 2002; 2003; 2004; Hatim and Mason 1990; 1997). A factor which received most of emphasis was considering this fact that when analyzing political discourse, the surrounding societal and ideological context in which the text is produced should be taken into consideration (Schffner 1997:119). The recent researches have considered the role of translators as mediators who on the basis of the knowledge they have from the source text and socio-cultural and political situations interpret the texts and try to adjust them with the norms, beliefs and ideological considerations of the target society. The translator interprets the ST according to his/her cultural, social and political background which may be ideologically shaped. Hence, the analysis of the ST and the TT often deals with foregrounding the connections between linguistic, translational, and ideological components in political texts (Valden 2007:100). Political discourse is often of relevance not only for the specific culture of the text producer, but may be intended for a wider audience as well (Schffner 2004:117). Due to globalization, politics have become internationalized, and it is through translation information is made available to addressees beyond national borders (ibid. 120). Currently translation studies is an essential developing factor of political discourse. Among the translation studies scholars, Christina Schffner has done valuable researches to show the relatedness of translation and political discourse (1997; 2002, 2003; 2004). She has tried to concentrate on cultural, social and political aspects of translation and text production in the source and target cultures and apply discourse analysis to translation. It can be said that her research deals principally with translation strategies, which are used to transfer a culture-bound source text into another target language community with a limited knowledge to the foreign culture. According to Schffner (ibid. 127), political texts usually reflect culture-specific conditions of their production. Their translations inform a target audience about a communicative act that had already been fulfilled in the ST community. In this condition, the ST can both be addressed to a single or multiple TT communities. On the basis of this fact that translation is a mediating intercultural activity, lots of factors may affect the translation into TT such as the audience, situation, function of the text in TL community and text type which are not of equal importance in ST. The functions of the ST and TT in their respective cultures determine the translation strategies, e.g. if the function of the ST was to persuade the source language (SL) audience, then the function of the target text in the TL culture will have only an informative function (ibid. 128). This point of view states that the TL audience does not have the same

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knowledge as the SL audience and therefore the obligatory alternations have to be made in the TT by the translator. In other words, this perspective sees the ST as not having the same force and effect on the TT audience in comparison to ST audience. 5. Translation, Ideology, and Power Moving away from those debates that focused on translation equivalence at the sentence level, or even sometimes at the word level, a new approach looked at translation using a larger textual approach, i.e. discourse and register analysis approaches, influenced by and benefiting from the growth of discourse analysis in applied linguistics. Building on Halliday's systemic functional grammar (Munday 2008: 90), these approaches study translation as a process and product, focusing on register and discourse level (see, for instance, Hatim and Mason 1990, Mason 2009). However, earlier studies in this branch of research focused mainly on the formal definition of discourse. There was little attention paid to the wider effects of discourse that go beyond the linguistic content to consider the social, political and economic implications of discourse in translation. Acknowledging that ideology has always functioned as an invisible hand in translation practice, and the fact there are factors which influence translation, not only of a linguistic nature, but also representing the transmission of ideology between different nations and countries, a cultural and ideological movement flourished in the field of translation studies that was represented in the approach towards the analysis of translation from a cultural studies angle (Munday 2008: 125). According to van Dijk (1997, 2001), ideology is articulated in discourse. Therefore, translation can also articulate, that is produce and reproduce, ideology. Ideologies are individual convictions, and as a result, different translators sharing diverse ideologies can translate political texts differently. It is possible that translators who support opposing political parties will translate political discourse differently and will exhibit different attitudes to the ideologies expressed by the source text. Therefore, different translations can reflect differences in ideologies, which can potentially surface as differences in superstructure. Translators as members of a society do not live in a vacuum. They are inevitably affected by the rules, values, and beliefs of their native country. Consequently, translating a text, they comprehend it, try to filter it, adjust the text to the accepted norms of their society and then produce a new form of the ST which would have higher degree of acceptability from the perspective of readers. In international context, translation may play a prominent role in and be a vital vehicle and means of communication in publishing and publicizing political agendas as well as in maintaining political power (Banhegy, 2009:5). In this respect, translation itself may easily become a political tool. Translation therefore can serve purpose of gaining, maintaining, and even abusing political power in the interests of certain political groups. Patrons can encourage the publication of translations they consider acceptable and they can also quite effectively prevent the publication of translations they do not consider so (Lefevere, 1992:20). Similarly Munday commented on the role of ideology and power in translation: A key question is what kind of link there is between the lexical/syntactic choices and the ideological context. For Halliday (1978), as for critical discourse analysts such as Fairclough (e.g. 2001), it is the sociocultural context or location of power which to a large extent determines the lexicogrammatical choices (2008:3). 6. Theoretical Framework of the study The approach to CDA chosen for this study is that of Norman Fairclough (1995, 2000, 2003). For Fairclough, in contrast to the social psychological approach of Wetherell and Potter (1992), the socialcognitive model of van Dijk (1993, 1998, 2001) and the discourse-historic method of the Vienna

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School (Reisigl and Wodak, 2001; Wodak, 1996,2002; Wodak et al., 1999), CDA means the analysis of relationships between concrete language use and the wider social cultural structures. [... ] He attributes three dimensions to every discursive event. It is simultaneously text, discursive practice - which also includes the production and interpretation of texts - and social practice. The analysis is conducted according to these three dimensions. (Titscher et al., 2000: 149-150) Besides, Hallidayan model meets the goals of the present study. Therefore, this study is conducted within this framework as well as Faircloughs one. At first, the researcher begins analyzing U.S. President's linguistic choices in his comments on Iranian nuclear program. The analysis is carried out within the three functions or meanings of Hallidayan model of language (ideational meaning, interpersonal meaning and textual meaning). Active and passive voices Nominalization Modality Thematization Emotive language (emotive lexical choices) Then, following the Faircloughs model, interpretation and explanation of the discourse come next. 7. Materials and Procedure In order to conduct this analysis, a wide array of Bushs comments regarding Irans nuclear issue is collected. These remarks and comments are taken from Bushs addresses and press conferences. The relevant data have been downloaded from the White House website at www.whitehouse.org. To make the investigation feasible, the researcher has to base this analysis on a sample of comments. Thus, he has decided to focus on 20 excerpts of Bush's comments randomly selected from 20 of his political speeches and press conferences concerning Iran's nuclear program from 2005 to 2008. Having analyzed the selected parts according to the mentioned factors, the social and situational context of the speeches will also be analyzed. The next step is the analysis of translation of those parts in Persian produced by a group of eight translators all having M.A. in translation studies on the basis of the same factors applied to the source text . The data will be shown comparatively and the areas of similarity and difference between the ST and TTs will be identified to understand in which categories the translator deviated from the dominant ideology of the ST. Therefore, the researcher selected mixed method design for this study. The qualitative part includes the analysis of ST and TT and the quantitative part comprises the data analysis, categorization of analyzing factors, and finally showing their percentage. 8. Results

8.1. The Analysis of Active and Passive Voice in ST and TTs


The comparison of passive and active voices in the source and the eight target texts did not provide considerable results from ideological point of view. As discussed in the analysis of the ST, the speaker intentionally used either active or passive voice to attribute good deeds and actions to the U.S. and its allies and to condemn Iran to threatening actions against the world. However, in the translations obtained from the translators, there is not a big change in this area and they mostly preferred to pursuit

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the same ideology as that of the speaker. Here some examples are displayed the areas the TT deviates from the ST:

Passive Active
ST: So I think there's universal agreement that we don't want them to have a weapon. And there is agreement that they should not be allowed to learn how to make a weapon. And beyond that, I think that's all I'm going to say. (December 19, 2005) .[ .........]:TT1 [ .........]:TT6 . ST: You see, a non-transparent society that is the world's premier state sponsor of terror cannot be allowed to possess the world's most dangerous weapons. So, as we confront Iran's nuclear weapons ambitions, we're also reaching out to the Iranian people to support their desire to be free; to build a free, democratic, and transparent society. [ ........]:TT3 . [ ........]:TT8 . In English and Persian linguistic structures, the choices about the representation of actions, actors and events have to do with the distinction between active and passive voices. Example (1) shows the possible ways in which a Negative action can be syntactically expressed in different ways. In TT6 the responsible agent of the action not allowing has been made explicit while in TT1 it has been left unclear and unknown as it was in ST. As mentioned there was not a significant change from passive to active voice, here some examples show the reverse form, which is from active to passive voice:

Active Passive
ST: And secondly, We will continue to stay engaged in helping reformers, in working to advance liberty, to defeat an ideology that doesn't believe in freedom. (August 21, 2006) :TT2 . ST: The first goal of any dialogue with a partner with whom we're trying to create peace is to have a common objective, a stated goal. :TT7 .

8.3. Nominalization

The second item to be discussed is nominalization. As stated earlier, nominalization is used to delete information from a sentence. Through this process, features of the sentence such as action, participants, indication of time and modality may be deleted.

Nominalization verb

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ST: It reminds the nations of the world that there is an ongoing diplomatic effort to convince the Iranians to give up their nuclear weapons ambitions. :TT5 . ST: So I think there's universal agreement that we don't want them to have a weapon. . :TT6 . :TT1 Syntactically, verbs tend to convey concrete notions, actions or processes rather than less effective abstract concepts. Although there is only a tendency, but it is quite enough to change readers first interpretation out of the same issue. These examples are one type of nominalization, which is altered into a verbal version of the action in TT1 to change readers vision towards a more narrowed and specific event. On the other hand, in TT2, the ST sentence was translated in such a way that, nobody can ever make any guess about the actual involvement of an actor.

8.4. Modalization
As explained earlier, modality refers to a speakers attitude towards, or opinion about the truth of a proposition expressed by a clause. It also extends to his/her attitude towards the situation or event described by a clause (Halliday, 1985). Modality has to do with the judgment of the speaker of the probability, casualty, obligation, or inclination involved in what he is saying. It represents the speakers angle, either on the validity of the assertion or on the rights and wrongs of the proposal. ST: the world is united and concerned about their desire to have not only a nuclear weapon, but the capacity to make a nuclear weapon or the knowledge to make a nuclear weapon, In this extract from the president Bush speech, non-modalized language used to show Iran is definitely after producing nuclear weapons, however, it had some different rendering in Persian: .. :TT5 . ... :TT8 . ... In both translations into Persian, the translators added a probability sense ( ) to the presidents speech to show their country is not desirable to have nuclear weapons and it can be his inference and it is not a definite fact. ST: My message to the Iranian people is you can do better than to have somebody try to rewrite history. And you can do better than having somebody who's trying to develop a nuclear weapon that like the previous example, here Bush used a non-modalized language to show his certainty about the acts of Iranian president for developing nuclear weapons that has different renditions in Persian in which degrees of uncertainty and inference are included. . :TT1 .. . :TT6 . ...... In TT1, the translator by adding a modal ( ) tried to lessen the negative load of the bush speech, which directly addresses the president of Iran and tried to state that Bushs speech just can be a possibility. In TT6, the other translator by changing the tense of the sentence to future () , attempted to prove that this can be a guess about the future and it may not realize as stated by Bush. ST: that for the sake of world peace they should abandon their nuclear weapons ambitions.

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. :TT5 . .... :TT2 As it is clear from the ST, the speaker intentionally used a modal of obligation (should) to show Iran is forced to stop its nuclear program for making nuclear weapons. However, in TT5, the translator changed one function of should which is obligation with the other one which is for expectation ( ) to alleviate the forceful load of the ST. In TT2 on the other hand, the translator replaced the forceful power of should and added a sense of possibility and advisability () .

8.5. Thematization
Placement of information within a sentence and their order, i.e. which one comes first and which last can directly change the message of the sentence and affects the listener or the reader comprehension or as mentioned before, What the speaker or writer puts first will influence the interpretation of everything that follows. In this part some examples from the ST are chosen in which the translators deviated from the original form and changed the order of information in the sentence. ST: By supporting democratic change in Iran, we will hasten the day when the people of Iran can determine their own future and be free to choose :TT7 . In the above extract, by supporting democratic change in Iran is suggesting this view that Iran's internal affairs are in a state of chaos and the Iranian nation is not enjoying enough freedom and on the whole, the country and the people are in urgent need of others' help. The listeners may also have this sense that U.S. is concerned about the democracy and freedom in Iran. This linguistic manipulation diverts the people's attention from the real motives of America in this standoff. However, in the translation submitted, the translator changed the place of the theme whether intentionally or accidentally and thereby the idea which induced in source text reader may not be transferred to the target text reader. ST: The path chosen by Iran's new leaders -- threats, concealment, and breaking international agreements and IAEA seals -- will not succeed and will not be tolerated by the international community. :TT2 . In the above extract, to convince the public opinion that Iran's actions are not in compliance with international agreements and describe Iran as the violator of universal regulations, George W. Bush has placed such issues like: The path chosen by Iran's new leaders -- threats, concealment, and breaking international agreements and IAEA seals , and so forth as the themes of his remarks and this topicalization helps the listeners to view the issue from this perspective that Iran has no respect for international agreements and regulations and this makes the public mind point the finger of blame at Iran. As it can be seen from the Persian rendition of this part, the translator changed the place of international community to the beginning of the sentence and this may lead to another interpretation.

8.6. Emotive Language or Lexicalization


The vocabulary type chosen by a speaker or writer affects the minds and the attitudes of the readers and the listeners differently. The types of words that a writer uses can activate particular presuppositions, reveal speaker's attitudes, require reader agreement for interpretation, and so forth. ST: The Iranian regime sponsors terrorists and is actively working to expand its influence in the region. . :TT8

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. :TT7 As pointed in the analysis of the source text of this part, name-calling is a prevalent strategy used by politicians applying derogatory terms that dehumanize the enemy. Simply put it, they use terms that evoke fear, anger and hatred; and it distances the audience, making it easier to accept a course of action towards the enemy. Bush has used the word 'regime' 30 times in comparison to the positive synonym 'government' whose number is 3. This is going to show that Iran's government and their authorities are not legal as the word regime suggests such a meaning into the public mind. On the contrary, two translators preferred not to use this offensive term and replace it with other words meaning government ( -). In the table below, the overall percentages of different categories according to which the analysis of ST and eight TTs was done is displayed. It can clearly show the translators may or may not follow the ideology and strategy of the ST speaker and they changed it both intentionally or according to their own ideology and haphazardly or unintentionally. Although it is noteworthy in some items such as thematization and active/passive structures, the choices of translators were approximately the same as those of the ST speaker. Table 1: the overall percentages of different discursive structure in ST and TTs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Discursive structure Passive sentences Active sentences Modalization Thematization Nominalization Lexicalization ST 22.3 41.7 4.7 25.3 29 27.61 TT1 24.1 40.5 5 25.4 27.7 25.6 TT2 23.4 41.9 4.2 24.7 30.2 25.9 TT3 22.9 41.1 5.4 25.9 28.4 26.3 TT4 21.3 43 3.9 25.6 28.7 27.1 TT5 21.8 42.9 5.1 23 29.3 28.4 TT6 22 42.5 4.8 24.4 30.6 28.7 TT7 22.2 41.4 4.4 26 29 27.3 TT8 23.1 41.2 5.3 23.9 28.2 27.7

The aforementioned TT analysis exposed a number of complications related to the translation of political texts. Even though the text type required a dynamic translation, most of the translators have used the static strategy to translation and have applied a very literal approach. Hence, most of the translations reflect the SL structure, which delays the level of perception of the TT. It may be related to the phenomenon of foreignizing, i.e. the usage of borrowing from the English language and grammatical structures, but may also be related to the lack of time and accurateness during the contentment of the translation task. There are a great number of linguistic and grammatical inaccuracies in the translations, which denote the fact that the translators have not been able to get fully acquainted with the translation brief and the situational and social contexts of the ST and TTs. Thus, the trustworthiness of the translation suffers. According to Hatim and Mason (1997:176), the texture and structure are at risk when the context is misinterpreted. It seems that most of the translators have been able to understand the ideological and power struggle between the two participants, but have not been able to determine what textual means are used to create the respective power struggle in the ST and have not been able to transfer the same effect in the TL. There are, however, a number of very good solutions where translators have applied translation strategies to explain or substitute a SL term with a more natural equivalent term in the TL in order to make the TT more accessible to the target reader. Both the ST and TT analysis offers a very short insight into the problems and solutions present in the TTs, but it is a good basis for further research in the particular field of the CDA framework within TS. The translation quality has hurt not only due to the fact that the translations were done on a

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voluntary basis, but also to the fact that the translators did not have a ready-made framework at hand, which would provide them with tools for the analysis of the ST and definite guidelines which are necessary in the translation of culture-bound political texts. Most of the translators failed to pay attention to the situational and social contexts, background information, linguistic choices, semantic and pragmatic relations in the text and thus created literal translations causing some misunderstandings in the TL. These findings demonstrate the fact that the translation brief alone is not enough to provide the translators with the valuable information regarding the underlying power and ideological struggles in political texts and thus leads to the conclusion that CDA framework may become a useful tool, which would help the translators to perform a critical analysis of the ST at the initial stage of the translation process. Additionally, the application of the CDA framework in translator training would provide the future translators with an analytic tool which helps them to found a step-by-step procedure for the analysis of the ST and the production of the TT, which would advance their awareness of the importance of the role of language in the socio-cultural context as well as the impact of their own textual choices in the translation process. 9. Conclusion The main aim of this thesis was to prove the hypothesis that CDA is a helpful implement in the translation process of political texts. The CDA integration in translation is a very new field within TS and has not been researched comprehensively. The existing research contains a variety of approaches and reflections and does not offer an applicable model for translation-oriented analysis of both STs and TTs within political discourse. Thus, this thesis deals with the integration of Norman Faircloughs CDA model mixed to Michael Hallidys SFL into the translation process of political texts, i.e. in this thesis the materials for the analysis were both some political interviews and some political speeches. The integration of the CDA model in the translation process was based on the earlier considerations within TS by such CDA/TS scholars as Basil Hatim and Ian Mason (1990; 1997), Christina Schffner (1997; 2002; 2003; 2004), Robert S. Valden (2007), etc. The framework created in this thesis may be considered as an optional supplementary tool or a set of guidelines for the ST and TT analysis during the process of translation of highly culture-bound political texts which display significant power and ideological struggle between the interlocutors of the communicative act. This comparative analysis located within Translation studies from a CDA viewpoint can provide a broader analytical angle for translation students helping them to recognize texts in connection with all kinds of textual and extra textual constrains such as ideology, power relations, and cultural and historical backgrounds. Indeed, this enquiry was an attempt to emphasize that the underlying ideological filter, most often as an invisible hand, makes every text unbiased or innocent let alone texts having politicized language. Therefore, translators, as any other language users who actively participate in the process of creating meaning, need to be very aware of and conscious about every discursive strategy or choice, ranging from deletion and addition to syntactic and lexical variations, they might adopt during the process of producing the target text on the basis of the source text. In this view, the findings of the present paper and/or other CDA based research aim to contribute to a better understanding of politically slanted texts whose contents are more or less transparent, and accordingly to give translators a deeper insight towards subtle persuasive strategies which place readers in specific ideological positions. References
Banhegyi, M. (2009). The translator's ideology and reproduction of superstructure. WoPaLP, vol.3, 28-56. Bassnett, S.; Lefevere A. (1990) Translation, History and Culture. Casell, London.

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Bassnet,S. ; Schaffner,C. (eds). (2010). Political Discourse, Media and Translation. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle upon Tyne. Chilton, P.; Schffner, C. (2002) Politics as Text and Talk. John Benjamins. Fairclough, N. (1989) Language and Power. Longman, UK. Fairclough, N. (1999) Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. United Kingdom: Longman. Fairclough, N. (2001) New Labor, New Language? Routledge, London and New York. Fairclough, N. (2003) Analysing Discourse. Textual analysis for social research. Routledge, London and New York. Fairclough, N. (2006) Semiosis, ideology and mediation. In Lassen, I.; Strunck J.; Vestergaard T. Mediating Ideology in Text and Image. Ten Critical Studies, 19-37. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. Halliday, M.A.K. (1978) Language as social semiotic. The social interpretation of language and meaning. Eward Arnold Publishers, London. Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985/1994). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold. Hatim, B.; Mason, I. (1997) The Translator as Communicator. Routledge, London and New York. Hodge, B., and Kress, G. (2nd ed.) (1993). Language as ideology. Routledge : London and New York. Lefever,A (ed.). (2002). Translation, history, culture. London : Routledge. Munday, J. (2007a) Translation Studies. Theories and Applications. Routledge, London and New York. Munday, J. (2007b) Translation and Ideology. A Textual Approach, 195-219. In Munday, J.; Cunico, S. Special Issue. The Translator. Translation and Ideology. Encounters and Clashes. Volume 13, Number 2. St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, UK. Nahrkhalaji,S. (2006). Translation: Ideology and power in political discourse. Retrieved from:http://www.ils.uw.edu.pl/PL2007/pliki/1181989324Saeedeh%20Shafiee%20Nahrkhalaji.pdf Schffner, C. (1997) Strategies of Translating Political Texts, 119-145. In Trosborg, A. (ed.) Text Typology and Translation. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. Schffner, C. (2002) The Role of Discourse Analysis for Translation and in Translation Training. Multilingual Matters Ltd., UK. Schffner, C. (2003) Third Ways and New Centres. Ideological Unity or Difference? In Prez C. M. Apropos Ideology. Translation Studies on Ideology Ideologies in Translation Studies, 23-43. St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, UK and Northampton, MA. Schffner, C. (2004) Political Discourse Analysis from the point of view of Translation Studies, 117-150. In Journal of Language and Politics 3:1. John Benjamins Publishing Company, UK. Schjoldager, Anne. 2008. Understanding Translation. Academica, rhus. Trosborg, A. (ed.) (1997) Text Typology and Translation. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. Tymocko, M. (2003) Ideology and the Position of the Translator. In What Sense is a Translator In Between? In Prez C. M. Apropos Ideology. Translation Studies on Ideology Ideologies in Translation Studies, 181203. St. Jerome Publishing, Manchester, UK and Northampton, MA. Valdeon, A., R. (2007) Ideological Independence or Negative Mediation: BBC Mundo and CNN en Espaols Reporting of Madrids Terrorist Attacks. In Carr, S.M. Translating and Interpreting Conflict, 99-119. Rodopi, Amsterdam/New York. Van Dijk, A.T. (1997a) Discourse as Structure and Process. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume I. SAGE Publications, London. Van Dijk, T. (1997b) Political Discourse and Racism, in Riggins, H., S. (ed.), The Language and Politics of Exclusion. USA: SAGE Publications. Van Dijk, T. (2001) Multidisciplinary CDA. In Wodak, R.; Meyer, M. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. SAGE Publications, Great Britain. Wodak, R. (ed.) (1989) Language, Power and Ideology. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia. Wodak, R.; Meyer, M. (2001): Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. Great Britain: SAGE Publications.

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Assessment of the Quality of Urban Transport Services in Nigeria


Adetunji Musilimu Adeyinka. (Ph. D)
Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria Phone +2348066245425 Email: maadetunji@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p49

Abstract Transport services are inadequate in quality and qualitative terms in most developing countries such as Nigeria which, relies on the importation of fairly used vehicles to meet the travel demands. The poor service delivery of transport system had created impediment towards the smooth movement of people, goods and services in some of urban centres in Nigeria. This study is designed to investigate the quality of transport services in Ibadan metropolis. The study area covered the eleven local government areas that make up Ibadan metropolis. Stratified sampling technique was used to select two political wards from each of the local government areas identified in the city. The twenty two political wards sampled were re-grouped into three geographical areas based on land use characteristics and population density. These are high, medium and low density. In each of the three geographical areas identified in the city, a systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select one in every twenty buildings along the major streets. In each of the buildings sampled, only one household is randomly selected for interview. An average of one hundred copies of the questionnaire was administered in each of the density area. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that some of the urban residents who are less accessible to transport services in their neighborhood commute on foot to meet their travel demands. Many of the urban residents expressed their dissatisfaction with the transport services available in the city. Further analysis showed that households income is highly correlated with modal choice in the city. The result of the analysis further revealed that some of the intra-transport services are poorly maintained. The study concluded that there is need to revitalize the transport services in urban centres in Nigeria so as to improve the accessibility characteristics of urban residents and promote sustainable transport development. Key Word: Urban, Households, Transport Services, And Plannig.

1. Introduction Urban transport services in Nigeria is inadequate both in quality and quantitative terms considering the rate of population growth and the economic condition of an average Nigerian on the affordability of transport services to meet his or her travel demands over the past four decades. The structural adjustment programme of the middle 80s had made the importation of new automobile vehicles relatively expensive to purchase for urban mobility in the country. Similarly, the price of motor spare parts had risen astronomically and many Nigerians could hardly maintain their old vehicles which invariably compounded the mobility crises in Nigerian towns and cities. Incidentally most of urban trips in Nigeria are made by road, rail and water based mode and these accounted for about 95%, and the remaining 5% were mainly by walking (Oyesiku ,2001). It is pertinent to note that of all the trips made by vehicles, 70% were by public transport, which is dominated by private sector operators. According to Oyesiku (2002), more than 95% of all urban public transport journeys in Nigeria were provided by private operators using mainly taxis and

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paratransit buses. It is interesting to note that many of the urban residents are less accessible to these transport services. Besides, the service delivery of public transport operators is less satisfactory to the urban commuters in Nigeria. Most of the research works carried out on the mode of operation of public transport services in Nigeria do not consider the quality of transport services in relation to comfort, affordability, safety and income level, which are all of paramount importance to mobility pattern of urban residents in any country of the world. The focus of this research therefore is to assess the quality of transport services in Ibadan metropolis with the view to improving the mobility characteristics of urban residents and promoting sustainable transport development in the study areas and many other cities in Nigeria. 2. Theoretical Frame Work and Review of Literature Modal choice represents an important households travel characteristics in transportation research. There are many theories available in the literature to explain transportation planning. These include travel demand model, gravity model, residential location model, traffic assignment model and modal split model. The theory that we consider very appropriate to explain transport services in this context is the modal split model. According to the model, different modes of urban transport are available to urban commuters; these include cars, buses, walking, motorcycles, taxis, ships or trains. The choice of a particular mode would depend on such factors as the trip type, trip purpose, the level of satisfaction of transport services, transport fare / cost associated with the available modes, comfort and income of the commuters (Adetunji, 2010; Ogunsanya, 1986; Okonko, 2000). In a study of urban mobility patterns in Ilesa in South western Nigeria, Adetunji (2010) reported that the households income affects the modal choice of urban resident. According to him, high income earners travel by their personal cars to different activity patterns while the low income earners commute by foot for short distances and rely on public transport services for which exorbitant fares are charged. This is contrary to what exists in some other countries of the world, particularly in China where the train is the principal mode of transport for all categories of trips by urban residents while the local trips are made by public transport services (buses and taxis) which are cleaner and more comfortable. The buses are extremely cheap and commuters pay the same amount of transport fare irrespective of the distance travel (http://www.chinese-culture.net/html/china_public_transport.html, 2012) In a study of public transport in Nigeria, the World Bank (1990) and Adeniji (2000) reported that taxis (and private vehicles carrying fare paying passengers) represent about 53% of the public transport trips, while 30% made use of motorcycles. In many cities in developing countries, motorcycles account for about 90% of feeder trips to taxi and minibus terminal. Similarly, in a study of the supply of transport infrastructure in Lagos metropolis, Ogunsanya (2004) found that most urban road networks are not only poorly developed with feeder street grossly inadequate, but also these inadequacies more often than not forced vehicles to concentrate on the primary roads with serious implications on commuters modern choice and mobility patterns especially along the same urban transport corridor. World Bank 1993; World Bank 1997 and Adesanya et al 2002 affirmed that urban poor in Nigeria pay a very high proportion of their income for transport services and spent long periods of time travelling and waiting for infrequent and unreliable bus services. They also reported that due to inadequate access to infrastructure and services, the urban poor also have limited access to educational institutions and social services. However, many of the works done on the public transport in Nigeria do not have critical assessments of the quality of the service delivery of transport operators in some of the cities studied. It is on this premise that this study is designed to examine the quality of transport services

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in Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria with a view to improving and sustaining transport infrastructure in Urban centres in Nigeria and similar other cities in Africa. 3. The Study area Ibadan is a typical city in Nigeria which has experienced high rate of urbanization over the past four decades. The study area comprises eleven contiguous local government areas. These are Ibadan North, Ibadan North West, Ibadan South West, Ibadan South East, Ibadan North East, Egbeda, Akinyele, Moniya, Ona ara, and few others. The traditional occupation of Ibadan people are farming and trading in varieties of goods. The favourable climatic conditions and good soil types have encouraged the production of both food and cash crops in Ibadan region. The major food crops grown include yam, cassava, maize, tomatoes and many others. Similarly, the cash crops cultivated include cocoa, palm oil, and little coffee. The abundant food supply and peacefully co-existence in the city had encouraged many people to settle in Ibadan to earn their livelihood. Like many other urban centres in Nigeria, Ibadan grew organically without any form of master planning (Ipingbemi, 2009). The high density area is mainly occupied by the indigenous Ibadan people. These areas include Mapo, Atipe, Labiran, Bere and Oja Oba. Many of the intra-city roads in this area are too narrow to accommodate vehicular traffic which invariably makes mobility temporarily difficult during the rainy season. The situation at low density areas of the city is different from the high density areas because the areas are well planned and occupied mostly by the high income earners and top civil servants. Some of the roads in this part of the city are well tarred with bitumen and are motorable in most parts of the year. The land use arrangement in Ibadan metropolis is greatly affected by movement patterns of urban residents in the city. For instance, many of the employment generating organizations i.e Government Secretariats, public land uses such as schools, hospitals and commercial centres like Gbagi, Dugbe, Sasa and Ogunpa markets generate more trips than areas of the city that are mainly for residential purpose. The daily commuting to different activity centres in this traditional city requires more automobiles thus culminating in more complex traffic problems such as noise pollution and emission of toxic substances that are inimical to human health in the urban environment. It is interesting to note that transport infrastructure in Nigeria are poorly developed. Many of the intra city routes in Ibadan are poorly designed and rarely maintained, this compounds the mobility crises in the city. Different modes of transport services are available in the city to enhance the movement patterns of urban residents. These include motorcycles, taxis/ cabs and paratransit modes. However, taxis and buses operate on the major roads while tricycles and motorcycles ply different categories of roads in the city. The stringent policy imposed on the importation of new vehicles and high costs of spare parts have made it difficult to have better transport services for urban commuters. However, many of the city inhabitants are generally low income earners who cannot afford to buy new automobiles to enhance their daily commuting. The resultant effect of this is that many of the urban residents in the city depend on poorly maintained public transport services to meet their day to day transactions. It is on this background that this study assesses the quality of transport services in Ibadan one the very large cities in Nigeria.

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4. Methodology and Materials Used for the Research. The study area covers the eleven local governments areas that make up Ibadan metropolis. A stratified sampling technique was used to select two political wards from each of the local government areas identified in the city. These twenty two political wards sampled were re-grouped into three geographical areas based on land use characteristics and population density. These are high, medium and low density.

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In each of the three geographical area identified in the city, a systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select one in every twenty buildings along the major street. In each of the buildings sampled, only one household is randomly selected for interview. An average of one hundred copies of the questionnaires was administered in each of the density areas. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. 5. Results and Discussion of Findings The findings revealed that different modes of transport are available to urban commuters in Ibadan metropolis. These include trekking, tricycles, motorcycles, cabs/ taxi, buses and cars. Table 1 reveals that 21% of the urban residents who are less accessible to motorized modes of transport in their neighborhoods indicated that they patronize motorcycles more frequently for their day to day transactions. 32.7% claimed that they travel mostly by their personal cars. An approximately 29.3% and 17% of the sampled populations depend on paratransit buses and taxis for their intra city movement. This is an indication of inadequate public transport services in Ibadan metropolis and similar other cities in Nigeria. However, in some of the advanced countries, buses of different categories are designed to convey large number of passengers from one place to another. Table 1: Most Accessible Mode of Transport
Frequency 63 98 88 51 300 Percent 21.0 32.7 29.3 17.0 100.0 Valid Percent 21.0 32.7 29.3 17.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 21.0 53.7 83.0 100.0

Valid

Motorcycle Car Bus cab/taxi Total

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


The income of the commuters determines the modal choice in the city. For instance, table 2 revealed that 54.5% of high income earners who own personal means of transport indicated that they travel by their cars. 18.2% depend on each of motorcycle and taxi. Further analysis indicates that 68.2% of the urban poor rely on the public transport (motorcycle= 25.6%, buses 23.1% and taxis 17.6%). An approximately 27.2% of low income earner claimed that they rely on car pool for their intra- city movement. Table 2: Household Modal Choice among Different Income Earners in the Study Area.
Income Low Medium High Ground Total in Percentage Trekking 5.1% 4.8% 0.0% 4.7% Tricycle 1.0% 8.4% 9.1% 3.7% Motorcycle 25.6% 19.3% 18.2% 23.3% Car 27.2% 43.4% 54.5% 33.3% Bus 23.1% 7.2% 0.0% 17.0% Taxi/ Cab 17.9% 16.9% 18.2% 17.7%

Source: Authors Computation, 2012

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Further analysis revealed that the age of the respondents, possession of personal means of transport, distance travel, average time taken and modal choice consideration vary significantly across the three density areas identified in the city; Possession of means of transport, F = 7.005 < .00 ; Distance travel, F = 3.213 < .04; Time taken, F= 7.244 < .00 and Modal choice , F= 3.689 < .03) Table 3: Modal choice Across the Density Areas Identified in Ibadan metropolis.

ANOVA
Possession of personal means of transport Average distance travelled per day Mode of transport embark upon mostly Household Income per Month Average times taken for trips Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of Squares 3.377 71.593 74.970 4.043 186.873 190.917 12.149 489.087 501.237 1.713 115.523 117.237 7.804 159.966 167.770 .294 226.852 227.147 Df 2 297 299 2 297 299 2 297 299 2 297 299 2 297 299 2 297 299 3.902 .539 .147 .764 7.244 .001 .857 .389 2.203 .112 6.075 1.647 3.689 .026 2.022 .629 3.213 .042 Mean Square 1.688 .241 F 7.005 Sig. .001

Mode of transport preferred in terms of safety

.193

.825

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


Table 4 revealed that the distance travel in Ibadan metropolis has a low positive correlation between the average times taken to reach activity travel patterns in the city. The correlation coefficient is r = 0.47 and it is significant at 0.01%.

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Table 4: Relationship between distances travelled and average time taken to reach activity travel patterns in Ibadan.

Correlations

Average times taken for such trip

Average distance travelled per day

Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N

Average times taken for such trip 1 300 .465(**) .000 300

Average distance travel per day .465(**) .000 300 1 300

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Source: Authors Computation, 2012
There is no route schedule for public transport services in urban centres in Nigeria. On several occasions, public transport operators pick up their passengers along the road sides and alight at will without consideration for other road users and time constraints of their passengers. Table 5 indicates that 62.3% of the commuters indicated that they experienced stop over during their trips. The remaining 37.7% claimed that they do not experience stop over either when loading or off loading passengers. Table 5: Experience of stop overs on your trips
Frequency 187 113 300 Percent 62.3 37.7 100.0 Valid Percent 62.3 37.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 62.3 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


The general assessment of the quality of transport services by the urban residents in the study area shows that many of the commuters are not comfortable with the service delivery. Table 6 shows that 42% of the commuters expressed their dissatisfaction about the maintenance culture of public transport services in the city. While the remaining 58% of the commuters claimed that they are satisfied with transport services, they see the probable inadequacies in their services as a reflection of the global economic recession which affects every aspect of the economy. Table 6: The maintenance of Public transport services in Ibadan
Frequency 174 126 300 Percent 58.0 42.0 100.0 Valid Percent 58.0 42.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 58.0 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Source: Authors Computation, 2012

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It is highly disheartening that many of the public transport vehicles in Ibadan and similar other cities in Nigeria do not have rear lights, brake, spare tyre and good furniture to mention just a few. Table 7 indicates that 45% of public transport services have good seat cover, 40.3% have fairly covered seat cover. 14.7% of the respondents interacted with indicated that the seat covers of the public transport vehicles are bad. Table 7: Physical appearance of public transport services in the study area. Cumulative Percent 45.0 85.3 100.0

Valid

Good Fairly good Bad Total

Frequency 135 121 44 300

Percent 45.0 40.3 14.7 100.0

Valid Percent 45.0 40.3 14.7 100.0

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


To worsen the situation, the behavior of the public transport operators to the passengers is a serious concern to the transport planners and many urban stakeholders in Nigeria. It is a usually the practice for public transport operators in Nigeria to assault their passengers irrespective of their status. On many occasions public transport operators have been found fighting with their passengers over insignificant matters which can be settled amicably. Table 8 indicates that 64.7% of the commuters claimed that they are not satisfied with the behavior of the public transport operators in the city. Only 35.3% of the respondent claimed that they are comfortable with the behavior of the public transport operators in the city. Many of the commuters struggle to board buses for instance. This is owing to acute shortage of transport services in the city especially early in the morning when commuters are commuting to work places and later in the evening when returning home. Sometimes, it is extremely difficult to differentiate between freight vehicles from passenger vehicles in the city. Many market women carry their luggage on their laps in the vehicle during their intra city movement. It is usual practice to see the passengers carrying their children on their laps in the vehicle because of the shortage of transport services and as a means of reducing the cost of fare. Table 8: Public transport operators behavior in the study area
Cumulative Percent 35.3 100.0

Valid

Yes No Total

Frequency 106 194 300

Percent 35.3 64.7 100.0

Valid Percent 35.3 64.7 100.0

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


In an attempt to minimize the cost of transport fare, many of the urban commuters patronize the cheapest means of transport. Table 9 indicates that 43.7% of sampled populations claimed that the para transit bus is the cheapest means of transportation they patronize for their day to day transactions in Ibadan metropolis. Another 25.7% of the respondents who are mostly from the high income group

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(50%) claimed that they rely mostly on their personal cars. This category of people has comfortable economic status to maintain their personal vehicles. Further analysis revealed that 24.7% and 6% of the commuters rely on taxis and motorcycles respectively for their intra city transport in the study area. When modal choice is disaggregate at different income level, more than 80% of the urban commuters who patronize motorcycles are from the low income earners. Table 9: Modal choice preferred in terms of cost ( in Percentage %)

Count
In terms of cost which mode of transport do you prefer Household Income per Month Total Low Income Medium Income High Income Motorcycle 8.2% 2.4% 0.0% 6.0% car 20% 32.5% 50.0% 25.7% Bus 46.7% 42.2% 22.7% 43.7% cab/taxi 25.1% 22.9% 27.3% 24.7% Total motorcycle 100% 100% 100% 100%

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


In the consideration of modal choice by the urban commuters, safety is the most important factor. Table 10 shows that the use of personal means of transport particularly cars in Ibadan was ranked highest in term of safety and this accounted for about 48.7%. The use of paratransit buses was ranked second (25.3%). This is closely followed by taxi 20.7%. Motorcycle was ranked lowest by the urban commuters. Table 10: Mode of transport preferred in terms of safety
Frequency 16 146 76 62 300 Percent 5.3 48.7 25.3 20.7 100.0 Valid Percent 5.3 48.7 25.3 20.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.3 54.0 79.3 100.0

Valid

motorcycle Car Bus cab/taxi Total

Source: Authors Computation, 2012


5. Planning Implications Access to effective and functioning transport services is one of the key factors for sustainable transport and economic growth in any country of the world. In some of the cities in African countries, transport infrastructure is poorly developed and has adverse effect on the free movement of people and goods. Many of the urban residents spend valuable number of their hours waiting and commuting to different activity patterns on daily basis. The use of mass transits and light rail should be introduced for intra city movements in Ibadan, Lagos, Port Harcourt and many other similar cities in African countries, which has a population of over four millions.

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6. Conclusions and Recommendation The study observed that transport services in Ibadan metropolis are grossly inadequate and poorly maintained. Many urban residents express their dissatisfactions with the services delivery of public transport operators in the city. The use of mass transit should be re- introduced so as to enhance the movement of large number of passengers to their various desired destinations. Also, the governments should participate in the provision of public transport services for the urban commuters at a subsidized rate. Such programmes have been introduced recently by the Ondo State government of Nigeria for both primary and secondary school pupils for their educational trips. Besides, the use of light rail should be encouraged for intra city movement in large metropolitan cities in Nigeria. References
Adeniji, .K. (2000): Transport Challenges In Nigeria in the next Two Decades Monograph Ibadan. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Transport Studies Units. Adesanya, A.; Adeniji, K and Daramola A.Y. (2002): Transport Perspective of poverty in Nigeria A Multi dimensional perspective. Edited by Ajakaiye, D.O. and A.S. Olomola, A.S Pp. 235-283. Adetunji, M. A (2010): Spatial Analysis of Urban Mobility Pattern in Ilesa, Osun State. A PhD thesis submitted to the. Department of Geography of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Ipingbemi, O (2009): Travel characteristics and mobility constraints of elderly in Ibadan. Journal of Transport Geography. Elsevier. Available online 25 June, 2009. Olanrewaju, S.A. Fadare, S.O.; Akinlo, A.E and Alawode A.A. (1995): Urban Passenger Transport in Lagos, Nigeria. A Research Monograph. Idrc Urban Transport Project Department of Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria Pp.1-55. Oyesiku, O.K. (2001): City poverty and emerging mobility crisis: The Use of Motorcycle as Public Transport in Nigeria cities. Paper presented at 9th world congress of transport research Seoul, South Korea, 22nd 27th, July. Ogunsanya, A.A; Vandu-Chikolo I. and Sumaila, A.G. (2004): (eds) Perspectives on Urban Transportation in Nigeria Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology (NITT), Zarai. M.O.D press, Kaduna PP 1-26. World Bank (1990): Nigeria Urban transports in Crisis, Lagos-West Africa. World Bank Department Infrastructure Division. World Bank (1993): Poverty Reduction Handbook, World Bank, Washington DC. World Bank (1997): Taking Action to Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank, Washington, DC. (http://www.chinese-culture.net/html/china_public_transport.html) China News Headlines-HOT! | Facts About China Thursday, August 23,2012

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Leadership in the Cross-Cultural Context Analyze of Rational Theories and Aspects of Leader Role in Long Term Characterized. The Observation of Behavior Effects in Albania
Prof Ass Dr. Alba Robert Dumi1 Ma Zamira Sinaj2
Prof. As. Dr. Dean of Graduated SchoolIsmail Qemali Vlora University Albania, Management Department Management Department, Economy Faculty, Tirana University Email:besi.alba@yahoo.com 2 Mangement Department, Vlora University Albania, Email:zsinaj@yahoo.com
1

Doi:10.5901/ajis/2012.v2n1p59

Abstract This paper research overview of the leader behavior literature highlighted the fact that there are inconsistent relationships between the behaviors that leaders engage in and the effects of these behaviors on member attitudes, behavior, and group effectiveness. While these inconsistent observations can be frustrating they underscore two very important facts. The behaviors are important as witnessed by their occasionally significant relationship with follower attitudes and behavior. Second, the observation that these behaviors do not always produce significant and positive effects suggests that something else is transpiring such that in one situation the particular leader behavior produces significant effects and in another situation that behavior is relatively unimportant. The question that these observations raise is. What effects do situational differences produce in the leader-follower relationship? Many decades ago Ralph S (1948) stated that the qualities characteristics, and skills required in a leader are determined to a large extent by the demands of the situation in which he [she] is to function as a leader chapter 8 provides an understanding of situational differences in the leadership process. If team members know for example, exactly what needs to be done, when, who and why, it is unlikely that initiating structure will prove to be needed or be effective if use. In contrast, when team members are operating under conditions of high levels of uncertainty-not knowing what, when or how to execute the task-a leader who is capable of initiating some structure will make a meaningful contribution. In this paper we are focus in leader role and in the influences of rationality behavior. The simple theme of this paper is might well be different strokes for different folks and/or different strokes for the same folks at different points in time. Put more directly, as conditions change, so do the leadership needs that are created and the leader behaviors that will prove effective. We are trying to analyze the effects of using different hypotheses in some definitions of leadership theories, the implementation of effects of leader behavior in organizations. Key words: Influence of leader, values, ideals, aspirations, emotions, rational theories.

1. Hypotheses and rationale influences theory Hypotheses about the use and effectiveness of each tactic for influencing target task commitment are presented next, along with a rationale for each of fourth hypotheses, that in this paper research are in our focus study and in based on our preliminary model and on prior research. Formal hypotheses were not made for ratings of a managers overall effectiveness because this criterion can be affected by many

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things besides a managers use of influence tactics. Rational persuasion involves the use of logical arguments and factual information to convince a target that the agents request or proposal is feasible and consistent with shared objectives (Eagly & Chaiken 1984). This is a flexible tactic that can be used for influence attempts in any direction. Nevertheless, rational persuasion is likely to be used more in an upward direction that in other directions, because in an upward direction a manager is limited by a weaker power base and role expectations that discourage the use of some tactics (see discussion of other hypotheses). 1.1 Introduction Inspirational appeals use the targets values, ideals, aspirations, and emotions as a basis for gaining commitment to a request or proposal (Yukl 1990). Inspirational appeals appear feasible for influence attempts made in any direction, but this tactic is especially appropriate for gaining the commitment of someone to work on a new task or project. Influence attempts and involving task assignments occur most often in a downward direction and least often in an upward direction (Erez1986, Kipnis1980, Yukl & Falbe, 1990) Thus managers have more opportunity to use inspirational appeals with subordinates than with peers or superiors. In the only prior study to examine directional differences for inspirational appeals, (Yukl and Falbe (1990) found that inspirational appeals were used more in downward influence attempts than in lateral or upward influence attempts. 2. Literature Review and Hypotheses Agents reported greater use of this tactic in upward influence attempts, but directional differences were not found for targets. Results for the consequences of using rational persuasion have been inconsistent also. In the questionnaire study by Kipnis and Sshmidt (1988) managers who received the highest performance ratings had a profile in which rational persuasion was the dominant tactic for upward influence attempts. However rational persuasion was not related to successful upward influence in the questionnaire study by Mowday (1978). Likewise tactics involving aspects of rational persuasion were not related to outcome success in the four critical incident studies described. Graph 1. The cycle of rationality developments of hypotheses,

Source: Mowday theory concepts 1978 lateral direction.

Hypothesis1a. Rational persuasion is used more in an upward direction than in a downward or

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When people gain a sense of ownership of a project, strategy, or change after participating in planning how to implement it, they are likely to be more committed to making the project, strategy or change successful (Yukl 1989). This influence tactic can be used in any direction, but it appears especially appropriate in the situation in which an agent has the authority to plan a task or project but relies on the target to help implement the plans. Because authority to assign work and make changes in work procedures is mostly downward a manager probably has more opportunity to use consultation to influence subordinates than to influence peers or superiors (Yukl & Falbe, 1990.

Hypothesis1b. Rational persuasion increases task commitment in all three directions.

2.1 The variety of hypotheses and limited results.


Only one study examined directional differences in frequency of use for consultation (Yukl & Fable, 1990) and results were mixed. Agents reported greater use of consultation in a downward direction, but directional differences were not significant for target reports. Evidence on the likely effectiveness of consultation as an influence tactic is limited and inconsistent. Locke (1982) found that a consultation tactic (using the target as a platform to present ideas) was likely to be effective in upward incidents reported by targets, but the results were not significant for upward incidents reported by agents in that study Locke (1988).

2.2. The significant indicators of this paper research study.


In the study by Vroom (1988) of downward incidents reported by agents, results for consultation tactics (listening, soliciting ideas) were not significant. Indirect evidence comes from research on leadership, which finds that consultation with individual subordinates is effective for increasing decision acceptance in some situations but not in others (Vroom & Jetton, 1988) Hypothesis2a. Inspirational appeals are used more in a downward direction than in a lateral or upward direction. Hypothesis2b. Inspirational appeals increase task commitment in all three directions. 3. Leadership and situational differences impacts. This paper research addresses the situation in the leadership process. The evolving leadership model from the earlier theories we suggests that the situation in part defines the leadership process and that it influences the leader and the interact role of leader with the leaders attempts to influence his or her followers. The importance of the situation has already been alluded to on numerous occasions through the first several theories. Murphy 91941), for example noted that situations in which people find themselves create needs, and it is the nature of these needs that defines the type of leadership that best serves the group.

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Graph 2 The different defines of leadership theories,

Source; IJERM Journal Nr 3, year 2012 Accordingly, Murphy theory and findings, saw leadership is a working relationship-one in which different contexts create one unique set of group needs, and a groups emerging leader is that individual who is capable of making meaningful contributions to the group. We are focus in Hypothesis 3a and 3b to overview in indicate of their effects. These hypotheses, helps us created the leaders modeling according Webber theory. Hypothesis3a. Consultation is used more in a downward direction that in a lateral or upward direction. Hypothesis3b. Consultation increases task commitment in all three directions. Three keys questions that will be addressed are: Does the situation in which the leader and follower are embedded make a difference? What leader behavior works and when? What is the process through which the situation produces its effects

3.1 Strategic leadership models and critical leadership situations


In Salancik and Pfeffers (1977) strategic contingencies model of leadership, the leader is a person who brings scarce resources to assist a group of individuals in overcoming a critical problem that they face. As the problems facing a group change, their leader may also change because of his or her access to critical and scarce resources. Thus, Salancik and Pfeffers work also serves to highlight the importance of the situation in defining leadership and the leadership process. Tab 2 shows the influences of situational leadership theory.

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Graph 3 Influences of situational propositions of leadership context with different authors theories,

Source: Leadership process, year 2008, USA Influenced by Stogidills (1948, 1974) reviews of the leader behaviors literature and the emerging recognition of the importance of the leadership context , Steven Kerr, Charles Murphy and Ralph Stogidill (1974), advanced a number of situational propositions linking leader of structure and consideration to a leader effectiveness. They note that accumulated evidence suggests that leader effectiveness is not always associated with those who behave in highly considerate and structuring manner. Among some of the situational factors that influence the effectiveness of leader consideration and initiating structure behavior are, for example, time urgency, amount of physical danger presence of external stress, degree of autonomy, degree of job, scope, importance, and meaningfulness of work. 4. Methodology and Research Goal Design The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was distributed to employees of a public security organization in Albania, asking them to evaluate their supervisor's style of leadership. Employees were also asked to report their perceptions of organizational politics using the scale developed by the leaders in Albania Region. In addition, supervisors provided objective evaluations of the levels of their employees' in-role performance and OCB. The intra-structure of the leadership variable was examined by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with structural equation modeling. Two alternative models were examined: first, a model of mediation and second, a direct model with no mediation.

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Findings The research resulted in mixed findings that only partially support the mediating effect of organizational politics on the relationship between leadership, in-role performance and OCB. A direct relationship between leadership and performance (in-role and OCB) was also found. This study empirically examines the impact of debt management policies on borrowing costs incurred by state governments when issuing debt in the municipal bond market. Based on positive political theory and the benefit principle of taxation, it is proposed that states that adhere to best practice debt management policies transmit signals to the credit ratings, investment community and taxpayers that the government should meet its obligations in a timely manner, resulting in lower debt costs. 1 The donors concurred with this assessment. IDA, starting with the 1998 CAS, considered governance and institution building as one of the central planks of its intervention and identified the need to adopt and implement reforms to build an accountable and transparent state as the most important challenge facing the Government of Albania. Hypothesis4a. Ingratiation is used more in a downward and lateral direction than in an upward direction. Hypothesis4b. Ingratiation has a stronger positive effect on task commitment in a downward and lateral direction that in an upward direction. Robert House (1971) contends that leader effectiveness is most appropriately examined in terms of the leaders impact upon the performance of his or her followers. In the first reading in this chapter, House and Terence Mitchell (1974) assert that a leaders behavior will be motivational and subsequently have an impact upon the attitudes and performance behavior of the follower to the extent that it makes the satisfaction of a subordinates needs contingent upon his or her performance.

4.1 Foreign experiences of organizational behavior


The vast majority of the contemporary scholarship directed toward leaders and the leadership process has been conducted in North America and Western Europe.Observing the volume of theory and research that has emerged around the concept of leadership over the past several decades Meindl A and his colleagues to suggest that we may have developed a highly romanticized, heroic view of leadership. Leaders have come to occupy center stage in organizational life. We use leaders in our attempts to make sense of organizational behavior. They are seen as the key to organizational success and profitability they are credited for organizational competitiveness, and they are the focus of blame in the face of organizational failure. A driving question in this stream of inquiry asks whether or not the effectiveness of leadership (leader behavior) is culture-specific. This larger-than-life role ascribed to leaders and the Western romanticized affair with successful leaders raises questions as to how representative our understanding of leadership is across other cultures. That is, do leadership theory and research results generalize from one culture to the next? Research into culture has generally addressed two questions. First there has been an interest in whether or not there are significant leadership differences across cultures. Thus, it might be asked whether culture gives rise to leadership differences. The second questions treats culture, as a key contextual variable.

4.2 Hofstede theory and five value dimensions of cultural differences in leader identification.
Geert and Hofstedes (1993, 1980) work provides a useful framework for the identification and

Donors and government investments, IDA

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classification of cultural differences. Hofstedes work spans 18 years, involving more than 150000 people and cutting across 60 countries. He identified five value dimensions that can be employed to explain differences in leadership (leader traits and behaviors) that might cut across cultures. These value frameworks consist of: Individualism-collectivism Individualism as a mental set in which people see themselves first as individuals and believe their own interests and values take priority (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States). Collectivism reflects the feeling that the group or society should receive priority (Hong Kong, Greece, Japan and Mexico). The self-assessment appearing at the end of this chapter opener provides you with the opportunity to profile yourself in terms of your individualistic /collectivistic values (general guiding principles for behaviors). Power Distance Power distance reflects the extent to which members of a social system accept the notion that members have different levels of power. High power distance suggests that leaders make decisions simply because they are the leader (France, Japan, Spain and Mexico). Low power distance suggests that social system members do not automatically acknowledge the power of a hierarchy (Germany, Israel, Ireland, and the United States). Uncertainty Avoidance Low uncertainty avoidance is reflected by people who accept the unknown and tolerate risk and unconventional behavior (Australia, Canada, and the United States). High uncertainty avoidance is characterized by people who want predictable and certain futures (Argentina, Israel, Japan and Italy). Masculinity-Femininity Masculinity refers to an emphasis that gets placed on assertiveness and the acquisition of money and material objects, coupled with a de-emphasis on caring for others (Italy and Japan). Femininity places an emphasis upon personal relationships, a concern for others and a high quality of life (Denmark and Sweden). Time orientation Tab 4 Long term characterized and short term perspectives.

Source: Dumi A, MJSS, Vol 3 Nr 3 2012

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Long-term orientation is characterized by a long-range perspective coupled with a concern for thrift and weak expectations for quick returns on investments (Pacific Rim countries). Short-term orientation is characterized by a long-range perspective coupled with a concern for thrift and weak expectations for quick returns on investments (Pacific Rim countries).

4.3 The strategic planning of e-learning in the Albania


E-Learning is gaining significant interest in distance education, including university and other. It also get a special importance in terms of exchanges of experiences between different institutions within and outside the country. Despite the distance people already have the opportunity to learn from others, or used in any other time and place that they are. These advantages are powered by technological developments, developments that require a generation as qualified to be adopted in time with the rapid technologic evolutions.The advantages of using e-learning are related to the degree of qualification of the generation which live in an era of rapid technological change. Despite the rapid technological development in many countries there are benefits from the use of e-learning or there are benefits that are not at levels as its required. 5. SWOT Analysis and E-learning considerations E-learning will be consider as one of the new business that requires the implementation of a modern infrastructure for the needs of customers .In determination of the needs customers there is always a question, which is necessary by enterprises in the e-learning to identify the application, create and determine its size. Above it is explained that the concept of e-learning is very broad, there is only about distance learning, but we have included this concept, different meanings, referring to the electronics companies in all markets. We identify the opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses, and their impact on the choice of strategic alternatives are summarized SWOT analysis below. Table 1: SWOT analysis by powers, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the study of internal and external context were identified four strategies
Internal factors The external factors Opportunity: 1. The increase of Internet users market 2. The increase of sustained prosperity 3.Fulfillments of legal and political vacuum 4. Demographic structure (domination by young people) Strengths 1. qualified human resources. 2. Internal logistics Strategies: 1.The entry strategy and market growth Weeknesses 1.Experiences 2. Provision of necessary financial funds. 3. Marketing Strategies: 2.The strategy of strategic alliances. (To provide the necessary funds and organization of marketing campaigns for the presentation of products and services to be offered on the market)

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Threats: 1. The rapid technological changes 2.Adaptation with the new technological changes

3.Outsourcing strategy (some services)

4. Strategy and strategic alliances of "outsourcing" (Some services)

5.1 The strategic alternatives of this study


In the SWOT analysis by powers, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the study of internal and external context were identified four strategies are: strategy of market entry and growth strategy strategic alliances strategy of the outsourcing of some services. strategy and alliances of "outsourcing" of some services

5.2 The choice of strategic alternatives


The strategies described above were the results of the SWOT analysis. But among the strategies mentioned above as the best strategy taking into account the environmental opportunities and threats external and internal potential and highlighted during the analysis it is estimated: The entry strategy and market growth. Normally the choice of alternatives can not be considered easy, because if he makes reference to the SWOT analysis, note that for each alternative is found threats and weaknesses. But in choosing this alternative strategy is thought achievement of the mission, the external environment and is adapted activity cycle of e-learning, in which they have considered the business cycle of preparing to enter the business of e-learning, and thinking about market growth. Another reason for the choice of entry and growth strategy in the market compared to others strategies, which calls for the alliance without getting into a market is not an easy process. Once that others can look to slice alliances entered into a new and unfamiliar business. While outsourcing observed is more acceptable and more accessible, such as through outsourcing organization creates the possibility of using the services, which can not perform better than others or could not be performed 6. Findings The first reading in this paper was written by Hofstede. In this reading Hofstede discusses differences in management as they exist around the globe. His writings provide us with insight into cross-cultural leadership differences as they relate to his value profile. In the second reading in this paper Peter W. and his colleagues John P, Hibino, Jin Lee, and A Bautista (1977) look at commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across a set of Western and Asian countries. Dorfman A find that three leader behaviors (supportive, contingent reward and charismatic) appear across different cultural settings, while three behaviors (directive, participative and contingent punishment ) appears to be culturally specific in terms of their linkage with leader effectiveness. 7. Conclusions and Recommendations The effects of contingent punishment are unique in that this behavior has a desirable effect in only one of the Western countries (the United States) and in neither of the two Asian countries studied. Leaders who demonstrate supportive kindness and concern for followers are valued and effective in each of the

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countries studied.Leaders contingent behavior is highly effective in the more collectivism Asian culturesas it often is in Western countries. The readings in this and the preceding chapter sensitize us to the contextual factors with which leaders need to contend. Specifically Hofstede (1993) and Dorfman (1997) alert us to the fact that not all followers will have the some belief and value orientation. These differences clearly have leader and leadership implications. Our earlier reading by Murphy (1941) suggested that leadership function of an interaction between the leader, the situation and the follower. In this paper we will focus on the follower in the leadership process. We will want to carry into those readings and understanding of the individual differences that are produced by cultures and differential belief/value systems. References
Ashby, W.R desing for a brain. New York : wiley, 1952. Bagozzi, R.P & Yi, Y.Y. on the evalution of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 1988, 16(1), 74-94. Bass, B.M. stogdills handbook of leadership: a survery of theory in research. New York : free press, 1981. Bass, B.M. bass and stogdills handbook of leadership. Theory, research and managerial application (3rd ed.). New York : Free Press, 1990. Blake, R.R & Mounton, J.S. the managerial grid. Houston, TX: Gulf, 1964. Bowers, D.G & Seashore, S.E. predicting organizational effectiveness with a four-factor theory of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1966, 11, 138-263. Carmines, E.G & Maciver, J.P. analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G.W. Bohrsted and E.F. Borgatta. Social measurement: current issues. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1981. Conger, J.A. the dark side of leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 1993, 21, 46-58. Dansereau, FGraen, G & Haga, W.J. A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: a longitudinal investigation of the function-making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 1975, 13(1), 46-78. Dobbins, G.H & Platz, S.J. sex differences in leadership: How real are they? Academy of Management Review, 1986, 11(1), 118-127. Denison, D.R. Hooijberg, R & Quinn, R.E.Paradox and performance: a theory of behavioral complexity in managerial leadership. Organization Science. 6(5), 524-540. Dumi A., Kiser I., and Karakushi A., (2012) Oriental Policies and Investment Prospects Increasing the Economic Development Capacity in Republic of Kosovo, in Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 3 No 3 September 2012, doi:10.5901/mjss.2012.v2n3p95 Falbe, C.M & Yukl, G.Consequences for managers of using single influence tactics and combinations of tactics. Academy of Management Journal, 1992, 35(3), 638-652. Fiedler, F.E. a theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Gillespie, H.R. An investigation of current management/leadership styles of manufacturing executives in American industry. Dissertation Abstracts International, 19801, 41(7a), 3177. Harris, T.G. the post-capitalist executive: an interview with Peter F.Drucker. Harvard business review, 1993, 71, 114-122. Hart, S.L & Quinn, R.E. Roles executives play: CEOs, behavioral complexity, and firm performance. Human Relations, 1993, 46(5), 543-574. Hersey, P & Blanchart, K.H. Management of organizational behavior: utilizing human resource (4th, ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Hooijberg, R,& Quinn, R.E. Behavioral complexity and the development of effective managers. In R.L. Phillips and J.G.Hunt (eds), strategic management: A multi organizational levels perspective. New York: Quorum, 1992. House, R.J. A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1971, 16, 321-338. House, R.J & Mitchell, T.R. Path goal theory of leadership. Contemporary Business, 1974, 3(Fall), 81-98. Howell, J.M & Higgins, C.A. Champions of technology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1990, 35, 317-341.

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Joreskog, K.G & Sorbom, D. Liserel 7:Users reference guide. Mooresville, IN:Scientific Software, 1989. Kanter, R.M. the new managerial work. Harvard Business Review, 1989 (November-December). Katz, D.A & Zaccaro, S.J. An estimate of variance due to traits in leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1983, 68(4), 678-685. Kester, F & Wollenberg, A.L. van den. Modulair system methodenleer Quasi experimenteel design. Vakgroep Mathematische Psychologie, Psychologisch Laboratorium, Nijmegen, 1986. Kipnis, D & Schmidt, S.Upward influence styles: Relationship with performance evolution, salary, and stress. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1988, 33, 528-402. Kotter, J.P. the general managers. New York: Free Press, 1982. Lieberman, S. the effects of changes in roles on the attitudes of role occupants. Human Relations, 1956, 9, 385402. Luthans, F & Lockwood, D.L. Toward an observation system for measuring leader behavior in natural settings. In J.G. Hunt, D. Hosking, C.A> Schriesheim, and R.Steward (eds), Leaders and managers: international perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership. New York : Pergamon Press, 1984. Mintzberg, H. The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper and row, 1973 Morse, J.J & Wagner, F.R. Measuring the process of managerial effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 1978, 21, 23-35. Park, R.E. behind our masks. Survey, 1926, 56, 135-139. Pinder, C, Pinto, P.R & England, G.w. Behavioral Style and Personal Characteristics of Managers. Technical report, University of Minnesota, Center for the study of organizational performance and human effectiveness, Mineapolis, 1973. Quinn, R.E. Beyond rational management. Mastering the paradoxes and competing demands of high performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988. Quinn, R.E. Spreitzer, G.M & Hart, S.Challenging the assumptions of bipolarity: interpenetration and managerial effectiveness. In S.Srivastva and R. Fry (eds). Executive continuity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1991. Schlenker, B.R. Impression management: the self-concept, social identity and interpersonal relations.Monterey,CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1980. Staw, B.M & Ross, J. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1980, 65(3), 249-260. Stogdill, R.M. personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of psychology, 1948/, 25, 35-71. Van Fleet, D.D & Yukl, G.A. military leadership: an organizational behavior perspective. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986. Vroom, V.H & Yetton, E.W. Leadership and decision making. Pittsburgh University Press, 1973. Wheaton, B. Assesment of fit in overidentified models with latent variables. In J.s. Long (ed), Common problems/propers solutions: Avoiding error in quantitative research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1988. Yukl, G.A. A New Taxonomy for Intergrating Diverse Perspectives On Managerial Behavior. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, New York, 1987. Yukl, G.A. leadership in organization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989. (a)

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Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Migrants in Urban Setting: A Study Conducted at City Sargodha, Pakistan
Faisal Imran
Department of Sociology, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

Yasir Nawaz
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Sargodha Pakistan E. mail: yasir.manj@uos.edu.pk

Muhammad Asim
M. Phil Scholar Department of Sociology G.C. University Faisalabad, Pakistan E. mail: masim202@gmail.com

Arshad H. Hashmi
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p71

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract Migration is universal phenomena and people move from rural areas to urban areas, from developing countries to developed countries and from societies with stagnant economic conditions to societies with better off economic conditions to address their economic and social needs. The present study was designed to explore the socio-economic determinants of rural migrants in urban settings in Sargodha city. For the purpose of the study existing literature on the topics was thoroughly reviewed. A sample of 120 respondents was taken equally (40 from each colony) three randomly selected localities i.e. Satellite Town, Farooq Colony and Old Civil Line. Descriptive analysis demonstrates that insufficient, inappropriate educational, health, recreational facilities, poor infrastructure and stagnant and limited economic opportunities in rural areas were the prime factors which motivate the individuals and families to migrate to the urban areas. With increasing migration from rural to urban areas, the multi-dimensional problems such sanitation, environmental pollution, overcrowded housing, congested traffic, overpopulation, road accidents and crimes are increasing. Government should have provide better economic opportunities, better sanitation facilities, better health facilities better educational facilities, better infrastructure, better transportation, promotion of cottage industry, and establishment of small industry near the villages to divert the major flow of people from rural areas to urban areas. Key words: Migration, Socio- economic determinants, Push and pull factors and Rural and Urban areas

1. Introduction Migration is defined as the crossing of the boundary of a pre defined spatial unit by persons involved in a change of residence (Henderson, 2002). Economic development leads to structural transformation and as a result, the share of agriculture sector declines while that of industrial sector increases in the

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countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP). As the industrial output increases, employment opportunities at the urban centers also increases and people begin moving from the rural subsistence agriculture sector to the urban areas in search of better employment opportunities and better living conditions (Sadaf et al, 2010). This phenomenon increase in the urban population as a consequence of the mass movement of people to urban centers is commonly referred to as urbanization. However, movement of people from the rural subsistence agricultural sector is not the only cause of urbanization, the higher population growth rate especially in the developing world is also a major reason of the growing trend of urbanization. The process of urbanization on the one hand, provides opportunities of better standard of living, while it is also having certain negative effects such as congestion, environmental pollution, and an increase in crimes and so on. Urbanization is of many developing countries and Pakistan is no exception. During the last 63 years, the total population of Pakistan in general and of Pakistani cities in particular increased manifolds (Izhar et al, 2010). The overall population increased by more than 52.5% during 1951 and 2010. In 1951, 82.26% of the total Population lived in rural areas whereas this figure dropped down to only 66% in 2008. The current estimated Population growth rate of Pakistan is 1.513% while the population growth rate of cities is 3% which clearly points out that rural-urban migration is nearly 2% annually (Anonymous, 2011). Pakistan is country with 180 million and population growth is also high as compared to many developing countries. More than 68 percent population lives in rural areas in extreme poor socioeconomic conditions. As different studies indicate that more than one third of rural population is below the poverty line along with further division of land into the growing families. People find no way other than migration to urban areas to address their socio-economic and health needs. In Pakistan migration has always been an important phenomenon. After independence in 1947, a population exchange between India and Pakistan took on a scale never before recorded in human history, involving more than 14 million people (Arif and Hamid, 2009). People tend to move from one area whether rural or urban, developing country or developed country keeping in view multi-dimensional aspects, motives or causes. The decision to move is based on certain felt deprivations, stress, constraints, aspirations, motivation at the place of origin. Deprivations are felt by collectively or individuals when the immediate needs are not fulfilled by the existing conditions within a community (Haq, 1974). There are many economic, social and political and environmental factors which caused by migration, and they can usually be classified into push and pull factors. Push factors are those associated with the area of origin, while pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination ( Riley, 2011).

Pull and Push Factors


Variables Socio-cultural Push Social discrimination, family expansion, Crime, religious restrictions and social Injustice Political instability, ethnic conflict, Propaganda Poverty, unemployment, slow economic growth low wages, land tenure issues, landlessness, mechanization of agriculture, depleting resources, lack of infrastructure Environmental degradation, natural disasters, food security, disease, climate change and water scarcity Pull Family reunion, family or Community Commitments, education and cultural Opportunities, health services Access services To public Employment and business opportunities, higher wages, potential better standard of living Lack of or high number of people space, environmental quality

Political Economic

Environmental

Source: ( Riley, 2011).

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2. Methodology Methodology describes the methodological approaches employed to test research hypotheses; the discussion is mainly focused on various aspects such as study design, selection criteria for respondents, study sites, sampling procedures, and sample size, construction of measuring instruments, pilot study or pre-testing and measures adopted during development of questionnaire and during field survey to collect reliable responses. The present study was planned to investigate the socio economic determinant of rural migration in urban setting in city Sargodha. Three most populous localities namely Satellite Town, Farooq Colony and Old Civil Line were selected randomly. 40 respondents in each locality were interviewed through purposive sampling technique constituting a total sample of 120 respondents. The interviewing schedule was prepared in the English but questions were asked in Urdu and Punjabi language according to the situation. The pre-testing was done on twenty male heads in order to ensure the validity and accuracy of interviewing schedule. After pre-testing and finalizing the interviewing schedule and field research activities were started for data collection. 3. Results and Discussion Table 1 shows that a majority 62.5 percent of the respondents were males and 37.5 percent of them were females. Data regarding the age majority of the respondents 64.2 percent of them had 27-35 years of age. It shows that majority of the migrated families belong to the young age group. Data exhibited that 13.3 percent of the respondents were illiterate, while 19.2 percent of them had up to ten years school education, and a large majority 67.5 percent of them had ten year and above school education. These statics shows that majority of the respondents had better education. Data regarding income level more than one-third i.e. 38.3 percent of the respondents had less than 15000 rupees monthly family income, while 15.8 percent of them had Rs. 15000-30000 monthly family income and than one-fifth i.e. 21.7 percent of the respondents had Above 40000 rupees monthly family income. According to the given table majority of the respondents belonged to mediocre class. Table 1: socio economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents
Gender Male Female Age (in years) 18-21 22-26 27-35 Above 35 Education Illiterate Up to ten year school education Ten year and above Family monthly income Less than 15000 15000-30000 31000-40000 Above 40000 16 23 81 46 19 29 26 13.3 19.2 67.5 38.3 15.8 24.2 21.7 Frequency 75 45 5 23 77 15 Percentage 62.5 37.5 4.2 19.2 64.2 12.5

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Table 2 shows that a large majority i.e. 70.0 percent of the respondents reported that they were migrated from rural to urban because of the availability of basic facilities i.e. job, education and good living standard were not available in villages, whereas 30.0 percent of them were replied negatively. This shows that a large majority of the respondents migrate rural to urban areas for the fulfillment of their basic needs. Data indicated that large majorities i.e. 77.5 percent of the respondents were satisfied with their present residence and 22.5 percent of them did not satisfied with their present residence in cities. Data regarding work condition of the respondents shows that little less than a half i.e. 49.2 percent of the respondents reported that they have continued the same work in urban setting, while slightly more than a half i.e. 50.8 percent of them never to have continued the same work in urban settings. Similar finding found by Farah (2001) found that the socio-economic factors age, income and education were found as the main factors shaping the migration attitude of the respondents. The majority of the respondents were young adults, not highly educated and professionals and having large-sized families. As far as their economic condition is concerned most of them fell in the low-income group. Most of them migrated for making higher income, getting better education, and achieving a better standard of life. Table 2: Distribution of the respondents with regard to their response after migration
Attitudinal statements n = 120 Migrate due to facilities were not properly available in rural areas Satisfaction with their residence after migration Have continued the same work after migration Thinking that confidence level increased after migration Financial position changed after migration Success to achieve the purpose/cause of migration Yes F 84 93 59 102 73 88 % 70.0 77.5 49.2 85.0 60.8 73.3 F 36 27 61 18 47 32 No % 30.0 22.5 50.8 15.0 39.2 26.7

Data demonstrates that majority of the respondents 60.8 percent were in opinion that their financial position had improved due to migrate in cities and 39.2 percent of the respondents were in the opinion that their financial condition were same as previous as rural. When the researchers asked the respondents about the accomplish the purpose or cause of migration almost one third of the respondents 73.3 percent gave the positive response regarding this statement and 26.7 percent respondents were not satisfied about their migrated design regarding their achievement in various aspects of life. Table 23 presents the socio-economic determinants of rural to urban migration. About one-third i.e. 32.5 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed, 33.3 percent of them were agreed that they migrated rural to urban areas for their child education. 31.7 percent of respondents were not in the opinion that they migrate for their child education. Similar result found by Farooq et al., (2005) they examined the determinants of internal migration in Faisalabad, Pakistan. 50% of the respondents migrated due to economic reasons, 80% and 13% of the respondents were pushed out of their place of origin due to poor economic and educational opportunities, respectively. Landlessness was yet another significant push factor. Data show that majority of the respondents moved toward urban areas for their childrens better education. Health is another important indicator a large majority of the respondents 78.4 percent agreed that due to poor health facilities they migrate and 19.2 percent respondents were not in the favor that due to health batter health facilities they migrate. A mainstream population 45.8

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percent also mentioned that they were faced transpiration problem in rural areas, to attain the better transpiration facilities they did migrate in urban settings. Table 3: Distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about the socio-economic determinants of rural migration in urban setting.
Socio-economic determinants n = 120 Migrate due to your childrens education Migrate for better health facilities Migrate in city due to transports problems in villages Migrate rural to urban for better job opportunities Migrate because of families issues in villages Migrate due to high rate of crimes in village Feel more comfortable in city Feel oddness in the culture of urban areas Have better relations with the neighbors of urban areas Satisfied with your residence in city Get fair wage in urban areas? feel more esteem and confidence before migration Strongly agree f. % 39 32.5 38 31 29 19 11 42 22 32 19 41 34 31.7 25.8 24.2 15.8 9.2 35.0 18.3 26.7 15.8 34.2 28.3 Agree f. 40 56 24 85 2 8 44 32 52 46 46 40 % 33.3 46.7 20.0 70.8 1.7 6.7 36.7 26.7 43.3 38.3 38.3 33.3 Neutral f. 1 3 34 6 12 21 7 14 3 25 6 24 % 0.8 2.5 28.3 5.0 10.0 17.5 5.8 11.7 2.5 20.8 5.0 20.0 Disagree f. 38 21 23 0 50 46 19 40 30 16 22 22 % 31.7 17.5 19.2 0.0 41.7 38.3 15.8 33.3 25.0 13.3 18.3 18.3 Strongly disagree f. % 2 1.7 2 8 0 37 34 8 12 3 14 5 0 1.7 6.7 0.0 30.8 28.3 6.7 10.0 2.5 11.7 4.2 0.0

It is noted here that a huge majority 95 percent respondents did migrate rural to urban areas for search out better job opportunities, while 5 percent of the respondents were neutral for their purpose to migrate. Similar results were also found by Sattar (2009) that educated people preferred to migrate in the cities because they migrate rural to urban areas due to the better job opportunities and secure their future. Majority of the respondents 72.5 percent were not agreed that they migrate due to the different types of families issues in their villages. When the researcher asked to the respondents crime rate in villages had any impact on their migrate decision. 66.6% of the respondents were not agreed with this statement. This data shows that families issues and crime rate in villages had no major impact to the people perception to do migrate. A large majority 77.7 percent of the respondents feel pleasure and comfortable in their urban residence in lieu of rural, while 22.5 percent of the respondents were not feel combatable in urban settings. About 18.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and 26.7 percent of them were agreed that they felt oddness in the culture of urban areas, 11.7 percent of the respondents were neutral, 33.3 percent of them were disagreed and 10.0 percent of them strongly disagreed with this opinion. More than one-fourth i.e. 26.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and a major proportion i.e. 43.3 percent of them were agreed that they have better relations with the neighbor of urban areas while 25.0 percent of them were disagreed and 2.5 percent of them strongly disagreed with this opinion. It shows that, migrants had also better relations with the neighbors of urban areas. Only 15.8 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and 38.3 percent of them were agreed that they were satisfied with their residence in city regarding better facilities and other allied facilities,

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20.8 percent of the respondents were neutral, 13.3 percent of them were disagreed and 11.7 percent of them strongly disagreed with this opinion. About one-third i.e. 34.2 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and 38.0 percent of them were agreed that they get fair wage in urban areas of their labors, 5.0 percent of the respondents were neutral, 18.3 percent of them were disagreed and 4.2 percent of them strongly disagreed with this opinion. Data exhibited that more than one-fourth i.e. 28.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and 33.3 percent of them were agreed that they felt more esteem and confidence as compare to before migration, 20.0 percent of the respondents were neutral, 18.3 percent of them were disagreed with this opinion. 4. Conclusion Descriptive analysis demonstrates that insufficient, inappropriate educational, health, recreational facilities, poor infrastructure and stagnant and limited economic opportunities in rural areas were the prime factors which motivate the individuals and families to migrate to the urban areas. With increasing migration from rural to urban areas, the multi-dimensional problems such sanitation, environmental pollution, overcrowded housing, congested traffic, overpopulation, road accidents and crimes are increasing. Government should have provide better economic opportunities, better sanitation facilities, better health facilities better educational facilities, better infrastructure, better transportation, promotion of cottage industry, and establishment of small industry near the villages to divert the major flow of people from rural areas to urban areas. References
Anonymous. 2011. Punjab Development Statistics. Bureau of Statics Government of Punjab, Lahore. Arif, G. M. and S. Hamid. 2009. Urbanization, City Growth and Quality of Life in Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences. (10) 2. Farah, N. 2001. Socio-economic & cultural factors affecting migration behavior (A case study of Faisalabad [Pakistan]. Unpublished Thesis M.Sc., Rural Sociology, Univ. of Agri., Faisalabad, Pakistan. Farooq, M., A. Mateen and M.A. Cheema. 2005. Determinants of Migration in Punjab, Pakistan: A Case Study of Faisalabad Metropolitan. J. Agri. Soc. Sci., 1(3): 280-282. Haq, A., 1974. Theoretical consideration for studying socio-psychological factors in migration. The Pakistan Rev., XIII: 35360 Henderson, V. 2002. Urbanization in Developing Countries. World Bank Research Observer, 17(1): 89-112. Oxford University Press Khan, I. A., S. Mahmood, G. Yasin and B. Shahbaz. 2010. Impact of international migration on social protection of migrants families left behind in agrarian communities of district Toba Tek Signh, Punjab, Pakistan. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., Vol. 47(4), 425-428 Riley, C. 2011. Push and Pull Factors behind Migration. Retrieved Date 22/11/2012. http://www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/geography/comments/study-note-push-and-pull-factors-behindmigration Sadaf, M., I. A. Khan, A.A. Khan., B. Shahbaz and S. Akhtar. 2010. Role of international migration in agricultural development and farmers livelihoods: a case study of an agrarian community. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 47(3):297301. Sattar, H. 2009. International migration and its impact on socio-economic development in rural households in T.T. Singh. M.Sc. Unpublished thesis, Dept. of Rural Sociology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on the Achievement of Basic School Students in Pre-Technical Skills
Paul Dela Ahiatrogah
Centre for Continuing Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. pauldela57@yahoo.com

Moses Bedwei Madjoub


Agogo College of Education, Agogo, Ghana ekowbedwei@gmail.com

Brandford Bervell
Centre for Continuing Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. b_brandford@yahoo.co.uk
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p77

Abstract The study compared the effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on the achievement of Junior High School (J.H.S) students in Pre-Technical skills after exposing them to CAI and the traditional methods of instruction. The theoretical framework for the study is that people learn most things better through construction of computer games or multimedia composition rather than through traditional methods of directly teaching content. The study involved 59 students from two schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Twenty eight of the students formed the CAI group while 31formed the traditional group. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study. Structured pre-test and post-test achievement test with a reliability coefficient = 0.74 and 0.75 respectively were used to collect data. The data was analyzed using Predictive Analysis Software (PASW) version 18. The study revealed that the CAI group performed better than the traditional method of instruction group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the achievements levels of the two groups. It was recommended that CAI should be introduced in the teaching of Pre-Technical skills throughout the country. Key words: Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Achievement, Intellectual capabilities, Computer laboratory

1. Introduction
In this present digital era, development in various aspects of computer technology has reached a stage beyond our imagination and expectations. Even though the computer has a lot of applications in various fields, one should not forget its applications in the field of education. It is very useful and helpful in the teaching and learning process, therefore computer literacy is very much needed for teachers as well as learners. The computer has created a revolution in education and the nature of learning process. It has great effect upon our educational system as such teachers should be in terms with the physical reality of

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the computers and learn how to take actual advantage of the computers educational potential (Bennett 1999). Computer knowledge can be stated as knowing about the various fundamental aspects of computers and the basic skills involved in the operations of computers. It also includes the applications of computer in teaching and learning processes (Timothy 2007). It is, therefore, heart-warming that Ghana has formally adopted the teaching and learning of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in its pre-tertiary educational system. In this direction, students are expected to develop interest and use ICT for learning other subjects among other things (Curriculum Research and Development Division [CRDD] 2007). Moreover, teachers are also expected to teach with computers. One mode through which computers can be used in the teaching and learning processes is the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) technology (Traynor 2003). Even though Salomon (as cited by Kankaanranta, 2005) has stated that the use of computer serves as a trigger for transformations and technology-enriched instructional innovations, which involve profound changes that affect the very nature of entire learning environments, research on the use and effectiveness of CAI vary (Cotton 1991; Ornstein and Levine 1995). Ornstein and Levine (1995) indicated that some researchers have revealed that CAI has been effective for short-term achievement gains such as quizzes, but not for long-term gains such as retention. Moreover, because the acquisition of computer hardware and educational software programs involves a considerable monetary investment, it is worthwhile that such statements are made based on empirical evidence (Cotton 1991). Pre-Technical Skills was introduced in the curriculum of the then Junior Secondary School (J.S.S) in 1987 as a result of the new educational reform. As a compulsory subject, every J.S.S student was required to write an examination on it in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). Currently, with the introduction of the Junior High School (J.H.S) system, a new syllabus covering PreTechnical Skills, Home Economics and Visual Art has been introduced. This syllabus required students to select any one of the subjects for the BECE. Evidence from a study by Adamtey (2009) indicated that the reputation of Technical and Vocational Education has been low among Ghanaians because the youth believe that Technical and Vocational Education is for the academically limited students and people with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the practical nature of the Pre-Technical Skills subject accompanied with the abstract way in which it is taught in class instead of the workshop, has contributed to most Junior High School students showing little interest in the subject compared to interest shown in other subjects. Most government schools do not have workshops and tools to facilitate the teaching and learning of the Pre-Technical Skills subject. Our position in this paper is that the introduction of CAI can enhance the practicality of PreTechnical Skills. The procedural method involved can be incorporated in the computer program to enable easy understanding of the subject and also make it interesting. It is assuring to note that a reasonable number of Ghanaian children of this 21st century, particularly those in the urban areas, are attracted to the use of computers and are thus acquiring various computer skills than before. Therefore, the development of Pre-Technical Skills software will not only enhance childrens computer skills but also assist them to acquire technical knowledge to enhance their performance.

1.1 Theoretical and Conceptual frame work


Constructivism provides an appropriate framework for educational technology. Based on the research of Seymour Papert (Co-founder of MITs Artificial Intelligence and Media Labs, professor of Media Technology at MIT, and one of the worlds foremost experts on the impact of computers on learning) and others, we are learning that computers are an appropriate medium to support active, interactive, and self-directed learning. Technology can allow students to work out their own learning strategies, develop

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different learning styles, express themselves and not only demonstrate, but also use their new knowledge in many different ways. Computers and the Internet facilitate constructivist practices by providing a medium for discovery and exploring larger worlds and giving students autonomy in using knowledge. Learning in a computational environment provides a context for learning in which there is an empowering sense of a students own ability to learn anything he or she wants to know, with the gusto we only use to see when they played video games. The potential exists to bring back an enthusiasm for learning by shaping education to fit each students approach to learning (Papert and Harel, 1991). Papert believes that the fundamental fact about learning is that anything is easy if you can assimilate it to your collection of models. The understanding of learning must be genetic, it is internal; it comes from a personal, passionate interest. The laws of learning must be about how intellectual structures grow out of one another and about how, in the process, they acquire both logical and emotional form. Purpose is the key here. A computers essence is its universality; its power to simulate because it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand tastes. Computers, as a medium, are flexible enough so that people, especially young people can each create for themselves something that is emotionally and intellectually stimulating (Papert 1980). The Internet, as a code word for connectivity, is a radical transformation. Creating collaborative learning communities with students in ones own class and students from around the country and around the world can have a qualitative difference in their development. (Papert, 1996)

1.2 Statement of the Problem


As Ghana incorporates the use of computers in its pre-tertiary educational system (CRDD 2007), it is very necessary and important that the effects of the variety of computer usage are explored. This will help the nation to know and be assured that whatever technology they are bringing will have a positive effect on both teachers and students. It is therefore very necessary, that a study is conducted to examine the effectiveness of CAI, as against the traditional approach of teaching. CAI is new to our present educational system, in view of that little has been done to introduce it in technical educational programs. This is because most of the technical teachers are themselves new to the computer or used to the traditional method of teaching. In most Junior High Schools (JHS) in Ghana, Pre-Technical Skills is one of the subjects that students dislike because of its practical nature (Adamtey 2009). The situation is even made worse since very little is being done in the development of Pre-Technical Skills software that will minimize or eliminate the abstract ways in which some teachers teach the subject due to lack of workshops. The purpose of this research therefore was to examine the relation between the achievement levels of Junior High School students who are taught with CAI and those who are taught with the normal traditional method of teaching Pre-Technical Skills. 2. Methods

2.1 Research Design


The research design used for this study was the quasi experimental design with a focus on Nonequivalent Groups Pre-test and Post-test since the study required the manipulation of the experimental variables. Also, because random assignment of subjects was not possible, already established intact groups were used. This design was chosen because it is very prevalent and useful in education. It provides reasonable control over most of the variables affecting internal and external validity. Furthermore, the groups involved may be different prior to the study (Mertens 1998).

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The threats to the internal validity with this design are mortality and history. This did not prove to be a threat in this study, since the group sizes remained constant throughout, and the study was relatively short in duration. Furthermore, no event other than that of the experimental treatment occurred during the time between Pretest and the Posttest observation. This design is represented diagrammatically in Figure 1. Figure1. Non-equivalent Groups Pre-test and Post-test Design

Figure 1 illustrates the Non-equivalent Groups of Pretest-Posttest. Two comparable groups were used in the order of A and B respectively. The two groups were initially given a Pretest (01), afterwards, two different treatments (X+) and (X_ ) were administered to group A and B. Finally, Posttest (01) was conducted. The duration from the Pretest treatment to the Posttest of the experiment happened within a specified time.

2.2 Population and Sample


The population for the study comprised all JHS both private and public in Kumasi Metro, totaling 386 schools. However, the accessible population was 10 schools where computers were available and accessible for students use (Education coordinators report Kumasi Metropolitan, 2009), as well as those who have chosen from other options to study Pre-Technical Skills at JHS 2 in their various schools. Two schools Vicande and Shalom JHS were purposively selected out of the schools in Kumasi. This is because they are similar in academic rating and both had well equipped computer laboratories where each student had access to a computer. Intact JHS 2 Pre-Technical Skills classes from the two schools were used for this research. Since it was morally wrong to withdraw some students from the class, all students in the classes concerned were involved. Shalom JHS 2 Pre-Technical Skills students were 28 in number out of which 13 were females and 15 were males. Vicande JHS 2 Pre-Technical Skills students were made up of 15 females and 16 males totaling 31 students. The total number of males involved in this research was 31 and that of females was 28. The sample size for the study therefore was 59. Vicande Junior High School was assigned the group where the traditional method of teaching was introduced (Traditional group). Whilst Shalom Junior High School was assigned to the group where CAI was introduced (CAI group).

2.3 Instruments
The instruments for the study were teacher made achievement test for the Pre-test and Post-test. The test items were based on Aggregates, Adhesives and Finishes which are the three major topics in Unit 2, Unit 3 and Unit 4 of the JHS Pre-Technical Skills syllabus. These topics have not been treated in the two schools prior to the study. The instrument had 30 multiple choice items with 10 items from each topic. To ensure the content validity of the test items, the tests were given to two experienced graduate Pre-Technical Skills teachers at the University of Education Winneba Kumasi and New Aboabo M/A

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JHS to critically review the content. Pilot testing of the instrument was conducted at Nigrition International School at Dechemso in Kumasi. The school was selected because it had a computer laboratory and also can be found in the first 10 schools in the Kumasi metro analysis of basic education certificate examination result 2009. Furthermore, to find the reliability of the instruments, scores obtained from the pilot testing of the test instrument were analyzed. The reliability coefficients alpha was computed using split half estimates Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. The pilot Pre-test and Post-test of the 30 test items revealed a reliability coefficient of 0.74, and 0.75 respectively. The CAI was developed using Microsoft office power point 2007. The Pre-Technical Skills software contains three major topics, with two sub topics each. The major topics were aggregates, adhesives and finishes. The lessons were made to last for 35 minutes to 70 minutes a section in other to fit into the JHS timetable. In developing the technical software, provision was made for introduction of the program, learner control, presentation of information, and ending the program. To make sure that the CAI is free from problem before it is implemented, it was pilot tested in other to correct any unforeseen error before the start of the study. Pilot testing of the CAI was conducted at Saviour International School at Tanoso in Kumasi. The school was selected because it had a computer laboratory and also can be found in the first 10 schools in the Kumasi metro analysis of basic education certificate examination result 2009.

2.4 Data Collection Procedure


2.4.1 Treatment Plan The study was carried out in 3 phases, phase 1 pre-treatment assessment, phase 2 treatment package and phase 3 post-treatment assessments. Phase 1: Pre-treatment assessment: The pre- treatment assessment instrument made up of 30 test items on the selected Pre-Technical Skills topics was administered to the two groups, at their various schools to obtain a pre-test or a baseline data. The pre-treatment assessment lasted for 1 day. Phase 2: Treatment package: Different methods of teaching were adopted in the 2 schools. The treatment for CAI group involved the use of CAI in teaching the selected Pre-Technical Skills topics namely Aggregate, Adhesives and Finishes. Traditional group benefited from the Traditional method of teaching the same topics listed, which one of the researchers personally delivered. Participants were exposed to 70 minutes of teaching the selected Pre-Technical Skills topics two times in a week for five weeks. Phase 3: Post-treatment assessment: At the end of the treatment, the researchers re-administered the assessment instrument on the selected Pre-Technical Skills topics to the schools in one day. This was done to ascertain the effects of the two treatments on the participants. Scores obtained from the two schools provided the final post-test data

2.5 Data Analysis


The Pre-test and Post-test were scored objectively and data obtained was entered into SPSS program, which helped to prepare tables for interpretation. The entire hypothesis was tested with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). This procedure was used since the Pre-test scores obtained from the CAI and Traditional groups were not the same, therefore, there was the need to adjust the Post-test scores based on the initial differences (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001). Furthermore, since random assignment of subjects was not

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possible, these groups may differ on a number of attributes (Mertens 1998). The use of ANCOVA reduced some of these differences and the scores on the Pre-test are treated as covariate to control for pre-existing differences between the groups (Pallant 2005). The achievements of the groups were also compared based on the mean deviation of the test scores of the CAI and Traditional groups. Finally, all the significant differences were compared to a significant level of 0.05. 3. Results and Discussion

Hypothesis 1
H0 There is no statistically significant difference between the academic achievements of students taught by Computer-assisted instructions and those taught with the Traditional method of teaching. Table 1: One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) on Differences in Performance Between the Traditional and CAI Methods of Teaching Pre-Technical Skills
Source Corrected Model Pretest Group Error Total Type III sum of squares 379.95a 367.95 43.14 96.76 25333.00 df 2 1 1 56 59 Mean Square 189.98 367.95 43.14 1.73 F 109.95 212.95 24.97 Sig. .00 .00 .00

Significant at .05 level; df =1 & 56; critical P .05 The data presented in Table 1 shows that a calculated F-value of 24.97 resulted in the difference in performances between the Traditional method of teaching and the CAI. This calculated F-value of 24.97 is statistically significant since the significant level of .00 is less than .05 of alpha significance level, at 1 and 56 degree of freedom. This implies that there is a significant difference between the Traditional and CAI methods of teaching Pre-Technical Skills. Hence the null hypothesis H0 stating There is no statistically significant difference between the academic achievements of students taught by Computer-assisted instructions and those taught with the Traditional method of teaching was rejected. This finding supports the constructivist perspective which emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding, and making sense of information presented to him (Roblyer and Edwards 2000; Hsu Chen and Hung, 2000; Good and Brophy, 1990). This is so because the students taught by the CAI, through knowledge discovery and interaction with the CAI showed a significant difference in their academic achievement. Furthermore, previous studies done by Morse (1991); Kuchler (1998) and others, which explored the effectiveness of CAI in teaching Science and Mathematics, found that students who received instructions through CAI achieved more than those who studied in a conventional environment. It can therefore be concluded that students achievement in Pre-technical skill, did significantly improved due to the use of the CAI.

Hypothesis 2
H0: There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement in Aggregates, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills.

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Table 2: One-Way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) on differences in Performance on Aggregates between the Traditional and CAI Groups
Source Corrected Model Pretest Group Error Total Type III sum Of squares 9.36a 6.41 3.63 252.30 2933.00 df 2 1 1 56 59 Mean Square 4.68 6.41 3.63 4.51 F 1.04 1.42 .806 Sig. .361 .24 .37

Significant at .05 level; df = 1 & 56; Critical P .05 The data presented in Table 2 summarizes the outcome of the ANCOVA analysis on the differences in performance on Aggregates between the Traditional and CAI groups. It compared the Pre-test and Post-test aggregate scores obtained by the CAI group and the Traditional groups. The data shows that a calculated F-value of .806 resulted in statistically no significant difference in performance between the Traditional group and the CAI group. This calculated F-value of .806 is statistically not significant since, the significant level of .37 is greater than the alpha significant level of .05, given 1 and 56 degrees of freedom. This implies that there is no significant difference between the academic achievements on aggregates, between the CAI group and the Traditional group. Hence, the null hypothesis H0 stating There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement on aggregates, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills. was retained. The findings from Table 2 in one way or the other confirms the constructivists believe since it can be concluded that the students in the CAI group who interacted with only the Pre-Technical Skills software on the computer, obtained the needed academic information on Aggregates required to place them at pair, with the Traditional group who were taught by a teacher. It also supports Bennett (1999) statement that, if schools were wealthy enough to afford hardware for each pupil, finding and retaining qualified teachers would be impossible. Another aspect is that computers, offer personal advantage of attention and instruction for each student (p 105). In this instant, Bennett (1999) in his time, will have preferred computers to teachers had it not been the cost of computers. In some cases they can produce the same output, as that of paid teachers.

Hypothesis 3
H0: There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement in Adhesives, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills Table 3: One-Way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) on differences in Performance on Adhesives between the Traditional group and CAI group
Source Corrected Model Pretest Group Error Total Type III sum of Squares 17.63a 17.18 1.00 247.22 3198.00 df 2 1 1 56 59 Mean Square 8.81 17.18 1.00 4.42 F 2.00 3.89 .23 Sig. .145 .053 .64

Significant at .05 level; df =1 & 56; Critical P .05

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The data presented in Table 3 summarizes the outcome of the ANCOVA analysis on the differences in performance on Adhesives between the Traditional and CAI groups. It compared the Pretest and Post-test Adhesives scores obtained by the CAI group and the Traditional groups. The data shows that a calculated F-value of .23 resulted in statistically no significant difference in performance between the Traditional group and the CAI group. This calculated F-value of .23 is statistically not significant since, the significant level of .64 is greater than the alpha significant level of .05, given 1 and 56 degrees of freedom. This implies that there is no significant difference on the academic achievements in adhesives, between the CAI group and the Traditional group. Hence, the null hypothesis H0 stating There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement in Adhesives, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills, was retained. Daramola and Asuquo (2006) conducted a similar research on Effect of Computer Assisted Instructional Package on Secondary School Students Performance in Nigeria. They concluded by not finding any significant difference in the performance of students who were exposed to individualized CAI and those that were taught using conventional method of instruction. The findings of Table 3 can be concluded that the CAI method of instruction can produce similar results as the Traditional method instruction in some subjects, of which Adhesives in Pre-Technical Skills is no exception.

Hypothesis 4
H0: There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement in Finishes, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills. Table 4: One-Way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) on differences in Performance on Finishes between the Traditional group and CAI group
Source Corrected Model Pretest Group Error Total Type III sum of squares 15.77a 14.62 2.09 275.41 2976.00 df 2 1 1 56 59 Mean Square 7.87 14.62 2.09 4.92 F 1.60 2.97 .43 Sig. .21 .09 .52

Significant at .05 level; df =1 & 56; Critical P .05 The data presented in Table 4 shows that a calculated F-value of .43 resulted in statistically no significant difference in performance between the Traditional group and the CAI group. This calculated F-value of .43 is statistically not significant since the significant level of .52 is greater than .05 of alpha significance level, given 1 and 56 degree of freedom. This implies that there is no significant difference on the academic achievements in finishes, between the CAI group and the Traditional group. Hence, the null hypothesis H0 stating There is no significant difference between the CAI and Traditional groups on their achievement in Finishes, a topic in Pre-Technical Skills, was retained. The finding of Table 4 agrees with Mclean (1996) opinion that CAI provides student with an alternative to classroom settings. Since in this case, it can be concluded that a CAI meant to teach finishes will produce the same impact as a teacher using the usual Traditional method to teach. 5. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that CAI was also an effective mode for teaching Pre-Technical

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Skills. The results were also in consonance with results of many studies demonstrating the effectiveness of CAI for better students achievement, in science and mathematics as done by Brophy (1999); Carter (2004) and Bayrakter (2000). It can therefore be concluded that a relationship exists between the uses of a computer Assisted Instruction and achievement of students in Pre-Technical Skills. Furthermore, CAI can be used as an alternative to the Traditional method of teaching the various topics in PreTechnical Skills It can be concluded that this study has provided strong evidence of the usefulness of CAI in teaching and learning of Pre-Technical Skills, it will therefore be very helpful if attention is paid to this study. By using CAI, procedural, methodical and abstract things can be brought home to the understanding of the Pre-technical students and more so make learning very interesting and easy. 6. Recommendations In the light of the findings revealed, the following recommendations were made:

6.1 Recommendations for Government


1. 2. 3. Computer Assisted Instruction centres should be built in all communities, and equipped with learning softwares. This will occupy students free times anytime they are outside the school. Modernize basic school classrooms by equipping every classroom with a computer and a projector to facilitate active learning. Take steps to help reduce the prices of computers by either reducing taxes or offering incentives to computer and educational software importers.

6.2 Recommendations for Ghana Education Service


1. 2. 3. Should select experts of Computer Assisted Instruction from Ghana and send them to countries where this mode of instruction is utilized. This will enable them upgrade their knowledge and make meaningful impact on their return. Computer Assisted Instruction should be introduce in the curriculum of Colleges of Education. This will enable the teacher- trainees to prepare their own software to teach various subjects. The basic school curriculum should be designed such that it will allow students to construct their learning activities based on their own interpretation of what is needed.

6.3 Recommendations for Teachers


1. 2. They should always be around to supervise students when they are using computers to learn. This is because most students will in turn do something else with the computer rather than learning. They should avail themselves to new technologies such as Computer Assisted Instruction in other to be upgrade with time.

7. Suggestions for further research 1. Having attested to the efficacy of computer Assisted Instruction on academic achievements of senior high students, more of this and varied kinds must be researched into advanced levels of

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our education in all subjects especially mathematics, science , vocational and technical programmes. References
Adamtey, K. S. (2009). Vocational / Technical Education in Ghana: Problems and Remedies. International Journal of home Economic Research, 20(1), 189-197. Bayraktar, S. (2000). A Meta-analysis on the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction In Science Education. Doctoral Dissertation Ohio University. [Online] Available: http:// www. Ocle.com (April 5, 2010) Bennett, F. (Ed.). (1999). Computers as Tutors Solving the Crisis in Education. Sorasota: Feben Inc. Brophy, A. K. (1999). Is Computer Assisted Instruction Effective in the Science Classroom? Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, California State University, Dominguez Hill. Carter, M. B. (2004). An Analysis and Comparism of the Effects of Computer. Assisted Instruction Versus Traditional Lecture Instruction, Students attitudes and achievement in a college remedial Mathematics Course. Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University Philadelphia. [Online] Available : http://www.templeuniversityphiladephia/the/pub/329y7 (May 20, 2010) Cotton, K. (1991). Computer-Assisted Instruction. School Improvement Series: U. Can Use. [Online] Available : www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/5/ cu10.html (May 20, 2008) Curriculum Research and Development Division. (CRDD) (2007) Teaching Syllabus for Information and Communication Technology. (Senior High School) Accra: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, [Online] Available : http:// ejite .isu. edu/ volume1 No2/ Lunts.htm.pii (January 8, 2010) Daramola, F. O., & Asuquo, E. N. (2006). Effect of Computer Assisted Instructional Package on Secondary School Students Performance In Introductory Technology. In Ilorin, Nigeria, The Nigeria Journal of Educational Media and Technology. 12(1), pp. 20-26. Education Coordinators Report (2009). Computers in basic schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Kumasi : Hampton Press. Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1990). Educational psychology: A realistic approach. (4th ed.).White Plains, NY: Longman. Hsu, J. J. F., Chen, D., & Hung, D. (2000). Learning Theories and IT: The Computer as a Tutor. In Williams, M. D. (Ed.) (2000) Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning Concepts and Applications, (2nd ed.) Singapore : Prenice Hall Inc. Kankaanranta, M. (2005). International Perspectives on the Pedagogically Innovative Uses of Technology. Human Technology, 1, (2), 111-116. Kuchler, J. M. (1998) The Effectiveness of Using Computers to Teach Secondary School (Grades 6 -12) Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis. (On-line) Ph.D Dissertation, University of Lowell. [Online] Available : http://www.OCLC.com ( May 20, 2010) Mertens, D. M. (1998). Research Methods in Education and Psychology. London : SAGE Publications. Morse, R. H.(1991). Computer use in Secondary Education. ERIC Clearing House on Information Resources. ED331489 Pallant, J. (2005) SPSS Survival Manual Second Edition (Electronic Version).[Online] Available : www.openup.co.uk/spss p. 269 (January 20, 2010) Roblyer, M. D. (1988). The Effectiveness of Micro-Computers in Education: A Review of the Research from 1980-1987. Technological Horizons in Education Journal, 12, 85-89. Roblyer. M. D. (1989). The Impact of Micro-Computer Based Instruction on Teaching and learning: A Review of Recent Research. ERIC Clearing house on Information resources. ED315063 Roblyer, M. D., & Edwards J. (2000). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. (2rd ed.). Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall Inc. Timothy T. (2007). Assessing the computer attitudes of students: An Asian perspective. Computer in Human Behaviour. [Online) Available : http://www.compu.edu./aa.fac/cc. html. (April 12, 2010)

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Italian Risorgimento and the European Volunteers


Antonello Battaglia
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p87

Abstract The Risorgimento was a complex phenomenon, not only an Italian one, that had broad resonance throughout Europe since the "rise of non-historical nations" spread particularly in central and eastern part of the continent. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna worked to restore the status quo in order to set aside the Napoleonic experience. The anachronism of the measures was already highlighted just five years later when many uprisings erupted in Europe, and especially with the national revolutions of 1848-1849, when Poles, Hungarians, Croats, Serbs, Czechs, Italians, Bulgarians shared the principles of freedom and joined the slogan: "For your freedom and ours" was the slogan that brawny European volunteers in the continental Risorgimento confirming an irreversible crisis of the multinational empires. Key Words: Volunteers, Insurrections, Risorgimento, Garibaldini, History of Europe.

Il Risorgimento, complesso e variegato, non fu soltanto un fenomeno italiano ma ebbe vasta risonanza nello scacchiere continentale che vide il risveglio delle nazionalit non storiche diffondersi in particolare nellEuropa centro-orientale. Il Congresso di Vienna aveva ripristinato lo status quo antecedente le guerre napoleoniche e la diplomazia europea aveva condotto una restaurazione geopolitica sul solco delle tradizioni settecentesche. Lanacronismo dei provvedimenti venne messo in luce gi appena cinque anni dopo, quando i primi moti scoppiati in Spagna nel 1820-1821 rivelarono il diffuso malcontento soffocato prontamente sul nascere anche a Napoli e in Sicilia. Dieci anni pi tardi le trois glorieuses rovesciarono nuovamente i Borbone in Francia e inaugurarono la breve parentesi di Luigi Filippo dOrleans mentre Belgio e Grecia raggiungevano lagognata indipendenza rispettivamente da Olanda e Impero Ottomano e a Varsavia e Modena fallivano i moti. La crisi del 1848 ebbe maggiore risonanza e inedita forza durto che travolsero lintero continente rilevando definitivamente lobsolescenza dellordine geopolitico e la necessit di costituirne uno nuovo (Biagini 2011). La cosiddetta primavera dei popoli - che quindi non fu meramente confinata alla penisola italiana - si diffuse per osmosi in molte aree. Il Risorgimento accomunava cos gli italiani ai polacchi che dal 1795 - anno della terza spartizione - si opponevano alle potenze partitrici; ai croati, animati dallIllirismo di Gaj; ai magiari la cui causa era perorata dallattivit insonne degli esuli politici; ai romeni in questo frangente aspiranti allautonomia; ai serbi, sempre pi coscienti del progetto di divenire il popolo guida degli slavi meridionali; ai greci, gi protagonisti della propria indipendenza nel 1830 ma decisi a scalzare definitivamente il controllo ottomano e infine anche i bulgari agli albori dello sviluppo della propria coscienza nazionale (Tamborra 1983). I grandi imperi multinazionali, asburgico e ottomano, da secoli

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garanti della stabilit geopolitica in Europa centro-orientale vennero messi seriamente in crisi dalle forze centrifughe. I volontari costituirono la fondamentale forza propulsiva del movimento rivoluzionario e non sarebbe corretto pensare al Risorgimento senza valutare adeguatamente il loro determinante contributo nella difesa degli ideali di libert e unit nazionali. Dopo le lotte armate in Uruguay contro lesercito di Rosas, governatore generale della provincia di Buenos Aires, Garibaldi torn sulla scena europea sbarcando a Nizza il 21 giugno 1848 con sessantatr uomini (fra cui Medici, Sacchi e Anzani).
LAmerica che nel 1836 aveva raccolto un oscuro marinaio e un disertore proscritto restituiva allItalia un ammiraglio provetto, un capitano invitto, un eroe glorioso.(Guerzoni 1982).

Come scrive Tamborra In Europa - e soprattutto in Italia - le ripercussioni delle sue gesta e la sua ascesa nella scala dei valori e politici, sono tali che gi negli ambienti sotterranei dei cospiratori - vi una attesa per quello che un simile uomo potr compiere a favore della sua Patria e, quindi, anche di altre patrie (Tamborra 1983). In occasione della Prima Guerra dIndipendenza, il patriota polacco Adam Mickievicz, il 3 maggio 1848, chiese al Governo provvisorio di Lombardia la creazione di una Legione polacca in cui avrebbero dovuto arruolarsi cechi, croati e serbi disertori dellesercito austriaco oltre a emigrati polacchi. Le compagnie costituite furono due, entrambe sotto il comando di Kamieski e furono impegnate nei combattimenti ai confini del Tirolo, una alle dipendenze delle truppe comandate dal generale Durando e laltra, sotto legida di Siodkowicz, partecip alla difesa di Milano. Dopo i primi scontri le legioni vennero spostate in Piemonte e una parte di volontari, le cui fila vennero rimpinguate da ulteriori rinforzi provenienti dalla Sicilia e guidati da Chodzko, giunsero a Livorno dove combatterono valorosamente. Il 10 ottobre 1848, Chodzko concluse con il Governo provvisorio toscano di Guerrazzi e Montanelli un accordo secondo il quale metteva per due anni a disposizione dei repubblicani 800 volontari, liberi di tornate in Polonia qualora fosse scoppiata una rivoluzione nazionale. Mickiewicz contestualmente riusc a riunire un gruppo di 150 volontari polacchi che part sotto il comando del capitano Alessandro Fijalkowski per Genova e prese parte attiva alla sommossa della citt. Successivamente imbarcata per Livorno e Firenze, ormai in mano alla repressione, la legione raggiunse il litorale laziale e si mise a disposizione della Repubblica Romana. Il triumvirato costituito da Mazzini, Saffi e Armellini, riconobbe ufficialmente la legione con decreto datato 29 maggio 1849. In questa occasione venne aggiunto il nastro tricolore allo stendardo e ancora una volta venne ribadito il diritto di ritornare in patria in caso di insurrezione. Per la vostra libert e la nostra era il vessillo polacco innalzato e sventolato dalla legione del colonnello Milbitz che combatt il 3 giugno a Villa Pamphili e il 15 giugno a Ponte Milvio contro le truppe francesi. Dopo la caduta della Repubblica, i polacchi si arresero al generale Oudinot che decise di imbarcali e confinarli a Corf. Oltre che a Roma, gli artiglieri polacchi si distinsero a Venezia, nella difesa della Repubblica e a Morazzone dove il capitano Pawel Bielski e 13 compagni si batterono nella

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battaglia coadiuvando Garibaldi contro gli austriaci1. Nel 1849 al generale Chrzanowski venne affidato il comando dellesercito sardo contro le forze di Radetzki che avevano ripreso il controllo dellarea lombarda. Al sud, in Sicilia, le forze rivoluzionarie vennero poste sotto legida del generale Mierosawski, appena reduce dalla sfortunata insurrezione della Posnania. La crisi del 1848-49 rappresent dunque il primo punto di contatto e di convergenza fra la nazionalit italiana e quelle dellEuropa centro-orientale, il Piemonte era strettamente vicino ai destini dei popoli e il fallimento dei moti rivoluzionari non annichil tuttavia tale legame. Il regno di Sardegna - sotto il neo sovrano Vittorio Emanuele II e labile attivit politica del primo ministro Cavour divenne il baricentro delle aspirazioni dei popoli in via di definizione (Salvatorelli 1957). Lintervento piemontese nella crisi dOriente del 1853-56 fu loccasione sfruttata da Cavour per proiettare e inserire il proprio paese nello scacchiere diplomatico internazionale. Per la prima volta, infatti, al congresso di Parigi venne sollevato il problema italiano. Lintesa del Regno di Sardegna con il Secondo Impero di Napoleone III che con il suo messianesimo si ergeva a nuovo liberatore dei popoli - venne salutata dalle popolazioni centro-orientali come una concreta possibilit di indebolimento del potere austriaco e auspicio per una rivoluzione generalizzata. I contatti di Garibaldi, Mazzini e Cavour con i movimenti rivoluzionari clandestini ne sono la testimonianza. Come noto, gli accordi di Plombires, siglati il 21 luglio 1858, portarono alla Seconda guerra dIndipendenza e alle reali possibilit di una conquista del Lombardo-Veneto, mentre gli insorti polacchi, di cui molti emigrati da una Polonia di fatto spartita e inesistente, e ungheresi guidati rispettivamente da Czartoryski e Kossuth speravano in una distrazione militare austriaca che potesse permettere di insorgere e ottenere agevolmente lindipendenza. Larmistizio di Villafranca, siglato l11 luglio 1859, fu una grande delusione non solo per Cavour, che per protesta si dimise, ma per tutte le nazionalit insorgenti che videro sfumare nuovamente la possibilit di un aiuto proveniente da una delle grandi potenze continentali. Come rileva Biagini (2011), si tratt di un momento di disillusione e costernazione in cui i popoli dellEuropa centro-orientale pensarono di essere stati definitivamente abbandonati al potere dei grandi Imperi multinazionali (Tamborra 1958). Appena un anno dopo, il successo dellimpresa dei Mille e la proclamazione dellUnit italiana risvegliarono il fervore nazionale. Il 5 maggio 1860, come noto, Garibaldi con i due piroscafi Lombardo e Piemonte salp dallo scoglio di Quarto e giunse a Marsala giorno 11. Dopo il sanguinoso scontro di Calatafimi e lentrata in Palermo, si fece appello ai volontari europei che accorsero in Sicilia. I nuovi garibaldini affluirono a Genova, vennero inquadrati nelle divisioni Medici e Cosenz in attesa di imbarcarsi per la Sicilia a bordo dei piroscafi Washington, Oregon e Franklin. Numerosi furono i triestini, gli istriani e i dalmati appartenenti alle ultime propaggini della nazione italiana, ad una italianit marginale posta cio agli estremi limiti della espansione territoriale della italianit, l dove viene a contatto e contrasto con altre stirpi e altre lingue e illanguidisce, e muore (Sestan 1947) La loro rinnovata presenza tra le truppe garibaldine aveva un significato profondo: attestazione di volont nazionale, coscienza di un legame,

Il generale nizzardo ne parla nelle sue Memorie.

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esistenza di una spinta interiore che li rendeva partecipi della vicenda unitaria della patria comune. In particolar modo i garibaldini dalmati si erano gi distinti nella difesa di Venezia. Gli zaratini Giuseppe Zmaich 2, Giovanni Maggiorato, Carlo Tivaroni, Giacomo de Zanchi, Costantino Venturini, Doimo de Hoebert, Spiridione Galateo, Enrico Matcovich di Stretto, De Giovannizio di Spalato; Lorenzo Girotto di Spalato, Eugenio Popovich, il colonnello Cossovich, i due fratelli Millanovich, Spirione Sirovich, Lisovich di Budua, Luigi e Federico Seismit Doda, alcuni di loro avrebbero combattuto a fianco di Garibaldi in Trentino nel 1866, a Mentana nel 1867 e in Francia nel 1870-71 (Cace 1861). Altri triestini e istriani si erano gi distinti nella difesa di Roma: Giacomo Venezian era stato ucciso a Porta S. Pancrazio, erano stati feriti anche Zucchi e Zambeccari, mentre Zamboni, Bruffel erano stati colpiti a Porta Cavalleggeri dove avevano combattuto anche Sansoine Levi, Salvi, Marocchino, Hoenigmann, Sanzin, Mitis di Cherso, Baccalari di Dignano dIstria, promosso maggiore proprio durante la difesa della Repubblica Romana. Nel 1859 le fila dei Cacciatori delle Alpi erano state rafforzate proprio da istriani e dalmati e soprattutto limpresa dei Mille e le successive spedizioni videro un afflusso notevole di volontari anche triestini e giuliani. Due dei Mille sono conosciuti: Cesare Michieli di Campolongo che combatt a Calatafimi, a Palermo, a Milazzo e sul Volturno. Marziano Giotti di Grandisca, della compagnia di Cairoli, decorato al valor militare. Inoltre il capitano mercantile Enrico Maffei, triestino, Giovanni Bertossi, decorato al valore sul Volturno, Gustavo Bchel, Gioacchino Sibel, Daniele Wertheimer, Arminio Wurmbrand, Federico Cuder di Capodistria; tre di Rovigno si distinsero in modo particolare: Luigi Dasarsa, Giorgio Moscarda, Baldassarre Manzoni, Enrico Appel (Sticotti 1932). Tra i Mille si sono da annoverare anche vari ebrei tra cui Ciro Finzi, Cesare de Enrico Guastalla, i fratelli Alessandro, Isacco, Israele Levi, il tedesco Adolph Moses, Antonio Alpromi, Antonio Godberg, Riccardo Luzzatti, Eugenio Rava, Guido Rovighi, Davide ed Enrico Uziel e Giovanni Acerbi3. Va segnalata inoltre, tra le fila dei garibaldini nella stagione 1860-61, la presenza di numerosi italo-albanesi. Il passaggio di Garibaldi in Calabria e il proclama del generale al vigore dei discendenti di Skanderbeg favorirono la costituzione di un reggimento italo-albanese al comando del colonnello Domenico Damis di Lungro tra cui un gruppo di giovani scappati dal collegio di SantAdriano (Pacukaj 2011). Tra i volontari che si batterono ai ponti della Valle e al Volturno i pi noti furono Raffaele e Domenico Mauro di San Demetrio Corone, Giuseppe Pace di Castrovillari, il maggiore Gennaro Placco di Civita, gi compagno di Luigi Settembrini nel penitenziario di Procida, Gennaro Mortati di Spezzano Albanese (Groppa 1912). Gli albanesi sono eroi che si sono distinti in tutte le lotte contro la tirannide afferm il 2 ottobre Garibaldi mentre donava 12000 ducati al collegio di S. Adriano a S. Demetrio Corone (Lorecchio 1904). Notevole lafflusso dei volontari francesi, soprattutto emigrati che protestavano delusi dalla politica di Napoleone III. Difficile definirne il numero preciso e lorientamento politico.

Archivio di Stato, Mantova, Carte Acerbi (cit. da Tamborra). G. De Angelis, Garibaldi romanziere de I mille e gli ebrei in La Rassegna mensile di Israele, vol. XXV, n.11, pp. 453 e sgg. I fratelli Uziel sono ricordati da Garibaldi ne I Mille, vol.II, pp.88, 91, 345.
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Dagli studi di Ferdinand Boyer si individuano 59 garibaldini francesi, mentre tenendo in considerazione ulteriori scaglioni partiti successivamente per il meridione italiano, Tamborra sostiene che il numero si aggirasse tra i 300 e i 500. Tra la fine di giugno o i primi di luglio, a Parigi venne costituita la Mission Sicilienne, di cui fece parte anche il medico Leullier, anchegli inviato successivamente nellIsola. Il gruppo pi importante di volontari transalpini fu la Legione comandata dal visconte Paul de Flotte, esule dopo il colpo di Stato napoleonico del 2 dicembre 1851. Fu il garibaldino francese di maggior rilievo che con la sua unit - circa 250 effettivi inquadrati nella 15ma divisione Trr - combatt a Solano e mor in battaglia il 22 agosto 1860, durante lo sbarco in Calabria (Motta 2011). In suo onore Garibaldi diede il nome Compagnia La Flotte4 allunit dei francesi. Unaltra figura di rilievo fu quella di Philippe Toussaint Joseph Bourdon, comunemente conosciuto come Bordone. Ricevette da Garibaldi lincarico di dirigere la fonderia di cannoni in bronzo di Palermo. Da Milazzo in poi divenne membro dello Stato Maggiore di Garibaldi, distinguendosi per le sue qualit di sovrintendente ai materiali dartiglieria. Nella battaglia del Volturno schier nuove batterie, costru un ponte che permise a numerosi volontari di passare sullaltra sponda. Nella guerra franco-prussiana avrebbe seguito Garibaldi nellArmata dei Vosgi (Boyer 1971) Di grande importanza fu anche la figura di Maxime du Camp, scrittore gi noto, che giunse in Sicilia come ufficiale di Stato Maggiore della divisione Trr e accompagn Garibaldi fino a Napoli. I suoi ricordi, affidati alla autorevole Revue de deux mondes, furono riuniti in un volume dal titolo Expedition de deux Siciles (Parigi, 1881) e da lui ripubblicate nei suoi Souvenirs Littraires da cui si cita:
Pendant quatre mois passs ltat-major du gnral Turr o les lments italiens, anglais, hongrois et francais taient mls dans dingales proportions, je nai pas assist une seule dispute; je nai pas intendu un mot plus vif quil naurait convenu (Camp 1861).

Altro personaggio francese rilevante fu lo scrittore Alexandre Dumas (padre) che part con la propria goletta in crociera per il Mediterraneo e non appena ricevette la notizia delle sommosse siciliane, fece rotta per lIsola. Rimasto sulla sua nave ancorata nel porto di Palermo, fece visita a Carlo Pellion di Persano, (1869) comandante della squadra navale sarda, a cui confid di voler finanziare i volontari garibaldini. Pochi giorni dopo acquist a Marsala 550 carabine e 10.000 cartucce. Dopo il passaggio dello Stretto da parte di Garibaldi, lo scrittore transalpino si rec con la sua goletta Emma a Salerno per preparare e avviare una massiccia propaganda anti-borbonica. Grazie ai propri informatori, entr in contatto con il ministro dellInterno e di Polizia del governo costituzionale, Liborio Romano e con lo zio di Francesco II, il conte di Siracusa, uomo liberale, contribuendo in maniera trionfale allingresso di Garibaldi a Napoli a cui non assistette perch, venuto a conoscenza dellimminente insurrezione ad Avellino, decise di dirigersi verso sud, a Messina dove imbarc nuove armi per
4 F. Boyer, Les volontaires franais avec Garibaldi en 1860, in Revue dHistoire moderne et contemporaine, aprile-giugno 1860, pp. 126-127. A. Colocci, Paul de Flotte, Bocca, Torino 1912. C. Pecorini Manzoni, Storia 15ma Turr nella campagna del 1860 in Sicilia e Napoli, Gazzetta dItalia, Firenze 1876, pp. XI, 135, 290.

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trasportarle in Campania. Lincontro con il generale nizzardo avvenne poche settimane dopo e in questoccasione i due, salutandosi, si abbracciano e Dumas cos scrisse:
Ah! Te voil, scriait-t-il en me voyant. Dieu merci, tu trs fait assez attendre! Ctait la premire fois que le gnral me tutoyait. Je me jetai dans ses bras en pleurant de joie (Boyer 1960)

Sulla scia di Dumas, si mossero anche altri illustri scrittori come Victor Hugo, George Sand, Edgar Quinet etc. I francesi provenivano da molti strati sociali: politici, intellettuali, nobili, popolani, professionisti, contadini, ex soldati e operai di diverse zone: Parigi, Provenza, Bretagna, Corsica, Nizza e Savoia. Per quanto riguarda gli inglesi, limpresa dei Mille ebbe vasta risonanza presso lopinione pubblica e lafflusso di volontari fu immediato e alquanto cospicuo5. La legione inglese infatti era costituita da 456 unit di cui 24 ufficiali al comando maggiore Carlo S. Smeld. Anche il brigadiere Giovanni Dunne si imbarc per la Sicilia e arruol nel suo reggimento - con lappoggio del tenente colonnello Percy Wyndhan e dei connazionali Patterson e Dowling, molti siciliani che costituirono una nuova unit. John Whitehead Peard e Hugh Forbes, chiamati the Garibaldis english men, vennero inquadrati nella II compagnia Pavia costituita quasi esclusivamente da studenti che avevano in dotazione revolver rifles6, nuova arma inviata dallinglese Colt ai garibaldini. I due, distintisi entrambi in battaglia, si divisero a Milazzo dove Hugh, con enorme rammarico di Garibaldi, lasci la formazione accettando la carica di governatore della citt mentre il collega, alla guida di 1000 volontari britannici, segu il generale fino alla battaglia del Volturno. Altro importante contributo fu quello delle testate giornalistiche come lIndependent di Jersey e il London Trades Council che promossero la sottoscrizione per linvio di volontari in Sicilia (Valiani 1960). Tra i garibaldini stranieri inquadrati nella 15ma divisione Trr, (Fornaro 1996) brigata Eber, si ricordano anche gli elvetici Luigi de Niederhausern, maggiore, Carlo d'Almen, capitano (Camp 1881) e il prussiano Wihlelm Rstow, colonnello e successivamente capo di Stato Maggiore della stessa divisione. Notevole, dunque, fu la presenza di volontari provenienti dallEuropa occidentale ma ancora pi massiccio fu lafflusso di uomini dalle propaggini centro-orientali del continente. Oltre ai polacchi, ai quali ho gi accennato in precedenza, furono gli ungheresi i pi numerosi. Primo fra tutti, il generale Stefano Trr, a capo della 15ma divisione e molti magiari nella divisione Medici. Dopo la presa di Palermo, venne costituita una legione ungherese che raggiunse il numero di 440 unit a cui si aggiunsero gli ussari magiari gi in servizio nellesercito borbonico. Tra loro si ricordano i comandanti: F. Eber, K. Eberhardt e F. Pulszky,

AA. VV., Scritti e discorsi politici e militari, Vol. I, Cappelli, Bologna, 1934, pp. 274-275,337, Risposta di Garibaldi a un indirizzo giuntogli da Sheffield, Palermo, 13 luglio 1860; analog. al Comitato di Glasgow, Caprera, 30 novembre 1860. 6 Archivio del Risorgimento, Roma, Busta 45, fasc.27. Traduzione dellepoca del Rapporto del Colonnello Forbes intorno agli affari della legione inglese venuti sotto la sua immediata attenzione, inviato a Napoli al Comitato di Londra il 28 novembre 1860.
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i comandanti di brigata Gustavo Frigyesy e Szakmary, i tenenti colonnelli R. Magyordy che si distinse al Volturno e F. Figylmesy, M. Kiss, A. Teleki e infine L. Winkler, comandante del 4 reggimento, brigata Sacchi, della 15ma divisione Trr (Trr 1928). Da non dimenticare anche Lajos Tkry che partecip alla battaglia di Palermo come comandante dellavanguardia che super per prima le linee nemiche. Proprio durante lo scontro del 27 maggio venne ferito a una gamba che si infett e, nonostante venisse amputata, lo port alla morte. In suo onore Garibaldi ribattezz lex corvetta a ruote partenopea Monarca, proprio Tkry (Colombo 1932).
Nellinsieme, una partecipazione massiccia, questa degli ungheresi che dallItalia guardano come meta allUngheria, ben consapevoli di poter contare sulle parole dette da Garibaldi il 16 ottobre 1860: Ad essi non solo dobbiamo gratitudine, ma nostro dovere aiutare la loro causa e farla nostraLa libert dItalia strettamente legata allindipendenza e alla libert dUngheria (Kastner 1960).

Anche i boemi parteciparono intensamente allattivit rivoluzionarie. A seguito della loro attivit molti furono costretti a diventare esuli: Josef Vclav Fri, Eduard Rffer, Jindich Podlipsk, Karel Vma di Letohrad, Rudolf Gasparovsk di Pardubice, Jan Mache, Jan Steinbachk. I greci, testimoni di un antico legame con la penisola italiana - per i molti volontari italiani che avevano parte allinsurrezione greca del 1821 - accorsero numerosi agli ordini di Garibaldi: primo fra tutti Santorre di Santarosa e altri ancora, Stamatis Tipaldos, Dionisos Mavropulos e Sotirou Zisis. Elias Stecoulis salp con i Mille da Quarto e segu Zambianchi nella diversione sulla costa maremmana, partecip allo scontro di Grotte di Castro contro i soldati pontifici dove venne catturato e in seguito rilasciato insieme ad altri connazionali (Kerofilas 1919). Quanto ai bulgari, si distinsero Vasil Levski, Georgi Sava Rakovski, lo scrittore e poeta Ljuben Karavelov, Marko Balabanov, Hristo Botev. Per tutti il binomio Mazzini-Garibaldi entra a far parte del patrimonio comune dellintellighenzia rivoluzionaria bulgara. Il primo garibaldino bulgaro fu Dmitar Pehlivanov, pittore, giunto a Roma per perfezionare gli studi e in seguito arruolatosi nelle fila dei volontari garibaldini alla difesa della Repubblica Romana con il compatriota Georgi Kapev; Gjuro Naev fece invece parte dei Cacciatori delle Alpi e nel 1866 torn in Italia con gli amici Neno Marinov e Ivan Hagidimitrov, detto garibaldito (Petkanov 1966). Un importante volontario romeno-bulgaro fu Stefan Dunjov, che si batt insieme alla legione ungherese e venne ferito nel 1860 durante la battaglia del Volturno per la quale, tra laltro, venne insignito di medaglia dargento al valor militare 7 . Anche i volontari russi accorsero numerosi alla chiamata di Garibaldi. I figli di un non ben identificato Bernov scapparono di casa per raggiungere il generale a Roma. Lo scrittore G. Korolenko racconta di un garibaldino ucraino, un certo Massimo, originario della Volinia, arruolatosi tra i volontari per il suo odio

La grave ferita comport lamputazione di una gamba per la quale il Governo italiano corrispose una pensione di guerra.

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nei confronti dellAustria e tornato in Russia, dopo molti anni, come invalido garibaldino; non manc una donna russa, originaria di Mosca, moglie di un garibaldino. Altra famosa figura storica fu quella della contessa Nesselrode, pi nota con lo pseudonimo principessa Drousckoy, che arruol i garibaldini e a Firenze si prodig per la propaganda rivolta ad attrarre nuovi giovani. Uno dei pi noti fu Lev Ili Menikov di Pietroburgo, che pass da Milano a Venezia ma non riusc a raggiungere in tempo Quarto per riunirsi ai Mille. Entr comunque a far parte della formazione comandata dal colonnello Giuseppe Nicotera, sbarc a Napoli il 7 settembre 1860 contestualmente allarrivo di Garibaldi dal sud. Non giunse invece in tempo lanziano colonnello Ditmar che arriv dopo la conclusione della campagna garibaldina (Venturi 1960). Complessivamente, il numero di volontari stranieri fu rilevante, ammont a circa 2500 combattenti che, insieme agli italiani, coadiuvarono Garibaldi soprattutto nellimpresa meridionale. Il garibaldino divenne lesempio da emulare per tutti i popoli e Garibaldi leroe internazionale in grado di dare aiuto, con le sue milizie, ai risorgimenti dellest. Dopo le delusioni del 1849, lUnit italiana fu vista dalle popolazioni dellEuropa centro-orientali come il primo grande successo di una rivoluzione. Nellimmaginario comune la camicia rossa (Motta 2011) divenne la divisa che univa uomini di varia origine, di diversa estrazione nazionale uniti a Garibaldi per un ideale comune, quello della libert e dellindipendenza nazionale. Cesare Balbo in Speranze dItalia (1844) - inseguendo unidea che sembrava utopistica nel ritenere che lUnificazione italiana infiammasse tutti i popoli da riscattare - fu forse il primo a mettere in relazione il Risorgimento italiano con larea centro-orientale europea (Becherelli 2011). Nel 1861, dopo circa un ventennio, lidea divenne plausibile e concreta agli occhi delle diplomazie europee. La questione italiana si era ormai legata indissolubilmente a quella delle nazionalit e contribuiva a favorire le spinte nazionali degli altri risorgimenti forzando gli schemi di unEuropa che doveva cambiare. La partecipazione corale di ungheresi, polacchi, russi, albanesi, greci, romeni, dalmati, istriani, francesi e inglesi, mostra che il Risorgimento non fu solo un fenomeno italiano, ma si espanse e coinvolse tutti gli europei che si riconobbero in un progetto comune di libert e democrazia in sintonia con unidea condivisa di identit europea (Biagini & Carteny 2010). Bibliografia
M. Cace, (1861), I patrioti dalmati e lunit dItalia, in Il Messaggero Veneto, 16 marzo 1861; C. Pellion di Persano, (1869), Diario privato-politico-militare nella campagna navale 1860 e 1861, Civelli, Firenze. C. Pecorini Manzoni, (1876), Storia 15ma Trr nella campagna del 1860 in Sicilia e Napoli, Gazzetta dItalia, Firenze. M. du Camp, 1881), Expdition des Deux Siciles, Calmann Levy, Parigi 1881; A. Colocci, Paul de Flotte, Bocca, Torino 1912; S. Groppa, Glitalo-albanesi nelle lotte dellindipendenza, Lella e Casini, Bari 1912; C. Kerofilas, La Grecia e litalia nel Risorgimento italiano, Libreria della Voce, Firenze 1919; S. Trr, Lopera di Stefano Trr nel Risorgimento italiano, Tipografia Fascista, Firenze 1928; A. Lewak, Corrispondenza polacca di G. Garibaldi, Cracovia, 1932; P. Sticotti, La Regione Giulia nelle guerre per lindipendenza, Societ editrice mutilati e combattenti, Trieste 1932;

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A. Colombo, Il generale de Milbitz nel Risorgimento italiano, in Atti del Congresso storico internazionale di Varsavia, 1933; AA. VV., Scritti e discorsi politici e militari, Vol. I; Cappelli, Bologna, 1934; E. Sestan, Venezia Giulia. Lineamenti di Storia etnica e culturale, Edizioni Italiane, Roma 1947; L. Salvatorelli, La politica estera, in LItalia dal 1861 al 1870, Atti del X Convegno Storico Toscano, Cortona, 2528 aprile 1957, in Rassegna storia toscana, anno III, fasc. III-IV, luglio-dicembre 1957; A. Tamborra, Cavour e i Balcani, Ilte, Torino, 1958; F. Boyer, Les Garibaldiens dAlexandre Dumas: roman ou choses vue, in Studi Francesi, n.10, Torino, 1960; F. Boyer, Les volontaires franais avec Garibaldi en 1860, in Revue dHistoire moderne et contemporaine, aprilegiugno 1960; K. Kastner, Kossut-emigrci olaszorszgban, (Lemigrazione di Kossuth in Italia), Budapest 1960; L. Valiani in Atti del XIII Convegno Storico Toscano. Porto Santo Stefano 29 maggio-1giugno 1960, pubbl. in Rassegna Storica Toscana, fasc. IV, 1960; F. Venturi, Limmagine di Garibaldi In Russia allepoca della liberazione dei servi, in Rassegna storia toscana, ottobre-dicembre 1960; G. Falzone, Lettere di Garibaldi a Elia Stekuli, in Il Risorgimento, Milano 1965; I. Petkanov, Riflessi del Riflessi del Risorgimento in Bulgaria, in Rassegna Storica del Risorgimento, 1966; F. Boyer, Un garibaldien franais: le gnral Bordone in Rassegna Storica del Risorgimento, 1971; G. Guerzoni, Garibaldi, Firenze 1982; A. Tamborra, Garibaldi e lEuropa. Impegno militare e prospettive politiche, Fusa, Roma 1983; P. Fornaro, Risorgimento italiano e questione ungherese (1849-1847), Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli, 1996; P. J. Proudhon, Contro lUnit dItalia, Miraggi, Torino, (2010), a cura di A. Biagini, A. Carteny; G. Motta, Baroni in camicia rossa, Firenze , Passigli 2011; S. Pacukaj (2011) Il risorgimento italiano e gli arberesh in Ripensare il Risorgimento a cura di G. Motta, Nuova Cultura, Roma. G. Motta (a cura di), Ripensare il Risorgimento, Nuova Cultura, Roma, 2011.

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Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Students Achievement: Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities
Babalola J. Ogunkola PhD
School of Education, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados Email: drbeejay@hotmail.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p97

Abstract The concerns of this article are the unacceptable status of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Education in the Caribbean and how to improve the students achievement in the subjects involved through the instrumentality of better preparation of teachers by the Colleges and University faculties training teachers in the region. The index for measuring development among nations of the world is the level of scientific and technological advancement because the factors that influence development are based on human ability to explore, invest and utilize the natural endowments available in the nation. In other words, no nation can attain any reasonable level of development without meeting the vital demands of development particularly in the areas of science, technology and mathematics. Therefore, the article begins with the presentation of the importance and the status of STM education using the mirror of science students achievement at global level. Moreover, it is established that the Caribbean education also has some challenges to deal with in the areas of science, technology and mathematics education. The tertiary institutions, particularly the colleges training teachers and the universities are then challenged with suggestions of what they can or should do in teacher preparation that may have direct impact on improving the science students achievement in the Caribbean Keywords: Achievement; Caribbean; Education; Science, Environment

1. Introduction One of the most important goals of education is for it to be functional and utilitarian preparing the individual for life in the community and reforming the society for relevance, adequacy and competitiveness in the world. Education is known to hold the key to the economic, political, sociological and human resources development and well-being of any society. Obviously, Science and Technology are an integral part of a modern society whether or not all groups of the society perceive or understand it as that. It is not surprising, therefore that under the United Nations Human Rights Charter, access to basic education continues to be a well argued and well deserved human right and increasingly Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) have become an essential part of this basic education. This is against the background that STM education can enable people provide those essential requirements that make life comfortable and worth living. According to Oriafo (2002), the bottom line of STM education is to put man on the highways towards accomplishing some of these basic tasks that keep the society healthy, productive and progressive. Moreover, in the development of nations, STM education plays a vital role. Ukeje (1997) observed that without STM education, there is no modern technology and without modern technology,

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there is no modern society. Therefore, if any nation must develop, the study of science, technology and mathematics should be given adequate attention at the various levels of her education. Today, factors that influence development are based on human ability to explore, invest and utilize the natural endowments available in the nation. In other words, no nation can attain any reasonable level of development without the vital demands of development particularly in the areas of science, technology and mathematics. Presently, in the developed world, according to Godek (2004), science and technology are growing very quickly because they know that scientific and technological development requires the development of science education. While industrialized countries are giving emphasis to science education, some non-industrialized countries are not able to succeed because of their deficiencies in many aspects of science education. That science and technology impact greatly on the society is no longer debatable. For example, STM exerts positively on many aspects of human life such as agriculture, health and medicine, law, transportation, communication, comfort, entertainment and welfare, automation, building and construction, to mention a few. Specifically in agriculture, in many nations of the world, scientific and technological efforts have resulted in increased food production, mechanization of operations and emergence of disease-resistant and high quality plant and animal species. Also, mans scientific and technological know-how has brought great improvements in medicine, nutrition and overall health-care delivery. Medical sciences, according to Aniodoh (2001), have reduced death rate of human beings through the discovery of the cure for various diseases such as malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, poliomyelitis, whooping cough and various sexually transmitted diseases. Moreover, through the knowledge of science and technology, man has been able to evolve safer and faster means of transportation such as motor, rail and air transportation systems which have fostered interactions within international communities. In the area of communications, the entire world has been turned into a global village through the emergence of new postal services, radio, television, telephone, internet and other electronic devices which have made communication easier, faster and more efficient. In spite of these positive impacts of STM on the society, it is not encouraging to observe that the present status of STM education is some how worrisome because of the low science achievement of the students that are supposed to be future scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians. Internationally, the trend suggests that students achievement in science is generally low. For example, the results of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 1995, 1999 and 2003 indicated that between 1999 and 2003, there were significant increase in students achievement in science in only nine (9) out of the twenty-nine (29) countries that participated (See Table 1). Even in America, policy makers and analysts are said (Lips and McNeill, 2009) to be concerned about American students low achievement in STM fields, the percentage of American college students earning degrees in STM fields and the population of the workforce prepared for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics profession. Table 1: Differences in Average Science Scale Scores of Eight-Grade Students, by country: 1995, 1999 and 2003
Country Singapore Chinese Taipei Korea, Republic of Hong Kong SAR2,3 Japan 1995 580 546 510 554 1999 568 569 549 530 550 2003 578 571 558 556 552 Difference1 (20031995) (2003-1999) -3 10 2 13 10 46 27 -2 3

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Hungary 537 552 543 6 -10 (Netherlands)2 541 545 536 -6 -9 (United States) 513 515 527 15 12 (Australia)4 514 527 13 Sweden 553 524 -28 (Slovenia)4 514 520 7 New Zealand 511 510 520 9 10 (Lithuania)5 464 488 519 56 31 Slovak Republic 532 535 517 -15 -18 Belgium Flemish 533 535 516 -17 -19 Russian Federation 523 529 514 -9 -16 (Latvia-LSS)6 476 503 513 11 37 (Scotland)2 501 512 10 Malaysia 492 510 18 Norway 514 494 -21 Italy7 493 491 -2 (Israel)7 468 488 20 (Bulgaria) 545 518 479 -66 -39 Jordan 450 475 25 Moldova, Republic of 459 472 13 (Romania) 471 472 470 -1 -2 Iran, Islamic Republic of 463 448 453 5 -9 (Macedonia, Republic of) 458 449 -9 Cyprus 452 460 441 -11 -19 Indonesia5 435 420 -15 Chile 420 413 -8 Tunisia 430 404 -26 Philippines 345 377 32 South Africa8 243 244 1 -Not available Not applicable P < .05, denotes a significant increase P < .05, denotes a significant decrease 1 Difference calculated by subtracting 1995 or 1999 from 2003 estimate using unrounded numbers

Note: Countries are sorted by 2003 average scores Source: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (2004).

It is against the backdrop of low level of achievement in science, technology and mathematics globally and in the Caribbean in particular that the need for this study is established. In other words it has become crucial, therefore, to investigate, based on existing literature, what the causes of low achievement in science, technology and mathematics are, what the challenges are and ultimately how to ameliorate the problems through teacher preparation in colleges and universities. 2. Causes of low achievement in science Oriaifo (2002) and Iheonumekwu (2006) documented reasons for students low achievement in the sciences in many nations as:

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(a) (b)

(c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

Great plans, wonderful policies but excessive haste, unsatisfactory implementation leading to defective outcomes. Curriculum of STM was geared in content and procedures towards acquisition of certificates and diplomas. Consequently the STM education becomes extremely examination conscious, rendering the entire education system highly academic and theoretical and far removed from the local environment and local needs. Stereotyped and ineffective methodology of teaching the STM subjects. Teaching and learning resources are grossly inadequate for communicating STM education in schools. Lack of incentives to STM teachers is a very serious barrier to effective science teaching and learning. Inadequate teacher preparation and the problem of relating science teaching to the sociocultural environment of learners are barriers to effective communication of science. Failure to turn the abstract nature of science to hands-on activities in the classrooms and field environment. Low supply of science teachers to schools e.g. the ratio of teacher to students could be as high as 1:80 or even more in many nations of the world.

Also, Ogunniyi (1996) documented causes of low achievement in the sciences especially in Africa as presented on Table 2 below. Table 2: Causes of Low Science Achievement
Government-Related Causes *Poor policies and/or action plans *Poor funding *Poor institutional set-up *Quality of political leadership *Mismanagement of funds of STM *Poor or lack of mechanism for the training, retraining and upgrading of STM teachers. Society-Related Causes *Social class differences *Tribal conflicts and nepotism *Anti-intellectual values and practices *Level of STM literacy *Job opportunities for STM *Status of STM teacher in the community Teacher-Related Causes *Poor preparation of STM teachers *Low morale of STM teachers *Poor salaries & allowances *Lack of adequate knowledge of STM*Lack of critical skills*Overloaded classroom/laboratory *Lack of opportunities for selfimprovement. *Frequent transfers of STMteachers*Inadequacy in the quantity and quality of STM teachers at various levels *STM teachers professional qualification and experience Family-Related Causes School-Related Causes *Poor physical environment *Poor equipped laboratories/workshops *Poor quality of teaching *Over crowded classroom *Leadership & level of discipline *Lack of career counselors *Inadequate instructional materials viz: texts, teachers guide, A/V materials *Poor library facilities *Peer influence Student-Related Causes

Nature of Subject Matter

Examination Related Causes

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*Over congested curriculum *Language of STM textbooks *Abstract nature of STM concept, symbols and generalizations *Conflicting learning theories about STM *Nature of STM world-view e.g. mechanism

*Overloaded examination syllabuses*Emphasis on the cognitive domain*Unfavourable mode of setting question schemes*Mechanical marking schemes*Mismatch between students cognitive level and examination questions

*Family relationship *Nature of cognitive pool *Availability of financial resources*Unavailability of STM related materials *Value placed on formal education*Level of parentseducation*Preferences for certain careers other than STM*The language of STM

*Poor attitude towards STM*Physical and health factors *Difficulty encountered in learning STM symbols *Consistently poor performance in STM *Weakness in computational ability *Level of motivation *Truancy*Difficulty with learning

Source: Ogunniyi (1996)

Contributing to what the causes of low student achievement in STM are, Shaikh (2000) submitted that the perception of STM as an irrelevant and often elite, Eurocentric, laboratory-based subject area demanding higher levels of intelligence and skills, puts many learner groups off from taking the subject or pursuing it further. These include girls and often the less privileged within the learning groups. Also, Soyibo (1986) identified the causes of students persistent failure or underachievement in STM as being due to the abstract nature of science, quality and quantity of science teachers, teachers attitude to science teaching and teaching style, inadequacy and lack of science textbooks. Furthermore, Okebukola (1995) added that inappropriate funding, poor teacher training/welfare, shortage of instructional materials, diminishing regard for the value of education, social decadence and political instability, among others are barriers to good quality STM education. On the other hand, Jegede and Okebukola (1998) named authoritarianism, goal structure, the African worldview, social expectations and sacredness of science as socio-cultural factors militating against drift towards science and technology in secondary schools. Other factors as given by other authors (Olarewaju, 1991; Busari, 1991; Ogunkola, 2005; Ogunkola and Olatoye, 2008) include language of instruction, lack of interest in science on the part of the students and quantitative nature of some science subjects. Interestingly, Oriafo (2000) presented a model for identifying factors influencing quality of STM education in Nigeria, which is applicable in any part of the world. He stressed some major aspects of STM education as critical to high quality and as such very crucial determining factors of the level of its success (Fig. 1)

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Fig. 1: A Model of Factors Influencing Quality of STM Education

Source: Oriafo (2000)


3. Challenges of STM Education in the Caribbean The nature of the Caribbean region is such that it is highly heterogeneous and is characterized by a mosaic of cultures, creeds, races, and religions- a diversity which makes any analysis of the region a very complex enterprise. Therefore what is presented here is the general perspective, rather than an exhaustive analysis of the Islands. However, the issue of low achievement in science, technology and mathematics is a general problem in the Caribbean. This assertion is supported by Sweeny (2003: 8) who stated that Of particular concern is the relatively low extent of science education, as suggested by the number of students who successfully pass secondary level science examinations. He further states that a cursory review of Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) results in biology, chemistry, physics and integrated science for the past ten years indicates that pass rates have, for the most part, fallen below 50% in these science subjects. In his writing titled A panorama of Science Education in the Latin America and the Caribbean, Macedo (2000:11) pointed out that although science and technology education acquires great importance at the middle school level in the region, there are certain major obstacles such as: Developing student-adapted and relevant curricula based on life-long science for citizenship. Developing curricula that transcend the discipline oriented logic which has resulted in overloaded study programmes full of conceptual contents. Transfer to lower levels of higher level curricular matter due to simplification processes starting at the higher and descending to lower levels. Lack of global vision on the part of teachers of what is taught, generally leading to the teaching of concepts, skills and aptitudes in an isolated manner deprived of their meaning and purpose. Excessive discipline-oriented vision even at secondary school level which accounts for a fractionated and compactmentalised presentation of scientific knowledge. Each discipline being taught by a separate teacher has led to limited coordination and in many cases

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prevented the students from having a global view of the physical and natural phenomena that they study. Difficulty to include technology education in general secondary education and scant relationship between science education and technology education at this level. Lack of region-specific educational resource materials related to the needs and concerns of students and the educational community which makes links between school science and daily life difficult. All these, according to Macedo (2000) led to a science education that is not accessible to all and attractive for only a few pupils. The majority of the students finds it boring and difficult and so loses interest. He further reiterates that the feeling of uselessness that pupils feel in science classes, the feeling of failure experienced by science teachers due to lack of interest /motivation of pupils added to the conviction that science literacy is a necessity for every citizen has pushed teachers, directors and educational authorities of the region to look for new curricular propositions for science education. Cehelsky (2003) of the InterAmerican Development Bank stated that although education in the region (Latin America and the Caribbean) has been undergoing not just growth , but reform as well, moving toward improved quality and greater equity, curricular reform, and also the recognition of the importance of training in science and technology and teacher preparation has emerged as a priority and innovative approaches include incorporation of information technology and distance education, the needs and deficits in the region remain large. He explains that as UNESCOs World Science Report indicates, the region lags in terms of the development of science and does not provide a solid foundation in primary and secondary schools; few countries in the region achieve universal net enrolment at the primary level. With the regional average at 75%, the level of failures and dropouts is high and of those proceeding to the secondary school, only 50% complete their schooling and in rural areas the percentage drops to 10. Cehelsky (2003) also stated that in the region, teachers are poorly trained and compensated; schools lack the resources for quality equipment- and even basic facilities. Some countries, according to him, have experienced a decrease in enrolment in science and engineering, reflecting the quality of science and mathematics education at primary and secondary levels. Unfortunately, few Latin America and the Caribbean countries have participated in international testing through TIMSS or PISA and those that have, place at the bottom of the rankings (Cehelsky, 2003). Against the backdrop of the challenges provided so far, the science, technology and mathematics workers produced enter the labour force ill prepared for the global economy. 4. Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities There is a growing international consensus that good teachers are key to the delivery of high quality education and to the reform of education to meeting the new demands of society. The National Commission on Teaching and the Americas Future, cited by Miller (2009: 6) in a paper titled Teacher Developments in the Caribbean, put forward a three pronged argument with respect to the central role of teachers to good education: What teachers know and can do is one of the most important influences on what students learn. Recruiting, preparing and retaining good teachers are the central strategies for improving schools. School reform can not succeed unless it focuses on creating conditions in which teachers can teach and teach well.

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Evidence from literature (e.g. Ferguson and Ladd, 1996, Ogunkola, 2008) also suggests that teachers abilities, teachers knowledge of subject matter and teaching methods and teaching experience along with small class sizes and the positive influences of small schools, are critical elements in successful student learning. However, Cehelsky (2003), pointed out that given the importance of human capacity building for competitiveness and quality of life, the deficits in science, technology and mathematics in the region are particularly worrisome because teachers are largely unprepared to teach their subject matter and access to quality content, to information technology and to innovative approaches, including inquiry based education is limited. This therefore calls for a deliberate effort on the part of the tertiary institutions in the region to rise up to the challenge of raising the standard and quality of science, technology and mathematics teachers. It is expected that this effort will in turn transform the STM education in the Caribbean. At this juncture, it may be necessary to state that sociologically, teachers in the Caribbean are not a unitary category. Using the social criteria of ethnicity, gender, social class and occupational prestige, Miller (2009) identified five teaching occupations within the region: University teaching that is comprised predominantly of males of the middle and upper classes and among whom the minority ethnic groups are over-represented. University teaching enjoys the highest prestige among the teaching occupations. High school and college teaching which is comprised of a minority of females and significant minority of males of middle class backgrounds and recent recruits to the middle strata from the lower strata through educational achievement. Private preparatory and kindergarten school teaching which is predominantly comprised of females of the same ethnic and social background as the clientele that patronize their schools. Public primary school teaching, which is comprised predominantly of females of lower social strata and of the same ethnic groups as the mass of the student population, served by the schools in which they teach. Community based pre-school teaching comprised almost totally of poorly qualified females of the lower social strata. The present composition of the different teaching occupations in social terms, Miller warns, must not be regarded as either a static representation of history or a terminus in the social evolution of Caribbean society or of the teaching occupations. Rather, the social composition of the teaching occupations is reflective of both historical patterns as well as transformation in Caribbean social structure which are continuing. Having presented the above categories of teaching occupations in the Caribbean today, the following imperatives are suggested for colleges and universities training teachers in order to raise the quality of teachers and ultimately improve students achievement in science, technology and mathematics.

(a)

Evolve a unique model of STM teacher education

Miller (2009: 10) highlighted the salient features of Caribbean education with implications for teacher development as follows: Caribbean education has been part of Western education for over 350 years and readily adopts and adapts major developments in leading Western school systems. Both within and between countries, it is possible to find a wide array of educational reforms being implemented simultaneously.

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Because most reforms are adoptions from the West, there is not a strong indigenous capacity to initiate original approaches derived from the first principles applied to Caribbean imperatives. Moreover, innovations and developments in pre-service teacher training in the 1990s are also listed but summarized thus: Upgrading the academic and professional standing of the pre-service programmes. Colleges training teachers were upgraded to offer pre-service training through degree programmes. Changing pedagogical practices in the training of teachers. Expanding the modalities used in the delivery of teacher training to include distance education and school based approaches. Using information technology to modernize instruction and management in colleges training teachers. It is good to know that in America and England, various institutions that produce teachers have evolved their unique model of teacher education. See the example of the University of Columbia Model for Teacher Training (Table 2). Table 2: University of Columbia Teacher Training Model
PHASE 1 2 FOCUS/TYPE Experience the school Small group and tutorial teaching by master teachers in a candidates subject area of specialization. The student has a teaching subject and takes courses in them like those majoring in them. Skill in the use of the inquiry teaching strategy. Each class group experiments teaching under varying conditions but each of which emphasized inquiry approach. Each candidate teaches five or more times using inquiry. Curriculum practicum. Gaining practical experience in curriculum development and usin a curriculum to teach peers. Simulation of a school and develop an educational programme for the school. Internship PURPOSE OF TRAINING A 4 - 8 week apprenticeship to a public school to acquire some practical school experience; No teaching involved. To expose students to 10 20 weeks of experimenting with teaching strategies under laboratory condition To drill students in the use of the inquiry instructional approach. Episodes of each inquiry teaching are played back, analysed and refined by the group. To provide students with opportunities for an observation participation experience in curriculum processes and in a variety of ways of teaching. To give inquiry groups/course mates the opportunity to carry out activities designed to ensure that the school is well run. To provide a unique opportunity for graduating students to function as trained teachers already in service with co-curricular activities. Salary and other remunerations are paid. Candidates go in teams and use inquiry strategy for teaching

3.

4.

5. 6

Source: Eze (1996)

Such model is particularly useful during processes of education stocktaking, curriculum planning, and

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curriculum development. In the Caribbean, it is now very important for tertiary institutions training teachers to evolve teacher education model that is unique, adequate and relevant to the needs, goals and aspirations of the Caribbean community.

(b) Integrate technology into STM teacher preparation programmes


If technology is to be integrated into the classroom and play a significant role in educational reform, teachers need to be prepared to use emerging technological devices in ways that will facilitate teaching and learning. Granston (2007) in agreement with this suggestion declares that teacher preparation programmes in tertiary institutions need to play a more proactive role in preparing new teachers to teach in technology-rich classrooms, or at the very least, classrooms where teachers and students have access to computers. In other words, the issue of professional development of science teachers has become more necessary than ever because of the introduction of the use of computers and other modern instructional materials in teaching and learning processes in science classrooms, which demand new skills of science teachers in handling modern instructional materials and equipment which are aimed at enhancing quality in science education. This posits a new set of requirements on the teachers. According to Hostmark (2007), in future, teachers will have an even more important role as they increasingly function as learning facilitators, helping students to grasp and select among all information available. The general standard for all teachers therefore has to do with the competency of developing the knowledge and skills in learning technologies to be able to appropriately and responsibly use the tools, resources, processes and systems and to be able to retrieve, assess and evaluate information from various media. The competent science teacher will use that knowledge along with the necessary skills and information to assist learners in solving problems, communicating clearly, making informal decisions and in constructing new knowledge, products or systems in diverse learning environments (Kadijevich, 2002). However, in his meta-analysis of the factors that are instrumental to promoting the use of computer aided learning, Griffin (1998) found that teacher attitudes towards computer is an important factor related to the teachers role towards the effective use of computers in education. It is then instructive to advise tertiary institutions in the Caribbean to make provisions for training of their students how to select the materials for teaching based on relevance, adequacy, comprehensiveness etc, and how to handle the equipment in the classrooms or laboratories as the case may be. And this has to be done in a way that will attract the interest of the prospective teachers. By doing this, they are disposed to using the computer and other materials enthusiastically resulting in better understanding and application of concepts on the part of students and ultimately leading to high science achievement.

(c)

Introduce research oriented activities into STM teacher training programmes

STM teachers ought to be well grounded in research oriented activities in both classroom and laboratory settings. Student-teachers should be exposed to frequent and continuous drills in the use of Inquiry method of teaching and learning. They should also be developed to become action researchers through which they can discover needs of learners and be able to offer relevant solutions.

(d) Ensure thorough academic preparation


The Universities and Colleges training teachers must equip the pre-service teachers with adequate academic competence and understanding of the relevance of STM education they require and transmit. If the teacher is to be regarded as professional, he/she must acquire adequate knowledge of the subject

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he teaches. This is crucial because today, an average Caribbean science, technology and mathematics teacher is below the minimum in the knowledge required for his or her discipline. Most of the older teachers do not make efforts to update their knowledge and competence and most of the younger teachers are ill prepared.

(e)

Organize short time programmes for practising STM teachers.

Many practising STM teachers were not exposed to computer-aided learning during their time in school, neither were they taught this during their training in colleges or universities and yet they must teach students using various gargets or devices. Therefore they need help from the tertiary institutions to put them abreast of the situation. In this way it is imperative for these institutions to rise up to the challenge. 5. Conclusion It is no longer debatable that the world in which we live today is a discovery and knowledge-driven one. Obviously, over the last half century, science and technology have come to occupy a central place as sources of economic growth and social well-being. Discoveries through scientific activities have led to dramatic increases in agricultural productivity, the establishment of new industries with new materials and processes, a revolution in communication and information technology, and improvements in health and quality of life. Therefore, the status of STM education particularly the science achievement of students in schools in the Caribbean should be raised to an acceptable level if the region must achieve the goal of using the STM education as an instrument par excellence for national development. It is in the light of the above that it is recommended in this chapter that the colleges and universities in the Caribbean take the lead in ensuring that students achievement in science, technology and mathematics at various levels of education improves. This can be done by developing a unique model for teacher training which can be used in monitoring and evaluating teacher preparation at every stage. The tertiary institutions should also ensure ways of integrating technology into STM teacher preparation. The truth is that many teachers that are expected to teach science students using computers and other devices can not handle the gargets, neither do they understand the operations of such devices. For the existing teachers who were not exposed to Information and Communication Technology in their days and yet are expected to use ICT to teach, should be exposed to short time courses, workshops and seminars along this line. The value of academic competency of teachers, especially in STM can not be overemphasized. The colleges training teachers should ensure that the teachers they are producing are not only masters of the subject matter of the subjects they are to teach, but must also be sound in pedagogy. Action research at classroom level by teachers should, henceforth be encouraged by the colleges training teachers during preparation of student teachers. References
Aniodoh, H.C. (2001). Modern Aspects of Integrated Science Education. Enugu, Hacofam Educational Books. 177 195. Cehelsky, M. (2003). Building Human Capacity for Economic Growth. Paper Presented: Segunda Conferentia International: La Ciencia En La Educacion Basica. Fundacion Mexico-Estados Unidos para la Ciencia, 11 de Mayo de 2003. Eze, T. (1996). Analysis and Criticisms of Models of Teacher Education: Implications for Vocational and Technical Teacher Education. In P.N. Lassa; C.,M. Anikweze; and A.A. Maiyanga. (Eds). Teacher Education: An Imperative for National Development.

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Godek, Y. (2004). The Development of Science Education in Developing Countries. G.U. KirsehirEgitini FakultesiDergisi, Cilt 5, Sayi 1. 1 - 9 Granston, C.N. (2007). Are Jamaicas Preservice Teachers Prepared to Teach in the 21st Century Classroom?. In M. Peart and H. Morris: EduVision: Enhancing Governance and Leadership in Education and Training Through Technology Innovations. 27 43. Griffin, J. (1998). CAL Innovation as Viwed by Purchasers of Computer Software in Secondary Schools. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 4 (1), 34 43. IEA. (2004). Trends in International Mathematics and Sciences (TIMSS) Wasington, USA Department of Education. Iheonumekwu, S. (2006). Innovations and Best Practices in Education. A Paper Presented at the 4th Annual Conference of Faculty of Education, Abia State University, Uturu. Jegede, O.J. and Okebukola, P.A.O. (1998). Some Socio-cultural Factors Militating Against Drift Towards Science and Technology in Schools. Research in Science and Technology Education, 7(2), 141 151. Kadijevick, D.J. (2002). Four Critical Issues of Applyong Educational Technology: Standards to Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics at the Undergraduate Level, University of Crete. Lips, D & Mcneil, B.J. (2009). A New Approach to Improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/education/bg2259.cfm Macedo, B. (2000). A Panorama of Science Education in the Latin America and Caribbean region. Connect Vol. xxv, No. 3- 4, 10 12. Miller, E. (2009). Teacher Development in the Caribbean. Available at: http://people.stfx.ca/ibertsch/ GrenadaReadings/Miller.pdf Ogunkola, B. J. (2005). Science knowledge of Junior Secondary School Graduates: Influence of Gender and Location. Journal of Educational Focus, 6, 53 61. Ogunkola, B. J. (2008). Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Ogun State,Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 3(2), 53 57, Turkey Ogunkola, B. J. and Olatoye, R. A. (2008).Gender Differentials in Science and Mathematics Achievement among Senior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Review of Higher Education and SelfLearning (RHESL) 1(2), 9 13. USA Ogunniyi, M.B. (1996). Two Decades of Science Education in Africa. International Science Education 70(2). 111 122. Okebukola, P.A.O. (1995). Barriers to Good Quality Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. STAN Newsletter (2)1. Oriaifo S. O. (2000). Factors Militating Against Effective Science, Technology and Mathematics Education in Nigeria. A Monograph. Shaikh, K. (2000). Science, Technology and Mathematics Education: A Global Perspective. Connect. Vol. xxv, No. 3 4, 1 3. Soyibo, L.O. (1986). Causes of Students Underachievement in Science. 27th Annual Conference Proceedings of STAN. 95 99. Sweeny, A.E. (2003). Science Education in the Caribbean: Analysis of Trends. In T. Bastick and A. Ezenne (Eds.): Researching Change in Caribbean Education. Jamaica, Department of Educational Studies, University of the West Indies, Kingston. Ukeje, B.O. (1997). The Challenges of Mathematics in Nigerias Economic Goals of Vision 2010: Implications for Secondary School Mathematics. Paper Presented at the 34th Annual National Conference of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN)

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Differential Effects of Analogy Types on Retrievability and Inferential Induction in Text Comprehension
Stephen Ntim, PhD; M.Phil; B.Ed; M. A
Faculty of Education, Catholic University of Ghana P.O. BOX 363, Fiapre-Sunyani, B/A Ghana, W/Africa Email: stephenntim58@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p109

Abstract In the experiments presented in this study, the researcher examined the possibility and found evidence suggesting the different uses of analogy in structuring, reminding and understanding novel information. Specifically, when given series of written passages that either shared structural similarity, literal similarity, surface attributes or first order relations, individuals were likely to make interpretations that paralleled structural information from a previously read analogous scenario. In contrast with the great majority of existing research, as well as with some common conceptions about analogy use, this interpreting was done in the absence of direct didactical intervention other than text comprehension. Strikingly participants were able to draw inferences. Findings from the experiments seem to suggest that surface attribute and literal similarity were quite influential in remindings and access whereas structural similarity appeared to be more sensitive to inference-drawing. The data were taking as supporting the evidence that a) different types of similarity affect analogies differently; b) that inference-drawing and elaboration can take place automatically in text comprehension. Key Words: Analogy; surface similarity; literal similarity; recall; inference, text comprehension

1. Introduction Reasoning by analogy is a fundamental component in human cognition. Analogy provides a tool for thought and explanation. Its role has been critical in scientific discoveries and creative thinking. It is precisely because of this that its fundamental role in reasoning has been the focus of attention in cognitive psychology. It is through analogy that many classic scientific discoveries were made. A well known example is that of Archimedes in the 3rd century B.C. When asked to determine whether a base metal had been substituted for gold in an intricately designed crown, although the weight per volume of pure gold was known, the crown was so ornate that its volume was impossible to measure. He was unable to solve this solution until he went home and stepped into his bath: he saw an analogy between the volume of water displaced by his body as he got into his bath, and the volume of water that would be displaced by the crown. The problem was solved. Another classic example of analogy in science is Keplers analogy between religion and the relationship between the motion of the planets and their distance from the sun. It was concerned primarily with three problems, namely, the number, size and motion of the planets and the analogy between the stationary objects, namely, the sun, the fixed stars, and the space between them, with God the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. The analogy mapped out as follows: The sun in the middle of the moving stars, himself at rest and yet the source of motion carries the image of God the Father and the Creator. He distributes his motive force through a medium which contains moving bodies, even as

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the Father creates through the Holy Ghost. Thus analogy eventually led Keppler to an operational theory of celestial mechanics that resulted in the notion of gravity. Thus analogies are important in learning, problem solving and discovery. The paradox however is that developmental psychology, for example, has not given central role to analogy. Goswani (1992) has offered the explanation that this neglect was partly historical: namely, the over-emphasis on Piagetian theory which asserts that reasoning by analogy was a late-developing skill around 11-12 years of age. This traditional view was supported by research in psychometrics. Psychometrics research had shown that many children, even at 11-12 years of age, were unable to complete simple analogies like pig: boar:: dog:? (wolf). When given these analogies, younger children typically produced responses, like pig:boar :: dog : cat (Goswani,1992, p. 4). Much of human experience however is essentially analogical. Analogy entails mapping the problem representation (target) into a structurally similar schema (base), which has been learnt through experience. Two sources of difficulty are foreseen in analogical reasoning: mapping problems to inappropriate schemas, and processing loads imposed by mapping; the more complex the mapping, the greater the load. Gentner, (1983) for example, defines analogies as mapping from a base to a target. In the simple proportional analogy, human is to baby as horse is to foal is the target. Elements in the base are mapped into the target. In this case, all mappings are bi-directional, unless indicated otherwise, so it does not matter whether they are described from base to target or the reverse. In the thinking of Halford (1992) when human is mapped into horse and baby into foal, the relation of parent of in the base there corresponds to the same relation in the target. In other words, the corresponding relation in the base and the target need not be identical (Halford, 1992, p. 194). For example, not all attributes of base and target elements are mapped such as the human attribute walks on two legs is not mapped to horse. The implication here is that relations are mapped selectively. It is these relations that enter into coherent structure that are more likely to be mapped. In the thinking of Gentner (1983) this is referred to as the principle of systematicity. Thus according to this view, the important thing in analogy is to establish that the base and the target are in structural correspondence. Thus, the one most important issue that underscores all the research work on the different models of analogy, whether, it is from the point of view of pragmatic reasoning (Holyoak), componential reasoning (Sternberg) or the structural model (Gentner) is the important role of similarity. Analogical inference (and transfer for that matter) can take place to the effect that the subject can see salient features or similarity between the base or ones knowledge and the target or the transferred task. 2. Statement of Problem Research findings corroborate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between analogy types and retrievability and inference-making. Ross (1989) in a study of transfer in problem solving measured not only the proportion of correct solution, but also the proportion of remindings, as measured by whether subject wrote out a prior formula. This allows a contrast to be made between solution rate (a measure which presumably includes mapping, adaptation, evaluation and drawing of inferences and reminding rate) which was relatively strongly affected by surface similarity. Novick (1988) gave both novice and expert mathematicians problems to solve that included both surface similarity distractors and remote analogies, followed by later target problem. Initially both novices and experts retrieved surface similarities, but experts were quicker to reject initially incorrect retrievals, suggesting stronger effects of domain knowledge in mapping and evaluation than in retrieval. Gick and Holyoak (1983, 1987) demonstrated that a literally similar prior story was retrieved more often than on mapping and use. It is

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within this context of subjects attending more to surface similarity rather than structural that has made other scholars in cognitive psychology and education deny that transfer is spontaneous.
Transfer is rare, and the likelihood of its occurrence is related to the similarity between two situations (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993, p. 15).

and
There is no good evidence that people produce significant amounts of transfer or that they can be taught to do so. There is on the other hand, substantial evidence and an emerging Zeitgeist that favours the idea that what people learn are specific examples... I subscribe to the principle that you should teach people exactly what you want them to learn in a situation as close as possible to the one in which the learning will be applied. I dont count on transfer and I dont try to promote it (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993, pp. 17).

Notwithstanding the above claim, other research as mentioned above do claim that there is not only transfer, but that there are indeed different types of analogies that exert differential effects on retrievability and inference-making (Gentner, Ratterman & Forbus 1993). Thus, if these studies that make such claims are anything to go by, then one can reasonably imply that some types of analogies can enhance spontaneous transfer especially in the area of making inferences in text comprehension. As these and countless other examples demonstrate, analogy provides a useful tool for reasoning about poorly understood situations, solving difficult problems, and making plausible inferences about unknown properties, behaviors, and characteristics (Gentner & Markman, 1997; Holyoak & Thagard, 1995; Hummel & Holyoak, 1997). This research examines more closely the roles of similarity in transfer; specifically how the different types of analogies (surface similarity) and structural analogy (structural similarity) affects retrieval access and inference-making with reference to text comprehension. However, most research works on analogy with the exception of few have arrived at evidence with some form of instructional intervention and training from a previously read scenario in problem solving. In this study however, while assessing the differential effects of analogy types on retrievability and inferential induction in text comprehension, it also seeks to investigate whether or not there is spontaneous evidence of inferential transfer in text comprehension without didactic intervention. In short, whereas many researchers arrive at conclusion through an exposure of experimental groups to didactic intervention, this study seeks evidence non-intentionally (Day & Gentner, 2007). 3. Research Questions In the light of this defined problem, this research attempted to respond to three fundamental questions: 1)How is accuracy of recall of text dependent on the degree of surface similarities? (surface match)?; 2)Do people fail to infer structurally appropriate analogies in text comprehension? 3)Why is transfer likely to occur to the extent in which base and target share surface similarity? 4. Hypothesis The fundamental hypothesis of this research is this: a) Individuals are more likely to recall passages that shared surface similarity more than those with structural similarities;

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b) With respect to inference-making, individuals, who made use of structural similarities, are more likely to make better inferences. c) Analogical transfer is likely to occur to the extent in which base and target share surface similarity? Thus, the ability to transfer from a prior (base) knowledge to a target knowledge for fluent text comprehension is a function of two types of analogy each of which has differential impact in text comprehension: These two types of analogies are: a) remote analogy and b) within-analogy. Each has different cognitive function. Whereas remote analogy is crucial to inference-making and text elaboration, within-analogy aids access to retrieving surface contextual features. Each of the two types of analogy is differentially crucial for retrievability and inference. 5- Method of testing the hypothesis This hypothesis was tested experimentally by exposing Second Year Education students in the Catholic University of Ghana to written passages in a text in which some of the passages were superficially very similar, while others were on the surface very dissimilar and yet shared structural similarity. Other facts in some of the passages were left unstated or ambiguous. Subjects: 30 Second Year Education students in Psychology Class, Catholic University of Ghana.

5.1 Design and Materials


Similarity types were varied within the subjects. In all, subjects read a total of 24 short stories in groups of three that is each group of 10 students read 8 stories. The first and the last stories were filler stories in addition to the main 6 stories in each group. Measurement was on the dimension of students recall along the following scales: ratings of their recall, proportion of recall rated above criterion, and proportion of recall of significant key word in each story. The stories were short ones of about two or three paragraphs. Each of the main 18 stories contained the following: an original story, three matching cue stories which differed in amount and level of similarity that they share with the original. All cues shared identical or nearly identical first order relations (e.g. events and actions) with the original story. They differed in other level of shared similarity. There were three sets of cues: a) analogy cues, b) surface similarity match cues, and c) first order match cues. Analogy cues consisted of common higher order relational structure added to the first order relational matches; surface similarity match cues (SS) object matches were added to the first order relations matches. The higher order relational structure (which had to do with causal relations or plot structure differed; first order match (FOR) cues consisted only of the first order relation match. Each subject received only one matching cue story for each of the 18 main stories. All subject received the same memory set with differences only in the type of story used in the cue set. Comparability was ensured by making the cue stories as similar as possible. The use of identical words was avoided in order to ensure avoidance of lexical meanings in cueing. Reminding task: subjects were tested in groups of three consisting of 10 students in each group in two separate sessions. In session one, students read a booklet containing the 18 original stories plus the 6 filler stories. All subjects read the same 24 stories in different semi-random orders with the order to read the stories carefully so that they would be able to remember them carefully. They took 35 minutes for this task. The second session took place later the same day without any didactic intervention. Students received booklet that contained the 18 stories they read earlier. Each workbook consisted of six surface similarity cues (SS), six analogy (AN) cues and six first order rules (FOR) cues. They were told that for each cue they were to write any original story for which they reminded. If they were reminded of

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more than one, they should write the one that best matched the current story: they were asked to include as many details as possible that they could remember. Inference-drawing task: After completing the reminding task, students were asked to draw inference in the second session. The task was this: they were given the same stories as in the first session and were asked to rate six surface similarity (SM), six analogy(AN) and six first order rule (FOR) matches in the same order as in the reminding task. They were asked to rate each pair for the inference of the match explaining inference as the situation in which the essential aspect of the stories match for one to draw conclusions about the second story from the first. Scoring: was done using 0-5 mean scale as follows: 5= All important elements of the original and many details; 4= all important elements of the original and some details; 3= all important elements of the original but very few or no details; 2= some important elements of the original; others missing or wrong; 1= some elements from the original but not enough to be certain that the subjects genuinely recalled the original; 0= no recall or different story. In the third research question, subjects were the same as in questions 1 and 2 with the same materials except that only AN matches and two kinds of surface matches were used. Each subject was given seven analogy matches (AN) and seven superficial matches. For half of the subjects the superficial matches shared only object descriptions and not first order event nor causal structure. The other half received SS matches of the same kind used in the previous experiments which shared first order relations as well as objects. Each subject in addition received six LS matches (the same six across all subjects. Procedure was also the same as in questions 1 and 2 except that this time round the keyword scoring was dropped. First session: subjects read twenty original stories and 12 filler stories. Second session: Later they were given 20 matching stories in the reminding task. 6. Clarification of terms and acronyms As used in this study, the term literal similarity means that both relational predicates and object attributes share some similarities; whereas surface similarity is mere appearance matches in which only object-attributes and low order relations are shared. Analogy is used in this study to mean structural similarity as opposed to surface similarity or literal similarity. The same term is also used synonymously as across-domain analogy or remote analogy which appears to be sensitive inference-making and elaboration in text comprehension in contradistinction to within-domain analogy which is also used synonymously as surface similarity. Thus within-domain analogy or surface similarity seems to be compatible with recall. The acronyms used in the experiments are: AN= Analogy; SS= Surface similarity; LS= Literal similarity; FOR= First order rules 7. Theoretical framework Similarity is universally acknowledged to be central in transfer. Research suggests that its role is complex. People solve problems better if they have solved prior similar problems. This applies to both children and adults. One of the most enduring findings in the field is that transfer promotes reminding. The most fundamental ideal required to understand transfer is that two tasks may differ and yet share some common components. This shared components provide the basis for inter task transfer. This notion of common components also sometimes referred to as the theory of identical elements was first articulated by Thorndike in 1903. It is called salient features or overlapping rules in cognitive literature. Theorists explain that the continuous notion of similarity can be reduced to a function of discreet components: two situations are similar in so far as they share many common components. To a first

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approximation, more common components will constitute greater similarity and therefore lead to greater transfer (Gick & Holyoak, 1987, p. 16). To be able to predict the overall magnitude of transfer and its direction (positive or negative), a more refined analysis of similarity is required. These distinctive aspects of transfer can be related to the impact of different types of similarity on the retrieval verses application of previously acquired knowledge. Specifically, what Gick and Holyoak are proposing here is that perceived similarity is a function of any salient similarity of two situations. This perceived similarity will in turn affect retrieval of the representation of the training situation during transfer task: the greater the perceived similarity of the two situations, the more likely it is that transfer will be attempted. If transfer in fact is attempted, the direction of the transfer will be determined by the similarity of the two situations with respect to features causally relevant to the goal or required response in the transfer task. It is crucial to understand the distinctions between the pragmatic approach to analogy in problem solving and that of the structural approach. The former is talking about features causally relevant to the goal that will constrain the perceived similarity whereas the latter is emphasising the principle of systematicity. Components of a situation that are causally or functionally related in outcomes or goal attainment is referred to by Holyoak et al. (1987) as structural and those not so related will be termed surface (Holyoak, 1985). These authors argue within the context of problem solving analogies that salient common components of either a surface or a structural nature will increase the likelihood that a problem solver will relate the two situations to each other. In other words, salient surface or structural components will affect perceived similarity. Conditional on transfer being attempted at all, shared structural components will tend to yield positive transfer, as the solution of the initial problem is transferred in an appropriate way to the transfer task. The claim that analogy involves a mapping of information is a general assumption that is shared by most theories of analogy. The only difference however is that the factors that influence the mapping differ across theories. One of the most influential theories of how people use analogous solutions is the structure-mapping theory proposed by Gentner in 1983. The theory was primarily developed to account for mapping knowledge from a base domain onto a target domain that consisted of different objects, such as comparing an atom to a solar system. Because the objects differed, Gentner argued that it is the relations among the objects rather than the attributes of the objects that determined the mapping. Thus, cognitive processing of analogies has been a fertile and productive area for research over the last two decades. There is substantial consensus on the fundamental processes involved (Gentner, 2003; Gentner, Holyoak, & Kokinov, 2001; Gentner & Markman, 1997; Holyoak & Thagard, 1989; Hummel & Holyoak, 1997; Kokinov & French, 2003). A key characteristic of analogical theories is the emphasis on structured representations that specify the relations between elements. For example, in structuremapping theory (Forbus, Gentner, & Law, 1995; Gentner, 1983, 2003; Gentner & Markman, 1997), the comparison processes act to achieve a maxima structurally consistent alignment between two representations. Structural consistency entails that the correspondences between the elements and relations in two representations must satisfy one-to-one correspondence (an element in one representation may be mapped to at most one element in another) and parallel connectivity (if two predicates correspond, their arguments must also correspond). Once a structural alignment has been established, candidate inferences are projected. These are additional elements that are connected to the common system in the base (or source) structure but are not yet present in the target (Clement & Gentner, 1991; Markman, 1997). Importantly, in structure-mapping, such inferences arise automatically via a structural pattern completion process (Day & Gentner, 2007). Gentner, Ratterman and Forbus (1993) in a similar study examined the roles of similarity and how different types of analogies or similarities affect retrieval access and what they call inferential soundness. They attempted to isolate and compare the determinants of similarity-based access to

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memory and the determinants of the subjective soundness and similarity match. Based on structuremapping theory, they predicted that subjective soundness would depend on the degree of shared relational structure, particularly high-order structure such as causal bindings. In contrast, they also predicted that memory retrieval would be highly sensitive to surface similarities such as common object attributes. To assess retrievability, they expose subjects to read a large set of stories and were later given a set of probe stories that resembled the original stories in systematically different ways, for example, purely relational analogies, surface-similarity matches or literal similarity matches. Research since the mid 80s confirms the venerable tradition that similarity increases the probability of transfer (Anderson, Farrell & Sauer, 1984; Holyoak & Koh, 1987; Novick 1988; Pirroli, 1985; Reed 1987; Ross, 1987; 1989; Simon & Hayes, 1976). At the same time research findings indicate that the roles of similarity in transfer are complex: 1) First, that accuracy of transfer depends critically on the degree of structural match, that match causal structures (Schumacher & Gentner, 1988a, b; Holyoake & Koh, 1987) 2) Second, people do not often succeed in accessing structurally appropriate materials, even when they are in the long term memory. (Gick & Hoyoak,1980, 1983); 3) Third, similarity-based reminding is often based on superficial commonalties and /or instead of structural commonalities (Gentner, Ratterman & Forbus, 1993: 526). Such findings suggest that there is more than one type of analogy and therefore there is the possibility of other types of analogies that seem to influence cognitive processes in transferring knowledge from a base towards a target, as for example, in comprehending a text. Genter et al (1993) distinguish between three types of analogy: literal similarity, analogy and surface similarity (mere appearances). In literal similarity both relational predicates and object attributes are shared. In analogy (also called structural similarity) high order, structural relations are mapped and inferences are drawn. In surface similarity or (mere appearance matches), only object-attributes and low order relation are shared. There is a general consensus that in similarity-based transfer there are certain core cognitive processes that are involved: 1) accessing a potential analogy, 2) matching the base analogue with the target, 3) mapping further inferences from the base to the target, 5) evaluating the soundness of the analogy and 6) extracting the common structure for later use (J. Clement, 1986; Gentner, 1988a. It is on account of this that similarity based transfer is considered to involve four to six sub-processes:

accessing, matching, evaluating, drawing inferences (with some adaptation of the analogy) and abstracting from the analogy (Genter, Ratterman & Forbus, 1993: 527).

This brings us to the core claims of this paper: the suggestion that different kinds of similarity use different cognitive sub-processes. In so doing, they exert different effects on accessing and abstracting or drawing of inferences. Specifically this paper makes the submission that individuals are more likely to access and remember surface features in a text comprehension more than they would in respect of texts that may be structurally similar but have different surface features and context. Similarly even though accessing structurally similar text may be initially difficult, yet when they succeed in doing so it is more consolidated. 8. Results and Discussion

Research Question 1: How is accuracy of recall of text dependent on the degree of surface similarities?
In this question, even though our interest was first and foremost to assess the degree of surface similarity in retrieving information from text, we also evaluated the link between inference-drawing and surface similarity.

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On Inference-drawing: As predicted, students were able to make more inferences with respect to those stories that shared higher-order relational structures (the analogy matches) than those pairs of stories that did not (the FOR matches and surface matches). Comparing the three variables in terms of mean scores, Analogy matches received 4 point mean rating; surface similarity 2.8 and first order rule 2.6 rating. These findings were interpreted to mean that the three types of similarity matches have differential effects on inference. Analogy especially across-domain analogy is critical when it comes to higher level abstraction when one has to map higher orders from a base knowledge to target knowledge. This finding contradicts that of Holyoak (1983, 1987) that spontaneous transfer in problem solving without some form of instructional manipulation is very rare. Indeed in an unpublished doctoral dissertation of this author in 1998, the findings corresponded and corroborated with that of Holyoak (ibid). Out of a total of 240 Senior High School students that took part in the experiment to solve the radiation problem and other isomorphic problems only about 30% were able to solve the problem fully. However, when later exposed to didactical intervention on how to use analogy in problem solving, many of the students (57%) were able to solve similar problems after the instructional event. This notwithstanding, this same finding which contradicts that of Holyoak (ibid) also corroborates other study, such as Day and Gentner (2007) study of non-intentional text comprehension. How do we explain this apparent inconsistency? The inconsistency seems to suggest that analogical mapping though often viewed as an explicit deliberative process can sometimes operate without intent or even awareness: and this is especially so in text comprehension. For example, when given a text such as: the robbers crossed the river and robbed the bank. Most readers can readily make the relevant mapping in this context, that the bank being referred to here is not the bank of a river, (even though river is mentioned) but where money is saved because of the context of the subject robbers. Thus the inference made of the bank (in which money is kept and not that of a river) in this instance is made on the basis of sound inference by an analogy that is not based on surface similarity per se. Thus if this finding in this first experiment is anything to go by, it does seem to suggest some plausible answer to our first research question: How is accuracy of recall of text dependent on the degree of surface similarity? The answer that this finding seems to suggest is this: even though analogy matches were not well recalled compared to surface matches, they were nonetheless rated as inferential. Reminding
The scores on this dimension (measured on a score of 2 or better) show a different pattern: on all three measures, Analogy (AN):0.5; surface similarity (SS) 0.8 and first order reminding (FOR) 0.3. On all three measures on reminding, the AN matches were less effective than the SS. Thus, whereas surface similarity was more effective in recall, analogy and first analogy order matches received fewer score. What the result seems suggest is that surface similarity is quite crucial in recall as opposed to making sound inferences. They produced greater proportion of remindings followed by AN and then by FOR matches supporting surface similarly superiority in retrieval. This shows a remarkable difference in the case of inference. In the case of inference-drawing as predicted by structure-mapping theory, common higher-order relational structure is a crucial determinant of the subjective goodness of an analogy. Subjects rated AN matches as more sound than FOR matches whilst rating SS matches as no better than FOR matches. Thus, the result suggest that inference-drawing is not determined by the number of common features but seem to suggest that common higher-order relational structure is more crucial. Even though analogy matches were not well recalled, they were rated as inferential. The opposite was true for surface matches. This corroborates with the findings of Gentner et al (1993), Day and Gentner (2007), Reed (1987), Novick (1988).

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Research Question 2: Do people fail to infer structurally appropriate analogies in text comprehension?
The purpose of this second research question among others was to ensure that the subjective inference that were made by subjects in research question one (1) was not the result of extraneous factors such as cueing (that is students being biased by the experimenter to look out for higher order inferences ) as they read the texts in the first experiment. One of the main criticisms against the evidence for transfer is that subjects are subtly manipulated either through direct instruction or other form of cuing. Hence, this second question was to cross check gauging and biasing students. It was to test why subjects often fail to access structurally appropriate analogies as compared to surface similarity analogies without any direct hint. They were given the materials in the first experiment and were asked to make inference. Students were measured along the following dimensions: Inference: They were given the instruction: humans have intuitions about resemblances that seem weak or irrelevant. In this second question of the experiment, use your intuitions about when two situations match well enough to make a strong argument... Sound match: one in which essential aspects of the stories match: that is strong enough that one can infer or predict things about the second story from the first. Similarity: subjects read stories and rated them on 1-5 point rating scale with 5= extremely similar and 1=extremely dissimilar. Reminding: the procedure was as in Research Question 1. Inference: As predicted, in terms of mean rating, subjects scored a mean point of 5.4 on literal similarity that had common attributes and 5 point score on analogy with no common attributes on the YES, while there were low score for surface similarity of 2.3 on common attributes and 2.0 on first order relations with no common attributes on the NO for 67% the participating students. On literal similarity, there was a score of 5.2, AN= 4.8, SS= 3. 4 and FOR = 2.8 students. Similarity: Here the two groups of students ratings appeared to have shown some level of sensitivity to two types of commonalities: relational and object-attribute (see figure below). Literal similarity matches had score of (M= 4.60) over AN matches of (M= 4.10), of AN matches of over SS (M=3.45), and of SS matches over FOR matches (M=2.93). The comparison between similarity and inference (soundness) is quite revealing: similarity like inference is sensitive to the presence of higher order relational structure.

a)

Mean soundness (inference rating) for four similarity types in Research Question 2

INFERENCE LS= (M=5.4) AN=(M= 5) SS= (M=2.3) FOR= (M=2.0)

b)

Mean similarity ratings for four similarity types in Research Question 2

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LS= (M=4.60) AN=(M= 4.10) SS= (M=3.45) FOR= (M=2.93)

c) Mean Reminding ratings for four similarity types in ResearchQuestion 2


LS= (M= .52) AN=(M= .8) SS= (M=.49) FOR= (M=.05)

Reminding: this pattern was different from that of inference and similarity. Object commonalities strongly contributed to memory access and higher order relational had little effect. The scores were as follows: LS (M=.52) and SS (M=.49) matches than AN (M=.8) and FOR (M=.05). Thus the answer to the second research question of this study: Do people fail to infer structurally appropriate analogies in text comprehension? The findings here seem to suggest that in text comprehension, people infer structurally appropriate analogies through the differential effects of different types of similarities, such as literal similarity matches which often are greater than analogy matches, just as the latter is greater than surface similarity and surface similarity takes precedence over first order relations. All these types of similarities may be sensitive to both relational and object-attribute commonalities. The plausible answer to this second research question seems to be this: No, in text comprehension, people may infer structural analogy through a hierarchy of cognitive sub-processes of the different analogy types. In terms of reminding, higher order relations had negligible effect as compared to object commonalities which had a strong influence on memory access. Research Question 3: Why is transfer likely to occur to the extent in which base and target share surface similarity? Inference (soundness): Consistent with prediction, the rate of inference reflected the degree of relational
overlap. The AN matches (M=3.80) were rated as significantly more sound than the SS matches (M= 2.28). The soundness advantage of analogy over superficial similarity was greater for objects-only matches than for SS matches.

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Similarity: AN matches (M=4.04) were rated as more similar than SS matches (M= 3.24) and OO matches (M= 2.33) (within-group t (10) =6.53 and t(10)=2.99 respectively. SS matches were rated more similar than OO matches t(18)= 3.52. Also for soundness, the difference between AN and OO matches was greater than the difference between AN and SS matches t(20)= 2.81 Reminding: Again in this experiment as in the previous one, the pattern of the reminding differs from that of inference (soundness) and similarity. Both SS matches (M=.50) and OO matches (M=.14) were better retrieved than AN matches (M=.05) within-subject t (20) =6.60 and t (20)=2.76. SS matches were better retrieved than OO matches t(50)=4.58. The anchoring LS were highly retrievable as expected (M=.60). The pattern of the quality of recall was similar. The mean quality of recall was significantly higher for SS matches (M= 1.42) than for OO matches (M=.44), t (20). Quality of recall was higher for both SS matches and OO matches than for AN matches (M=.19), t(20). As expected, LS matches received higher rating (M=1.76). The difference between the AN and the SS matches was greater than the difference between the AN and OO matches (t (20) =4.61).
9. Constraints on these Effects The results of the findings indicate that analogical processes are capable of influencing text comprehension without cueing subjects. However, it must be pointed out that these findings are based on a relatively small set of experimental materials that were designed to test for such effects. Much research work remains to be done to isolate the scope of these kinds of processes. In fact, the present findings are quite surprising (as mentioned earlier on), when one takes cognizance of the fact that quite a number of studies have shown little or no spontaneous transfer from single instances (Gick& Holyoak, 1980, 1983; Holyoak & Koh, 1987; Keane,1988; Ross, 1987, 1989). Additionally, many studies have shown that comparison of two or more instances can produce impressive transfer when isolated instances cannot (Catrambone & Holyoak, 1989; Gentner, Loewenstein, & Thompson, 2003; Gick & Holyoak, 1983). This appears to indicate that this kind of effect may often require abstracted schemas rather than concrete instance representations. We can look to differences between the experiments presented in this study and previous research for clues about possible constraints on our effects. One potentially critical factor is the degree and kind of similarity between the base and target passages. Previous research such as (Gentner& Landers, 1985; Gentner et al., 1993; Holyoak & Koh, 1987), have established the importance of surface similarity in explicit analogical reminding giving indication of a dissociation between the kind of similarity that supports alignment and inferencing (i.e., structural similarity) and the kind that supports memory access to prior instances (i.e., surface similaritysimilar characters, objects, and settings). In the present study, the story pairs were high in both structural and surface similarity. Thus, it could be the case that spontaneous inferencing requires a high degree of surface similarity. However, there is some evidence (Catrambone, 2002; Gentner et al., 1993; Wharton, Holyoak, & Lange, 1996) that purely structural similarity also contributes to analogical reminding. This raises the question that possibly spontaneous transfer might occur even without surface similarity. These findings are therefore not absolute. One significant way in which the present study differs from past research is in the kind of inferences involved (Day & Genter, 2007). 10. Conclusion This study began with the fundamental claim that analogy is central to human cognition. Our hypothesis was that there are different types of analogies that influence the processes of transfer,

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inference drawing and memory access. This implies that the account of the effect of analogies requires making fine distinctions in analogies in transfer and text comprehension. This study specifically found that there is dissociation between the matches that people get from memory and those matches they want. Memory accessibility was found to be strongly influenced by surface commonalities but weakly influenced by structural commonalties. The contrast was that inferencedrawing was strongly influenced by structural commonalties and not in any way influenced by surface commonalities. The implication of this finding is that in text comprehension, readers are more likely to access surface commonalities most of the time, yet in making inference and text elaboration, it is more likely that readers would attend to higher order relations and not surface similarities non -intentionally without realising that they are doing so. Inference-making: The findings of this study suggest the structure-mapping theory prediction which posits that subjective soundness of a similarity match is determined by the degree of relational structure overlap. The three experiments of the study bear this out. First when common relations are added as in the first experiment, it increases the perceived soundness of a match. In every case where a precise comparison is possible the probability of inference-making is increased with the relational commonalities. For example, in both cases of research Question 1 and 2, when higher relations were added, analogies were judged more sound than first order matches. Similarly in research question 2, literal similarity matches were judged more sound than surface matches. In research question 3, surface matches were judged more sound than objects only matches. The second finding is this: adding higher-order commonalities to a first-order relational match increases inference-drawing (soundness) more than adding object commonalties. The three experiments bear out that the inference of analogical matches is substantially higher than that of surface matches. The third evidence that this study seems to underscores is also this: the addition of objectattribute commonalities fails to increase (inference-making) soundness. There is compatibility of these findings with other study such as Gentner et al (1993), Gentner and Clement (1988). Resonance Models of Activation: Our results seem to be compatible with those studies that have examined the role of general memory processes in the generation of inferences and maintenance of coherence in text, largely focusing on resonance models of memory activation (e.g., Gillund & Shiffrin, 1984; Hintzman, 1986; Ratcliff, 1978; Day & Gentner, 2007). Resonance models make the claim that there is selective parallel activation from the long term memory. This selective activation is contingent upon common overlap with concurrent working memory. According to Day and Gentner (2007), these approaches have been successfully used in the explanation of anaphor resolution and reactivation of distant, but relevant, information from earlier in a text (cf. OBrien, 1995). Based on such data, it does not seem unreasonable to hypothesize that these kinds of processes could play a role in the effects found in the present experiments. The high degree of similarity between the source and target passages could have allowed resonance-type activation of the base passage as a whole, or even have supported more localized element-to-element mappings in the course of reading (Day & Gentner, 2007: 46). Similarity-based Access: The results for access were the opposite of the results for inferencemaking. Subjects had the tendency not to retrieve the matches they considered most sound. Rather they were more likely to access surface matches. There are three lines of evidence in this respect: a) combining object attributes to a match increased the proportion of retrieved. In the first two experiments, recall of surface matches was greater than recall for FOR matches. In the second experiment, recall of literal similarity matches was greater than recall of analogical matches; b) adding common object attributes contributes more to retrievalilibty than adding common higher-order reactions. In all three experiments recall of surface similarity was far greater than recall of analogical matches. The proportions of surface matches retrieved across three experiments were substantially higher than retrieval rate for analogies.

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Similarity: Accessibility and subjective soundness (inference-making) are both aspects of similarity. Adding subjective similarity resembled soundness in respects of its sensitivity to common structural relations. Adding relational information increased subjective similarity. Literal similarity matches were considered more similar than surface matches (Research Question 2); analogical matches were considered more similar than FOR-matches (Research Question t 2) and surface matches were considered object-only matches (Research Question 3). Another line of evidence is the comparative addition argument. Comparing the effect of higher-order commonalties verses adding object commonalties we find the following: analogies are rated as more similar than surface matches in both experiment 2 and 3. However, unlike soundness, similarity is increased by adding object commonalities and for this literal similarity matches are considered more similar than analogy matches; whilst surface matches are also considered more similar than For matches (Research Question) So it looks like both surface similarity contribute to subjective similarity. Thus as per the findings of this study, one can conclude with some level of plausibility that there are different types of analogies (similarity) that have differential effects on both access and inferential soundness. Whereas across-domain or far transfer analogy affects inference and elaboration, literal similarity or within-domain analogy has influence on retrievability. References
Anderson, J.R., Farrell, R. & Sauers, R.(1984). Learning to programme in LISP. Cognitive Science, 8, 87-129 Catrambone, R. (2002). The effects of surface and structural feature matches on the access of story analogs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 318-334. Catrambone, R., & Holyoak, K. J. (1989). Overcoming contextual limitations on problem-solving transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 15, 1147-1156. Clement, J.(1986). Methods of evaluating the validity of hypothesised analogies. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual conference of of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.223-234), Amherst, MA. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Clement, C. A., & Gentner, D. (1991). Systematicity as a selection constraint in analogical mapping. Cognitive Science, 15, 89-132. Day, S.B. & Gentner, D (2007).Nonintentional analogical inference in text comprehension. Memory & Cognition 35 (1) 39-49 Detterman, D & Sternberg, R.J (1993). (Eds.), Transfer on trail: intelligence, cognition and instruction. NJ: Ablex Forbus, K. D., Gentner, D., & Law, K. (1995). MAC/FAC: A model of similarity-based retrieval. Cognitive Science, 19, 141-205. Gentner, D.(1983). Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155-170 Gentner, D. (2003). Analogical reasoning, psychology of. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 1, pp. 106-112). London:Nature Publishing. Gentner , D., & Clement, C. (1988). Evidence for relational selectivity in the interpretation of analogy and metaphor. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory (Vol.22, pp.307-358). New York: Academic Press Gentner, D., Holyoak, K. J., & Kokinov, B. N. (Eds.) (2001). The analogical mind: Perspectives from cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gentner, D., & Landers, R. (1985). Analogical reminding: A good match is hard to find. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybernetics and Society (pp. 607-613). New York: IEEE Press Gentner, D., Loewenstein, J., & Thompson, L. (2003). Learning and transfer: A general role for analogical encoding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 393-405. Gentner, D., & Markman, A. B. (1997). Structure mapping in analogy and similarity. American Psychologist, 52, 45-56. Gentner, D., Ratterman, M.J.,& Forbus, K.D.(1993). The roles of similarity in transfer: Separating retrievability from inferential soundness. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 254-575

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Gick, M.L., & and Holyoak, K.J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 138. Gick, M.L & Holyoak,K.J. ( 1987). The cognitive basis of knowledge transfer. In S.M. Cormier & J. D Hagman (Eds.). Transfer of learning, contemporary research and applications (pp.9-42) New York: Academic Press. Gillund, G., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1984). A retrieval model for both recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 91, 1-67. Goswami, U. (1992). Analogical reasoning in children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Halford, G.S. (1992). Analogical reasoning and conceptual complexity in cognitive development. Human Development, 35, 193-217. Hintzman, D (1986). Schema abstraction in a multiple-trace memory moel. Psychological Review, 93, 528-551 Hintzman, D (1988). Judgemnets of frequency and recogntiton memeory in a multipe-trace memory model. Psyhcological Review, 95, 528-551 Holyoak, K.J, (1985).The pragmatics of analogical transfer. In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 19,pp 59-87). New York: Academy Press. Holyoak, K. J & Koh., K. (1987). Surface and structural similarity in analogical transfer. Memory & Cognition, 15 332-340. Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1995). Mental leaps: Analogy in creative thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1989). Analogical mapping by constraint satisfaction. Cognitive Science, 13, 295355. Hummel, J. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (1997). Distributed representations of structure: A theory of analogical access and mapping. Psychological Review, 104, 427-466. Keane, M. T. (1988). Analogical problem solving. New York: Wiley. Kokinov, B., & French, R. M. (2003). Computational models of analogy making. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 1, pp. 113-118). London: Nature Publishing. Markman, A. B. (1997). Constraints on analogical inference. Cognitive Science, 21, 373-418. Novick, L. R. (1988). Analogical transfer, problem similarity, and expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 510-520. OBrien, E. J. (1995). Automatic components of discourse comprehension. In R. F. Lorch, Jr. & E. J. OBrien (Eds.), Sources of coherence in reading (pp. 159-176). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Pirroli, P.(1985). Problem solving analogy and skill acquisition in the domain of programming. Unpublished manuscript. Ratcliff, R. (1978). A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review, 85, 59-108. Reed, S.K (1987). A structure-mapping model for word problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13, 629-639 Reeves, L. M. & Weisberg, R.W (1994). The role of content and abstract inofrmation in analogical transfer. Psychologcial Buletin 115 (3), 381-400 Ross, B.H.( 1987). This is like that: the use of earlier problems and the separation of similarity effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition,13, 124-139 Ross, B.H. (1989). Remindings in learning and instruction. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.)., Similarity and analogical reasoning (pp.438-469). New York: Cambridge University Press. Schumacher, R.M & Gentner, D.(1988a). Remembering causal systems: Effects of systematicity and surface similarity in delayed transfer. Proceedings of Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting (pp1271-1275). Anaheim, CA, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society Schumacher, R.M. & Gentner, D.(1988b). Transfer of training as analogical mapping. IFEE transactions on systems. Man, and Cybernetics, 18, 592-600 Simon, H. A & Hayes, J.R 1976). The understanding process: Problem isomorphs. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 165190 Wharton, C. M., Holyoak, K. J., & Lange, T. E. (1996). Remote analogical reminding. Memory & Cognition, 24, 629-643.

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Gender Analysis Using the Empowerment Framework: Implications for Alleviating Womens Poverty in Nigeria
Dr. (Mrs.) Hussainatu Abdullahi
Department Of Economics, Faculty Of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria E-mail: hussayabdul@yahoo.com

Dr. Yahya Zakari Abdullahi


Department Of Economics, Faculty Of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria E-mail: ayzakari@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p123

Abstract Poverty is a global problem of economic development affecting over a billion people worldwide. There has been growing inequality not only between rich and poor countries but also between men and women. Despite their crucial roles to the world economy, women constitute 80% of the worlds poor group (Abdullahi 2001). This brought about serious gender inequality which has become a crucial part of the development process and an important target of socio-economic policy. In Nigeria, there has been a proliferation of polices, programmes and projects that are derived from different macro-level economic and social policy approaches to third world development. So far these models have not guaranteed sustainable development and hence the quest for viable alternatives. This paper therefore, attempts to provide an alternative empowerment framework for poverty alleviation amongst women in Nigeria. Five different frameworks have been identified in the paper and the paper adopts the empowerment framework as the most viable. The paper concludes that if the empowerment framework can be used, it would go a long way in alleviating womens poverty in Nigeria. The paper further recommends that poor women must be allowed to define their own ends and means of development. They should therefore be allowed to participate in project formulation and implementation in order to have optimal results.

1. Introduction Poverty is a global problem of economic development affecting over a billion people world wide. The current trend seems to be a widening inequality not only between the rich and poor countries, but also between men and women and this has posed great challenge for policy makers, especially in the Less Developed Countries (LDCs) particularly Nigeria. Today, in spite of Nigerias rich endowment of human and material resources, about 70% of the population is estimated to live below the poverty line (Federal office of Statistics/World Bank, 1995). Poverty is not only a global phenomenon, but rather it is dominantly a problem of the present capitalist society in which a clear indication reveals a state of imperfection, contradictions and inequalities which every capital society must address (Abubakar, 2002).

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Globally, the issues of gender, class, racial, ethnic and religious inequalities have been heightened by capitalist structures and processes, consequently, disturbing a smooth process of development. The feminization of poverty has become a very visible feature of this sad phenomenon (Glendning and Miller, 1992). Women constitute 80% of the worlds poorest group in spite of their crucial roles in two spheres of life, that is, the reproductive economy (economy of care) and the productive economy (paid economy) (Abdullahi, 2001). Thus, gender inequality has become a crucial part of the development process and an important target of socio-economic policy (Afonja, 1996). Very disheartening enough, there has been little or no consensus about the appropriate policy framework for promoting the general development of women and reducing or closing the gender gap and inequality, due principally to paucity of data and the low level of development theories about this area of social development (Abdullahi, 1996). In the Less Developed Countries generally, and Nigeria in particular, there has been a proliferation of policies, programmes and projects that are derived from different macro-level economic and social policy approaches to Third World Development. So far these models have not guaranteed sustainable development, hence the quest for viable alternatives. The appropriate time to explore new strategies for poverty alleviation among the women folk is now, given the market increase in the level of public awareness and government commitment to gender programmes in the country. What we are searching for in our contemporary world is a clear understanding of development process, its essential dimensions, inputs and result oriented output for the society. It is useful to accept that gender issues are crucial to the development process, consequently, appropriate strategies for reducing or closing the gender gaps and inequality must be defined. To facilitate our understanding of this write up, the paper is divided into four sections including this brief introduction. Section two discusses a review of the five frameworks of Women in Development (WID) adopted in the third World Countries, while section three highlights gender analysis using the empowerment framework for poverty alleviation amongst women in Nigeria. The last part concludes the paper with recommendations. 2. A Review of the Five Frameworks of Women in Development (WID) Adopted in the Third World Countries and Their Limitations Having accepted the importance of gender issue to the development process, the next crucial step to take is a clear definition of the appropriate strategies for reducing or closing gender based gaps and inequality. The question that readily comes to mind, however, is how appropriate are the existing frameworks? How far have we achieved our goals and what new strategies must we embark upon? In most Third World Countries, five different frameworks for Women in Development have been adopted. They include welfare equity, poverty, efficiency, equality and empowerment projects. On the other hand, the corresponding models of development include modernization policies of accelerated growth; basic needs approach, associated with redistribution, the structural adjustment policies which are compensatory in nature and the paradigm of sustainable human development. The attempt of each of this framework is to bridge the perceived gaps which exist in the development process so as to increase womens level of participation and benefits from development. According to Afonja (1996), each of this frameworks redefined women and gender concerns across a broad spectrum of sectors and differs from the other with respect to the way entrenched inequalities are transformed. We now review each of these frameworks briefly. a. The Welfare Approach: This approach has been regarded as the most popular and oldest social policy adopted particularly for women in the third world countries. The approach predates Women in Development and was introduced by the colonial masters as a residual model of social welfare. As a result of their concern for a stable economic environment, and

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b.

c.

d.

exploitation of resources, residual measures were provided for the most vulnerable groups (women) when social welfare was not given credence. The idea of social welfare came into existence only after the breakdown of the normal structure of supply, family and market. Thus, such residual measures were mostly emergency relief packages, especially to assist the low income women in support of their reproductive assignments. The main criticisms leveled against this approach are that: Firstly, it has denied women access to international economic aid and prioritized government support for capital intensive, industrial and agricultural production in the formal sector. Secondly, it perceived women as passive recipients of development aids, thereby classifying them with the disabled and the sick. Thirdly, it placed too much emphasis on the reproductive roles of women rather than their lack of resources as the core problem. Finally, it is generally, not included among the integrative approaches and is believed to have marginalized women from the development process (Afonja, 1996). The Equity Approach: As a result of the limitations posed by the welfare approach, the Equity approach was introduced during the United Nations decade for women with the sole aim of achieving gender equity. While the approach is integrative in nature, it also recognized womens triple roles and placed a lot of emphasis on meeting the strategic gender needs through active state intervention, political and economic autonomy to women and a reduction in gender inequality. This was clearly spelt out during the International Womens Year Conference, where it was declared that the goal of the decade was integration of women into development processes. This essentially meant increase and an improvement of womens participation in the development process. The limitations of this approach include: Firstly, equity has been difficult to achieve because it requires the backing of the political power and pressure on the part o the women themselves. Secondly, equity programmes lack base line information for planning, while the donor agencies are reluctant to change the existing culture values and traditions of the host countries. Thirdly, the equity approach is implicitly calling for the restructuring of power relations in the society, while government and donors explicitly support gender equality at the level of policy; integration only considers raising the number of women in existing policies and programmes. The Anti-Poverty Approach: This approach has to do with the solution to the productive or practical needs of the women. This aim is pursued via small-scale income generation projects. According to this approach, reducing the income gap between men and women was perceived as the most crucial step towards reducing the level of poverty. The main limitation of this approach include: Firstly, while the anti-poverty approach brought about proliferation of small-scale income generation activities among women, they were too small in scale to alleviate poverty. Secondly, such small-scale businesses were concentrated in the rural areas where they were shielded from loans and resources for larger scale businesses. Thirdly, the approach failed to consider those factors that will bring about project viability, easy access to raw materials, guaranteed markets and small scale production capacity. Finally, it created the problem of opportunity cost in respect of management of the business and the burden of domestic work and child care that were ignored. The Efficiency Approach: This approach, which also seeks to provide solutions to the practical gender needs of women was influenced by macro-economic policies designed in response to the debt crisis and has advocated that, integrating women economically will guarantee a more efficient models for development. The main argument of this approach is that, if womens economic participation is enhanced and increased, it would guarantee equity. As a result of this notion, great efforts were geared towards understanding those salient

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constraints militating against womens economic participation and improving them as human resources for efficient and effective production. This approach however, is saddled with the following shortcomings. Firstly, male bias in the definition of the household as performing a unified welfare function obscures the inequalities inherent in the efficiency approach. Secondly, reservations exist as to the fact that womens practical needs are at other costs to them, thus the approach has failed to account for womens strategic needs. e. The Empowerment Approach: The empowerment approach is the most recent and popular approach which attempts to synthesize all the goals of earlier approaches in order to ensure a smooth transformation of the traditional social order, based on participatory doctrines. While this concept has been misunderstood, it is nevertheless less reactionary than the equity approach, and at the same time, it has outlined ways in which practical gender needs can be used to achieve strategic gender requirements. According to this approach, development is perceived to be more than increased access to resources and improved welfare level and as a process by which these benefits are obtained and sustained. The approach places serious emphasis on the participation by the target beneficiaries in the development process, rather than being passive recipients of the results of project outcomes. Thus, this framework has a lot of advantages over the earlier ones. For instance: It encourages capacity acquisition on the part of the women which has a long run effect in improving their general socio-economic status. Secondly, the approach not only recognizes womens reproductive roles, it has improved on the dimensional definition of roles in the welfare mode by recognizing the triple roles of women. Thirdly, it capitalizes on the community management roles of women and through their organizations raises their consciousness to their subordinated conditions (Afshar, and Denise, 1992). Arising from the above, therefore, the question arises as to how this empowerment framework can be used for alleviating womens poverty in Nigeria. It is to that we now. 3. Gender Analysis Using the Empowerment Framework for Alleviating Womens Poverty in Nigeria Generally, poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria have been tailored along the welfare approach. The birth of the Structural Adjustment Programme in Nigeria saw the adoption of the Efficiency Approach which encouraged investments in Womens income generating activities, with emphasis on improving the productive capacities of women. However, due to the shortcomings of these approaches earlier noted above, attempts to integrate women into the development process could not be sustained. Consequently, policy makers were faced with greater challenges following the unfavourable economic environment which exacerbated the poverty situation of women in Nigeria. Thus, very little attention was paid to equity issues especially, under a situation where economic needs appear to be of paramount importance and in the face of very strong patriarchal institutions. While policy makers may be tempted to pursue income generation in order to provide more access to economic resources, this would satisfy just the short-term practical needs, while those intrinsic elements which would satisfy the strategic needs that can be sustained may be left untouched. Thus, in order to overcome this problem or limitation, it is useful to advance a more recent version of the empowerment framework which presents a holistic view of socio-economic development and gender equality. Recent analysis of the empowerment framework saw the synthesization of all the earlier approaches which are represented in different stages of the process of achieving equality. The empowerment framework provides a way of understanding the process of womens advancement. In other words, Womens advancement could be understood in terms of a concern with five levels of

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equity and that empowerment is a necessary ingredient in the process of advancement towards equality, hence reducing the gender gap. These levels of equality are inter-connected and mutually reinforcing. These five levels are discussed, thus: The Welfare Level: This is the level of the material welfare of females, relative to males. Gender gaps at this level could be described in terms of women being mere statistics rather than individuals capable of changing their destiny in life, i.e. they are mere passive recipients of welfare benefits. The gender gap at this level could be measured in terms of the disparity between males and females on indicators of nutritional status, mortality rates, literacy levels, educational qualifications, ownership of property etc. However, any effort to solve this problem must involve women at all levels of decision-making concerning womens welfare. Thus, improved welfare can improve the capacity to act, consequently the basis for empowerment. This brings us to the next level i.e. ACCESS TO RESOURCES which is concerned with the first level of action to improve welfare. ii. The Level of Access to Resources: Relative to men, women have less access to such resources as education, wage employment services and skills training which make productive employment possible. When compared to men, women even have less access to their own labour, i.e. womens labour is largely monopolized by men in the unpaid work of child rearing, domestic and subsistence labour that she does not even have enough time to invest in her own advancement. Gender gaps in access to resources do not arise as a result of accident, but rather due to the discriminatory societal practices. Thus, overcoming gender gaps at this level will mean that women must act together collectively, and with men, to improve their access to resources. This collective action to improve access to resources is the first important element of empowerment. The aim is to overcome the discriminatory practices, resistance by society and achieve equal opportunity irrespective of gender. In this case, there has to be a sense of purpose which should grow out of the process of conscientisation which brings us to the next level. iii. The Level of Conscientisation: The gender gap which exists at this level is not material but rather a belief gap. The gap is between women believing that they cannot take action, that the man as the head of the household and should take all decisions, or that they can make action and that women and men can act together to change things for the better. In other words, it is the gap between women accepting their position as second class citizens or believing that they are equal citizens. iv. \Conscientisation essentially involves the refusal to accept the world as you find it, and instead to resolve to change it. Though this is much easier to say than to achieve in practice, for instance, we were all brought up in a particular world and within the belief system of patriarchal ideology, which we were made to believe that the system of male control within the home is the natural order of life. v. \Womens empowerment means sensitization to such beliefs and the rejection of such believes. It means recognizing the fact that womens subordination is not part of the natural order of things, but rather imposed by the discriminatory system that is socially built, but which can be dismantled. Conscientisation entails that the gender division of labour should not involve economic or political domination of one gender by the other. In this case, there has to be gender awareness which is essential in the empowerment process that provides the basis for mobilization on issues of womens inequality. vi. Mobilization Participation Level: Conscientisation is a level of understanding which justifies collective action. It brings together the intellectual aspects of dissatisfaction, analysis and i.

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action. Mobilization is, thus, the practical aspect of conscientisation. Mobilization involves closing the gender gap in areas like political representation and decision making. The gender gap in public life results in men taking decisions and women being subjected to mens decisions. Womens increased mobilization at the grassroots level will be the basis for increased representation in public life and potential contribution towards increased empowerment. Mobilization for womens empowerment is the mobilization around gender issues. That is mobilization is not an end in itself, but is for the purpose of exerting more over the political system so that womens interests are served. vii. Control Level: At the level of control the present gender gap is the unequal power relations between women and men. For instance, within the household, the husband exercise control over his wifes labour, time and income. The gender gap in control over income results in a gender gap between efforts and reward. The wife makes the effort and the husband reaps the reward. Equality of control means a balance of power between women and men, so that neither is in a position of dominance. This means that women will have power alongside of men to decide their own destiny and that of their society, and to ensure that the interest of men and women are equally served. Womens increased participation in decision-making will lead to further empowerment when such participation is used to achieve increased control over the factors of production, to ensure womens equal access to resources and distribution of benefits. Such control and access to resources will enable improved welfare for themselves and their children. The womens empowerment cycle could be shown as follows:

4. Conclusion and Recommendation From the ongoing, it is clear that women the world over are faced with serious gender gaps. They constitute half of the worlds population, and make important and largely unacknowledged contributions to economic life, and play crucial roles in all spheres of society, yet restrictive practices and constraints have not allowed women to take advantage of their numbers and position in order to improve their conditions of existence and decide their own destiny. A new agenda for women the world over is not only crucial but ripe. It is time women take their destiny into their own hands and believe they can do it, and that they are equal to the men as citizens of the same world. Thus, the framework provided in this write-up could be used to develop sustainable projects for poor women in Nigeria. The framework is flexible and can be applied to any sector of

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development. While it is not possible to elaborate on the details for each development areas, due to space constraints, the five levels can easily be applied at the programme design stage and during project monitoring and evaluation, which forms the paradigm for sustainable human development. For optimal result, project formulation and implementation must be participatory. Poor women must be allowed to define their own ends and means of development. It is high time emphasis is shifted from merely helping women to create wealth to gaining access to equitable development/ this suggestion might appear unattainable, but there seems to be no other option than to manipulate the development process this way to the advantage of all concerned. References
Abdullahi, H. (1996): Analyzing Gender with a view to Closing or Reducing the Gender Gap, a paper presented at a one day seminar on GENDER DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED ISSUES, organized by the British Council Hall Kano/Kaduna in conjunction with Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Abdullahi, H. (2001): Poverty, Women and Economic Development in Nigeria. A proposal for Empowerment and Integration of Womens Economic Roles in the 21st Century, a paper presented at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Administration 2001 Annual Conference, Abdullahi, A. S. (2002): The Role of Economic System of Islam in Fostering a Viable International Economic Order, a Postgraduate Seminar paper presented to the Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Afonja, S. (1996): Integrated Approaches to Women Development, in the proceeding of a one-day Seminar on Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations in Poverty Alleviation Oyo State. Afshar, H. (1989): Gender Roles and the Moral Economy of Kin among Pakistani Women in Yorkshire, New Community, 15 (2): 211 25. Afshar, H. and Dennis, C. (eds.) (1992): Women and Adjustment Policies in the Third World, Macmillan, London. Alcock, P. (1993): Understanding Poverty. The Macmillan Press Ltd., Hound Milk, Basingstocke, Hampshire, RG 212x5 and London Arber, S. (1989): Gender and Class Inequalities in Health. Understanding the Differentials, in J. Fox (eds.) Health Inequalities in European Countries, (Aldershot Gower). Bakker, I. (eds.) (1991): The Strategic Silence Gender and Economic Policy, Zed Books, London. Baron, R. D. and Norris, G. M. (1976): Sexual Divisions and the Dual Labour Market, in D. L. Barker and Allen S. (eds.) Dependence and Exploitation in Work and Marriage, (London Longman). Beechey, V. (1987): Unequal Work, (London Version). Beneria, L. and Feldmann, S. (eds.) (1992): Unequal Burden Economic Crisis, Persistent Poverty and Womens Work, West View Press. Blackden, M. (1993): Paradigm Postponed Gender and Economic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan African, World Bank, Washington DC. Boserup, E. (1986): Womens Role in Economic Development Aldershot Gower). Callender, C. (1988): Gender and Social Policy Womens Redundancy and Unemployment, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales. Caragary, N.; Elson, D. and Grown, C. (eds.) (1995): Gender, Adjustment and Macroeconomics Special Issue of World Development, 23 (11). Elson, D. (eds.) (2nd eds.) (1995): Male Bias in the Development Process, Manchester University Press. Federal Office of Statistics and World Bank Publications Glendining, C. and Miller, J. (eds.) (1992): Women and Poverty in Britain in the 1990s, Harvest/Wheatsheaf. Land, H. (1983): Poverty and Gender: The Distribution of Resources within the Family, in M. Brown (eds.) The Structure of Disadvantage, London Heinemann).

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Impact of External Appearance on Positive Social Perception


Mr.sc. Batjar Halili
University of Prizren psikologuklinik@hotmail.com

Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p131

Abstract By this research, I have aimed to conclude about the rapport which exists between the appearance of students and the impact on this seemingly positive social perception. Many studies conclude that the appearance has significant impact on how people perceive each other. We have selected a sample of 200 students of the University of Prizren and of two university colleges named "Fame" and "Universum" whom have been undergone by this research (research through questionnaires). Results issued by this research are relevant to most of the results obtained by other researches, in which the appearance is particularly important factor in positive social perception. Always according to these results, the appearance of student has a crucial role in how students perceive each other in the context of clothing, physical beauty and the perception of these elements in cahoots with the personality, estimation in faculty, selection at place of work etc..

1. Introduction Firstly, its people appear their self to provide a desired support from others. Because the others often have what we want or what we need, we need to "convince" them to share it with us. A man who wants a job or who is hoping to meet a woman in particular should convey the impression to his interviewer or to the woman that he likes to show that it actually worth. Then, the self-presentation is a strategic way of gaining control of one's life, a way of increasing the trophies and price reductions (Jones & Pittman, 1982; SCHLENKER, 1980). Aristotle thought that "there can be no better presentation for a man that his beauty. The external appearance of an individual have been seen by the physiologist Krechmer as an indicator of what hides inside, indicator of the character of human personality. Krechmer through the external appearance was proving to do the classifications of individuals temperament and their tendencies to mental disorders. Our images for your self - our concepts for themselves are partly influenced by what we think others see us. Halo Effect: This effect consists in the phenomenon whereby initial knowledge on the positive characteristics of an individual, have been used to conclude other its uniformly positive characteristics. Erving Goffman (1959) presented the dramaturgical perspective, comparing self-introduction to theater, with actors, performances, event sites, scripts, props, roles, background areas, and likeness. Such a phenomenon is observed more often. Political leaders try to profit political supporters through the better physical appearance in the media. The impact of external appearance on positive social perception is also observed in many other camps of life. The first impressions we create for people depend entirely outwardly they manifest, counting clothes and their style. And then, the choice to be accompanied by someone also depends on his appearance. The people who look cute are perceived as more convincing when speaking in front of

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others. Students believe that the assessment in the school carries with it the physical appearance component. According to sociologists Muray Webster and James Driskel the advantages which brings the good physical appearance are the same to them which had been brought by advantages being white in comparison to being black, or being male versus female. But, unlike the aforementioned influences, which seem to be declining, the impact that has physical appearance does not show any decline. Solomon Asch has mentioned the phenomenon of primary effect (Zenden, 1987). According to him, the first impression that we get for others is trying to paint the majority of subsequent impressions for them. Especially in situations where the first impression is crucial, the dashing men benefit from their attractiveness (Christoph Braun, Martin Grndl, Claus Marberger, Christoph Scherber, Zimmer, 2000). In a research conducted by Shamo and Stark on the impact of the good physical appearance of the candidates to win a job, has shown that attractiveness was important in the evaluation of applicants. (Shannon, Michael L, Stark, C Patrick, 2003). This experiment had been done by them with 50 students, who were asked to make the selection of applicants for jobs. The applicants had similar professional knowledge but their appearance change. Data from the experiment showed that the physical appearance of the applicants has been an important factor in evaluating the candidates. However, we know that physically beautiful people are really more preferable and are looked with more admiration than unattractive people (Eagly et al., 1991; Feingold, 1992; Langlois et al., 2000). The attractive people are seen as more honest (Zebrowitz, Voinesco, & Collins, 1996). They seem to be more likely employed in managerial positions and chose to work in public offices, although the interviewers deny any impact of physical appearance (eg, Budesheim & DePaola, 1994; Mack & Rainey, 1990). They get smaller fines and bail in felony cases and short sentences in cases of crime (Downs & Lyons, 1991; Stewart, 1980, 1985). They are paid more: Compared with the being normal attractive, there is an approximately 7% disadvantage of being unattractive and a 5% advantage of being very attractive (Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994). People who are physically attractive are more desirable for romantic relationships. Even newborn children receive more affection from their mothers when they are delightful (Langlois et al., 1995). Is obvious is estimated when someone is physically attractive. Realizing this, most people try to become more attractive. Taking into account the following data: In 2002, the Americans went through approximately 6.9 million surgical and non-surgical cosmetic procedures increased by 228% since 1997 (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). The most popular cosmetic procedure performed over 1.6 million times in 2002 was the injection of Botox, which involves injecting a paralyzing toxin into facial muscles not to create wrinkles around the eyes, mouth and forehead. Worldwide the cosmetic is an industry with annual revenue of $ 20 billion, and manufacturers of perfumes and eau de cologne sell fragrances estimates by 10 billion dollars. 5 million Americans currently hold dental prosthesis or other orthodontic tools estimated nearly 1 million of those adults -most to improve the appearance of their smile. Americans spend 35 billion dollars each year on diet foods, weight loss programs, and membership in health clubs. Consider also the time and money you spend for the hair doing, nail repair, yourself embellishment with jewelry and tattoos, and buying clothes that will hide our weakest physical features and display them more attractive. And do not forget our more dangerous activities - even life threatening - like poise in the sun,

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keeping severe diet, and use of steroids to build muscle (Leary, Tchividijan, & Kraxberger, 1994; Martin & Leary, 2001) Usually happen that handsome men are perceived as more masculine. The same thing happens even with women who look beautiful. They are perceived as more feminine. One such phenomenon is welcomed for men but not for women. For many jobs are evaluated primarily the masculine physiognomy, such as being strong, independent, determined, etc... These features usually has been attributed to persons who show masculine character, so beautiful women to whom was attributed the strong female character, encountered difficulties for admission to these jobs. Considering the above findings, it appears that less beautiful women have more advantages in comparison with more beautiful, especially when they seek employment in the management positions. For this reason, many women today in western countries shape their external appearance by cutting off short hair, by wearing not very feminine or conservative dress, light makeup, etc. always to meet this criterion, so the manifestation of a seemingly more or less masculine. (Reis. et. Al 1982). So, different people in the different cultures conceive also the phenomena in different ways. Even external look and its impact seem to have different character according to different cultures. The impact of appearance has been studied in many nations and cultures, and almost all of these studies have similar conclusions. We, who live in the Prizren region, have decided to observe this phenomenon exactly in the place where we live so in this region. Through the introduction of this research, we try to provide information on the impact of positive social outwardly perception. The results we obtained are not significantly different from the results that we found in relevant researches. Through this study were measured variables: The impact of physical beauty on positive social perception. The dress and the elegance in positive social perception. 2. Hypothesis We have developed our research by the hypothesis that the "student's appearance is a very important factor in positive social perception." The way how looks a man is also one of the main factors in job selection.. The students who look pretty have positive assessment by the professors. The cloths which are worn by the students show their personality. External appearance is a factor of particular importance for the workplace selection. The students who look beautiful both in the physical as in clothing generally are perceived as honest persons. 3. Methods This research was done in order to draw conclusions on the relationship between the impact of the external look of the students in the region of Prizren and the positive social perception. Students selected for this research are students of Prizren State University and those of Prizren Private Universities. Sample of this research are students of the University of Prizren and of the two university colleges named "Fame" and "Universum". As sample in this research were 200 students. Half of them or 50% of those who were part of this study were male, while the other half were female. In order to samples that have been selected to be as representative as possible and enable us to make accurate generalizations as to all University students and two university colleges in Prizren.

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This research has been attended by students from the Education Department, Department of Psychology, Criminology, Law anf Management. 4. Procedures Attending these universities and collaboration with deans and students of those departments in order to help this research to present scientific value. For the data collection are used questionnaires. In the questionnaire were submitted 12 questions. Data processing is done by the program ESSPS 17.0, where data are simply descriptive statistics. Questions in this section are proving to ascertain the impact of social positive perception of physical beauty and elegance in dress influence positive social perception, the impact of beauty for career advancement. The questionnaires were applied to a university and two colleges. The selection of sample was random. There were100 students of the University of Prizren and 100 students of the two University Colleges "Fame" and "Universum". Students who responded to our questionnaire were students who were selected at random in sections during lectures at various intervals. The questionnaires were applied in the same way to all students of all directions. Then the data from these questionnaires were collected and analyzed according to the usual statistical analysis procedures. 5. Results 1. 2. When we asked what is the most important and valuable thing to a person, more than 100 of the 200 subjects of our sample have chosen external appearance in positive perceptions of students. Another hypothesis if the external appearance affects the assessment of students by professors 60% of them have said that this is not the case, 25 of them have said that they rarely happen to find connection to such thing, even when the going is unconscious, 15% of them expressed pro this element. Results confirming the way of wearing, in a correlation with the honesty, success and level how they are convincing to others. For the connection between the workplace and the external appearance, over 60% of respondents have said they agree that to succeed in finding a job, should look nice. A particular connection was found between how much the wearing can be representative of someone's personality. 70% of research subjects conceive a closely connection between the clothing and personality.

3. 4. 5.

References
Douglas T. Kenrick, Steven L. NEUBERG, Robert B. Cialdini 2005, Social Psychology. Third Edition, Arizona State University. Zanden, J. 1987. Social Psychology, Fourth edition, Ohio State University. Shannon, M. L., Stark, P. (2003). The influence of Physical appearance on personnel selection, Social Behavior and Personality Brawn, K., Grndl, M., Marbeger, C., Scherber, Ch., and Zimmer, A. (2000). More beautiful people have more advantages in life than those less beautiful. Universitt Regensburg. Pango Ylli, (2005). Social Psychology, "Universitys Library", Tirana, 2005.

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Wuz Up Wit Dat?: Exploring the Colonizing Properties of the Standard English Language and its Implications for the Denudation and Denigration of Black Survivalist and Stylistic Language, Syntax and Phonology
Buster C. Ogbuagu, Ph.D., M.S.W.
College of Arts & Sciences Department of Social Work University of St. Francis 500 Wilcox Street Joliet, Illinois, 60435, USA Email: bogbuagu@stfrancis.edu
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p135

Abstract Black linguistics and ethnolect in America, as a survivalist tool, has existed for over 400 years as a hybridized version of the English and other ethnic languages. This was especially so since Blacks were shackled and forcibly removed from Africa to work the plantation fields of the Americas. Since then its use has metamorphosed into a myriad of languages and sociolets, including lexicon that have been standardized into variants of Pidgin, Creole and others, by Black cultures and communities in America and all over the world. Using theories of racism and anti-oppression resiliency, the study explored the Colonizing properties of the Standard English language and how what is termed Black English language or African American Vernacular English-AAVE in the United States has been used over the millennia to promote esprit de corps and sustain the homeostasis of Blacks and their communities. It also showed how Black English as a survivalist language has suffered a targeted and sustained rejection and threat of extinction from within and without in educational and business institutions, while simultaneously having an ambivalent relationship in music, entertainment and popular culture with mainstream American society. The study presents deconstructionist ramifications for the integration or the lack thereof into mainstream American society of Blacks who use this language at home, in education, work, and civil society, especially due, to the perception that Black English language is ghetto, therefore has no place in or application for upward mobility and mainstream society. Key words: Standard English language, African American Vernacular language-AAVE, Pidgin English, sociolet, ethnolet, syntax, phonology, lexicon, racism, social exclusion, United States, Blacks, African Americans, Whites, White racism, White privilege

1. Introduction Black stylistic language, syntax and phonology have been in existence for over 400 years in Africa, with reference to Nigeria and some parts of the West African sub-region, when the Portuguese first entered around the 14th century (Osamuyimen, 2000; Metz Chapin, 1991). In America, Black language emerged out of the horrors of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade that saw hundreds of thousands of Africans shackled and forcibly brought to work the plantations of the Americas and the West Indies. On arrival, the Africans, now slaves, who came from a myriad of ethnicities, languages and cultures, had no way of communicating with one another. It is believed that there were several mutinies and strategies to escape back to Africa, including the Ebo Landing [and the legend of the Flying Negro] (Powell, 2004), which

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were not feasible if the planners of such great escape could not understand one another. To this extent, the conditions imposed by enslavement forced disparate groups as victims to forge a Pidgin-as in Africa a [Croele in America] form of English language, which the slaves applied in their communication and sustenance. Argues Martinez (2003) Black English evolved as a pot pouri of functional variant of communication, from plantation EnglishCreolization, and transported languages that were used and spoken by African Slaves. He continued, that Black English is a language cross-fertilization internalized and intergenerationally passed in an oral and aural environment and climate. This was mainly due to the Black Codes, as he argued, which attracted not only opprobrium, but severe sanctions of fines and prison for anyone apprehended attempting to inculcate in a slave the art of reading and writing. Later, even the White slave owners, out of necessity to communicate with their captives were forced to learn Pidgin or Creole, a variant of which is not only currently spoken by Blacks throughout the United States, but also by Whites, especially those resident in the Southern states of the United States (Games, 2011; Patrick, n.d.). The Black slaves, all through the era of the Slave Trade, used Black language primarily to communicate initially and later as agency of survival, esprit de corps, resilience against the horrors of slavery meted out to them by the Whiteman, sustenance of the essence of their culture, cultural values, which they handed down over the generations, knowledge of the world and about who they are and where they came from, expression of their lived experience and the maintenance of their individual and group identity. Suddenly, as a conspiracy theorist would like to believe, the Colonizing properties of the English language, which was the fulcrum for the formation of the Black language in the first instance now feels threatened by Black Vernacular language? Using psychological theories of racism, and other social identity coordinates, this study explored how systems that are located in governments, organizations, religions, institutions, especially educational institutions, and the American society, individually or collectively, have rendered the Black language and its syntax under an increasing attack. It found that Black vernacular language has not only been ghettoized, but as a ghettoized language, and its users, who are socialized in it, has been rendered unfit for educational and social institutions that assign upward social mobility. It also explored resiliency by how on the other hand, through the paradox of entertainment, music, and the popular culture Black language as a marginalized, ghettoized entity, has become mainstreamed by the same people who jeer at it in formal institutions. These now use it for their aggrandizement because it generates for them a large amount of capital and the appurtenances of financial authority, which they now apply in further marginalizing those [Blacks] on whose backs they climbed to success in the first instance. 2. Literature Review

2.1. Language
Language constitutes a power tool for communication, teaching, learning and sometimes to control and fringe others in society, who do not have it in their repertoire. In light of this assumption, language posits as a primary agency of communication and interaction, as well as defines how human beings interact with one another, understand one another and assign meaning to utterances and vocalization. Lev Vygotskys principle was utilized by Gredler (1997) to imply that language stands as the primus amongst the myriad of psychological enablers that mediate thoughts, feelings and behavior. Continuing, Gredler posits that the application of signs and symbols represent the genesis of sociohistorical line of humans, represented and discerned as human speech and written language. In time, the speech and written language become meaningful when they are mastered, internalized and utilized for the organization, regulation and control of social existence.

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A large number of minority groups, when they arrive in the west do not as a norm have and use the English language as their primary language. Many had neither spoken it nor consistently applied it as a communication medium prior to their sojourn in the west. In other cases, English may be their first language, but are spoken with a dialect that may be challenging to discern by those of the dominant or host society, who sometimes fail to perceive it as English language (Abraham and Troike, 1972). Bourdieu (1990a) perceived language more as an instrument of performance of power, and not just and merely for the purposes of communication, which in its pure state language actually is. This power is based on differences that occur on account of race, gender and class identity. For Ibrahim (2000) the application by Black and African American youth of such parlance as yoyo, whassup, whadap, homeboy, talk to the hands, yo go gal, rap and hip hop, etc., they are stylistically and lexically allying themselves with, and translating what they conceive as Black linguistic practice (p.66). Not only that, but Ibrahim also strongly suggested that these Black youths, by the way they speak, the type of lexical, phonological and syntactic choices they make, are also applying this linguistic style, to express and articulate certain identity configurations. Ibrahim further opined that the way Black youths speak, their lexical, phonological and syntactic choices are consistent with the expression and articulation of certain identity properties. Although the dominant culture would like to award a pariah property to the way Black and Black youths use language at home and when with peers, while at school or outside of it, it does not take away from the fact that this language represents in its purest form a genuine expression of desire and identification. David Millers book entitled Citizenship and National Identity was critiqued by Levinson (2002). Levinsons essay was entitled Minority Participation and Civic Education in Deliberative Democracies. She argued that for Blacks to be heard and understood by the majority population they have to learn, master and adopt the language of power which is interpreted as English. Levinson was a teacher of Black students in Boston and Atlanta, where she perceived Black students to be limited or deficient in Standard English vocabulary, contingent on their sustained and exclusive use of Ebonics, African American Vernacular English-AAVE, Black Vernacular English-BVE (Patrick, n.d.) at home and in their communities. Levinson further summed that the lack of exposure to mainstream English implicated the type of schools they attend, TV and movies that they stream and watch, the type of music they listen to and the books and literature they are exposed to. To this extent, Levinsons prescription was Civic education for deliberative democracy that uses the language of power ostensibly Standard English, to mainstream Black students into the American society. Levinson appears to have dabbled into contradictions, when she stated that some other discourses other than mastery of the language of power may yet stand in the way of Blacks feeling free to express themselves, honestly and openly without risking misinterpretation of their actual meaning. To this extent, it is quite in order to surmise that the mastery of the language of power to the exclusion of other variables represented by power, oppression, and other exclusion discourses falls short of granting Blacks audience by those of the majority population (Berry and Kalin, 2000; Dworkin and Dworkin, 1999; Hochshild, 1995). The sum total of the argument is that Power wielded by Whites as the majority population applies language as a medium to oppress and exclude, rather than language as a single and exclusive variable being culpable. To buttress this assertion, although Black Civil Rights activists such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Jesse Jackson, Vernon Jordan and Elijah Mohammed all used the language of power [King had a Ph.D.], still were not spared the indignities of racial segregation and oppression Contrary to Levinsons genuine but faulty assumptions, mastery of the language of power(Ogbuagu, 2012) is not the issue because of its inability to confer power on minority groups who are deliberately, systemically and consistently denied it.

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3. Theoretical Framework The theoretical fulcrum for this study is derived from Psychological theories of racism, which main contention sees racism as a form of extreme prejudice, which manifests as the process of social perception. In this, prejudice is perceived as a form of extreme stereotype, and this stereotype, a derivation of the attitude of one individual or group towards another individual or group. Psychological theories of racism present as an ego-defense, contingent upon its ability to bolster or inflate the selfesteem of those who hold them. Psychological theories of racism was popularized by Tajfel and Turner (1986) (see also McLeod, 2008) when they espoused it in terms of Social Identity theory. Social Identity therefore emerges as a result of individuals naturally and constantly striving to maintain their positive self-image through the categorization of (Hogg, 2003) people into In-Groups or Out-Groups, sometimes through the process of racialization (James and Shadd, 2001; Warren and Twine, 1997). Dixson and Rousseau (2006); Dlamini(2002); Schuman (1975) contend that selfcondemnation (p.21) is the primary culprit in the demoralization of marginalized groups. They state that these marginalized groups and minorities accept and internalize the stereotypical images imposed on them from outside by Whites, prompting them to crawl into their shells, a situation that now provides the dominant group the temerity to gain and perpetuate their own power. Racism is hegemoniously woven into past and modern fabric of powerful societies, especially America (Ogbuagu, 2013) leading to its invisibility, inevitability and invincibility. This situation then renders it arduous to recognize, discuss, challenge and deconstruct. Collins (2000) stated:

To maintain their power, dominant groups create and maintain a popular system of commonsense ideas that support their right to rule. In the United States, hegemonic ideologies concerning race, class, gender, sexuality, and nation are often so pervasive that it is difficult to conceptualize alternatives to them (p.284).
Feagin (2000) perceives everyday racism as having a structural dimension, which normalizes and sometimes, justifies racist attitudes. An ideology is a set of principles and views that embodies the basic interests of a particular social group. Typically, a broad ideology encompasses expressed attitudes and is constantly reflected in the talk and actions of everyday life. One need not know or accept the entire ideology for it to have an impact on thought or action (p.69). Porter (1965) theory of Vertical Mosaic, posits that ethnic origins and groups are arranged vertically and applied in the formulation of classes. Those from Northwestern Europe, beginning with Anglo-Saxons represent the apex of this pyramid, while those from Africa were the dregs of society. Ultimately, those in the lower rungs are alienated from capital and the social and economic order (Mensah (2002). Social exclusion uses class and power in its repertoire (Bonnett, 2000; Bulmer &Solomos, 2004) and since those that are in power are perpetually insecure, they resort to the use of prejudice and discrimination to maintain their status (Simpson and Yinger, 1985). This power, which favors Anglo-Saxons as a White endeavor (Myer, 2005, p.20) and according to Heller (1985) and Pinderhughes (1989) becomes internalized owing to centuries old emasculation of Blacks and other minorities. To this extent Whites have created and defined Americas history emerging as White racism (Feagin&Hernan, 2001; Feagin, Hernan and Batur, 2001). Feaginet. al. thus defined White racismas the socially organized set of practices, attitudes and ideas that deny African Americans and other people of color the privileges, dignity, opportunities, freedoms, and rewards that this nation offers to White Americans (p.17).

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The concept of Whiteness argued Harris (2003) is that it is historically and conceptually coterminous with property, which comes with value and rights for humans. One of this right to property is the subjugation and alienation of those regarded as non-equals, particularly Blacks. In attempt to maintain property, Whites also use prejudice, which assists them develop sincere fictions (Feagin, Vera, and Batur, 2001, p.26) constructed by individuals or groups, which in turn reproduce myths held about society. In Apartheid South Africa (Foster, 2005) Jan Christiaan Smuts, propagated White European superiority and conversely, African inferiority when he stated:

Let us hurry to unite the knot and set the good genius of European civilization once more free from the bonds, which may strangle her in the future (p.1).
This clarion call, according to Foster, fostered for Whites a siege mentality and became intrinsic in their viewing themselves as an endangered species. Myers (2005) views racism as dialectical, having embedded itself, and operational at the ideological, structural and interactional dimensions. On account of this, racism uses a hierarchical structure to ascertain the distribution of differential opportunities, which pattern then is hegemonized, reproduced and perpetuted when passed through the generations in the socialization process. The hegemonic racism (Bolaria and Li, 1988b, 1985) unleashes havoc on the occupants of minority cultures and institutions, while simultaneously embedding inferior and subordinate complex on those it has already ravaged (Milloy, 1999). For Sullivan (2006) the shift from de jure to de facto racism corresponds with a related shift from habits of White supremacy to ones of White privilege (p.5). Sullivan argues further, that it does not take membership into the Ku Klux Klan and Aryan Nation to be identified as a White supremacist. What Sullivan argues as the indices for measuring being defined as such, are transactions with the world in which White domination becomes consciously affirmed and embraced. He argued, that as long as White domination is perpetuated, there will always be, at the micro level of this person, and macro level of society, a mix of White supremacy and White privilege. Sullivan asserted that this mix however, has a higher concentration of unconscious White domination. Sullivan continued:

It is no accident that it is difficult to hear the soft patter of White privilege. White privilege goes to great lengths not to be heard. Habits of White privilege are not merely nonconscious or preconscious. It is not the case that they just happen not to be the object of conscious reflection but could relatively easily become so if only they were drawn to ones attention.It omits the strong resistance to the conscious recognition of racism that characterizes habits of White privilege. As unconscious, habits of White privilege do not merely go unnoticed. They actively thwart the process of conscious reflections on them, which allows them to seem non-existent even as they continue to function (pp. 5-6).
Although the effort of critical White studies (Pascale, 2007) is to interrogate, disrupt and discomfit the invisible status of White privilege and Whiteness, there have been uneven outcomes, which appear to sometimes, even serve to recenter, reprivilege and perpetuate the lives and perspectives of White people. Pascale does not lose hope, due to the finding that there are abundant literatures that speak to the social, historical, legal and economic processes, which present vehicles for the deconstruction of a White racial identity. 4. Methodology This is an ethnographic study (Hammersley and Atkinson,1989)which applied qualitative methods to

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explore the issue of the English language as Blacks in the United States understand and use it. The fact of ethnography embeds the use of participant and non-participant observation (Spradley, 1980) which ethnographers have utilized over several decades (DeWalt and DeWalt, 2002)to uncover the lived experiences of people. For Schensul, Schensul and LeCompte (1999) participant observation entails "the process of learning through exposure to or involvement in the day-to-day or routine activities of participants in the researcher setting" (p.91). Why use observation? Schmuck (1997) offered that this method assists researchers check and measure nonverbal expressions, including feelings. This then helps to highlight interactional processes and the quality and quantity of time applied in this interactional process. As Schumk further argued, observation for the researcher presents as the vehicle for uncovering definitions of terms explicitly or implicitly applied during interviews, including those events that key informants readily share or those they are hesitant or disinclined to share because it would be insensitive and impolite. In some cases, it may be used to observe events described (Marshall and Rossman, 1995) during interviews by informants, which may assist uncover and make aware any inaccuracies or distortions of the key informants descriptions. I also used non-participant observation whenever I deemed it pertinent to reduce bias in the study. This strategy presented more challenges, although it was quite possible and productive to be a participant without making disclosures. Non-participant observation presents as means that can be utilized by a researcher, such as Naturalistic observation to observe events and its participants from a distance while not being a part of the activities. In this case, the researcher strives to exert rudimentary impact on the event that they would be surreptitiously observing. Engaging in participant observation has the potential to lead to phenomenological interviews, which evaluates different perspectives, what the meaning and content of an event that those who have experienced them translate them into, without coloring them (Babbie, 2004; Beins, 2004). The ethnographic method used in this study was enhanced by the information gathered by participant and non-participant observation and a large repertoire of literature, all of which were further triangulated through semi-structured interviews. Pertinent themes (Campbell and Gregor, 2004; Fontana & Frey, 2000) were highlighted to assist the participants chart a narratives course. The interviews were reduced to analytical materials for the purposes of sifting through and deciphering the meanings cocooned in the transcribed interviews(Kvale and Svend, 2009). Creswell (1998); Wright (2003); Hammersley (2000) all agree on the role and importance of observer integrity regarding the phenomenon, successfully achieved by the application of natural scientific methods, intuition, imagination and universal structures. In light of the fact that English as a language, and a colonizing one at that has impacted on many cultures across the globe, therefore in a very tangible way helped to inform their lived experience, the 75 participants in this study were randomly drawn from a multiplicity of cultures, languages and ethnicities that have experienced the English language phenomenon. The participants identified themselves as Africans [mainly Nigerians and other West Africans, Asians [comprising the Chinese], and African Americans in the United States, who are the main focus of the study. Most of the participants reside in North America, while a few were residents of Nigeria and other implicated countries in the West African sub-region, which were former colonies of Britain. There were 25 females, while the rest 50 participants were male, for no other reason than that there were more males accessible and willing to participate than females. 45 of the participants were African American owing to their continued involvement in the current language debate and divide. The participants, who were recruited through Key Informants ranged in age from 18 to 70 and expressed having knowledge about the language controversy in their respective countries. All the participants voluntarily agreed to participate and signaled their intention to do so by perusing the Consent form over a number of days and at their

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convenience, and signing and returning them to the researcher. Data collection, using audio recorder and field notes was done over a five year period, owing to the rather large sample size and challenges of accessing the participants. 5. Emergent Themes Several themes emerged from the interviews and interactions with participants. The most pertinent for exploring the subject matter were: English (Pidgin) in African countries, with Nigeria as a case example, English language in China, the controversy surrounding African American Vernacular English-AAVE, Ebonics, etc. in America-AAVE in the context of school and educational outcomes, Black English language in popular culture, Black English language in American Business, resistance to English language form of colonialism, President Obamas use of Black Vernacular and Standard English. 6. Discussion

6.1. English (Pidgin) in Nigeria and Other post-colonial African countries


Nigerian [Pidgin] English evolved (Esizimetor and Egbokhare, n.d.; Igboanusi, 2008; Ihemere, 2006; Crozier, 2005; Faraclas, 1996;Shnukel and Marchese, 1983) from its locals trade and other intercourse, first with the Portuguese circa 1469, followed by the Dutch and French around 1650 and finally the British around the 1800s. All these European linguistic groups, during their Nigerian Odyssey left vestiges of their language, all of which influenced the current ways Nigerians speak English. By the time the British consolidated their invasion and occupancy of Nigeria, British English assumed the supplantation of Portuguese as a paramount lexifier of Naij. The British government on assuming control of Nigeria promptly enforced its English language etiquette on the natives with gusto. I will get to that momentarily. The result was that the Pidgin language not only became very popular with those who struggle with speaking standardized British English, but also spread within big cities multilingual populations. The outcome is that currently in Nigeria, there are more persons who speak Nigerian Pidgin English language as lingua franca than any other. Persons from each of the more than 250 languages (Lewis, Robinson and Rubin; 1998; Wente-Luca, 1985) in this British drunken configuration use this medium to communicate. The British in order to wipe out the vestiges of previous Portuguese, French and Dutch rivaling languages, entrenched English language as the primary and lingua franca of Nigeria in schools and other institutions. According to 33.3 percent representing 25 of the participants from Africa, they were forced as students to use English language especially that referred to as the Queens English in their education(Whitehead, 1981). Frequently, and as a recipient of the accoutrement of British education I can attest to being physically whipped, forced to perform manual labor and other indignities just for straying into Pidgin English, the local language, Igbo or any Nigerian vernacular. Our education pedagogy consisted of European pedagogy and narratives, especially the waves of Britannia. We studied European History, from the Dark Ages to Oliver Cromwell and the ascendancy of the House of Windsor. Our literature, you guessed it, included English poetry and literature, including Daniel Defoe, Geoffrey Chaucer, all the works of Shakespeare and his escapades with Anna Hathaway of StratfordUpon-Avon, which we also dramatized to good effect or risked severe sanctions. Our rhymes had no cultural context, and can anyone out there explain to me why we should be made to sing when winter winds are blowing in the heat and heart of the tropical rain forest, especially when winter did not lexically exist in our social, geographical and cultural repertoire? (Bassey, 1999).

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Currently and due to the corrosive and colonizing properties of the English language, it is a high crime in Nigeria to mix tenses or misspeak as people will make a jest of you for gaffing in the English language. How about our children? The participants from Africa, especially Nigerians stated that, having internalized the concept of English language as superior to Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa or Bini, they began and currently still chastise them for attempting to speak any other language but English, and speak it well they must or risk being ridiculed by peers. If they are spared by their peers, they risk their teachers whipping them for making a gaffe in written or spoken English. Indeed, in Nigeria the fact that ones children can speak English fluently marks their social class and denotes elitism, while speaking vernacular classifies a child as member of a lower socioeconomic class(McLeod, 2008) and no parent wishes that on themselves or children. Therefore parents jumped hoops to ascertain that their children mastered British English and paid a high premium for it by losing their own language, sometimes entirely and completely. The Africans in the study, including15 Nigerians, most, of the Baby-Boom era, confirmed with chagrin, the colonizing properties(Dixson and Rousseau, 2006; Dlamini, 2002) of the English language and its impact on their lives. In Nigeria, when children of the educated elite try speaking Igbo or any of the local languages in the presence of their parents, they are hushed with Dont speak Igbo. Indeed, siblings report themselves to their parents when another speaks the forbidden language. My children who were a part of the participants often query why they are unable to speak Igbo, with my head cowered, I try to provide for them some of the reasons that I have volunteered here.

6.2. Has the English language also colonized China? In the next five years, all state employees younger than 40 will be required to master at least 1,000 English phrases, and all schools will begin teaching English in kindergarten. The government also is funding extensive teacher training programs to find new models for language learning and develop new textbooks (Ward and Francis, 2010, para.2). Parents who can afford to, are sending their children -- some as young as 2 -- to private language schools that are popping up all over the country. By the time they are 10, the children will be fluent (para.2). "China is more open to the world," said one teacher. "We [the older generation] want our kids to open their eyes to get to know the world [and] look at China not only from standing in China but from outside of China as well."(para.3). State-run TV launched an "American Idol"-type of reality show where kids have to sell themselves in English to clinch the judges' votes (para.4) Signs in not-quite-right English -- "Car Repairable," "CosmeToulogy" and "Welcom Go Home" -- can be found across the country (para.5).
In light of the above information, the question that needs an answer is whether this is a sign that the English language has also colonized China, with a population of about 1.3 billion and with approximately 1 billion people having Mandarin as the worlds most spoken language? The 5 Chinese participants stated that they learned English in China at a significant cost to them prior to their migration to the US. They also admitted that there was a tremendous pressure brought to bear upon students in China to learn and master English, as this was a vehicle for getting good and well-paying

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jobs that Americans siphon to China. What is poignant is that China is the worlds most populous nation, extremely wealthy and a US financier, yet, it is pandering to the English culture, represented by its language, English. One Chinese who appeared to understand the discourses of race and othering stated:

"I think that China is very important in the world," said one boy. "I wish that American people can speak, can study Chinese. I think that's very good for us to make friends with them" (Ward and Francis, 2010, para.8).
What this shows is that although China is powerful in so many ways, including having a significant trade imbalance with the US that is lop-sided in its favor, its citizens are quite aware that America could care less about them or their language, contingent on their reliance on the social identity theory to remind them how their category is superior to that of the Chinese. Of course, China must learn English, even at the expense of its own language, when English accounts as the common language of business, tourism, technology and the Internet.

6.3. Black English in America


6.3.1. AAVE in the context of School and Educational outcomes The controversy and racial undertones that greet AAVE as a distinct linguistic category did not begin today. However, its controversy-laden properties were amplified and brought to national and international attention in 1996. The hullabaloo occurred, when the Oakland California School Board, dared to want to cater to the needs of an educationally disadvantaged poor city in the San Francisco Bay area, with one half the population being African American. The pronouncement (Wheeler, 1999) was that the board was going to promote successful school outcomes for this population by paying more attention to the languages the students spoke and used at home. Not only this but recognizing it as such and prodding teachers to train to explore it objectively and meritoriously by using it appropriately in the classroom. Led by the New York Times, White media and English language purists immediately, and due to a siege mentality(Giroux, 1999) went for the jugular because of their morbid fear that the said linguistic genre not only closely resembled another language presumed to be higher in prestige; it was presumed that AAVE was just a horribly spoken, horribly pronounced nincompoop, grammatically riddled with mistakes as a pollutant version of their cherished prestigious language, English. Indignantly, it was presumed to be saturated with a repertoire of insolent street slang, preferred by ghettoized urban underclass. They did not care if the language was Spanish, Russian or Polish, but a rotten variant of English language? No, they were having none of that, and it would not be in their backyard. Amidst this feeding frenzy, what got lost was the fact that AAVE is a dialect of English and deserves recognition, respect and acceptance because those who use it in America are bona fide Americans, no less. They have also used it over several hundred years to survive a conspiracy of othering (Ogbuagu, 2012; 2013) but poignantly apply it to assist their individual and collective identity, stability and homeostasis. Wheeler (1999) maintains that although AAVE differs markedly from Standard English, it nonetheless and as other languages, contains a degree of regularity and stability attributable to a set of rules of grammar and pronunciation. Joining the fray, Nieto (1999) opined that Black and minority students are pressured to assimilate as a hidden agenda to discredit cultural and linguistic differences, which in turn promotes, sustains and reproduces inequality. 45 respondents representing 60 percent of the participants were African American, all born and raised in 35 states of the United States. They all were excited to participate in

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the study, especially the burning issue of how they were socialized to speak Black Vernacular English, which to them awarded a sense of belonging about who they actually are, has been under relentless attack. All stated that they had been socialized in school to view their variant of English as ghetto language. They stated that whenever they try speaking it, they are hushed to cease by teachers and sometimes even at home by their parents, for differing reasons. For the teachers who are predominantly White, Black English was a ghetto pollution that should be allowed to expire. For their parents, they fear that a mastery of that language-AAVE is a road to nowhere in America. Continued Nieto, those who speak a variant of English must shed them quickly on the porch of the school or receive severe sanctions from teachers and peers alike. With time, such minority students begin to show abhorrence for their own language, as represented by the 15 Nigerians in the study, leading to deculturalization (Boateng, 1990). Boatengs deculturalization takes place when those devoid of power are forcibly culturally deracinated. Scott (2000) shared the impact of cultural deracination through linguistic subterfuge:

Janice was in her final practicum of her certification year, and looked forward to her placement because this was the school where she hoped she would be working after graduation. She had particularly asked to work with the special education classes of children who had learning disabilities. One day in her second week, she was asked to assist in the class of children who were labeled educable mentally retarded. In the group of 10 children, there were 2 who did not seem to present the appearance of children with lower intellectual capacity. They were curious and observant, and responded quickly to the teachers demands, but said very little, and appeared to be very shy. Janices own curiosity was aroused: what were these children doing in such a class? Later on, in the staff room, the regular teacher told her that these children, two sisters, had recently come from Jamaica, and as no one could understand what they were saying, they were placed in that class (p.68).
The Black or minority student of AAVE is forced to perceive his or her language as unworthy, undesirable, counter-productive and a purveyor of sanctions. Besides, the United States typifies fertile grounds for pressuring ethnic linguistic assimilation, through subtle prohibition of languages other than English, especially in curricular and pedagogical delivery, as Crawford (1992) maintains, eventually excluding them from education and mainstream endeavors. Contrary to linguistic assimilation, Nieto (2000); Zanger (1993); Gibson (1991) therefore argue that the affirmation and maintenance of cultures and languages of Black and minority students promotes and accelerates successful educational outcomes.

6.4. Black English language in popular culture


Since the 1980s and 1990s, there has increasingly developed a racial, ethnic and transcendental use of Black [ghettoized] language for music and entertainment and profit. This cross over was inadvertently engineered by the advent of the likes of MC Hammer, Jay Z, Beyonc, 50 Cents, Eminem, Lee Iacocca in an ad for Chrysler with Snoop Dogg. Yet, the same language judged as not good enough and found an ambivalent use for upward mobility for white collar business. I will get to this later. In the 1950s, rock and roll and their rhythm were used and popularized by the products of the Black ghetto language. These were artistes personified by Chuck Berry, Little Richards of the Tutti Frutti fame, Bo Diddley , Ray Charles, Fats Domino, Sam Cooke, James Brown (Kirby, 2008). Soon, some artistes from the majority culture, Elvis Aaron Presley and others perceived the power of music presented by this medium and promptly hijacked it, leading to the reign of rock and roll, classic and

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progressive rock, preponderated by Whites in America, Europe and elsewhere. It was not be long before Black ghetto language saw a resurgence through Rapp, R & B and Hip-Hop as represented by M C. Hammer [Hammer dont hurt them], Snoop Dogg, Tupak Shakur, Biggie Small, Jay Z, 50 Cents, Puff Daddy, Beyonc and a host of others. Currently in America, Europe, Africa and the rest of the world, every child and some adults, Black, White, Hispanic, Asian, Green and Blue dabble into listening to and thoroughly enjoying these genre of music and some would willingly lay down their lives for its progenitors. All the participants across race, culture, gender and other variables of difference in this study stated that they knew all the popular culture artistes listed above, listened to most and enjoyed them, except 5 persons, representing approximately 7 percent of the total respondents. This 7 percent have heard of a few of them, but not many. This was accounted for by their immigration to the US from a primarily non-English-speaking country only a few years prior and the fact, as they admitted that they were preoccupied with finding a means of sustenance. So, the question that needs an answer is, why is this form of Black Vernacular language acceptable even in mainstream American society, but demonized and abhorred in areas, such as educational institutions, where social mobility is gained? As can be seen currently, some White artistes such as Eminem and a few others are into Black language artistry because it is percuniarily profitable and provides popularity and iconhood awarded by a large segment of American society, Africa and Europe who listen to and simply adore it. Who knows how long before it is again hijacked by Whites and mainstreamed for this reason just as in the case of rock and roll?

6.5. Black English language in Business- Chrysler Corp, Lee Iacocca and Snoop Dogg (what benefit to Black language users?)
America is a dyed-in-the wool capitalist society and pursuit of enterprise often spurs them to do whatever it takes to maximize profit. In this equation, Lee Iacocca, who was Chrysler Corporations successful CEO and savior by bringing it back from the brink of bankruptcy in the 1980s was known by mainly affluent and well-educated White America (Iacocca, 1984). However, and despite his enviable repertoire of achievements, he is a practical unknown among the youth and those who were either not born when he reigned or were not mainstreamed in American society. If anything, Lee, an aging White male-88 years[he engineered the Ford Pinto-a disaster and Mustang-a roaring success] (Iacocca, 1984)was brilliant, but quite boring. In order to promote sales (Hakim, 2005) Chrysler had to pair up a hip-hop artist from the ghetto and one whose only language was the Black Vernacular language, but very popular among young Americans in a commercial designed to increase sales. "It's a great way to continue to break through the clutter," said Suraya Da Sante, a spokeswoman for the Chrysler Group, a division of DaimlerChrysler, of the commercial. "Snoop is a hip-hop icon, a lot of people know him and recognize him, so it's a fun complement to Lee" (para.5). Asked about the Chrysler, Lee Iacocca and Snoop Dogg commercial only 20 interviewees, representing approximately 27 percentof the respondents admitted or recalled seeing it in 2005. When the researcher pulled the commercial on YouTube, the aha moment came to 40 interviewees or 53.4 percent of the respondents, who had not given a thought to the commercial when they initially saw it. They also had not thought of the implications for the Black language of the commercial, but now saw clearly, the ambivalent relationship that exists between the language and standard English and those who used them. In strange bedfellowship of Chrysler, Lee Iacocca and Snoop Dogg [actual name Calvin Broadus], Snoop drives up in a Dodge truck and, as he exits from the vehicle, Lee Iacocca interjects

"nice ride." Snoop opens up in his Black [ghetto] linguistic repertoire the only way he knows to speak English, driving off with Lee in the golf cart "Thank you Mocha Cocca.

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Chrysler and Jeep came up on beaucoup awards and Dodge trucks last as long as the D-Odouble gizzle. Plus, I got the hook up nephew, for sure." Puzzled and confused, Iacocca mutters: "You know, I'm not too sure what you just said. Now everybody gets a great deal."Snoop continues- "Foshizzle, I-ka-zizzle" (para. 8).
Someone adept at Black language explained the offers and what Snoop was trying to communicate to Lee Iacocca, who obviously was clueless. Even the two men had attires that spoke of their worldsapart difference. Although both men wear pink shirts here, Snoop Dogg wore an argyle sweater embossed with his popular S-D logo;also sports a white hat, sun glasses complemented by checkered white pants and blue. On the other hand, Lee was seen sporting visibly traditional golf attire. The commercial ends with Snoop translating Iacoccas famous tagline-

if you can find a better car, buy it (para. 12). "If the ride is more fly," he says, "then you must buy" (para. 13).
If one reads between the lines, Snoop Dog has no chance in his current incarnation of becoming the CEO of Chrysler or any White-owned or run corporation because he is simply not a good fit due to his only mastery of the English language being Black ghetto English and other discourses. On the other hand, corporate America saw a gold mine in him, being a hip-hop icon and one that is by leaps and bounds a much more recognizable face to young persons and American popular culture than Lee Iacocca. Therefore, in Chrysler, corporate America conveniently applied the Machiavellian ethos to its own ends. What mainstream English could not achieve, Black ghetto language accomplished. There lies the ambivalent and strange bed-fellowship between colonizing mainstream or Standardized English and Black [ghettoized] language.

6.6. New Directions and Milestones


6.6.1. Forging a less hostile, less ambivalent relationship between mainstream English language and African American Vernacular It is without question that the demonization of African American Vernacular English, especially its nonacceptance as complimentary to mainstream English stands to push it into extinction. It would be a shame that such language which sustained Blacks and promoted homeostasis of their communities and cultures through several millennia of White emasculation should be allowed to sunset. Not only that, its demonization represents the laying to waste of African American human capital, as the current insistence that AAVE is inferior denies Black youth the opportunity that formal education provides to rise to the height of their potentials. Rather than see AAVE as primitive and lacking in ability to spur upward mobility, America and all the other parts of the world that use it should instead see it for what it really is, complementary and a cultural heritage. Italians, British, Greeks, The Irish in America all have and use their vernacular in mainstream American society, and have not experienced a similar stifling of their upward mobility or exclusion as Blacks who use AAVE have. Perhaps, and as stated earlier, it may not necessarily be the language (Levinson, 2002) as it is the race discourse that continues to fringe Blacks in a nation that they disproportionately helped build. On this account, rather than expunging AAVE or Ebonics as some would like to refer toit in the school curricular, an anti-racist and multicultural education (Neito, 2000, 1999) pedagogy may embrace it and competency training for teachers and educators vigorously pursued. All the 45 African Americans in the study would like to see AAVE as a part of the school curriculum, which will appear in tandem with the Standardized English language. In

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support of this trend, Ghosh (2002) opined that the teaching of a second language should not be fashioned to demean and denigrate languages spoken and cultures practiced by minority students. In recognition of this all important discourse and issue confronting teachers on composition and communication on how to respond to the variety in their students dialects, the Conference on College Composition and Communication (1974) posted the following communiqu:
We affirm the students rights to patterns and verities of languagethe dialects of their nurture or whatever dialects in which they find their own identity and style. Language scholars long ago denied that the myth of a standard American dialect has any validity. The claim that any one dialect is unacceptable amounts to an attempt of one social group to exert its dominance over another. Such a claim leads to false advice for speakers and writers, and immoral advice for humans. A nation proud of its diverse heritage and its cultural and racial variety will preserve its heritage and dialects. We affirm strongly that teachers must have the experiences and training that will enable them to respect diversity and uphold the right of students to their own language

What the CCC is suggesting, which is supported by McLucas (n.d.) is a bidialectal compromise. McLucas strongly argues that prejudice is the main problem that speakers of AAVE confront, because most people, even those from the Black community believe that AAVE is sub-standard to Standard English. For him, as well as what CCC suggests, AAVE has the same legitimacy as American or British English and should not be discounted. One would think that a paradigm shift should have occurred since this statement was made in 1974. However, that time is yet to come for the obvious reason thatlanguage, especially English and other majority cultural languages such as French have hardwired colonizing and imperializing properties, rendering it infeasible to modify the control and domination genes that are embedded in them and the White teachers who preponderate the classrooms (James and Shadd, 2001; Warren and Twine (1997); Dixson and Rousseau (2006); Dlamini (2002); Schuman (1975). Not only this, but the fact that mainstream English is applied to confer a sense of superiority to Whites for whom it is a primary language, and in turn is applied to promote, maintain and reproduce racism and othering. 6.6.2. African resistance of English Language colonization With the scars of colonialism surreptitiously self-transforming into neo-colonialism, subjects of colonialism appear to be increasingly comprehending its various dimensions and hydra headedness that has allowed it to fester. In this vein, some have even taken steps to deal with Standardized English language for the menace they perceive it to be causing them. Those who still use the English language have chosen to speak and write and apply it in consonance with their culture and ways of doing things. One typical example is Nigeria, where, as soon as one is confronted for mixing tenses or using the socalled flawed English [in relation to how Standard English is used], they would spontaneously retort It is not my mother tongue and am I Oyinbo (White)? an allusion to those for whom it is their primary language. In 1968, the English Language department of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, faculty members agitated for and successfully abolished the English Language department, due to their contention that it was colonizing their thoughts and getting in the way of things (McGee, 1993). The agitators successfully argued that the English language curricular continued to represent and reflect European literary culture and concepts, while it deemphasized and denigrated African cultures and traditions. They argued about the essence of their emancipation from Britain when they still had to be forced to follow their ways of thinking and acting. Argued the abolitionists, the rustication of English language in the curriculum will provide them with the latitude to design a curriculum that would be appropriately

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consistent with the needs of Africans students and educators in institutions of learning. Ngugi (1972), a renowned writer of African literature surmised:

education is a means of knowledge about ourselves. Politically such knowledge works to reverse colonialisms impact on social construction of African reality: With Africa at the center of things, not existing as an appendix or a satellite of other countries and literatures, things must be seen from the African perspective (p.150).
Many people, especially those that have experienced the colonizing, therefore emasculatory properties of Standard English language can relate to and even agree with Ngugis measure. However, whereas this divorce and abrogation in somewhat culturally and linguistically homogenous Kenya is feasible, it will be next to impossible in North America for the nearly 50 million Blacks who call here home and have to deal with a majority population that has power, use the language for all its activities of daily living, and all interactions and social networking. Indeed, it will be committing hara-kiri for African Americans to attempt to abolish Standard English language, because they simply have no cultural base in the United States for doing it. The import of this action and argument underscores the dominating and deracinating properties of English language [language of power and domination] and how it can drive marginalized populations up the wall of anguish and sometimes, irrational thoughts and actions. Another lesson of this measure and its relevance is to underscore the colonizing, therefore, dominating effects of language [language of power]. A more feasible and attractive route would be just what the Oakland, San Francisco Bay area District School Board attempted to accomplish in 1995, which expectedly, but regrettably drew a lot of flak and brouhaha. Still, an effective recommendation would be to seek a solution that will accommodate African American Vernacular English in school and enterprise, thereby protecting the culture and the language that they are socialized into and use everyday of their life. Such a measure stands to also abate or eradicate the ridiculing by mainstream, White America (Gosh, 2002; Nieto, 2000) of Black students language into which they were socialized. It is important to note that as the demographics in North America shift and the resistance by the majority population remains, it may, and in tandem with language force itself on even the unwilling and unrepentant. Heritage Canada (2000); Moodley (1995); Kubat (1993); Naidoo (1989); Hawkins (1972) expect this paradigm shift to occur with or without the compliance of the majority population, due to the changing demographics of North America as the continent of immigrants. Another is Bobb-Smith (2003) postulation which perceives racism and racialization of Blacks as a situation that they may not ascribe to, especially the assignment of politicized identity that the oppressor and colonizer has awarded them. To this extent and as Bobb-Smith argued, the marginalized have the capacity to re-examine such identity, redefine, reconstruct or reject them outright. She maintained that oppressions of a subordinating type often present themselves as the cause clbre for the alteration of such identity from a static state, while simultaneously, and as the dynamic object,exerting recalcitrance to effect the desired changes. Bobb-Smith buttresses this argument:

learning to survive is connected to histories of oppressions and to the ways in which communities, subordinated and exploited by hegemonic powers, are sustained.the identities of Caribbean-Canadian women have been constructed to take up a legacy of learning, which has enabled them to produce acts of anti-subordination toward systems of exploitation (p.221).

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6.6.3. Presidency and Higher political office-Has Black English arrived at the White House and finally America? Many regard President Barack Obama as the first African American President, a misnomic summation, characterization and identity label that genetically and genealogically falls flat on its face. This is especially so when one factors that his mother, Anne Dunham was Caucasoid, therefore contributed an equal number of the 48 chromosomes required for a fetus to complete its mitosis and emerge as human. Be that as it may, Obama is a product of two worlds-Black and White and others, and it would appear that in this medley of cultures, Obamas use sometimes of AAVE is a strong indication that the Black linguistic culture may not be knelling its last toll but actually evolving and forcing an acceptance in mainstream American society. Alim and Smitherman (2012) forcefully argued that Obama may have wittingly or unwittingly become a major proponent of the standardization of AAVE linguistics sometime in 2008 post-election Presidential campaign. They observed that during this time, Obama visited Washington area Bens Chili Bowl just prior to his inauguration of 2009. Here, when declining to accept the change returned by a Black cashier, Obama retorted Nah, we straight (para. 7), a short sentence depicting a poignantly powerful African American way of expression. When prompted, most of the Africans and African Americans-70, comprising 93 percent of the respondents stated having observed President Obama drifting between Black Vernacular language and standardized English. For 45 African Americans in this sample, the fact that Obama routinely speaks their language made them particularly proud, not only of the President, but AAVE as their cultural language and symbol of their identity as Blacks. Those, who had been chided for speaking the language because it was branded ghetto said they now no longer felt ashamed of it as they had previously. The African Americans also stated that they would like AAVE to be taught [and teachers trained in them] in tandem with SEL so that it is not lost to posterity. Alim and Smitherman also opined that Obamas use of Black language in consonance with hiphop culture, as well as the use of flow shows a mapping of rhymes onto a beat. Theyre tryna bamboozle you (para.12). Obama, as the authors pursued, applied words and phrases not known to be used outside of the Black community and culture, such as trifling, which means lazy and inadequate and high-yella depicting fair-skinned Blacks (para.9). Obama was also described as engaging in zero copula by omitting auxiliaries that join subjects to predicates, a renowned attribute of Black linguistics. Further, Obamas application of speech crescendos and diminuendos embraces pulpit mannerisms and the accompanying prancing associated with Black preachers, such as Dr. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, depicting the transcendence of Black language into the mainstream fora.

My opponent and his running mate are ... new ... to foreign policy, he said, adding the two pauses for great comedic effect. The second, and more familiar, was the soaring crescendo, beginning with in the words of Scripture, ours is a future filled with hope, in which Mr. Obama demonstrated his strongest mode of linguistic performance the black preacher style to end his remarks (knowing that providence is with us and that we are surely blessed) (Alim and Smitherman, 2012, para.1).
To this extent, Obamas flexibility of application merger of White syntax with Black linguistic style has not only established him as an epitome of American identity, but also an avant garde in mainstreaming and unifying American linguistic heritage cultures, be they White, Black or Hispanic.

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7. Conclusion and directions for future research It is increasingly clear that the world as we know it is shrinking and rapidly so into a small village, with multiethnic, multilingual implications that we have absolutely no control over. Obama, in his Dreams From My Father stated that he learned Spanish in Harlem in order to communicate with his Puerto Rican neighbors, claimed that his father of Kenyan descent, but as a subject of British imperialism spoke English with a British accent. He learned to speak some Hawaiian Creole himself from his maternal grandfather, and mastered the Indonesian language in less than six months, besides its customs and traditions. Not only that, he has exchanged pleasantries with his Kenyan paternal relatives in the Luo language, and tried signing with the hearing impaired community(as cited in Alim and Smitherman, 2012, para. 17). Pope John Paul II, formerly known as Karol Wojtyla spoke his native Polish in addition to fluent French, German, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Croatian, Ancient Greek and Latin and, he was none the worse for it, because his horizon widened and he became the most beloved Pope in recent history. Love it or hate it, Black English linguistic has come to stay, come of age, yet evolving and will come full cycle with or without deliberate human engineering. Certainly its advertent or inadvertent propagation by someone as powerful as President Obama, Chrysler Corp.,Hip-hop and Rapp artistes represented by Snoop Dogg, Eminem and the rest, have serious implications for politics, but more especially, education and poignantly in conscious or unconscious ways signal the genesis of the deconstruction of the myth of Whiteness (Aanerud, 2003; Chabram-Dernersesian, 2003; Muraleedharan, 2003). In his book, the Audacity of Hope Obama stated that:

members of every minority group continue to be measured largely by the degree of our assimilation. But while racial and ethnic minorities (and working-class whites) must continue to learn standard American English the countrys dominant language all children surely need to learn to understand and appreciate the nuances of Americas diverse ways of speaking (as cited in Alim and Smitherman, 2012, para.11).
This statement cannot be more poignant and pragmatic in light of trending facts that show Asians as Americas fastest-growing minority and Hispanics as the largest ethnic minority, which means that we aint seen nothin yet as multicultural, multiethnic ways of speaking, thinking, acting and relating are just emerging and will come full cycle in a short time (Warren and Twine, 1997). Alim and Smitherman (2012) could not have put it more aptly when they stated:

For too long, sounding presidential meant sounding like a white, middle- or upper-class straight man (with modest leeway for regional accents). In 2012 and beyond, its going to take a lot more than that to win over the hearts and minds and ears of the American people (para.20).
America, you are now officially on notice! References
Aanerud, R. (2003). Fictions of Whiteness: Speaking the Names of Whiteness in U.S. Literature. In R. Frankenberg.(Ed.), Displacing Whiteness, (pp.35-59). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

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Ethnicity and Economic Development in Central and Eastern Europe1


Giuseppe Motta
Sapienza Universit di Roma
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p155

Abstract Ethnicity and economic development have a strict connection in the history of Central-Eastern Europe. This essay aims to sketch some general lines of this complex relationship, focusing on the importance that culture and ethnical belonging had for the economic development of certain European regions. Inside the great multinazional Empires of Central-Eastern Europe, as a matter of fact, the inter-ethnic problems had always showed also an economic impact and had been largely conditioned by the distinction between dominant groups and dominated minorities. This situation was dangerously manifest at the end of the First World War, when the definition of a new geopolitical balance and the consolidation of the National States tried to erase this historical legacy creating many problems for the economic stability and the ethnic coexistence. Key words: Ethnicity, Economic development, National Minorities, Dominant Groups.

Nella storia di lunga durata del continente europeo, lo studio delle strutture economiche ha sempre rappresentato un utile strumento per comprendere il pi ampio quadro politico e culturale nel quale si vanno a inserire commerci, produzione e rapporti economici. Allo stesso tempo, l'analisi delle dinamiche sociali e della legislazione di un paese ha indirizzato gli storici e gli studiosi verso una pi lucida analisi dello sviluppo economico in s. La notissima analisi di Adam Smith sulla rivoluzione industriale inglese, in tal senso, costituisce un esempio illuminante per comprendere come lo studio economico non possa assolutamente prescindere dalla conoscenza di parametri di diversa natura, che al contrario afferiscono alla societ o alle disposizioni legali di una certa epoca e di un certo paese. La reciproca influenza esercitata dall'economia sulla societ e viceversa, in sostanza, non pu essere ignorata dagli studi dell'una e dell'altra materia, n tanto meno pu essere sottovalutata, sovrastimando un singolo fattore a discapito del risultato complessivo. Il progresso della societ europea, infatti, pu essere considerato come la summa di elementi diversi, fra loro strettamente legati e inscindibilmente connessi. Questi elementi possono essere s analizzati separatamente, ma non possono venire isolati e studiati come fenomeni indipendenti o del tutto estranei. Tornando all'esempio della rivoluzione industriale, non possibile parlare solo degli aspetti economici di tale epoca, ma necessario analizzare gli sviluppi di quegli anni: la normativa sul diritto di propriet, per esempio sul trespass, l'avvio e il consolidamento delle infrastrutture come la ferrovia, il pi generale contesto culturale di un'epoca in cui gli studi si vanno perfezionando e abbandonano le antiche logiche del dogmatismo e dell'immobilismo sociale. Una ulteriore opera che pu essere di aiuto per comprendere come progresso economico e realt socio-culturale non possano essere scissi e valutati separatamente sicuramente il noto lavoro del tedesco Max Weber, L'etica protestante e lo spirito del capitalismo, scritto dal sociologo, economista e

Il presente articolo pubblicato nell'ambito del progetto PRIN 2009 "Imperi e Nazioni in Europa dal XVIII al XX secolo" Unit di Ricerca Sapienza, Universit di Roma
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politologo tedesco nel 1904-1905, tradotto in inglese e divenuto uno dei testi pi importanti nel campo della sociologia economica. La tesi fondamentale di tale opera che la mentalit protestante e la sua pratica abbiano fortemente influenzato la nascita dello spirito del capitalismo, inteso non come mero sentimento di avidit e arricchimento, ma come un complesso di elementi che associati in un determinato momento storico animano la costruzione di un nuovo modo di intendere l'attivit economica degli individui, in maniera libera da preconcetti.2 Nei Paesi Bassi, in Germania, in Francia, in Inghilterra, le idee riformate, luterane e calviniste, trovano il terreno fertile per conquistare la nobilt e la borghesia imprenditrice tracciando nuovi assetti e una nuova cultura che influenza in maniera significativa il rapporto dell'uomo con concetti quali lavoro e profitto. Affiora cos una nuova concezione della vita in cui prende corpo uno sviluppo capitalistico, alle cui origini Max Weber pone proprio la nascita di una diversa etica, quella protestante. Weber si interroga sulle ragioni per cui nei distretti pi avanzati economicamente si sono sviluppati simultaneamente espressioni favorevoli a una rivoluzione interna alla Chiesa. L'emancipazione del tradizionalismo economico costituisce dunque un fattore importante per dubitare della santit delle tradizioni religiose e della legittimit delle autorit. In tal senso, la Riforma protestante implica non l'eliminazione del controllo ecclesiastico dalla vita di tutti i giorni, ma la sua sostituzione con una nuova forma di controllo, pi tollerante ma allo stesso tempo pi stringente. La mediazione della Chiesa cattolica tra Dio e i fedeli viene infatti indebolita se non cancellata dal luteranesimo, per cui ogni credente diviene quasi il sacerdote di s stesso, o comunque acquista la possibilit di avere conoscenza diretta dei testi sacri. Allo stesso tempo, per, Lutero sostiene che nessun uomo possa pensare di arrivare fino a Dio unicamente con le sue poche forze. Anche grazie all'apporto dato da Calvino, la ricchezza diventa dunque uno dei segni visibili attraverso cui si manifesta la grazia divina. Il benessere generato dal lavoro acquista il valore di vocazione religiosa e pu essere interpretato dal credente come concreta espressione dell'aiuto e del supporto divino, quindi della sua fedelt e della sua predestinazione. Se nel medioevo cristiano, quantomeno in alcuni contesti ecclesiastici e monacali, la figura del povero ricorda la presenza di Cristo, e la miseria considerata uno strumento per acquisire meriti per il paradiso, secondo l'etica protestante rappresenta invece una punizione per espiare le proprie colpe terrene. Secondo Weber la concezione del lavoro dei cattolici e dei protestanti profondamente diversa: semplificando, mentre il cattolico celebra le funzioni sacre come la messa o comunque prega per ottenere qualcosa, il protestante ringrazia Dio per quello che ha gi ottenuto e lo onora per questo motivo, senza aspirare ad ottenere dei benefici, se non attraverso il proprio lavoro e le proprie opere. Mentre le chiese cattoliche manifestano ed esaltano la gloria di Dio nell'oro e nella ricchezza dei loro edifici e delle cerimonie, al contrario quelle calviniste e luterane si battono contro quella che ritengono una mera idolatria, e si presentano come severi, seppur magnifici, luoghi di culto costruiti soltanto per pregare. Nel protestantesimo, la fede del tutto separata dalle opere e cos nello spirito capitalistico il lavoro e la produzione sono valori morali a s che vengono separati da ogni risultato esterno.

per il progresso e, di conseguenza, hanno alimentato una voglia di cambiamento che va di pari passo con un maggiore slancio in termini di intraprendenza economica. M.Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, London, 1950, p.48. R.Bendix, Max Weber: an intellectual portrait, Berkeley, 1977; D.Cantoni, "The Economic Effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber Hypothesis in the German Lands, 2009; H. Treiber (a cura di), Per leggere Max Weber, Padova, 1993; M. De Feo, Introduzione a Weber", Bari, 1970; L.Cavalli, "Max Weber: religione e societ, Bologna, 1968; F.Ferrarotti, Max Weber e il destino della ragione", Bari, 1965. Sulla critica a Weber: R.Tawney, La religione e la genesi del capitalismo, Milano,1967.

2 Nonostante tutto, sostiene Weber, il dogmatismo e la mancanza di discussione hanno rappresentato dei seri limiti

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Il lavoro di Weber ha chiaramente scatenato una lunga serie di reazioni, di commenti entusiastici e di dure critiche. Altre interpretazioni storiografiche, infatti, hanno ribattuto alle tesi del tedesco sostenendo che non affatto vero che il cattolicesimo sia estraneo allo spirito capitalistico, ma anzi che lo abbia incoraggiato per esempio all'interno dei comuni italiani, nelle cattoliche citt di Siviglia, Lisbona e Venezia e nel loro capitalismo commerciale, la cui crisi, dopo il 1492, dovuta allo spostamento dei traffici verso il Nuovo Mondo e non certo a cause religiose o relative all'etica. La nascita del capitalismo un soggetto di vivo interesse che nel tempo ha attirato l'attenzione dei pi noti e importanti studiosi, da Marx, il quale vede nella dissoluzione della societ feudale la liberazione degli elementi propri della societ capitalistica, a Henri Pirenne, che individua nella centralit del commercio e nell'attivit dei mercanti le origini e l'evoluzione del capitalismo. Hanno poi partecipato a tale dibattito Marc Dobb e molti altri autori quali Brenner, Postan, Parker, Hilton, Cooper, Sombart, Brentano, Se, Tawney, Topolski, Polany.3 Non essendo questa la sede per approfondire le diverse implicazioni del notissimo libro di Weber, n il dibattito storiografico a cui ha dato origine, importante invece sottolineare come all'interno di tale analisi trovi spazio anche lo studio delle condizioni delle minoranze, nazionali o religiose. Trovandosi in una posizione di subordinazione politica a un gruppo diverso, queste, in maniera volontaria o incoscientemente, vengono spinte con particolare forza nell'attivit economica. Il riconoscimento che viene loro a mancare dal punto di vista etnico o confessionale, viene invece ricercato attraverso le proprie abilit professionali. Weber cita a tale proposito numerosi esempi: i polacchi in Russia, gli ugonotti in Francia, gli anticonformisti e i quaccheri in Inghilterra e, last but not least, gli ebrei lungo la loro millenaria storia.4 Queste argomentazioni vengono riprese alcuni anni pi tardi da Werner Sombart, economista e sociologo che nel 1911 dedica una sua importante opera proprio agli ebrei e al loro ruolo nello sviluppo del capitalismo moderno. Quella di Sombart una analisi attenta che, anche a livello storico, porta numerosi esempi per cercare di comprendere la peculiarit ebraica e la ricchezza di tali comunit, per esempio citando numerose statistiche e documenti in cui si danno diverse spiegazioni di tale arricchimento: la capacit di adattarsi a situazione diverse, la compattezza e la solidariet interna al gruppo, la bravura nel reperire informazioni e tradurle in vantaggi concreti, la disponibilit a viaggiare e muoversi... Allo stesso tempo Sombart ricorda le difficolt incontrate dalle comunit ebraiche, per esempio nel riconoscimento dei loro diritti come cittadini, ricordando per esempio alcuni atti della legislazione prussiana del Settecento, che proibiscono loro l'esercizio di alcune professioni o la vendita ai non ebrei di carne, birra e alcolici.5

3 Naturalmente il confronto storico su tali tematiche si arricchito di numerose, pi o meno interessanti e originali, opere, fra cui se ne possono segnalare qui solo alcune. Cfr. H.Pirenne, Storia economica e sociale del Medioevo, Milano 1967; R.H.Tawney, La religione e l'origine del capitalismo, Milano, 1967; L.Brentano Le origini del capitalismo Firenze, 1954; J.Topolski, La nascita del capitalismo in Europa: crisi economica e accumulazione originaria fra 14. e 17. secolo, Torino, 1979. Per quanto riguarda il contributo di studiosi italiani, cfr. L.Pellicani, La genesi del capitalismo e le origini della modernit, Lungro di Cosenza, 2005; A.Fanfani. Cattolicesimo e protestantesimo nella formazione storica del capitalismo, Milano, 1940; O.Nuccio, Addio all'Etica protestante. Umanesimo civile ed individualismo economico nella letteratura italiana: da Albertano ad Alberti, Roma, 2003.

4 Cfr.M.Weber, op.cit., p.39. 5 W.Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism, Kitchener, 2001, p.126; M.Appel, Werner Sombart: Historiker und Theoretiker des modernen Kapitalismus. Marburg, 1992; J.G.Backhaus, Jrgen G. (ed.) Werner Sombart (1863-1941): Social Scientist. 3 vols. Marburg, 1996; J.Z. Muller, The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought, Nussbaum,, 2002; F.Louis, A History of the Economic Institutions of Modern Europe: An Introduction of 'Der Moderne Kapitalismus' of Werner Sombart. New York, 1933.

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Il rapporto fra sviluppo economico e appartenenza etnica, dunque, non un settore inesplorato o totalmente nuovo, ma pu gi vantare autorevoli studi e importanti contributi, come quelli gi citati. Tale relazione, tuttavia, si arricchisce di nuovi spunti se inserita nel pi complesso contesto dell'Europa orientale, dove da sempre una moltitudine di popoli, etnie, lingue e religioni convivono nelle stesse citt e nelle stesse regioni. In tali territori, le condizioni economiche hanno spesso comportato distinzioni non solo sociali, ma anche etniche e linguistiche, e queste differenze hanno svolto un ruolo fondamentale nelle strutturazione del quadro socio-economico dell'Europa centro-orientale. All'interno dell'Impero asburgico per esempio, i contrasti nazionali manifestati dalla popolazione ceca fin dai tempi di Jan Huss, hanno avuto una connotazione non solo religiosa, ma anche economica e, come detto, nazionale: la fede hussita e pi tardi quella protestante rappresentano per i cechi una parte importante del loro sentimento nazionale, che si esprime attraverso la definizione di una precisa identit, per l'appunto nazionale ma anche confessionale, e la difesa di alcune prerogative economiche. Il contrasto con le autorit asburgiche, che d origine alla Guerra dei Trent'Anni (1618-1648), racchiude tutti questi elementi e si conclude con la sconfitta dei cechi. La fedelt all'imperatore cattolico viene ricompensata con ricchi privilegi di natura economica e cos, dopo la celebre battaglia della Montagna Bianca (1620), viene favorita la penetrazione nelle terre ceche di proprietari cattolici, soprattutto tedeschi.6 Pi in generale, si pu sottolineare come nei domini asburgici l'elemento tedesco sia predominante e, pur con le dovute distinzioni a seconda dei tempi e delle aree geografiche, la Germanizzazione diventa quindi anche uno strumento di ascesa economica e di progresso sociale. La stessa logica pervade l'Ungheria, sia durante il periodo della Corona di Santo Stefano, sia dopo il 1867 e il compromesso dualista austro-ungarico. Prendendo in considerazione la multietnica Transilvania, molti studi hanno infatti sottolineato come per la consistente popolazione romena tralasciando ogni polemica sulla effettiva predominanza numerica di tale gruppo nella regione l'unico modo di guadagnare una posizione nelle gerarchie statali fosse quello di magiarizzarsi, come dimostra l'esperienza degli Hunyadi: tale famiglia di origine romena riesce infatti ad assumere un ruolo di grande importanza solo in tal modo, e arriva a dare all'Ungheria un condottiero di fama come Janos Hunyadi (Iancu di Hunedoara) e un sovrano come Mattia Corvino.7 Analogamente, nei Balcani sottoposti al dominio ottomano, le popolazioni slave vengono assoggettate da una ristretta cerchia di funzionari di fede musulmana. La conversione all'Islam diventa una conditio sine qua non per accedere a posti autorevoli all'interno della corte, dell'esercito o dell'amministrazione ottomana. Diventa cos possibile che i giovani dati alla Sublime Porta dalle famiglie cristiane come tributo di sangue, devirme, possano venire arruolati nell'esercito o fare carriera a palazzo, anche arrivando a posizioni molto influenti. All'interno dei domini ottomani, inoltre, vige il sistema del Millet, istituito dal sultano Maometto II dopo la conquista di Costantinopoli nel 1453. Grazie a tale sistema ogni comunit confessionale nonmusulmana gode non solo della libert religiosa, ma anche di una particolare autonomia che le consente di regolare i propri affari interni e, in alcuni casi, di auto-amministrarsi. Il Millet fa parte

6 Sulla struttura delle terre boeme e i rapporti tra cechi e tedeschi, cfr. H. Agnew, The Czechs and the Lands of Bohemian Crown, Stanford 2004, p. 184; I.L. Evans, Agrarian Reform in the Danubian Countries: II. Czechoslovakia, in The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 8, No. 24 (Mar., 1930), pp. 601-611. 7 Figlio di Giovanni Hunyadi, Mattia Corvino (Kolozsvar 1440 - Vienna 1490) fu re di Ungheria fra il 1458 e il 1490. Dopo la morte di Ladislao VI fu acclamato re grazie alle ricchezze della sua casata. Combatt eroicamente contro i turchi (1463) e contro gli ussiti (1468) conquistando la Moravia, la Slesia e la Lusazia. Nel 1485 occup parte dellAustria. Tent anche di ottenere la corona imperiale ma gli fu preferito Massimiliano dAsburgo. Per uninteressante e completa opera sulla vita di Mattia Corvino, cfr. P.Kovacs, Mattia Corvino, traduzione italiana di J. Sarkozy, Cosenza 2000.

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dell'organizzazione ottomana e diventa lo strumento attraverso cui i cristiani e gli ebrei riescono a convivere pacificamente all'interno di uno Stato musulmano, pagando tale libert con una maggiore imposizione fiscale, che tuttavia non impedisce loro di arricchirsi ed esercitare una importante influenza proprio grazie alla loro, solitamente pi avanzata, posizione economica.8 Questa particolare struttura socio-economica interna ai grandi Imperi multinazionali crea nei secoli una realt complessa e composita, dove le disuguaglianze sociali diventano spesso sinonimo di diversit etnica. Il retaggio storico di tale realt si palesa in tutta la sua problematicit nell'Ottocento, soprattutto nei Balcani che vengono liberati dal dominio turco, ma ancor di pi dopo il 1918, al termine della prima guerra mondiale. in tale contesto, infatti, che il successo del principio di autodeterminazione nazionale si unisce a istanze di rinnovamento economico e sociale e una generale voglia di cambiamento che coinvolge non solo le lites ma anche le masse. Secondo i pi convinti sostenitori del nazionalismo, la liberazione dall'egemonia straniera non pu tradursi in una semplice indipendenza politica ma deve portare a una analoga emancipazione economica e alla soppressione di tutti i privilegi del passato. Il problema rappresentato dal fatto che tali privilegi si presentano e vengono spesso percepiti non come pertinenza di una classe sociale aristocratica, quindi come propriet acquisite in ragione del proprio grado di nobilt, bens come conseguenza di una precisa appartenenza etnica. La propriet immobiliare, per esempio, sovente nelle mani di grandi proprietari che appartengono esclusivamente a una popolazione: i magnati magiari di Transilvania, Rutenia e Slovacchia, i bey musulmani della BosniaErzegovina, i tedeschi della Slesia e della Poznania sono tutti esempi di gruppi etnici che in particolari regioni hanno sempre associato il loro dominio politico a una consolidata influenza economica.9 Si spiega cos la situazione di alcune aree, come la Bosnia, dove secondo le statistiche del 1910 I nobili musulmani (begovi, age, spahije) hanno nelle loro mani pi o meno i 3/5 delle terre coltivate, mentre I serbi appartengono quasi esclusivamente alla categoria dei coloni (kmetovi).10 Una situazione simile la pu riscontrare in alcune regioni polacche e in Transilvania, dove per secoli rimasto un vigore un sistema basato sullesistenza di tre nazioni storiche (magiara, sassone e seclera) e lesclusione della popolazione romena, ridotta a una condizione socio-economica di inferiorit e soggezione.11 Dopo il

8 Sul ruolo dei non-musulmani all'interno dell'Impero ottomano, cfr. M.H. van den Boogert, The capitulations and the Ottoman legal system: qadis, consuls, and beraths in the 18th century, Leiden, Brill 2005; M.H. van den Boogert-K. Fleet (eds.), The Ottoman capitulations: text and context, Rome, 2003; A.Biagini, Storia della Turchia contemporanea, Milano, 2002; G.Motta (a cura di), I Turchi, il Mediterraneo e l'Europa, Milano, 1998; K.Cragg, The Arab Christian. A History in the Middle East, Westminster, John Knox Press, 1991; K.Karpat, Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics, Madison, 1985. 9 Chiaramente, l'analisi economica delle strutture interne ai grandi Imperi, in Europa centro-orientale, non pu riassumersi in cos poche parole e risulta effettivamente molto complessa. In questa introduzione, tuttavia, appare importante soprattutto sottolineare come l'appartenenza etno-culturale abbia condizionato anche lo sviluppo economico di molte comunit. Pi in generale, comunque, cfr. J.R. Lampe-M.R. Jackson, Balkan economic history, 1550-1950: from imperial borderlands to developing Nations, Bloomington 1982; D. F. Good, The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire. 1750-1914, Berkeley 1984. infine necessario segnalare una opera imprescindibile per comprendere tale realt economica, cfr. A.Gerschenkron, Il problema storico dell'arretratezza economica, Torino, 1965; A. Gerschenkron, La continuit storica, teoria e storia economica, Torino, 1978. 10 R.J. Donia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. A Tradition Betrayed, London 1994, pp. 122-123; A. Filipic, La Jugoslavia economica, Milano 1922, p. 44. 11 La storiografia romena ha definito il sistema in vigore in Transilvania fin dalla costituzione dell'Unio trium natinum del 1438 come delle tre nazioni, evidenziando come siano state le tre nazioni magiara, sassone e seclera a dominare la vita politica ed economica della regione fino al 1918. I romeni, infatti, venivano messi su un piano di inferiorit ed erano principalmente dediti all'agricoltura. Nel quindicesimo secolo, d'altra parte, la situazione non era molto differente anche se le famiglie romene avevano comunque di partecipare alla vita politica del regno di

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1918, nella regione di Pomorze, i tedeschi possiedono 127,750 ettari di terra e costituiscono il 19.6% della popolazione, mentre i polacchi, pur rappresentando l'80.4 % della popolazione, possiedono solo 77,390 ettari. Nel distretto della Silesia di Gross-Wartenberg (noto anche come Polnisch Wartenberg, poi come Sycw) delle 5241 piccole propriet, appena 37 appartengono a polacchi.12 Invertendo la prospettiva, le popolazioni come i romeni di Transilvania, i polacchi sottoposti al dominio del Reich tedesco, i contadini slavi della Bosnia-Erzegovina si sono invece considerate come le vittime di una profonda ingiustizia e hanno interpretato la loro povert, o comunque il loro generalmente pi basso tenore di vita, come una conseguenza della loro appartenenza etnica, della loro religione o della loro lingua. Tale percezione ha spesso trovato modo di essere confermata attraverso lo studio della legislazione agraria interna ai grandi Imperi ed ha alimentato nei secoli una fortissima voglia di rivalsa e riscossa nazionale, che a sua volta ha portato a ulteriori attriti e anche discriminazioni nel periodo successivo al primo conflitto bellico. Come stato magistralmente sottolineato nel lavoro di T. Berend e G. Rnki, dopo il 1918 la risposta a questa problematica storica viene rinvenuta dagli Stati dell'Europa orientale in un crescente nazionalismo economico, fatto di protezionismo, barriere doganali e altre misure che cercano di invertire I legami che molte regioni avevano consolidato con il centro Europa, con Berlino, Vienna e Budapest. Viene al contrario esaltato il ruolo del capitale autoctono, non sempre in grado di guidare lo sviluppo postbellico di tali territori, con il risultato di aggravare l'opera di ricostruzione e di normalizzazione sul piano economico che gi Keynes aveva indicato come uno dei pi pesanti ostacoli verso la pacificazione dell'Europa.13 Le difficolt del periodo interbellico e la grande crisi del 1929 non possono che aggravare questa instabilit, che caratterizza tanto il quadro economico, quanto i rapporti fra gli Stati e i popoli dellEuropa centro-orientale.

Ungheria come fanno gli Hunyadi e la famiglia Drago. Nel suo libro dedicato a Dracula, Vlad III, Matei Cazacu descrive l'amministrazione della Transilvania sottolineando le possibilit che le elits romene avevano nella Transilvania meridionale, nei distretti di Hateg and Fgra. Cfr. D.Prodan, The Origins of Serfdom in Transylvania, in Slavic Review, Vol. 49, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 1-18; J.Held, The Peasant Revolt of Babolna 1437-1438, in Slavic Review, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1977), pp. 25-38; R. W. Seton-Watson, Transylvania, in The Slavonic Review, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Dec., 1922), pp. 306-322; M.Cazacu, Dracula. La vera storia di Vlad l'impalatore, Milano, 2006; I.A. Pop, Romni i mahiarii n secolele IX-XIV. Geneza Statului medieval n Transilvania, Cluj 1996. 12 Tali dati provengono dal Memorandum on Pomorze, redatto dal diplomatico britannico Savery e inviato a Sir A.Henderson (Warsaw, June 14, 1929). Documents on British Foreign Policy, Series Ia, Vol.VII, doc.187. Per il distretto della Silesia, invece, cfr. Mmoire sur le maintien du district de Gross-Wartenberg au territoire allemande, Archivio storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito, Roma (Aussme), fondo E8, box 185, cartella 5. 13 Nel 1919 il delegato britannico John M.Keynes scrive un libro molto polemico in cui critica severamente la mancanza di una prospettiva di cooperazione economica nell'area dell'Europa orientale, dove, secondo Keynes, viene a mancare il ruolo svolto in passato da Russia e Germania. Cfr. J.M.Keynes, Le conseguenze economiche della pace, Milano 2007. Tale profezia verr presto confermata dalla crisi del 1929 e dall'ampia serie di politiche protezioniste che gli Stati europei approntano per difendere le loro deboli economie, creando tuttavia seri problemi allo sviluppo del commercio internazionale. I.T.Berend-G.Rnki, Lo sviluppo economico nellEuropa centro-orientale nel XIX e XX secolo, Bologna 1978, p. 241; M.C.Kaser (ed. by), The Economic History of Eastern Europe, 1 9I9-I975. Vol.

I: Economic Structure and Performance between the Two Wars. Vol. II: Interwar Policy, the War and Reconstruction, Oxford, I985; F.W.Moore, Economic Demography of Eastern and Souther Europe, Geneva 1945; I.Svennilson, Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy, Geneva 1954.

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Cost Management in Translation


Dr. Seyed Mohammad Hosseini-Maasoum
Department of Linguistics & Foreign Languages, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

Mostafa Ghazanfari
Department of English, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p161

Abstract Translation management is a modern approach toward translation industry in order to improve performance, quality and to reduce the use of resources such as human resources, cost and time. In this study, the main goal is to identify the standard cost management procedures and to apply cost management knowledge to translation studies. The study is based on Project Management Institute (PMI) standards which consist of 9 different management knowledge areas such as time, cost, procurement, quality, human resources, integration, communication, and risk management. The findings are expected to shed some light on cost management and its related issues in translation studies. Key words: translation studies, translation management, cost management, PMI

1. Introduction Translation project management is the solution to the new face of translation activities. People today can expect an organized set of works from translation agencies, which have an organizational structure based on modern project management. It is associated with planning, executing, controlling, and delivering a final translation to a client. There are many reasons to justify the focus on project management; the primary one is the nature of translation that is normally carried out as a project (Dunne & Dunne, 2011, p. 25). The Project Management Institute defines a standard framework for handling every project type. According to PMI (2008, p. 434), project is a sequence of unique, complex and connected activities having one goal to be completed by a specific date. Furthermore, PMI methodology consists of project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) that comes next in this thesis. PMBOK is a comprehensive project management standard that provides a generic management framework that can be applied to any industry (Dunne & Dunne, 2011, p. 92). Therefore, it can provide a theoretical model to apply project management elements to translation applied aids introduced earlier by Holmes (1972) and Pym (1998). PMBOK, in summary, includes management of cost, time, procurement, human resource, quality, risk, scope, and integration. Project Management Institute (PMI) offers PM frameworks that can be used in any industry like language industry. Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMBOK for short, was owned, prepared, and published by the PMI. This international and reliable guide offered five processes such as initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing (PMI 2008).

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Cost management is the process of managing the costs involved in translation project. The central aim is to provide the same value to customers at a lower cost or provision of a higher value at the same cost (Dutta, 2005, p. 29). Cost is an important factor for a product to be successful; as the technology matures, the real competition is almost based on cost or price. Therefore, cost management is being increasingly implemented in various steps of project life-cycle to eliminate the redundant costs of the project in order to gain higher productivity and competitive price. Translation project like any project deals with challenge of cost management. 2. Cost Management in Translation Mackay (2006, p. 101) elaborated the most common payment terms for translators in the United States where freelance translators will be paid within 30 days of invoice date or so-called Ne 30. Although these payment terms are far better than Net 60 or 90, as your cash flow is only a month behind your work flow; * it is still far from the online era. Nowadays, with the improvement in computer industry, everything tends to go online in order to gain access to more resources (human or economic). Therefore, payments with (at least) 30 days delay would not work in modern translation management approaches. European clients still pay in terms of Net60 or longer and this shows their lack of trust in the system or putting less value for translation. Anyhow, the best approach is to maximize translators chances of getting paid on time on the basis of a well-organized invoicing system which is called cost management tools. Cost management can print out invoices with pre-defined standards such as rate, word count, total amount and project description. It must also be remembered that a translation companys rates will always be higher than those of a freelance translator, simply because the company has all kinds of additional costs (i.e. sales, accounting, IT maintenance etc.) and overheads that the freelancer does not have. 3. Why Cost Management? Translation activity is a job of receiving and completing project offers. Some customers ask for the overall project cost at the beginning while others expect invoices at the end. Like SamuelssonBrown(2006, p. 121) described, as price pressure reigns it is invariably the translator who offers the lowest price who will be offered the job. While there are good translators who will accept low prices, the risk is that customers will accept lower prices from less experienced translators. Cost management can serve as an important role in creating competitive translation rates in order to decrease the impact of luxury translation elements. The customer should understand the value of quality in translation and respect a reasonable higher translation price offered from translators with more experience. Moreover, in the current competitive market where the range of translators is from freelancers to employees of translation agencies, cost management can help beginners to survive. Also, many translation projects happen to experience possible overruns in the event that one or more tasks cost more than expected (Dunne & Dunne, 2011, p. 81). Therefore, cost management is a proper way to keep things under control while translating different projects. 4. Cost Management Processes Cost management in translation as the name implies deals with the costs and budgets of a translation project. According to Kim Heldman (2011, p.47) this knowledge area consists of three processes as follow:

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Table 1. Project cost management processes

Many project managers paid costs when creating their budget to cushion against possible overruns in the event that some of the tasks cost more than expected (K.J & S.E. Dunne, 2011, p.81). Therefore managing the project cost is so important that it may affect the overall quality of a translation project. Dunnes continues that current approaches to budgeting the translation and localization projects are problematic. Standard project management budgeting contains not only the aggregated costs but also includes the contingency and management reserves. Wysocki (2004, p.42) named four project management processes included in project cost management as follow: Resource planning: Unlike Heldens notes in table 6, this step is added by Wysocki and refers to resources required to complete the work of the project. However this definition is vague and ad hoc, the resources required in a translation project normally consist of time, cost, human resources (translators). Therefore resource planning is also applicable to defining responsibilities where managers decide to give the available translators a new project based on the available resources. In OTM system this step is automated and the required resources are listed for the translators and clients. - Cost estimating: This is driven by the resource planning process. Translation manager sets cost estimation in the same way as has been done for the time estimation of the project. It is normally based on the standard or localized and pre-defined costing tables where sometimes the overall cost of a translation project is the word counts. - Cost budgeting: This is another process in project cost management which deals with the various project tasks and the money required for them. Translation manager will set a different budget for the glossary making or editing phase. - Cost control: As its name says, it is about controlling the overall cost of the project where there are many changes in the cost of project tasks throughout the life cycle of the translation project. These changes should be controlled and passed from a logical standard that allows overflow for the task cost in a project event. 5. Translation Cost Evaluations Robinson(2003, p. 17) elaborated that above all cost controls virtually all translation. Take for instance, a transaltion which is too expensive for the customer will not be done, while on the other hand a translation which is too cheap for the translator may not get done either. Therefore, cost evaluation is necessary to approve that the defined price tag for a translation project is fair to everyone included. 6. Cost Management in Action Translation cost is measured on the basis of different factors. According to Gouadec (2007, p. 203), the basis for calculating translation costs and rates is usually around counts inherited from the days of the

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printing industry, including: - number of words, - number of signs, - number of standard or real pages (as opposed to physical pages, which may not be full pages) on the basis of 250 or 300 words per page which amounts to a fine rate per word. The standard implicitly adopted by the English and American translation industry is 250 words per page (25 6.5 inch lines, with double spacing, and pica 10 font), a throwback to the printing and typing era (Gouadec, 2007, p. 203). Differences in counts are also applied to line length, which may depend on paper format and standard margin denitions. Some of these standard definitions are as follows: - number of standard lines based on 60 characters per line the standard reference in Belgium, for instance, - number of standard sheets (25 lines of 60 characters each, i.e. 1500 signs the standard reference in the publishing industry or 30 lines of 60 characters each, i.e. 1800 signs). However, the count may also include items such as: subtitles, menu lines, lines of code, - minutes of dialogue unless the calculation is based on a transcript and therefore on the number of words, - reels, - items (translation of legends, tables, lists, etc.), - bits (used in software localization), - and also people who count by jobs, hours or days. There is no pre-defined standard to inscribe it on all translation/localization projects for the purpose of word-counting. Word-count norms are different from one another. Very different vocabularies are used in different genres of translation such as technical translation and literary translation. Therefore tariffs for these categories are often open to discussion and negotiation. According to Gouadec(2007, p. 202), one method of calculation is based on source material volume, irrespective of the source language. Therefore, the number of items is multiplied by the at rate per item. This is referred to as source unit calculation. It makes it easier for the work provider to know where he stands. Another method known as target unit calculation consists in basing the calculation on the translated volume, irrespective of language. The term expansion ratio refers to the difference in the number of words between the target and the source text and the translator needs to take it into account. Languages such as Persian are typically good examples of increase in the number of words in translation. Although Persian or French languages are known as poetic languages and more words are used in their texts, serious research has shown that the number of words can vary according to the translators professional capacity. Gouadec also commented that work providers are often worried about translators who deliberately spin out their translation as much as possible. So, the best method is to agree on a pro rata calculation applied to the source word count. These days, the method of multiplying the average number of words per line by the average number of lines per page, then multiplying the result by the number of pages is no more functional for modern translation industry. These different methods of word counts lead to a discussion on the merits of this or that application, from the translators or the clients point of view. The idea of counting any signs in the page is sometimes boring in the minds of professional translators, because it gets in the way of the real job which is creating a remarkable equivalent experience for the target readers. The value of

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translation is measured by its feeling, consistency, discipline, and beauty not the actual number of words and signs. 7. Project economics Project economics is a term to address the budgeting of the translation project. According to Gouadec (2007, p. 81) in most translation projects, the payment and budget follows an early contract between the work provider and the translator thus the translators financial liability is limited to the invoice total. The budgeting in traditional translation project management was doomed to the blind contract or word counts of the translation product. In blind contract between the customer and the translator, an estimated range of cost and time is set, while the translated product may take more or less time and cost at the end. On the other hand, the word-count method was also an amateur approach, where sometimes the translators over-translate a project to achieve more payment. There is no pre-defined costing recipe for all translation projects as it is determined by the structure and uniqueness of each project (Harkness, Behr, & Lui, 2010). Project economics which is not limited to the budgeting line of translation project, also includes other factors such as outsourcing, automatic cost measurement, and translators payment. Before investigating these terms, a translation project needs a work out plan for its commercial policy and strategy in order to know its potential finance and to provide a platform for future advertising campaigns (Gouadec, 2007) : - Define tariffs and a billing policy: It refers to the policy that affects the companys future cash flow. Although defining a preset standard billing and tariffs policy looks like a tidy and managed decision, the uniqueness of translation projects is way far from setting preset tariffs for every project type. Some projects require additional costs and human resources and the uncertainty of a translation project avoids it, while it is actually against democratic standards of a project. - Determine the resources required: This refers to allocation of resources in a translation project which consist of translators, technical writers, editors, proofers, translation manager, computer sources, and premises. This idea is about forecasting the required resources appropriate for a translation project, while it is not an objective approach. It is also counted as a manager task to decide the resource requirements. Thereafter, it may include underestimation and overestimation of project resources which are types of a blind estimation and against the free and online selection of resources. - Choose the premises with utmost care: It is about careful estimation of budgeting through a translation project, in order to avoid blind estimation of costs, additional charges, taxes, insurance, energy etc. Incorrect estimation of required project budget may ruin the agencys image and dissuade the customers from future contracts. - Work out the financial projections: Financial projections refer to income on the one hand and estimated costs on the other. These projections report financial sustainability of the project. The payment rate in translation management is fully subjective and it depends completely on the contract between the customer and translator(s). Software products such as Projetex or TOM provide many features related to the financial cycle of a project and assist the translator or manager to add an invoice for a project, while the customer should pay the invoice before the translation project starts. There are some modules like AnyCount or CATCount to assist the translator to find the word counts and a close estimation of project cost.

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Work out the operating charges: Operating charges in a translation project may include purchases, external services, taxes, staff costs, financial charges, and depreciation. Calculation of operation charges in a translation project can vary according to the following factors: - Work out how to finance investment: Initial sources of investment for a translator may be few, but in most cases it would be enough for a startup. These sources may include subscriber shares, funds from family and friends, governmental grants, banks or other sorts of loans. Therefore, either the translators decide what share of the workload they can take on and nd out what share of the cake they can get, or they decide what share of the cake they want and what cost will have to be paid in terms of investment, training or retraining (Gouadec, 2007, p. 120). - Complete all the legal formalities: This process is not directly related to the payment system or finance of the project, but it is a permission to do business. Legal forms like registration of translation organization permit the company to receive offers and continue its business in legal terms. It results in higher confidence from the customer as they know the organization is authorized by the government. Further to above discussion, there is no set system or rule currently in place in order to be used to produce word counts and it is the main reason why a customer gets different project invoices from different translation agencies. The tools for these agencies are internal and private, while this unclear state of price tagging may affect the customers mind, as they may think most of these prices are unfair. Moreover, if a translator produces a cheaper invoice, then the customer might think of it as translation with lower quality. From usual Word Count tools like MS Word to technical tools such as Trados, it is hard to generate a similar result, for these tools have their own methods of counting. As an example in MS Word, the software will not count the boxes, tables, and figures, thus it ends in a lower count. Other tools ignore items like embedded objects, headers, symbols and tags. On average, MS Word produces the lowest word count compared to Trados and Wordfast. Wordfast and PractiCount and Invoice produce higher word counts (Bologna, 2010). Table 2 Specifications of Word Count tools (adopted from WinTranslation)

Economics of translation project is not limited to setting invoices, other branches like online payments for customers and staff members are also valuable to a project management system. The idea that a customer needs to go to the bank in order to pay the project cost is ridiculous. This method of payment is ancient and out of sync, while it takes time and imposes much more cost on the system. Today, the money transaction is the easiest and fastest part of the project. Online banking and online payments assist project handlers to manage project costs with ease and speed. Costing process in translation projects regularly depends on the terms of payments which are agreed in advance. A mutual understanding of pricing structure must have been confirmed by the

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customer and translator(s), before the project is actually started. Some companies send proper invoice to the customer after the initial analysis of translation project and expect a full payment of the project, as it is an obligation for any further progress (Samuelsson-Brown, 2006, p. 77) . The invoice payment in translation management and freelancing are at opposite ends of the scale, for in the latter the payment is after the project completion. The difference is not only in the time of the payment, but it implies the reliability of project management system in the customers minds. When a translation project is offered to a freelancer, they reach an agreement on the pricing method but the freelancer will be paid after the translation is done and checked by the customer. Therefore, there is no pay back insurance for both the freelancers and customers. Back to management system the paid invoice may not be normally withheld or returned to customers, as the group of translation is working on the project, and the project cancelation will not be tolerated by the system. Moreover to this challenge, in modern translation management systems, freelancers and translation groups can bid for a project on which they can set a custom payment, and the customer on the other side is free to choose the best price among the ready translators bids. There is no convincing evidence that democracy can have a noticeable impact on the economies of societies. While, on the other side, countries like China, Singapore, and South Korea often claim that nondemocratic systems are better at economic growth. The idea that imperialism is the only and affective reason for these countries to have a growing economy, is subjective and with no convincing study. What is clear about democracy and the wealth growth in countries is that a friendly economic climate generates faster economic growth rather than a harsher political system (Sen, 1999). The economic growth in nondemocratic environment is more about harsh authorization and hardworking rather than an open market with equity in its members. Back to translation management, the change from a self-managing and freelancing into participating in a free and open management system mostly results in economic growth along with friendly workplace. 8. Conclusion Different people have different opinions toward translation management powered by software products. They question the reasons for using these products in translation project cycle. To be fair, they have the full right to ask for the causes and effects before they are assured in order to change their work structure. Similarly, many translators are not good with computers and online work environments, thus they need convincing answers before anyone can expect them to use any translation management product. Cost management as a sub utility of a bigger picture named translation project management, can offer a systematic and comprehensive management procedure that surely affects the way everyone treats translation. Translation is not a hobby anymore and it should be taken seriously as a profession where the exchange rates and project costs are measured based on pre-defined translation standards. The cost policy will be clear to the customer and it helps translators to avoid committing over-translations or any other unethical actions. The management of translation costs can keep the translation quality high as it increases the productivity and profitability of translation works. Works Cited
Bologna, S. (2010). Translation Word Count - Why do Word Counts Vary from Agency to Agency? Retrieved Sept 30, 2012, from WinTranslation: http://www.wintranslation.com/articles/ translationarticles/translation-word-counts/ Dunne, K. J., & Dunne, E. S. (2011). Translation and Localization Project Management: The Art of the Possible. John Benjamins Publishing. Dutta, M. (2005). Cost Accounting: Principles And Practice. Pearson Education India.

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Gouadec, D. (2007). Translation As a Profession. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co. Harkness, J., Behr, D., & Lui, A. (2010, Sept 9). Translation: Translation Management and Budgeting. Retrieved Oct 1, 2012, from Cross-Cultural Survey Guidelines: http://ccsg.isr.umich.edu/ trans_budg.cfm McKay, C. (2006). how to succeed as a freelance translator. Lulu.com. PMI. (2008). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK guide). Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Inc. Samuelsson-Brown, G. (2006). Managing Translation Services. Multilingual Matters Publishing. Sen, A. (1999). Democracy as a Universal Value. Journal of Democracy.

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An Evaluation of Students Perspectives on the Teaching and Learning of Property Investment Valuation in a Nigerian University
Namnso Bassey Udoekanem1
Department of Estate Management and Valuation Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria E mail: namnsoudoekanem@futminna.edu.ng Tel: +2348023741703

David Odegwu Adoga


Department of Estate Management and Valuation Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Shien Stephen Kuma


Department of Estate Management and Valuation Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p169

Abstract This paper evaluates students perspectives on the teaching and learning of property investment valuation through an empirical study of 84 graduating real estate students in a Nigerian university selected through purposive sampling technique. It was found that the students overall level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation was highest in the definition of property investments and lowest in hedonic modelling of property investment values. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female respondents produced an F-ratio of 0.53 at p-value greater than 0.05. The respondents strongly agreed that practical exercises in the field will facilitate understanding of property investment valuation. They also agreed that lecturers with practical experience teach property investment valuation better and that property investment valuation should be taught together with valuation of financial assets. The paper concludes that there is need for practical-based property investment valuation curriculum at the university level in Nigeria in which property investment valuation is taught within the context of comparative investment appraisal. Keywords: Property Investment Valuation; Teaching; Learning; Students; University; Nigeria

1. Introduction Property investments are those real properties which are expected to produce benefits in the form of direct monetary return (Ifediora, 1993). They are properties which are income-yielding and as such produce an income-flow (Millington, 1982) or are acquired purely as an investment (Hargitay and Yu,

Corresponding Author

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1993; Baum and Crosby, 1995; Ajayi, 1998; Hoesli and Macgregor, 2000). According to Wyatt (2007), property investments comprise those properties which are held as investments, where the ownership interest is separate from the occupation interest. He further argued that in the valuation of property investment, the valuer will capitalise the rental income produced by the property at an appropriate investment yield using the investment method of valuation. This exercise is generally known as property investment valuation (Enever, 1986; Baum and Mackmin, 1989; Baum and Crosby, 1995; Ajayi, 1998, Udo, 2003; Wyatt, 2007; Jefferies, 2010). Property investment valuation involves the estimation of the future benefits to be enjoyed by the owner of a freehold or leasehold interest in land or property, expressing those future benefits in terms of present worth (Baum and Mackmin, 1989). It has also been viewed as the prediction of the most likely selling price of a property, to distinguish it from property investment analysis, which is the estimation of investment worth, all of which constitute the totality of property investment appraisal (Baum and Crosby, 1995). The underlying principle of property investment valuation is to discount net economic benefits from a property investment over its predicted life at a specified rate of return or discount rate (Wyatt, 2007). Basically, this requires the estimation of two major parameters. These parameters are the rental value and the capitalisation rate applied to the current and projected cash flows (Sykes, 1983). In terms of value, property investment represents the most significant investment class and constitutes nearly one-half of the wealth in the world (Karakozova, 2005). As concluded by Corgel, Smith and Ling (2000), property investment comprises 49% or $21.41 trillion of the worlds wealth ($44 trillion) whereas stocks and bonds comprise 25.5% and 18.8% respectively. Also, it has been found that property investment has high diversification benefits in the portfolio of local and international investors due to its low correlation with the returns of other investment vehicles in the investment market (Grubel 1968; Solnik and Boucrelle 1996; Longin and Solnik, 2001; Boon and Higgins, 2007). In Nigeria, the valuation of property investment may be required for several purposes and such exercise is a function of the property valuer. Given the role of property investment in the portfolio of investors globally, it is necessary to pay greater attention on the training of valuers. This will enhance the development of creative, innovative and practically-competent human resources for the impeccable valuation of property investments in the country. 2. Development of Property Investment Valuation Thought Before 1960, property investment valuation was solely based on the logic of the conventional technique which relies on some assumptions that there is no growth in future rental value over present rental value; that rents are fixed on long leases without review; and that the capitalisation rate used in the valuation is the internal rate of return expected from the investment. These assumptions have been found to be logical only during the pre-reverse yield gap and were based on the perception of property investors during the period (Baum and Crosby, 1995). The appearance of the reverse yield gap witnessed some changes in the property market, resulting also in the change of expectations of real property investors. These affected the conventional valuation technique, resulting in some adjustments to the approach. Baum and Crosby (1995) also showed that conventional valuation technique for rack rented freeholds, reversionary freeholds and leaseholds involved a single rate calculation where the freehold in perpetuity is the maximum value and the values of the reversionary interest and the leasehold interest summate to a total which equals the whole, such that the sum of the two equals the total value of the freehold in perpetuity. This basis gradually changed to the use of more than one remunerative rate of interest in the valuation of reversionary freehold and dual rate, and later tax adjusted dual rate valuation for leaseholds. Findings from empirical studies on property investment valuation techniques in the past three decades or so have revealed that the basis of conventional valuation technique was logical only before the

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appearance of the reverse yield gap, prior to the advent of inflation in the property market (Wood, 1972; Greaves, 1972; Marshall, 1976; Sykes, 1981; Crosby, 1986; Udo, 1989 and Ajayi, 1998). The advent of inflation in the property market brought with it some attendant effects on property investors. This made it necessary for the appraisal of property investments to be in comparison with alternative investment vehicles in the investment market. The existence of inflation in the investment market had initially brought out the inherent qualities between inflation prone investments producing inflationprone return and inflation proof investments producing inflation-proof return. In the property market, the effect of inflation gradually resulted in the introduction of rent reviews, a problem which could not be handled by the traditional property investment valuation models. These among other issues, necessitated research into investment valuation techniques appropriate for the valuation of property investments in times of inflation. Methods of property investment valuation which explicitly consider prospective future income flow generated by property investment, including rental and capital growth of the investment to reflect the treatment of future value changes due to the effect of inflation on the income flow, and which appraise property investment comparatively with other investment vehicles available in the investment market were proposed. These proposals resulted in the emergence of contemporary valuation techniques. Thus in the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in recent times, two major techniques have emerged namely, the conventional and contemporary valuation techniques. The strongest criticisms of the conventional valuation technique are that it fails to specify explicitly the income flows and patterns assumed by the valuer, and that it applies growth implicit all risks yield to fixed contracted tranches of income (Baum and Mackmin, 1989). Contemporary valuation techniques are based on the underlying assumptions that there is growth in future rental over present rental values; that rents are not fixed, but are reviewed at periodic intervals (review dates) and that the capitalisation rate depends on the preconceived level of growth in the future. Crosby, 1986; Baum and Crosby, 1995; Ajayi, 1998; Udo, 2003; Wyatt, 2007). On this basis, this paper seeks to evaluate students perspectives on the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in a typical Nigerian University with a view to illuminating critical areas requiring further improvement in the training of valuers for the valuation of property investments in the country. 3. Methodology and Data Data for the study were obtained through structured questionnaires. A total of 131 structured questionnaires were administered to 500-level Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) Degree students in the Department of Estate Management , Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, selected through purposive sampling technique, out of which 84 were properly completed and returned, representing a response rate of 64%.These students were selected because they have been taught property investment valuation as a course at various levels for about four academic sessions. Data collected for the study include the demographic characteristics of the respondents as presented in Table1, respondents opinions regarding their level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation as well as their opinions on the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University as presented in Tables 2 and 3 respectively, among others. A 5-point Likert scale was used to determine the mean of the respondents responses for each of the opinions. The respondents opinions regarding their level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation were analysed to determine their overall level of understanding. The points attached to the respondents level of understanding are: Very Good (5); Good (4); Fair (3); Poor (2) and Very Poor (1). Also, their opinions on the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University were analysed to determine their consensus opinion and rank based on the respondents mean response and Relative Importance Index (RII) respectively. Similarly, the weights attached to the respondents

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opinions on the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University are: Strongly Agree (5); Agree (4); Undecided (3); Disagree (2) and strongly Disagree (1). In the ranking of the opinions, the opinion with the highest RII was ranked first while the one with the lowest RII was ranked last. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether differences in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female respondents are significant statistically while the Spearmans Rank-Order Correlation Model was used to determine whether the male and female respondents under study relate significantly in their opinions regarding the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University. Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
Characteristics Gender Female Male Total Age Group 21 25 years 26 30 years 31 35 years Total Marital Status Married Single Total Frequency 38(45.2%) 46(54.8%) 84(100%) 58(69.0%) 24(28.6%) 2(2.4%) 84(100%) 6(7.1%) 78(92.9%) 84(100%)

Source: Authors Field Survey


Table 2: Respondents Responses on their Level of Understanding of the Basic Topics in Property Investment Valuation
Level of Understanding Basic Topics Very Good M F All 19 11 30 13 6 19 15 8 23 17 16 33 2 2 4 7 1 8 Good F 24 27 24 20 12 13 All 48 58 45 42 26 24 M 3 2 10 7 25 19 Fair F 2 5 5 1 18 21 All 5 7 15 8 43 40 M 1 5 Poor F 4 2 All M 5 7 15 4 5 6 6 Very Poor F All 1 1 2 1 2 1 -

M Definition of property investment 24 Classification of property investments 31 Characteristics of property investments 21 The property market 22 Property market cycles 14 Mathematics of property investment valuation 11 Construction of property investment valuation 7 3 10 8 tables Determination of net income of real properties 10 4 14 18 The Years Purchase as an Income 11 4 15 19 Capitalisation Factor Theory of property yields 8 3 11 14 Conventional leasehold valuation 7 4 11 19

8 16 20 20 40 10 5 17 35 15 14 29 2 18 37 12 12 24 3 15 29 22 14 36 2 10 29 18 18 36 2 2 2 4 4

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Conventional freehold valuation 7 3 10 21 13 34 17 16 33 - 4 4 - Marriage Valuation 4 2 6 11 14 25 15 7 22 14 6 20 1 6 7 Statistical techniques in property investment 6 2 8 9 11 20 23 16 39 6 5 11 - 1 1 valuation Equated yield technique 3 2 5 14 16 30 19 14 33 6 6 12 1 1 Real value approach 4 1 5 15 12 27 18 14 32 9 9 18 - 1 1 Explicit DCF technique 5 1 6 9 12 21 16 15 31 7 6 13 3 3 6 Contemporary leasehold valuation 4 2 6 14 15 29 24 15 39 3 6 9 - Contemporary freehold valuation 5 1 6 12 18 30 24 12 36 2 7 9 1 1 Hedonic modelling of property investment 3 1 4 4 4 8 16 11 27 12 13 25 5 6 11 values Depreciation of property investments 6 4 10 20 21 41 16 10 26 4 2 6 - Computer applications in property investment 5 6 11 11 7 18 14 11 25 8 9 17 4 3 7 valuation Note: M= Male Respondents Responses; F= Female Respondents Responses; All= Responses of all Respondents

Source: Field Survey (2010)

Table 3: Respondents Opinions on the Teaching and Learning of Property Investment Valuation in the University
Opinion Property investment valuation is an aspect of financial mathematics and should be taught using mathematical teaching methods Quantitative skills are necessary for solving property investment valuation problems Practical exercises in the field will facilitate understanding of property investment valuation Most examples in property investment valuation given by lecturers in the classroom are abstract Property investment valuation is difficult to understand Lecturers with practical experience teach property investment valuation better Computer software should be used in the teaching of property investment valuation Students should be given real live problems in property investment valuation to solve in the classroom Only lecturers with a minimum of Masters degree and professional qualifications should teach property investment valuation Property investment valuation should be taught together with valuation of stocks and shares Respondents Responses Strongly Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Agree Disagree M F All M F All M F All M F All M F All 16 6 22 27 25 52 3 17 10 27 22 26 48 6 34 31 65 10 5 15 2 15 14 29 21 19 40 5 4 2 6 11 9 20 3 6 2 2 1 5 3 9 8 4 6 1 3 1 3 1 1 6 1 1 1 2 5 1 2 2

8 22 21 43 4 3 1 1 3 4 1 1 1 5 5 1 2 2

29 18 47 14 16 30 23 19 42 12 10 22 9 28 19 47 15 14 29 3 20 22 42 14 9 23 6 15 10 25 21 17 38 5

9 18 1 4 7 -

4 10 2 7 12 1

Note: M= Male Respondents Responses; F= Female Respondents Responses; All= Responses of all Respondents

Source: Field Survey (2010)

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4. Results and Discussion The respondents performed better in understanding the property market and in the definition of property investment than in any other topic based on the mean of the respondents responses on their level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation as presented in Table 4. Also, the respondents overall level of understanding was lowest in hedonic modelling of property investment values than in any other topic. Respondents strongly agreed that practical exercises in the field will facilitate understanding of property investment valuation. This opinion was ranked first by the respondents with a RII of 0.95 as presented in Table 5. Similarly, respondents also agreed that lecturers with practical experience teach property investment valuation better. This opinion was ranked second by the respondents with a RII of 0.90. In terms of the consensus opinion, the respondents agreed on all the opinions, but were undecided on the opinion that property investment valuation is difficult to understand. This opinion was ranked last by the respondents with a RII of 0.55. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female respondents produced an F-ratio of 0.53 at p-value greater than 0.05 as presented in Table 6. This implies that although there are differences in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female respondents, such differences are not significant statistically. The correlation analysis of opinions of male and female respondents regarding the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University produced a strong positive correlation coefficient of 0.81 at p-value less than 0.05. This was found to be significant at both 0.05 and 0.01 levels as the p-value is 0.0049 (2-tailed) as presented in Table 7. The implication of this is that, the male and female respondents under study relate significantly in their opinions regarding the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University. Table 4: Respondents Overall Level of Understanding of the Basic Topics in Property Investment Valuation
Basic Topics Definition of property investment Classification of property investments Characteristics of property investments The property market Property market cycles Mathematics of property investment valuation Construction of property investment valuation tables Determination of net income of real properties The Years Purchase as an Income Capitalisation Factor Theory of property yields Conventional leasehold valuation Conventional freehold valuation Marriage Valuation Statistical techniques in property investment valuation Equated yield technique Real value approach Explicit DCF technique Contemporary leasehold valuation Contemporary freehold valuation Male 4.35 4.24 4.11 4.22 3.40 3.17 3.27 3.80 3.84 3.61 3.67 3.78 3.04 3.34 3.28 3.30 3.15 3.42 3.41 Mean Female 4.24 4.03 4.08 4.41 3.27 3.35 3.13 3.62 3.59 3.47 3.39 3.42 3.00 3.23 3.37 3.08 3.05 3.34 3.34 All 4.30 4.14 4.10 4.30 3.34 3.42 3.20 3.72 3.73 3.55 3.55 3.62 3.04 3.29 3.32 3.20 3.10 3.39 3.38

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Source: Computed from Data in Table 2

Hedonic modelling of property investment values Depreciation of property investments Computer applications in property investment valuation

2.70 3.61 3.12

2.46 3.73 3.11

2.59 3.66 3.12

Table 5: Respondents Consensus Opinion on the Teaching and Learning of Property Investment Valuation in the University
Opinion Property investment valuation is an aspect of financial mathematics and should be taught using mathematical teaching methods Quantitative skills are necessary for solving property investment valuation problems Practical exercises in the field will facilitate understanding of property investment valuation Most examples in property investment valuation given by lecturers in the classroom are abstract Property investment valuation is difficult to understand Lecturers with practical experience teach property investment valuation better Computer software should be used in the teaching of property investment valuation Students should be given real live problems in property investment valuation to solve in the classroom Only lecturers with a minimum of Masters degree and professional qualifications should teach property investment valuation Property investment valuation should be taught together with valuation of stocks and shares Mean Male 4.28 Female 3.95 All 4.13 Respondents Consensus Opinion Agree Relative Importance Index 0.83 Rank

4.20 4.70 4.02 2.75 4.53 4.27 4.54

4.21 4.76 4.11 2.74 4.41 4.26 4.34

4.20 4.73 4.06 2.74 4.48 4.27 4.45

Agree Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Agree Agree Agree

0.84 0.95 0.81 0.55 0.90 0.85 0.89

5 1 8 10 2 4 3

4.09

4.32

4.20

Agree

0.84

4.05

3.87

3.96

Agree

0.79

Source: Computed from Data in Table 3


Table 6: Result of the Analysis of Variance in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female respondents under study
Source of variation Groups Residual Total Sum squares 0.102 8.113 8.215 DF 1 42 43 Mean square 0.102 0.193 F statistic 0.53 p 0.4712

Source: Computed from Data in Table 2

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Table 7: Result of correlation analysis of opinions of male and female respondents regarding the teaching and learning of property investment valuation in the University
rs statistic 95% CI t statistic DF 2-tailed p 0.81 0.36 3.85 8 0.0049

to 0.95

Source: Computed from Data in Table 3


6. Findings Most of the basic topics in property investment valuation in which the students overall level of understanding is good are aspects of the conventional techniques of property investment valuation. However, the students overall level of understanding is low in basic topics which are aspects of the contemporary techniques of property investment valuation and lowest in hedonic modelling of property investment values. Majority of the students strongly hold the opinion that practical exercises in the field will facilitate understanding of property investment valuation. Furthermore, other opinions agreed by the students are that property investment valuation is an aspect of financial mathematics and should be taught using mathematical teaching methods, most examples in property investment valuation given by lecturers in the classroom are abstract, lecturers with practical experience teach property investment valuation better, computer software should be used in the teaching of property investment valuation, students should be given real live problems in property investment valuation to solve in the classroom, only lecturers with a minimum of Masters degree and professional qualifications should teach property investment valuation, and property investment valuation should be taught together with valuation of stocks and shares. However, the students were undecided on the opinion that property investment valuation is difficult to understand. Although there are differences in the level of understanding of the basic topics in property investment valuation between the male and female students, such differences are not significant statistically. 7. Conclusion Based on the findings of the study, there is need for practical-based property investment valuation curriculum at the university level in Nigeria, in which property investment valuation is taught together with valuation of financial assets. This is necessary for the development of skills in comparative investment appraisal and the training of property valuers as investment specialists. Current global trend is that property investment is treated as part of the wider investment community, not in isolation. The implication of this is that, greater emphasis should be made on the teaching of topics which constitute contemporary techniques of property investment valuation, in which property investments are appraised comparatively with alternative investments in the investment market, coupled with real time problembased learning. References
Ajayi, C.A. (1998). Property Investment Valuation and Analysis. Ibadan: De-Ayo Publishers.

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Baum, A. and Crosby, N. (1995). Property Investment Appraisal (2e). London: International Thomson Business Press. Baum, A. and Mackmin, D. (1989). The Income Approach to Property Valuation (3e). London: Routledge. Boon, F.N. and Higgins, D. (2007). Modelling the Commercial Property Market: An Empirical Study of the Singapore Office Market. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal. 13(2): 176 193. Corgel, J.B.; Smith, H.C. and Ling, D. H. (2000). Real Estate Perspectives: An Introduction to Real Estate (4e). New York: McGraw-Hill Crosby, N. (1986). Application of Equated Yield and Real value Approaches to Market Valuation. Journal of Valuation 4: 158-69, 261- 74. Enever, N. (1986). The Valuation of Property Investments (3e). London: Estates Gazette. Greaves, M.J. (1972). The Investment Method of Property Valuation and Analysis: An Examination of some of its problems .PhD Thesis. Department of Land Management, University of Reading Grubel, H .G. (1968) .Internationally Diversified Portfolios: Welfare gains and Capital Flows. American Economic Review .58 (5): 12 - 99. Hargitay, S.E. and Yu, S.M. (1993). Property Investment Decisions: A Quantitative Approach. London: E & F.N Spon. Hoesli, M. and MacGregor, B. (2000). Property Investment: Principles and Practice of Portfolio Management. London: Pearson Education Ltd. Ifediora, G.S.A. (1993). Appraisal Framework. Enugu: Iwuba Ifediora and Associates. Jefferies, R. (2010). Real Value Valuation for Property in the 21st Century? A Comparison of Conventional and Real Value Models. Pacific Rim Property Research Journal .16 (4): 435 457. Karakozova, O. (2005). Modelling and Forecasting Property Rents and Returns. Helsinki: Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration. Longin, F. and Solnik, B. (2001). Extreme Correlation of International Equity Markets. Journal of Finance. 56 (2). Marshall, P. (1976). Equated Yield Analysis. Estates Gazette. 239, 493-7. Millington, A.F. (1982). An Introduction to Property Valuation (2e). London: Estates Gazette. Solnik, B. and Boucrelle, C. (1996). International market correlation and volatility. Financial Analysts Journal .52 (5): 17. Sykes, S.G. (1981). Property Valuation: A Rational Model. The Investment Analyst. 61: 20-6. Sykes, S.G. (1983). Property Valuation, Investment and Risk, in Chiddick, D. and Millington, A. (Eds). Land Management: New Directions. London: E & F.N.Spon. Udo, G.O. (1989). Modern Techniques of Property Investment Valuation: The Nigeria Response. Journal of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers. 13(1):19- 24. Udo, G.O. (2003). Model Building in Property Valuation. Enugu: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nigeria. Wood, E. (1972). Property Investment A Real Value Approach. PhD Thesis. Department of Land Management, University of Reading. Wyatt, P. (2007). Property Valuation. Oxford: Blackwell.

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An Examination of Causes and Consequences of Conflict Between Legislature and Executive in Cross River State, Nigeria
Bassey, Antigha Okon [Ph.D]
Lecturer, Department of Sociology University of Calabar P.M.B 1115 Calabar, C.R.S. Nigeria E-mail: antigha2k4@yahoo.com

Raphael Pius Abia


Senior Lecturer, Department of Sociology University of Calabar P.M.B 1115 Calabar, C.R.S. Nigeria

Omono, Cletus Ekok


Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Calabar Email: cletusomono@yahoo.com

Bassey, Umo Antigha


Unified Local Government Service Commission Calabar, C.R.S. Nigeria
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p179

Abstract The study reviewed legislative-executive relationship in Cross River State fourth republic democratic government. The paper examines causes and consequences of conflict which was discovered as the nature of the relationship. Expost facto research design was adopted in which 100 sample was selected and studied. Data obtained was analysed using simple percentage analysis. The study also relied on secondary data obtained form archival materials. Discussion revealed the existence of harmony and conflict. The empirical test shows that the relationship was essentially conflictual. Causes of conflict discovered include: pride and personality clash, perceived executive dominance, ignorance of constitutional provisions, functional overlapping and performance of legislative oversight function. Consequences of conflict identified include: delay in discharge of duties, stalemate, disunity and outright opposition. The study recommended mutual respect as panacea to conflict, dialogue, bargaining and negotiation as well as constant interaction in workshop conferences and meetings. The study maintains that harmonial legislative-executive relationship is essential for the growth, development and sustenance of Nigerias nascent democracy. Keywords: Conflict, Legislature, Executive, Relations, Causes, Consequences

1. Introduction One of the major factors threatening Nigerias nascent democracy today is conflict between the executive

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and legislative arms of government. Contemporary development at the federal, state and local government levels proved that the relationship between the legislature and executive branch is not harmonious. Success and failure of government, as well as governmental policies, programmes and projects are all considered in many quarters as consequences of the nature of relationship existing between the executive and legislature. The major aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between executive and legislature in Nigeria is conflictual with particular reference to Cross River State Government. The paper will attempt to unravel the causes and consequences of conflict, as well as provide solutions for reducing or eliminating conflict between executive and legislature to foster harmony. It is hoped that the paper will provide guidelines to members of the executive and legislative branch of government for establishing harmonious relationship in policy making, good governance and democratic reconstruction. Legislature refers to institution that has the power to make or change laws. A legislative institution is any institution that has the power to make laws. The executive refers to the part of government that is responsible for making sure that laws and other decisions are carried out or implemented in the manner they were directed or planned. The third branch of government is the judiciary that interpret laws. This paper focuses on the legislature and executive branches of government in Nigeria. At the federal level is the Executive Council comprising the President and his Ministers responsible for various departments and functions of government. The federal legislature comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives. At the state level is the State Governor and his commissions responsible for various departments as executive, and the House of Assembly as the legislature. This paper examines specifically the relationship between the executive and legislative arms of government in Cross River State. 2. Conceptual Analysis and Review Conflict is a behaviour by a person or group that inhibits the attainment of goals by another person or group (Riggio, 2000). In ordinary usage, conflict is regarded as a state of opposition marked by fight or struggling. Perception of legislative and executive conflict is not far from Riggio (2000) definition of conflict. Legislative-executive conflict denotes a situation whereby the legislature is opposed to the executive and vice versa in matters of policy and their perception of the value of good governance. It is a state of partial or absolute incompatibility where one arm is in constant confrontation with the other (Bassey, 2000). In 2001, two years into the commencement of Fourth Republic in Nigeria democratisation process, conflict between the National Assembly (House of Representatives and Senate) and the executive at the Federal level of government existed, which was widely presented by the press (The Punch, 2001). The conflict transcends the relationship between state executive and the legislature in various states and even spilling to the local government councils. Major effect of such conflict was the impeachment of key personnel in both executive and legislature, such as Speakers, Deputy Speakers and Governors etc (Punch, 2007). Rockman (1983) identified four major elements in legislative-executive relations namely, values and perspectives of governance; the major players, actions and institutions; and legislative control and supervision of executive behaviour, which is referred to as oversight. These elements are the likely areas which conflict emerged between the two arms of government. Effective management of these key elements will reduce if not eliminate relational conflict in governance. The relationship existing between governmental units or arms may take diversity of nature, the focus of this research on conflict should not be misconstrued as the only form or nature of relationship existing between and among arms of government. The nature and diversity of such relationship is usually treated under Inter-governmental Relations (IGRs). Adamolekun (1982) defined Intergovernmental

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Relations as the interactions that take place among the different levels of government within a state. Looking at this definition, it excludes in its entirety legislative-executive relations within a particular level, because neither the executive nor legislature are levels of government, as in Nigerian federation, which consists of federal, state and local as levels of government. Legislative-Executive relations is the interaction and total transaction that takes place between the Executive and the Legislative arms at a particular level of government where both institutions exist (Bassey, 2000). The nature of intergovernmental relations and executive-legislative relations are in practice identical as both may involve conflict, cooperation, negotiation, bargaining and conciliation. This study focuses on conflict which is one of the prevailing relationship between legislature and executive at various levels of government in Nigeria. According to Loewenberg, Patterson and Jewell (1983), legislature is a body which promulgates laws, which authenticate and legitimise commands as to what citizens of a state can do or cannot do. Basic components or characteristics of legislature include: equal status of members, law-making and representation based on free and periodic elections. Appadorai (1975) categorised the functions of legislature as legislation, administration, financial appropriation and ventilation of grievance. Legislation is the most important function involving law making, administrative function has to do with light publicity on the act of governance by enduring check and balance on the executive branch. The financial function has to do with the appropriation power of legislature, while ventilation of grievance reflects the responsiveness of the legislature to public opinion and request in matter of state policy. As defined by the constitution, no arm of government is expected to usurp the functions of another arm. That is for example, executive has no power to expend what was not appropriated of the legislature as this will be conflict. Whether this constitutional provision is respected in the routine activities of arms of government in Cross River State in particular and Nigeria in general is what this paper is set to determine. 3. Legislative-Executive Relations in Cross River State The fourth republic Executive and Legislature in Cross River State commenced in 1999 with the rebirth of democracy in Nigeria. Despite the fact that at inception the Executive arm was led by a Governor from Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and the executive led by Speaker from the All Peoples Party (APP), Bassey (2000) noted harmonious and cordial relationship void of conflict between executive and the legislature. The harmonious relationship was marked by cooperation, bargaining and negotiation as against conflict. Murray (1975) noted that when the executive and legislature are headed by different parties, there is bound to exist conflict which is likely to render the government ineffective as a result of disagreement in policy directions. Murrays (1975) observation did not hold true in Cross River State at this stage. This is not to say that there was no area of disagreement between executive and legislature in Cross River State but such were resolved through negotiation before disagreement transformed into conflict. For instance Rural Development Commission Bill sent to executive emerged from the House as Rural Development Authority Act. This happened without conflict because of the existence of machinery for cooperation to finetune grey areas. The cordial relationship in the fourth Republic saw to the submission and passage of the following Bills from the executive by the House. 1. Cross River State Rural Development Commission Bill 1999 2. Cross River State Forestry Commission Bill 1999 3. Cross River State Supplementary Appropriation Bill 1999 4. Cross River State Year 2000 Appropriation Bill 1999

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Prohibition of the Indiscriminate Dumping of Refuse on the Streets, Drains and Public Places in Cross River State Bill 2000 6. Girl-Child Marriage and Female Circumcision (Prohibition) Bill 2000 7. Cross River State Local Government Bill 2000 At the end of the legislature tenure in 2003 over 10 more bills were passed and 12 resolutions made (Cross River Radio, 2003). The situation in Cross River State differs significantly from what was obtainable in the National Assembly at the same period. It was reported in the press that Sultan Maccido (The Sultan of Sokoto and Head of Islamic Religion in Nigeria) sues for cooperation among arms of government in the federal level during the meeting of the National Executive Council of Nigeria Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs (Chronicle, 2000). After 1999 the situation changed and relationship of the two arms of government degenerated to conflict. The Nigerian Watch (2000) noted confrontation between the leader of the House and Executive Arms of Government and subsequent removal of the leader, as noted:
The travails of Honourable Ada fits into popular belief that he somehow engineered the Assembly woes through unnecessary confrontations with the executive arm of government and now his exit from the headship provide vista for new relationship.

5.

This condition shows that personal attribute of the leader (speaker) of the House later led to conflictual relationship between legislature and executive in Cross River State which was handled through the removal of the speaker, which indicates subordination of the legislature to the executive. To what extent the journalistic insinuation held true or false motivated this investigation, to examine the causes and consequences of executive-legislative conflict. 4. Theoretical background Conflict theory lays emphasis on the importance of interest in construction and implementation of norms and values and the manner in which pursuit of interest caused different types of conflict which forms part of normal life in the society. Major proponents of conflict their include Marx (1964) and Dahrender (1959). According to conflict theorists, society is made up of different groups with varying interest competing with one another for hegemony and control of power, authority and allocation of societys resources. Conflict theory provides a framework for the understanding and analysis of relationship existing between executive and legislature as competing groups in a state struggling for the control of state policy apparatus, as well as control and allocation of state resources. But to what extent legislative-executive conflict will produce change in terms of socio-economic development and consolidation of democracy necessitated the utilisation of functional aspects of social conflict in investigation. Coser (1956) examined the functions of social onflcit in his attempt to incorporate the analysis of social conflict into structural functionalism. Social structure here denotes network of interaction, while function refers to consequences of action in a system that the action takes place. The question is, what function does conflict produce in terms of the interaction of legislature and executive? It is the theoretical synthesis of conflict theory and structural functionalism that will specifically guide the analysis of executive-legislative conflict in terms of examining its causes and consequences. 5. Methodology In conducting this investigation, survey was carried out in order to permit the use of variety of data

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collection techniques. Such survey techniques utilised for gathering data include: interview, questionnaire and non-participant observation. Secondary data from newspapers, electronic media and other archival materials were also utilised. The area of study is Cross River State, one of the 36 states in Federal Republic of Nigeria with Calabar as its state capital and a total of eighteen (18) local government areas. Table I: Local Government Area in Cross River State and their population
S/No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Local Government Area Abi Akamkpa Akpabuyo Bakassi Bekwara Biase Boki Calabar-Municipal Calabar South Etung Ikom Obanliku Obubra Obudu Odukpani Ogoja Yakurr Yala Population 144,317 149,705 272,262 31,641 105,497 168,113 186,611 183,681 191,515 80,036 163,691 109,633 172,543 161,457 192,884 171,574 196,271 211,557 2,892,988

Source: National Population Commission, 2009 (2006 Census Figure)

The investigation focus mainly on the relationship existing between the legislative and executive branch of government in the state administering 2,892,988 people residing in the state (as at 2006 census). The population of the study was very large as it involved the entire executive, legislature, bureaucrats, politicians and members of the public who observed and contributed to the activities of the state policy formulation and implementation process. Because of the largeness of the population, a sample of 100 subjects were randomly chosen by the investigators, comprising 10 legislators, 10 members of executive branch, 20 public servants, 20 party politicians and 40 members of the general public. Size of sample cluster selection was in proportion to their general population. The subjects were accidentally selected at various locations such as: State House of Assembly Complex. State Civil Service Secretariat, Governors Office complex and the two tertiary institutions all in Calabar. Questionnaire was constructed as appropriate survey instrument. Questionnaire analysed statistically using simple percentage, comparison in tables (Osuala, 1982; Obasi, 1999). The questionnaire instrument required Yes, No or Undecided responses. 6. Data Presentation and Analysis The following demographic data were obtained.

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Table 2: Demographic Data


Age Range 18 30 31 40 41 50 51 60 61 and above Total Education Qualification Post Graduate B.Sc./HND OND/NCE B.Sc. FSLC/Others Social Status Category Freq Legislature 10 Executive 10 Public Servant 20 Party politician 20 Student 21 Others 19 100 Religion Religion Freq Christian 88 Muslim 3 Atheist 1 ATR 8 100 Sex Sex Male Fem. Freq. 67 33 100

Freq 39 24 31 4 2 100

Freq 12 31 18 36 3 100

Source: Field survey 2000

In the demographic data, 39 subjects were between the ages of 18-30, 24 (31-40), 31 (41-50), 4 (51-60) and 2 (61 and above). This indicates that politically active people concerned with legislative, executive affairs were mostly between the ages of 18 50 years, as frequency decline after the ages of 50 years. Many Cross Riververians are educated as over 97% attended secondary school and above which primarily negates the classification of the state as educationally disadvantaged state. But the locations where subjects were selected caused the increased number of educated subjects. Invariably, if subject selection was spread to rural areas, the true educational and literacy position of the state would have been revealed. The social category of respondents was purposively determined by the researchers in order to enhance unbiased response and prevent responses being one-sided. With 88% Christians among respondents, the state is predominantly a Christian state (Bassey, Ojua, Ering, 2012). The increase of male to female being 67/33 negates the demographic distribution in which females are more than male (NPC, 2009) and shows that males participate in political issues especially as regards observation of executive-legislative relationship more than females. 7. Analysis of Substantive Data and Findings From the discussion above, it is noted that the relationship is not static, at one time it is conflictual and at another harmonious. In view of this situation, statistical analysis using simple percentage analysis was utilised to determine actual relationship. The first guiding null hypothesis under test was; H0: There is no conflict between executive and legislature The statement number one (1) in the instrument stated that, There is conflict between executive and legislature. Response to this statement is presented in table 3. Table 3: Field Observation for Hypothesis I, Statement 1 and Percentage
Statement There is conflict between executive and legislature Yes 59 (62.77) No 23(24.47) Undecided 12(12.77) Total 94 (100%)

Source: Field survey (2000)

From Table 3 above, favourable responses Yes to the statement which negates the null hypothesis is 62.77%, while unfavourable responses No is 24.47%. Undecided is 12.77%. Consequently, the null

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hypothesis was rejected. The finding is that there is conflict between executive and legislature in Cross River State. The second task of the study was to unravel the causes of executive-legislative conflict and Table 4 presents data obtained in the field investigation. Table 4:
S/No 2 3 4 5 6 Statement Legislative-Executive conflict is as a result of pride and personality clash Conflict between legislature and executive is caused by perceived executive domination Conflict is due to ignorance of the constitution by executive and legislature Functional overlapping is a major cause of conflict Performance of oversight functions by legislature often result in conflict Yes 66(70.21%) 59(62.77%) 70(74.47%) 54(57.45%) 63(67.02%) No 24(25.55%) 30(31.91%) 21(22.34%) 28(29.79%) 22(23.40%) Undecided 4(4.26%) 5(5.32%) 3(3.19%) 12(12.77%) 9(9.57%) Total 94(100%) 94(100%) 94(100%) 94(100%) 94(100%)

Source: Field survey (2000)

Five variables were purposively examined in tune with Rockman (1983) identification of causes of legislative-executive conflict namely: pride and personality clash, executive dominance, ignorance of the constitution, functional overlapping and legislative performance of oversight function. Statement 2 legislative-executive conflict is as a result of pride and personality clash, Yes responses were 70.21%, No responses 25.53%, while undecided was 4.26%. The favourable responses as against unfavourable responses indicates that pride and personality clash are part of the causes of executive-legislative conflict. The fourth variable considered was ignorance of constitutional provision of balance of power as organs of government are expected constitutionally to operate co-ordinately, Yes was 74.47%, No 22.34% and undecided 3.19%. Since favourable responses Yes was overwhelming, ignorance of constitutional provision was accepted as part cause of executive-legislative conflict. The analysis showed that overlapping with high positive response Yes 57.45% was also a factor in executive-legislative conflict, likewise legislature performance of oversight function with 67.02% positive Yes responses. In determining the consequences of executive-legislative conflict with an open-ended question, which states thus: What do you consider to be the consequences of legislative-executive conflict on Nigeria nascent democracy? Only 73 (77.66%) of respondents responded to the questions out of 94. Twenty one (21) respondents left the answer space blank (22.34%). The following consequences were extracted: 1. Stalemate of state administration 2. Delay in discharge of official function 3. Obstacle to development of democratic institution and culture 4. Disunity between parties and intra-party disharmony 5. Inter-party opposition in government 6. Weakness of parties and their possible disintegration 7. Check and balance (accountability)

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8. Guarantee independence of legislature 9. Mitigate executive excesses The above nine statements represented consequences of legislative-executive conflict obtained from the responses to open-ended question. In view of the above findings, it is established that there was conflict between executive and legislature in the first legislative session of fourth republic democratic process commencing from 1999 in Cross River State, Nigeria. 8. Discussion Previous discussion in this study reveals the existence of harmony at the onset of the democratic process in 1999 between the executive and legislature in Cross River State, but as events unfold, the relationship degenerated from harmony marked by negotiation and bargaining to conflict. This is evidenced in the findings of the investigation which indicates high positive responses to the test statement There is conflict between executive and legislature being 62.77%. Since the executive was headed by Peoples Democratic Party and the legislature headed and dominated by All Peoples Party, conflict was inevitable as Murray (1975) explained that whenever executive and legislature are controlled by different parties, conflict must exist and Cross River State proved not to be an exception. The study also identified causes of executive legislative conflict in Cross River State to include pride and personality clash, perceived executive dominance, ignorance of constitutional provisions, functional overlapping and performance of legislative oversight functions. These discoveries follow Rockman (1983) postulate of these four variables mentioned above as the possible causes of conflict between executive and legislature in any democratic system. Though conflict exists, Rockman (1983) maintains that these variables refine themselves as they exist over time. Thus as democracy persists, the factors will be perfected by other democratic dynamics which will cause them to cease to function as sources of conflict. Such democratic dynamics include constitutional amendment, changes and development. The study also presented consequences of executive-legislative conflict. Some of the consequences are negative, while some are positive. For instance, delay in the discharge of official function and disunity between and among different parties threatens the continuity of the state, while check and balance foster accountability, leading to economic efficiency, progress and development. Every polity should examine such consequences and manage it properly in order to ensure dividend of democracy to citizens. The instrument also presented responses to the question How can conflict between legislature and executive be reduced or eliminated in order to ensure harmony? The respondents provided the following responses as strategy of ensuring legislative-executive harmony: Transparency in the conduct of state affairs; regular consultation; dialogue in resolving crises; regular interactions in meetings, workshops, conferences, dinner and other officials functions; effective and regular communication; integration of legislators into executive delegations; mutual respect for each other; reorientation of legislators and executive on provisions of the constitution with regards to functions and roles. 9. Conclusion and Recommendation Understanding legislature-executive relation is crucial to building democratic values and ideal for the sustenance of basic institutions and ensuring effective interaction towards democratic development. The paper reveals the varieties of relationship and interaction that exist between legislature and executive, which includes: bargaining, negotiation, conflict and harmony. Bargaining and negotiation themselves may result in either conflict or harmony. The discussion in the research shows that there exists both

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period of conflict and harmony in the relationship between legislature and executive in Cross River State. The findings of empirical text indicates specifically conflictual relationship. The paper specified causes of conflict between executive and legislature which includes; pride and personality clash, perceived executive dominance, ignorance of constitutional provisions, functional overlapping and legislative performance of oversight function. The paper also outlines consequences of conflict among which are: stalemate of state administration, opposition, disunity, delay in discharge of governmental functions among others. Mutual respect between executive and legislature is one cardinal panacea to the conflict. It is also recommended that dialogue, interaction in workshop, conferences and meetings should be considered as measures of ensuring cordial and harmonious relationship. References
Adamolekun, Ladipo (1983) Public Administration: A Nigerian and Comparative Perspective, London: Longman Appadorai, A. (1975) The Substance of Politics, Madras: Oxford University Press Bassey, Antigha (2000) Issues in legislative affairs: A study of Cross River State House of Assembly Legislative Fellow Research Report, Ibadan: The Institute of Social Science and Administration (TISSA), Vol. 1,2,3 Bassey, A. O., Ojua, T. A., and Ering, S. O. (2012) The Impact of Protestant Religion on Industrial Development in Nigeria. A Study of Protestants in Calabar, African Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 156165 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, Lagos: Federal Government Printing Press Cross River Radio (2000) Morning News 6.30am, 5th and 6th June, Calabar, Cross River Broadcasting Corporation. Cross River State House of Assembly (1999) Votes and Proceedings No. 22, November 9 Coser, L. (1956) Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich The Nigerian Chronicle (2000) Assembly Report, Nov. 6, 13, 19, 23 Dahrendorf, R. (1959) Class and Class Conflict in an Industrial Society, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Marx, K. (1964) The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, New York: International Publishers The Nigerian Watch (2000) Friday Nov. 17 National Population Commission (2009) 2006 Census Result. Lagos: Government Printing Press Obasi, Isaac (1999) Research Methodology in Political Sciences, Enugu: Academic Publishing Company Osuala, C. (1983) Introduction to Research Methodology, Onitsha: Africana-FEP Publishers Murray, S. (1975) Urban Politics, Cambridge: Winthrop Publishers Rockman, B. (1983) Legislative-Executive Relations in Gerhard Loewenberg, Samuel, P. and Malahis, J. (eds.) Handbook of Legislative Research. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Loewenberg, G., Patterson, S. and Jewell, M. (1983) Handbook of Legislative Research. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Reggio, R. (2000) Introduction to Industrial/Organisational Psychology, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

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Economic Criminality in Transition Countries- Aspects of the Legal and Economic Analysis
Prof .Dr. Ismail Zejneli1 Prof Ass Dr. Alba Robert Dumi2
Prof Dr Dean of Low Faculty, SEEU University Tetova Macedonia Email: i.zejneli@seeu.edu.mk 2 As Dr, Dean of Graduated SchoolIsmail Qemali Vlora University Albania, Management Department, Economy Faculty, Tirana University Email:besi.alba@yahoo.com
a

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Abstract Doubtfully considered the economic criminality, as a real dangerous form that damages the state economies, which is caused by economic criminal action taken; as such, the action that impedes business between business entities. All of these actions are considered as unlawful actions. These illegal actions of physical and legal persons who are exercising a business activity or in any way are related to the business, and essentially dealing with criminal acts performed in the economy which makes up economic crime. All these actions are undertaken for the purpose of material and financial benefits. The difficulties in dealing with economic criminality begin straight away when we attempt to find a blanket definition for it. No one has yet been able to do so satisfactory: Although economic criminality and the combating therefore is one of the most pressing issues of the present day, its definition and the definition of what constitutes an economic crime remains one of the unsolved problems Astonishing though that may seem, it is indeed the case. Economic criminality encompasses all crimes that are committed within, against and by business enterprises. While this includes crimes committed by employees, it is important to realize that employee criminality is only one facet of economic criminality. Key words: Economic criminality, Firm wide risk, Economy & Production, Activities Products and markets, EU financing reforms, EU standards.

1. Introduction Actions, which are not based in work and other permitted activities but in misuse, frauds and suspicious transactions. Criminality as a negative phenomenon and dangerous to society manifested in various forms throughout the course of human history."Economic criminality submitted in all areas of economic activity, ranging from the business of deposit, through production, cash business, commercial sector, foreign trade, commercial shops and hotel, accountants and economic sectors until in the general leadership

1.1 Economy criminality and definitions


As one of the best definitions of economic criminality considered definition of Edwin Sutherlandit (President of the American Association for Sociology) by 1939 which this criminality is considered as

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white collar criminality. According to him economic criminality considered as criminality which appears in the sphere of economic activity, which forms mostly manifested during the acquisition of shares, advertising of goods, coverage of financial and corruption of civil servants directly or indirectly.(See too; B.Banoviq, obezbegjenje dokaza was kriminalistickoj obradi krivicni dela privrednog kriminaliteta, Belgrade, 2002, p.13.) Basic causes that conditioned the appearance of this type of criminality are: report form of the property of the organization working, forms of property, the degree of concentration of functions, the development and justification defense system, the organization's business position working, governance and organization development professional and intellectual ability of the offender. Although the objective factors have central importance in terms of appearance and the structure conditionality certain economic criminality, professionalism and intellectual ability, as subjective factors, in certain cases, may be crucial in committing economic criminality offenses.Perpetrators of crimes against the economy may appear different persons, in some cases, economic offenses carry all persons, while some illegal works in the field of economy can perform only one category of persons. Associated with guilt, such offenses may be committed intentionally, which must include the desire of offender for his work. In some offenses against the economy is foreseen and the receipt of the items with which the offenses was committed (see Section 244 KP Kosovo, counterfeit money).

1.2 Macedonia and an overview in criminal actions field


Slow changes in Macedonia after independence have resulted with massive filling criminal actions which have not been known until then. This particular phenomenon has been evident during the process of transformation of state-owned enterprises into private. In this process by exploiting the situation of termination of these enterprises with state capital which enterprises created the situation that they have huge debts and using these situations to these enterprises necessarily should start a bankruptcy procedure. By utilizing these situations, these companies were bought very cheap, while in such purchases was created a certain layer of excluded from work that called as bankruptcy worker. These situations have caused to as certain that in the Republic of Macedonia as the dominant form of economic criminality be considered transformation of state-owned enterprises to the private, causing false bankruptcies, tax evasion, illegal transactions in the area of payment turnover, fraud of committees during their savings, maintain double accounting in order to remove corruption etc.. During the transition period, specifically during the years 2002-2010, economic criminality situation in the Republic of Macedonia was as follows;
2002 2003 2004 Misuse of official duty and authorizations Hiding of tax Damage and unauthorized access to a computer system Fraud in obtaining credit 178 84 2 2 854 109 1 3 504 96 7 1 2005 2006 2007 2008 275 114 2 28 291 477 35 2 10 40 7 25 367 67 20 88 2009 2010 290 54 63 67 246 50 36 74

From the above table we will see that offenses against public finances, circulation of payment and the economy from year to year is increased starting in 2004 to 2007, where later we will see that during the years 2009 and 2010 there is a slight decrease.

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In 2010, for committing offenses against public finances, payment circulation and the economy are presented 620 adult persons, of whom; 558 persons known perpetrator,78 female offenders, to 60 persons is thrown application, for 60 persons is interrupted further investigation, to 11 persons investigation is terminated, for 439 perpetrators is indicted and 62 perpetrators are unknown.

Tab 1: Economic criminality situation in the Republic of Macedonia on years 2002-2010 1.2.1 Juridical-penal treatment and economic sphere of development The state should be able to carry out its powers in the economic sphere in terms of the existence of private property as the dominant form of ownership, in which is based on the principle of freedom of establishment of business entities, there is a need for ensuring the implementation of state bodies powers in this area. This insurance is done by foreseen and sanctioning criminal actions directed against the public finances, payment circulation and the economy as a separate criminal offense in Criminal Code of Macedonia. This way of providing economic system is based on the so-called criminal legal protection. In 2008, out of a total of 15 462 known perpetrators of criminal offenses, 542 have been the perpetrator of this crime. Largest number of perpetrators of 232 are from Skopje. Of this number 21 were juvenile offenders as persons aged 14 to 18 years. 2. Literature Review and Hypotheses Economic criminality as very dangerous phenomenon is sanctioned and criminal and legal provisions. Criminal codes of various countries have provided separate chapters which treats this type of crime. Some of the offenses against the public finances, payment circulation and the economy by KP Macedonia are: Counterfeit Money (n.268.i KP); money laundering and illegal material benefit (n.273 KP); unauthorized production (n.276 KP); contraband (n.278 KP); violation of equality in the exercise of economic activity (n.282 KP); unauthorized use of a foreign firm (n.285 KP). Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, based on the statement of the UN, for the fight against corruption and swag, in December 1996, nr.9275 Law, dated 16.09.2004, especially the in Convention on corruption, Council of Europe, date 27.Janar 1999, devotes a number of provisions-articles, against crime of corruption- active and passive corruption in the private sector, active and passive corruption of public officials, of high state and local elected officials, judges and prosecutors and other justice officials, witnesses, experts and interpreters and the exercise of unlawful influence on persons exercising public functions.

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2.1 Criminality associated with the laundering of money


This offense performed in the banking business, economic or financial will issue in circulation, will take, will give or will convert money which is aware that are obtained from the drug trade, arms trade or other criminal acts (n.273.par.1 IMC). More severe forms of this offense provided in parag.4, and considered that performed if the contractor has performed work as members of a group, gang or other association which deals with laundering of money and other material property. For this type of offense the offender shall be punished with imprisonment of at least five years. In provisions parag.5, provided that counterfeit money shall be forfeited. In money laundering is intended to be hiding and not the legality and use of revenue sources and results from these sources are for specific purposes legalizing illegal income. Fraud represents the essence of all the action in money laundering, because during all actions is intended that certain tools to be shown as legal in order they can be into circulation. In progress through the table will present data on persons accused of committing a criminal offense of money laundering, for the years 2006-2010.
Data per cases Convicted persons Women Persons found guilty Procedure was terminated 2006 1 2007 2 2 1 1 2008 19 1 2009 1 1 2010 1 1

From the total number of persons charged with criminal offenses of money laundering for the period in question, the court has decided as follows:
Convicted persons Women Total penalties Prison sentence Alternative measures Suspended sentence 2006 2007 1 1 1 1 --2008 19 5 9 9 10 10 2009 1 1 2010 -

From the above table we will see that during the period in question, for a criminal offense of money laundering have been convicted of a total of 21, persons of whom the most in 2008,19 people. Also we will see that the perpetrators of this crime appear persons of both sexes.

2.2 Criminality against illegal trade


After that in conditions of market economy, state has limited powers in many activities including and productive activities may happen to be produced and processed and placed on the market products which may have adverse consequences for the lives of citizens as is the case with the production or circulation of narcotic tools. In some commodities submit a source permanent destruction of risks as is the case with weapons. Because of this circulation with such goods is prohibited or restricted. Any action for that inserts in circulation these goods, that causes illegal trade. In 2008, 964 offenses were caused in legal circulation of illicit trade.

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2.3 Albania and problems identified.


In the context of criminality in Albania we will focus on a specific aspect for Albania. Any anticipated strategy should also take into account the level of payment and other benefits of the staff within the justice system in general and judges in particular. An appropriate level of pay and other benefits is probably one of the most effective ways to "immunize" employees from corruption. 2.3.1 The Constitution of the Republic of Albania. Offenses against the person are the worse wound crime in Albania. This is because these offenses are committed against individuals Albanian society "Offenses against the person recorded 2240 proceedings, or compared to 2002, decreasing 5.5%. ( Sollaku Th 2006 report pp 4) Although generally results in a decreasing trend of these criminal group, is evidenced an increasing number: 63 proceedings for murder, article 76 of the Penal Code. These crimes have significant consequences to life and health such as the death of 271 persons and serious or slight injury of 421 persons. Of these criminal proceedings were sent for judgment, judgment and convicted 863 defendants and 642 other defendants judgment continues. For these types of serious crimes the prosecution has sought the prosecution of fierce political and judgment proceedings, to influence in alleviation and prevent this phenomenon very negative, with serious consequences not only for the victims and their families, but also for the public safety of society as a whole. (Sollaku Th 2006 report pp 7,11, 21).

2.4 Albanian judicial system and the need for reform.


Albanian judicial system has undergone radical changes and a improved considerably over the last decade. However, the need for more legitimacy and control show that the Albanian legal system needs further improvement in order to create a stable and transparent system, based on the principles of the rule of law. Legal instrumental often not respected or abused in order to achieve results "desired" - but not necessarily legitimate. Consequently, the rights and freedoms of individuals often violated and give the impression that the judicial system is neither fair nor independent. (Law no. 8436, dated December 28, 1998, "On the organization of the judicial power in the Republic of Albania" [Judicial Power Law], Article 39, paragraph 1. 2.4.1 The specific data for types of economic criminality For illegal trafficking are followed 270 proceedings, with 327 defendants. It has been indicted in the court for 184 defendants and convicted 105 of them. 1. 2. 3. For the cultivation and trafficking of narcotics, has followed 333 proceedings, with 364 defendants. Has been indicted in the court and are sentenced 148 defendants. For criminal offenses that are related to illegal activity or state employees in the public service, are followed 407 proceedings, with 224 defendants. For offenses against the person, are recorded 2240 proceedings of which 63 for murder. These crimes have led to the deaths of 271 people and injuring 421 persons. For offenses against property and in economic sphere are 5101 registered proceedings of which were convicted 2413 people, while other 1227 trial continues.

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3. Methodology and Research Goal For theft of property, are recorded 2693 proceedings which have been sent to trial and are tried and convicted 1,198 defendants, while the other 653 are judging. For crimes in the field of customs and for criminal offenses relating to taxes are recorded 206 proceedings and are sentenced 145 defendants 62 others are on trial (OSCE Albania Report 2009). 4. Corruption in the Albanian judicial system International and national studies show that corruption in the Albanian judicial system is perceived to be too high and be a serious obstacle to the functioning of the judicial system. While the new government has demonstrated a serious commitment to the fight against corruption, few concrete measures have been taken so far to tackle the issue of corruption in the judicial system.

Cumming, C. M., and B. J. Hirtle (2001): "The Challenges of Risk Management in Diversified Financial Companies, pp 134

To find solutions related to the real and perceived corruption within the system of justice should take measures set. The first step would be to end immediately contacts / inappropriate connections between members of the judiciary and the parties in the proceedings or their representatives. In addition, each court and the prosecution should be required to develop strategies and take concrete measures to combat corruption within the relevant institution in the Republic of Albania.

4.1 Needs for legal proceedings rigorous in Albanian system.


As noted in this scientific paper, deprivation of liberty of persons set it in an extremely delicate situation. For this reason, it is important that the deprivation of liberty to be as limited and to follow rigorous proceedings defined in international documents, the Constitution of the Republic of Albania and in the Code of Criminal Procedure. All actors involved, that are police, prosecutor, judge and defense attorney, also have a key role in maintaining these standards and in taking action against abuses against persons or investigative actions. In this aspect, there is room for much improvement in the Albanian context. Thus, it is observed that in most cases, persons deprived of their liberty are not informed of the reasons for arrest or their rights; them regularly abused by the police; they are unable to contact with a lawyer and are not sent

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before a judge within the time specified in Constitution. Decisions argued in a poor manner and give the impression that decisions on the appointment of security measures often issued without legal reasons.

4.2 Economic criminality prevention


Considering the fact that economic criminality can appear in different forms, according to the recommendations contained in the International Convention, but also in bilateral agreements for the elimination of economic criminality, is necessary that within each system to be established more bodies and specialized institutions in order to be able to follow, detected and sanctioned this type of criminality. Anti-corruption policy is in the foreground, not only in the transition period, but also in other developed countries, because it is a widespread international phenomenon and socially in a very great risk. The fight against corruption, as international phenomenon, requires not only an effective policy within the country, but also international cooperation, based on the European Convention. From criminal and legal standpoint, figures analyzed in the special part of criminal law and practice will prove how that it would be effective measures taken to prevent and fighting corruption at the present time and which areas will need to be met, in order to fight his policies give proper results. Important role in economic crime prevention directly have; courts, public prosecutors, police, financial police and customs and services indirectly, the management of public revenues, directorate for prevention of money laundering, the state anti-corruption commission, , the state market inspectorate etc.. 5. Conclusions and recommendations Economic criminality undoubtedly now considered as very dangerous form that are hurting the economies of different countries, developed or under development. Important role in economic criminality prevention directly have; courts, public prosecutors, police, financial police and customs services and indirectly, department of public revenue, directorate for prevention of money laundering, the state anti-corruption commission, the state market inspectorate etc. Also the implementation of the legislation has a special significance in the prevention and combating of successful economic criminality. In preventing and combating economic criminality, important contribution will also provide ongoing scientific approaches, various economic forums, seminars, national and international conferences, etc. Crimes in the field of customs and for criminal offenses relating to taxes and tax liabilities are recorded 206 proceedings, with almost the same figure in 2002. Have been tried and convicted 145 defendants and are in judicial review 62 defendants. Analysis of the number of prosecutions for these offenses shows 21.7 percent of proceedings for crimes in the field of customs. Downward trend in 57 percent of proceedings for criminal offenses in connection with taxes and tax liabilities, does not reflect the real state of criminality in this important area, where collected revenues for the state budget. "Continues to feel the lack of effectiveness of internal control in taxes and tax liabilities, and therefore is not detected and reported the real criminality in this sector, which has to do not only with the concealment of income, but also with the laundering of dirty money. References Penal Code of the Republic of Macedonia; Penal Code of the Republic of Albania; A Dumi General knowledge of the economy and ADP, Publish January 2012, A Duumi MJSS Journal 2012 Vol 3 Nr 3 Albania and Development low

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A.Jashari Commercial law subjects, Tetovo, 2008 I.Zejneli Criminal law- special part- lectures, Tetovo, 2007 R.Halili Criminology, Pristina, 2009 V.Latifi Criminology, Pristina, 2008 S.Begeja Criminology, Tirana, 2004 M.Kancev Kazneno pravna zastita na ekonomskite odnosi, MPKK, nr.1, Skopje, 1997 Sh.Milan Organizovani crime-Pojam of krivicnoprocesni aspect, Belgrade, 2003 CPC Article 316. CPC Articles 321 and 322. CPC Article 340. Civil Procedure Code, Section 173 dh). CPC Article 364. Commentary of Criminal Procedure; Halim Islam, Artan Hoxha and Ilir Panda, Tirana 2003, p. 489. Civil Procedure Code, Article 236. CPC Article 341.United Nations Convention on International Organized Crime (Palermo Convention), adopted on 12-15 December 2000. DNB (2002): "Structure of Financial Supervision," Quarterly Bulletin of de Nederlandsche Bank, March, 37-42. DOWD, K. (1994): "Competitive Banking, Bankers' Clubs, and Bank Regulation," Journal of Money, Credit & Banking, 26, 289-308. EC (2001): "Towards an EU Directive on the Prudential Supervision of Financial Conglomerates," Brussels: European Commission. EDWARDS, F.R. and M.S. CANTER (1995). The Collapse of Metallgesellschaft: Unhedgeable Risks, Poor Hedging Strategy, or Just Bad Luck?, Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 8, 86105.

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Constructivist Didactics in Teaching Economics: A Shift in Paradigm to be Exemplary Teacher


Ziyn Engdasew Woldab (Ph.D)
Assistant Prof. Adama University, Ethiopia. engdasewziyn@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p197

Abstract This paper begins with a theoretical analysis and critique of the prevailing behaviorist instructive which promotes a model of imparting and receiving knowledge in economics education. This approach is criticized for its inadequacy to facilitate higher order thinking, problem solving, creativity and collaborative learning. Contemporarily, research findings in cognitive learning shift the paradigm and provide new dimensions to information processing and constructivist view of teaching economics. It recognizes learners as constructor of knowledge and an active participant in the process of learning economic facts and principles, and economics teachers as facilitator of students learning. This theoretical paradigm in teaching economics doesnt disvalue the instructional roles of teachers, rather it advocates that teaching economics should not only instructive but also constructive. Hence, this paper presents the philosophical and psychological roots and major pedagogical principles of constructivism, the rationale for adoption of traditional instructional perspectives with modern constructivist approach and its practical implications in teaching economics. Finally, it concludes that learning economics should not be only instructive, but also constructive. Keywords: Behaviorism, Constructivism, Didactics, Paradigm, Instruction

1. Introduction Teaching is a scientific and goal directed activity. It is the most fundamental responsibility of teachers irrespective of their time and stage of education. It is an intricate and complicated process involving diverse pedagogical skills and sensibility as well as scientific principles and modern approaches. Teachers should not only acquire the quantum of knowledge that is required for various groups of learners, but also use diverse contemporary methods and techniques of teaching for which they have to master knowledge and skills. The quantum of approaches and pedagogical techniques is being multiplied so fast and some of the theories and concepts are getting outdated that there has been an innovation in the approaches of teaching. Pedagogical research findings indicated that, two major learning theory metaphors have dominated education (behaviorism and constructivism) as a whole since the late 1800s, however since halfway through the nineties, the constructivist approach of learning and teaching has represented the newcomer theory in didactics(Jackson, 1990). As per behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of Stimulus-Response pair and the result of instruction. In this traditional learning- teaching philosophy, the predominant understanding of didactics is characterized by interventions. The acquirement of new knowledge and skills is considered to be a process controllable from the outside that has to be imposed on the individual learners.

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Meanwhile, learning through intrinsic motivation is widely ignored. Learning targets are predominantly formulated behaviouristicaly and this leads to the taylorisation of learning (Jackson, 1989). Learning is the construction of knowledge in the perspectives of constructivism, and it is the result of construction. These changes in explanatory metaphors have resulted from, and have allowed for new insights concerning the nature of learning, the methods of teaching and acquisitions of knowledge and skills. In this context, the assumption of constructivist didactics is that reality in learning process is not perceived in the way it is, but in the way the learner experiences it. Therefore, learning doesnt mean perceiving given contexts, but it does mean form own ideas ((Brooks and Brooks, 1993). For many quarters of a century, the implicit learning theory and didactics underlying the curriculum and pedagogy of economic education, has been behaviorism. Economics education has much to learn from recent advances in knowledge of how students approach learning (Mayer, 2003). In this respect, the emerging theory of constructivism has implications for educational practices of economics education, which provides higher order thinking, problem solving and collaborative learning. This paper highlights the theoretical assumptions of behaviorist and constructivist philosophies and looks for the essential features and didactics of constructivists, role of constructivist teacher and its implication in teaching economics to be exemplary teacher. 2. The Basics of Behaviorist Theory The learning theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behavior that can be observed and measured rather than what occurs in the mind (Good & Brophy, 1990).It views the mind as a black box in the sense that ResponseStimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind (Doolitltle, and Camp, 1999). It supports the practice of analyzing a task and breaking it dawn in to manageable chunks, establishing objectives, and each measuring performance based on those objectives. It promotes desired behavior and knowledge transmission (Ibid). The application of behaviorist theory to the classrooms of economics education has generally been referred to as explicit or direct instruction. The teacher is the only active agent in the classroom, transmitting knowledge to students who are expected to absorb information passively. This theory is teacher directed and teacher controlled. In this system, competition, grade and, standardized testing are upheld as the means to monitor the students performance. This theory of learning is criticized for its inability to address the provision of high order critical and creative thinking, problem solving and collaborative learning. 3. Constructivism - Epistemological Roots Constructivism is a theory of learning and teaching that has roots both philosophy and psychology. Constructivist learning is knowledge construction based on the assumption that learners actively create and restructure knowledge in highly individual ways, through experiences. It emphasizes the importance of knowledge and skills an individual brings to the experience of learning. It also recognizes the construction of new understanding as a combination of prior learning, new information, and readiness to learn (Brooks and Brooks, 1993). Fosnot (1996) describes constructivism by reference to the major principle: learning is an important ways depends on what we already know; new ideas occur as we adapt and change our old ideas; learning involves inventing ideas rather than mechanically accumulating facts; meaningful learning occurs through rethinking old ideas and coming to new conclusions about new ideas which conflict with our old ideas.

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The essential core of constructivism is that learners actively construct their own knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Philosophically, this essence relies on an epistemology that stresses subjectivism and relativism, the concept that while reality may exist separate from experiences, it can only be known through experience, resulting in a personally unique reality (Andre Gordan, 1995). Thus, constructivism acknowledges the learners active role in the personal creation of knowledge, the importance of experience (both individual and social) in this knowledge creation process and the realization that the knowledge created will vary in its degree of validity as an accurate representation of reality. These fundamental didactics of constructivism provide the foundation for basic principle of teaching, learning, and knowledge process in any field of study. 4. Constructivist pedagogy Constructivist pedagogy is the pedagogy of libration. It is also called the pedagogy of construction (Andre Giordan, 1995). It starts from the needs of the learners and offers appropriate learning environment for their free involvement in learning, their creativity, and their knowledge of how to be. In the constructivist didactics, collaborative and interactive methods are used to encourage students to challenge and consider different perspectives. The cultural and economic environment helps to give meaning to situations, his knowledge progresses when fertile subjective interactions between his mental activities and his environment are put in place (Ibid). The general theoretical propositions indicated that eight factors are essential in constructivist pedagogy. These theoretical principles are derived not solely from constructivism, but assembled from other learning theorists in different times ( Steff&Galle, 1995). Learning should take place in authentic and real world environments- Experience plays paramount role in building accurate representations of reality, consensual meanings in social activities, or personally coherent models of reality. It is well known for its catalysis nature in knowledge construction. However, knowledge construction is enhanced when the socially and object-oriented experience is authentic. The contents and learning experiences should be relevant to the learner- Constructivist didactics advocates the adaptive function of knowledge in real life challenges. This relevance boosts learners motivation in learning and encourages seeking for more adaptive knowledge. Consequently, experience with relevant knowledge and skills will provide the individual with the mental processes, social information, personal experiences necessary for enhanced functioning with in ones real life. Learning should involve social negotiation and mediation- Constructivist didactics emphasized the role of social interaction as basis for knowledge construction. It provides grounds for the development of socially relevant knowledge and skills. If learner acquires experience in social mediations, this experience may contradict or validate his prior knowledge and skills. If contradictions appear, then the learner must accommodate this contradiction and uncertainty in order to accurate social model of reality. Every kinds of learning commence within an individuals previous knowledge. Understanding a students behavior requires an understanding of the students mental structure. It is only by understanding students prior knowledge and experience, will the teacher be able to create effective experience, resulting in optimal learning. Constructivists advocate that the acquisition of knowledge and understanding is a continuous process that is highly influenced by students prior knowledge. However, knowledge and understanding are not directly visible, but rather must be inferred from action. Thus, to take into account an individuals current level of understanding in this ongoing teaching and learning process, a teacher must continually

Content and skills should be understood within the framework of the learners prior knowledge-

Students should be assessed formatively, serving to inform future learning experience-

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assess the individuals knowledge. This formative assessment is necessary to accurately create the next series of experiences and activities for students. Students should be encouraged to become self-regulatory, self-mediated and self-aware- The basic assumption in constructivist pedagogy is that learners are not passive recipients of knowledge, rather active in their construction of knowledge and meaning. This activity involves mental manipulation and self organization of experience; and requires that students regulate their own cognitive functions, mediate new meanings from existing knowledge, and form an awareness of current knowledge structures. Teachers serve primarily as guides and facilitator of learning- As per constructivist pedagogy; there is no factual knowledge to transmit. The typical role of a teacher is motivating learners to construct their own knowledge, providing examples and illustrations, discuss, facilitate, support and challenge, but not to transmit knowledge. The teacher is also responsible to guide students to create awareness about their experiences and socially agreed-upon meanings. Neuhauser(1992) put it best that teachers do not teach, but students learn. Students should ask their teachers: Let me discover, dont tell me things, give advice Learners exposure in experiencing multiple perspectives of a particular event provides the student with the raw materials necessary to develop multiple representations. These multiple representations provide students with the ability to develop more complex schemes relevant to the experience. In general, multiple perspectives provide the students with a greater opportunity to develop a more viable model of their experiences and social interactions. This principles are versatile and the backdrop of the pedagogy of constructivist classrooms, role of constructivist teacher and applicable in the strategies of constructivist teaching. 5. The Constructivist Classroom in Teaching Economics Constructivists pedagogy mainly emphasized the need to establish democratic classrooms and learning environments, which could operate in accordance with the aforementioned basic principles of constructivism. It gives due concern for shared responsibilities and decision making within the learner and the teacher. The classroom is no longer a place where the teacher pours knowledge in economics principles and facts into passive students, who wait like empty vessels to be filled (Senapaty & Pradhan, 2005). In this respect, (Brooks & Brooks, 1993) clarifies the basic features of constructivist classroom, which have practical implications to teach economics as follows: Students autonomy and initiatives are accepted and encouraged- In constructivist class rooms, teachers should have to respect and encourage students ideas, which yields independent thinking and helps learners to attain their own intellectual identity, take responsibility for their own learning and become problem solvers. In this stage, the assumption is that if there is no freedom for free discussion, and to make choices, students are less likely to adopt deep approaches to learning economic facts and theories. Higher level thinking is encouraged- In constructivist class room, economics teachers should challenge students to reach beyond memorization and simple clarification of facts, principles and theories of economics. He should also motivate learners to synthesis, analyze, predicting and justifying their ideas and conceptions in their own understandings. Students are engaged in experiences that challenge hypothesis and encourage discussion- The students should be encouraged to design, predict their own hypothesis about economic phenomenon. The economics teacher should have to give ample opportunities, models and

in my terms, when my work is poor, tell me how to improve it. Teachers should provide for and encourage multiple perspectives and representation of content-

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illustrations to test their hypothesis through collaborative and cooperative discussions and mediations in their classroom. Students are engaged in dialogue with the teacher and each other- In constructivist class room, the activities are interactive; the class environment supports the active involvement of students in collaborative activities. These activities and interactions help students change or reinforce their ideas. If they have the chance to explain their views and opinions of economic realities, they can hear others reflections, they can also construct their own personal knowledge. The class uses raw data, primary sources, and manipulative, physical and interactive materialsConstructivist approach of teaching economics initiate learners to participate in concrete world situations, which help them to analyze and synthesis abstraction with concrete.

6. Constructivist Strategies in Teaching Economics Many instructors conceive of teaching as the well organized syllabus, explained in clear and well organized lectures with assignments and examinations to test for mastery. The unwelcome but inescapable fact is that sometimes, this kind of teaching doesnt result in student learning outcomes. It certainly doesnt stimulate the best students in economics classes (Becker, E. W., and Watts, M. 1998). Research findings indicated the chalk-and-talk approach is the instructional strategies predominantly used in the teaching of economics which is based on lecturing that ignore students' view (Walstad and Watts, 1985). The role of the teacher is the transmission of knowledge, learners found to be passive recipients of information; the class is dominated and controlled by the teacher. It is the common explanation for the low interest of students on economics courses (Becker and Watts, 2001a; George, 2008). Constructivist pedagogy denounces such traditional behaviorists approaches of teaching economics and recommends its own perspectives through exploring some useful strategies from traditional approaches. It has been realized that constructivist pedagogy has paramount implications for teaching economics education. First, teaching economics cannot be viewed as simple transmission of knowledge about economics facts, principles and theories from the teacher to the learner through mere lecturing. Second, learning is based on previous knowledge; hence some association should have to create between prior knowledge of economics with the present new knowledge and understandings. Third, economics teacher should have to engage students in learning experiences through brainstorming their prior knowledge and make them to synthesis with the new information. Some of the strategies that help economics teachers to move towards constructivist approaches are: seeking and using student questions and ideas to guide lessons and instructions; engage students in questioning, activity construct and explain a model and providing adequate time for reflection and analyzing the ideas given by students. In general, constructivist pedagogy determines the principles, stages of teaching, strategies and the crucial role expected from the constructivist teacher, which have paramount implications to become a model teacher in economics. According to Fosnot (1996), some of the stages of strategies that help teacher to move towards constructivist didactics in teaching different subjects are the following. These stages have practical implication in teaching economics. Introduction- In this phase of teaching, prior knowledge and experience can be activated in many ways. Recall previous knowledge about economics; introducing new theories and principles, asking some questions, which make students to be active participant and eagerly involve in discussions and classroom discourses.

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Exploration- Students engage in collaborative and cooperative learning, experimentation,

employ learners centered strategies, practice enquiry approach, discuss with teachers and classmates about economics facts and issues. Experiential Mode- Students interact and challenge each other and discover new ideas, construct their own understandings. Hence, meaningful learning occurs with authentic learning tasks. The teacher mainly acts in the provision of materials and arranging appropriate learning environment and facilitating learning and guiding learners. Abstract Conceptualization and Understanding- As per constructivist pedagogical tenets, learning economic facts and theories, is a matter of associating and attaching a new meaning to past cognitive experiences, constructing new explanations, experiences and making decisions. Reflection- Constructivist teacher encourage students to reflect on their current ideas and findings in the light of earlier hypothesis. This reveals that learners in economics education are encouraged to think about their own learning. Application and Evaluation- Evaluation is ongoing process of instructional process. This makes the constructivist approach of teaching a cyclic process. This process enable constructivist economics teacher to assess whether the learner has achieved understanding of concepts, theories and principles of economics or not. In general such stages of strategies can be adopted by a committed economics teacher to be both constructive and instructive for effective economics teaching.

7. The Role of Constructivist Economics Teacher As research in cognitive science indicated, constructivism as emerging theory of learning is based on the idea that learning occurs when a learner actively constructs a knowledge representation in working memory. In this view of learning, learner is a sense maker, whereas the teacher is a cognitive guide. It plays the role to encourage students to use active learning technique, e.g. experiments, and problem solving, to create more knowledge and then to reflect what they have understood. Contrary to criticisms by some traditional educators, constructivism does not dismiss the active role of the teacher or the value of expert knowledge. Constructivism modifies that role, so that teachers instruct students to construct knowledge rather than to produce a series of facts. The constructivist economics teacher provides tools like, problem solving and inquiry-based learning activities with which students formulate and test their ideas, draws conclusions and inferences, and pool their knowledge in a collaborative learning environment. Thus, teaching economics should not only instructive but also constructive, instruction and construction can be connected successfully, however, which category of economic education and which contents should be filtered. One has to point out which challenges teachers have to meet facing the fields of instructive and constructive teaching approaches. In general, the role of constructivist economic teacher is different from the traditional role of a teacher as information provider. In constructivist classrooms, economics teachers functions as a stimulator of curiosity and resource person. A teacher also acts as senior co-investigator, a guide, as co-learner and as facilitator of knowledge construction. 8. Conclusion The central idea dealt with this paper is that currently behaviorist teaching approach is the predominant mode of instruction in the teaching of economics, which makes the subject least popular and not easily understandable discipline indifferent levels of education. Recent research findings in cognitive learning and teaching have given new dimensions of constructivist view of teaching and learning economics.

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Constructivist didactics highly recognizes learner as a constructor of knowledge and an active participant in the process of learning economics. Contrary to other modern theorists of teaching and learning, constructivists extremely demand teachers, the active role of the teacher and the worth of expert knowledge. It modifies the role that the economics teachers help students to construct knowledge rather than just mechanically receiving knowledge from the teacher. Thus, learning economics should not be only instructive, but also constructive. Instruction and construction cannot be put in to effect using a simple all or- nothing principle. Learning always demands motivation, interest and activity on the part of the teachers, thus, every learning process is constructive, the major objective of teaching is to enable and activate constructive learning. Learning also requires orientation, instruction and guidance. The teacher should have to play the role of both instructive and facilitator and guide for constructive learning. Hence, it requires a paradigm shift and the commitment to adopt the instructive perspectives with constructivism to be exemplary teacher in economics. References
Andre, Giordan, (1995). New Models for the Learning Process: Beyond Constructivism? Prospects, Vol.25, No.1. Becker, E. W., and Watts, M. 1998. Teaching economics to undergraduates: Alternative to chalk and talk. Northampton: Edward Elgar. Becker, E. W., and Watts, M. (2001a). Teaching economics at the start of the 21st century: Still Chalk-and- talk. The American Economic Review, 91(2), 446-450. Brooks,J.G.&Brooks,M.G.(1993). In Search of Understanding: The case for Constructivist. Association for Supervision & Curriculum, Alexandria, Cashin, W.( 1990). Students do rate different academic fields differently. In Student rating of instruction: Issues of improving practice. New directions for teaching and learning. Edited by M. Theall and J. Franklin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Good, T.L., Brophy, J.E. (1990). Educational Psychology: A realistic Approach (4th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman Fosnot,T. (1996).Constructivism: A psychological theory of Learning, in C.T.Fosnot (ed.) Constructivism, theory, perspectives and practice, New York: Colombia University Press. George, M. F. (2008). On the Teaching of Financial Economics: A Pedagogic Note. Journal of Investing, 17(3), 105-110. Jackson, M. (1990). Knowledge For What? Australian Quarterly 48(1) Jackson, M. (1989).Less Lecturing, More learning: Studies in Higher Education 14(1) Neuhauser (1992). The Social Contract between Teachers and Students. In Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speech in History;Newyork: Norton 1027. Pintrich, R.S.,& Schunk, D.H.(1996).Motivation in education: Theory, research, and application. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Senapaty H.K and Pradahan.N(2005). Constructivist Pedagogy in Classroom in Indian Journal of Education. Vol.31,No.1. Steef,L.P.and Gale,J.(1995). Constructivism in Education (eds.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ. Von Glaserfeld, E.( 1998). Sensory experience, abstraction, and teaching. In Constructivism in Education, ed. L. P.Steffe and J. Gale,. Hillside, N.J: Erlbaum. Walstad, W., and Watts, M.( 1985). Teaching economics in the schools: A review of survey Findings: Journal of Economic Education, Vol.16, No.2

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Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS and Stigmatization on Women in Nigeria: Challenges for the Actualization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)
Dr. Yahya Zakari Abdullahi
Department Of Economics, Faculty Of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria E-mail: ayzakari@ahoo.com

Dr. (Mrs.) Hussainatu Abdullahi


Department Of Economics, Faculty Of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria E-mail: hussayabdul@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p205

Abstract Trapped between the shackles of the monster called poverty, haunted and manacled by the lethal dose of shame i.e. the millennium exterminator called HIV/AIDS, the Nigerian woman is thrown into the oblivion of stigmatization, discrimination and rejection. This situation has worsened her already precarious socio-economic wellbeing thereby jeopardizing her ability at self-actualization and economic independence. However, without the government taking very crucial steps to stem the tide of the real killer disease (stigma), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which the whole world including Nigeria are striving to attain may be a herculean task. This paper attempts on explanation of the myths and misperception about HIV/AIDS, the stigma arising there from and consequently the challenges that must be overcome towards the actualization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

1. Introduction At its core, development must be about general improvement of human wellbeing, eradication of hunger, disease, ignorance and provision of productive employment for all. Its first goal must be to end poverty and satisfy the priority needs of all people in a way that can be productively sustained (for) future generations (Ghali, 1995). For several years, the development challenge for Nigeria was the diversification of the productive base of the economy, i.e. away from oil, thereby embarking on several ad hoc stabilization or reform measures, a major reform package being the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of the middle 1980s. In recent time, following the United Nations agenda on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Nigeria embarked on a new reform programme known as National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). The objectives of NEEDS among others, is to enable Nigeria achieve a turn around and grow a broad-based market-oriented economy that is private sector-led and in which people can be empowered so that they can, as a minimum afford the basic needs of life. It is therefore a pro-poor development

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strategy with sources of economic empowerment being gainful employment and provision of social safety nets for (the) most vulnerable groups, (especially women), Akpobaseh (2004). However, this dream is under serious threat by the greatest millennium exterminator, i.e. HIV/AIDS. Thus, by killing so many people in their prime age, HIV/AIDS constitute crucial challenge to this reform agenda for economic growth and development that can be sustained. Indeed, it poses serious obstacle to human capital, discouragement of investment and erosion of productivity. In fact, HIV/AIDS does not only undermine a nations efforts at poverty reduction, but also it constitutes serious constraint to the improvement of the peoples standard of living. Nevertheless, the health consequences of poverty and deprivation for all people are enormous and very serious. Ultimately, the experience of women in most cases differs from those of men in a number of ways due to womens vulnerable position, not only in the labour economy, but also in the area of care economy (Abdullahi, 2004). It is therefore not surprising to note that womens health generally and their reproductive health in particular has in recent time become so fundamental that it has taken a prominent place in the United Nations agenda for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) i.e. improvement of maternal health. Maternal health concerns have become very crucial and urgent in view of the current deadly lethal dose of shame in the name of HIV/AIDS for which women constitute the highest statistics of the affected and infected. It is useful to note that the HIV/AIDS scourge is shrouded in myths and misperception which unfortunately has led to serious stigmatization on the part of the women who have fallen victims due to their vulnerable position in all spheres of life. The need to understand the reality of this scourge cannot be overemphasized, especially if the objective of attaining improvement in maternal health, an important goal of the United Nations MDGs is to be actualized. In the light of the foregoing, this paper is divided into five (5) sections including this brief introduction as section one. Section two (2) provides an insight into the meaning of HIV/AIDS, the myths and realities surrounding it. In section three (3) an overview of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria is discussed with emphasis on the role of religion, culture versus sex and poverty, etc, while section four (4) looks at the economic impact of HIV/AIDS and stigmatization on women in Nigeria and its challenges for the actualization of the MDGs. The final section looks at the way forward towards actualizing the MDGs with conclusion. 2. HIV/AIDS: Meaning, Myths And Realities In this section we discuss the meaning, myths and realities of HIV/AIDS. a. Meaning of HIV/AIDS: To understand the issue of HIV/AIDS, it is important to pose a very crucial question, i.e. why it is perceived as such as lethal dose of shame? The answer is very simple, i.e. that people are ignorant of its meaning, hence the myths and misperceptions about the disease. Studies have shown that in 1984 and 3 years after the first reports of a disease that was to become known as AIDS, researchers discovered the primary causative viral agent, the human immunodeficiency viral type 1 (HIV-1). In 1986, a second type of HIV, called HIV-2 was isolated from AIDS patients in West Africa, where it may have been present decades earlier. However, studies of the natural history of HIV-2 are limited, though comparisons with HIV-1 show some similarities while suggesting some differences (Salaam, 2006). HIV-2 infections are predominantly found in Africa, thus West Africa, thus West African Nations with a prevalence rate of HIV-2 of more than 1% in the general population are: Cape Verde, Cote dvoire, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Niger, Sao Tome, Senegal and Togo (Ibid).

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b.

However, according to Cadman (2003), HIV is an acronym which stands for Human Immune deficiency Virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS on the other hand means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. Thus, HIV causes AIDS by attacking the immune systems soldiers known as CD 4 Cells. When too much of these CD 4 cells are lost, the body is less able to fight off any infection. Most often, these may develop into serious and sometimes very deadly infections. These infections are referred to as Opportunistic Infections (OIs) due to the fact that they take advantage of the already weakened defenses of the body system. Consequently, AIDS result when the bodys immune system is compromised such that it cannot effectively fight off opportunistic infections from attacking it, hence it becomes very deadly. It is useful to stress that AIDS does not occur as soon as one is confirm as being HIV positive since the virus can remain for several years in the body without any sign of disease. However, if it is left without treatment, it will result to destroying the immune system, thereby creating room for opportunistic infections. Cadman (2003) opines that the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines someone as having AIDS if he or she is HIV positive and meets one or both of the following conditions: Has had at least one of 21 AIDS defining opportunistic infections; and Has had a CD 4 Cell count ((T-Cell count) of 200cells or less (A normal CD 4 count varies by laboratory, but usually it is in the range of 600 to 1,500)) It is useful to stress that both HIV-1 and HIV-2 have the same modes of transmission and are associated with similar opportunistic infections, hence AIDS. Studies have revealed that in persons infected with HIV-s, immunodeficiency develops more slowly and it is milder when compared with persons infected with HIV-1. Thus, those with HIV-2 infectiousness seem to increase. However, when compared with HIV-1, the duration of this infectiousness is shorter. It is also reported that HIV-1 and HIV-2 also differ in geographic patterns of infection (Op. Cit). The Myths and Realities about HIV/AIDS: According to Trisdale (2003), most stories and rumours about HIV/AIDS are not only highly exaggerated, but they are in most cases made up. Consequently, in order to tackle the problem of HIV/AIDS it is very crucial to sieve out the myths from the realities. This is because, once one develops strong belief in the myths about the HIV/AIDS, it creates serious fear, denial, discrimination and the resultant effect may be serious damage to ones health which kills faster than the HIV/AIDS. i. Myths about HIV/AIDS: Trisdale (2003) highlights the following as the myths surrounding the HIV/AIDS scourge: HIV does not cause AIDS; The AIDS Test cant be trusted; Viral load tests dont really tell anything about a persons health; Straight people dont get HIV, etc. ii. Realities about HIV/AIDS: She also points out the following as the realities about HIV/AIDS. If you dont have HIV, you dont get AIDS, but if you have HIV you (may) eventually have AIDS; HIV medications known as antiretrovirals dont cure HIV, but can help keep people healthy for a longer period of time; AIDS Test measures the bodys response to HIV, called antibodies. The HIV antibody called ELISA is 99 % accurate;

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Viral load measures the amount of HIV in a persons blood. According to Trisdale, several studies have revealed that people with high viral loads are at high risk of falling ill or die than people with low viral loads; Majority of HIV positive people worldwide are heterosexual; You can pass it on to others, like your partner through sex or your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breast feeding. Other modes of transmission include sharp objects, blood transmission from infected person; HIV can be passed on more easily if: i. You have sex without using a condom; ii. You have a sexuality transmitted infection (STI); iii. You have dry sex, i.e. wiping the private part or putting substance like snuff, vinegar, Colgate, Jik to dry up the vagina before sex; iv. You have rough sex like rape. This can cause cuts and bleeding and this helps HIV to get into the body more easily. Arising from the above, Trisdale warns that care should be taken in giving out wrong information because the myths about HIV/AIDS are very dangerous as they can make people fear when there is no cause to do so and also make one not to fear in the face of danger. 3. An Overview of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: The Role of Religion and Culture Versus Sex and Poverty That Nigeria is the most populous black nation hence the acclaimed giant of Africa is no longer in doubt. Also not in doubt is the siege of patriarchy which has encompassed all spheres of the Nigerian society in the area of female genital mutilation, child marriage, widow inheritance, polygamy, while all the dominant religion proclaim the superiority of the males over the females, i.e. the traditional, Islamic and Christian religious practices. This Divinely ordained male dominance forms the ultimate basis of patriarchy entrenchment in the Nigerian culture (Isiramen, 2003). Nigeria is a society where talks about sexual issues are viewed as immoral, hence shrouded in great secrecy. This secrecy surrounding sexual relations, coupled with the religious and cultural expectations that subjugate women is largely responsible for womens (greatest) vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in the country, thus making Nigeria to be on the brink of HIV/AIDS disaster (Ibid). Arising from the above, studies have shown that Nigeria has the fastest rate of HIV/AIDS infection in West Africa, with the prevalence rate among women attending antenatal clinics rising from mere 1% in 1986 when HIV was first discovered in Nigeria to 21% in the (new millennium), thus women make up 60% of HIV/AIDS sufferers in Nigeria (Ibid). According to Oshotimehi (2006), the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate rose from 1.8% in 1992 to 4.5% in 2001, and 5.8% in 2003 and has fallen to 4.4% in 2005 which to him is still on the high side for a country like Nigeria. A number of factors have been isolated as being responsible for the high statistics of women affected by the HIV/AIDS scourge. These factors include among others religion, culture, sexual relation and poverty, etc, as discussed below. a. Religion and Culture versus Sexual Relations: Sex is the primary mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Thus womens vulnerability to this scourge is correlated according to Isiramen (2003) to the religious-cultural demands of the society in the area of sexual relations. According to her, from cradle, girls are groomed and indoctrinated to bear suffering and humiliation in silence. As usual, in a heavily patriarchal society like Nigeria, the males and females undertake different roles with different expectations in the area of sexual relations. While men can prove their virility and macho power through extramarital sex, it is a taboo for

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b.

the woman. In addition, both Islam and the traditional religion permit polygamy, hence fidelity on the part of the men is ruled out. Arising from the above, the tedious task of ensuring a successful marriage (a highly valued institution) lies on the womans shoulder alone. This involves provision of sex whenever the man is in need. Thus, in order to keep the sanctity of marriage, and in order to avoid castigation, shame, rejection, rebuke and dishonor or disgrace of divorce, most women suffer veneral diseases, the most deadly and prevalence of which is HIV/AIDS in silence. This indeed is a very rich and fertile atmosphere for the fast spread of HIV/AIDS (Ibid). In addition, due to womens low status in marriage relationship they fall prey to marital rape, i.e. a situation of coerced or forced sex. The tales of single women girls are worse in terms of rape as they suffer the shame in silence in order to avoid jeopardizing their future chances of marriage. All these factors combine in no small measure towards reducing womens ability to protect themselves, hence their high susceptibility to the HIV/AIDS scourge. Women are also exposed to HIV/AIDS due to other vile and highly repulsive cultural practices such as female genital mutilation and widowhood rites. Genital mutilations are usually enforced as a check on womens promiscuity in some societies in Nigeria. Usually, unsterilized instruments are used to perform this crude and horrifying operation by local physicians. The implication of this on the health of the woman is better imagined, needless to say in the spread of HIV/AIDS. Also in some societies in Nigeria, widowhood rites expose women to serious health problems, including the risk of HIV/AIDS infection. This rite involves shaving the head of the woman with unsterilized razor blade and a times forceful marriage to the deceaseds relation who may not have been tested for HIV. The Poverty Panacea: The economic condition of the country has also played crucial role in the spread of HIV/AIDS. As a richly endowed country, both in human and natural resources, Nigeria had no business with poverty. Unfortunately, due to gross mismanagement of the nations resources, the masses have been reduced to abject poverty and deprivation, with about 70% of the population living on less than one US dollar a day. This state of affair i.e. the economic pressure force some women into the dangerous and precarious life style of a commercial sex worker, especially among the teeming mass of the unemployed youths in order to escape the pangs of poverty. The irony of it all is that this escape route for survival resort to death sentence through the HIV/AIDS scourge. Therefore, as long as no effort is made to at least provide the basic needs for the masses, no amount of preaching against prostitution will change the situation (Isiramen, 2003). Arising from the above, is the fact that because of the religious and cultural barriers, most women are not aware that they are infected and when they do they maintain the culture of silence due to stigmatization, a more deadly exterminator than the HIV/AIDS scourge. This is the subject of discuss in the next section that follows.

4. Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS and Stigmatisation on Women in Nigeria: Challenges for the Actualisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) There is no doubt about the fact that people of all income levels and age groups are highly susceptible to the economic impact of HIV/AIDS either directly or indirectly. In the same vein, all sectors of the economy are also affected, like the issue of governance, the production and the social sectors, etc. However, the poor, particularly women and girls are the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and are thus disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Indeed, the greatest burden of care rests on the heads of women/girls. Most often families find it easier to withdraw girls from school in order to care for sick

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relations or assume other responsibilities within the family. This always ends the girls education, thereby jeopardizing her future prospects at self-actualization and economic independence. The resultant consequences on girls development is especially fundamental, leaving girls even more susceptible to HIV/AIDS infection as they are less able to achieve the earning power required to increase their economic independence. The impact on the national economy is best imagined i.e. reduced education for women seriously impedes the general economic development of a nation. Indeed, the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on governance cannot be overemphasized. This is because the government and the private sectors are loosing highly valuable and very skilled employees to the epidemic; hence they are being confronted with mounting bills on health care, widow and orphan maintenance, etc. This results to reduced revenue and lower return on investment. In addition, the loss of skilled employees through this epidemic is seriously hampering capacity, while the costs of new recruitments, training, benefits settlement and replacement are mounting. According to United Nations Fact Sheet (2001), HIV/AIDS is reducing the ratio of healthy workers to dependants, thereby reducing productivity. This trend has slowed the development of the private sector, a core element in the development strategies of many nations especially Nigeria. The agricultural sector is not left out as HIV/AIDS is reducing investment in irrigation, soil enhancement and other capital improvement strategies. This has inhibited agricultural production as households are being constrained to shift to crops that are less labour-intensive but also in nourishment. This has further worsened the food crisis in Nigeria in particular. This indeed poses serious challenges to the actualization of the MDGs by 2015 whereby people suffering from hunger are supposed to be reduced by half. The economic impact on the social sector too raises a lot of concerns. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has seriously overburdened the social system, consequently hindering health and educational development. It has been reported that in some countries ravaged by the epidemic, life expectancy has been reduced by 20 years, with the current rate of children orphaned by the disease amounting to about 13.2 million, which is also expected to double by the year 2010 (UN Fact Sheet, 2001). This panacea poses serious demands on social welfare, especially for a country like Nigeria which is already overburdened by huge developmental challenges. For instance, the quality and efficiency of our educational system, coupled with our health system that is already seriously overstretched are cases of contention. HIV/AIDS has seriously undermined social cohesion and has become a serious threat to social and political stability in Nigeria. Indeed, the MDGs of ensuring universal primary education by 2015 is no doubt at a great risk in Nigeria. Arising from the above is the economic consequences of stigmatization of people living positively with HIV/AIDS, the bulk of whom are women. Thus, between HIV infection (which does not kill) and AIDS (which could kill), there is a potent exterminator whose name is stigma (JAAIDS, 2006). According to JAAIDS, HIV/AIDS is the most misunderstood and stigmatized (ailment of the millennium) stigma is more lethal than the virus itself. It not only kills, it also perpetuates its own particular kind of emotional trauma which has serious consequences on self-esteem, mental health, and access to care. Indeed, stigma is one of the forces that are fast driving the widespread nature of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Stigma and discrimination can manifest in many ways (Engederhealth, 2006). It is usually fuelled by ignorance. While a lot has been discussed about HIV/AIDS, very few people still have factual knowledge of the virus as distinct from the syndrome. People view HIV/AIDS as a disease and this is very wrong because it is not so in the scientific parlance. Across Nigeria, the stigma, prejudice and denial surrounding HIV/AIDS are major obstacles in trying to stem the spread of the pandemic (Clarke, 2006). According to Clarke, reports about HIV positive women being tortured, burned and abandoned have frightened many women, especially within the Muslim communities, about seeking tests

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or treatment. There are also situations where husbands know their status and take ARVs, but will not tell their wives. While it is gratifying to note that the existence of HIV/AIDS is slowly gaining acceptance, principally due to the laudable activities of the National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA), there is no doubt that a lot still needs to be done especially in the fight against ignorance, myths and the sociocultural obstacles fuelling its wide spread. The question that readily comes to mind at this juncture is which way forward? This is the subject of discuss in the next section. 5. Towards Actualization of the Millennium Development Goals: The Way Forward For long time HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns were viewed as another western propaganda to spread foreign ways of thinking, especially among traditional Muslim communities. But the reality today is that HIV/AIDS is real and a lot of people have lost their lives, with many women widowed and a lot of children orphaned. The epidemic is spreading like wild fire. What should Nigeria do about this scourge in order to actualize the MDGs on health generally and maternal health in particular, especially as it relates to HIV/AIDS? Nigeria can do the following to overcome this problem a. The Risk Avoidance Strategy, i.e. the ABC of HIV/AIDS Prevention: The first step towards overcoming the spread of the epidemic is to attack the most primary cause i.e. sex. This is the most common way through which HIV/AIDS could be contacted. Thus, since the late 1980s it had been known that individuals could take action to either reduce or avoid altogether the risk of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS through sexual transmission. Thus, the risk could be avoided through: i. Abstinence: i.e. by avoiding altogether any sexual activities that could cause transmission of HIV/AIDS and wait till one gets married to the right partner. ii. Be Faithful: i.e. avoiding sexual relationship other than with a mutually faithful uninfected partner. iii. Condomize: i.e. by avoiding correct and consistent use of condoms, especially for people who cannot discipline themselves sexually. Empirical evidences from Uganda and Botswana have shown that the ABC method has been effective in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS (Avert, 2005). In fact, the slogan was believed to have been first adopted by the Botswanan government in the late 1990s as part of a general public AIDS awareness campaign. However, there have been other variations with more specific definition of ABC by the US-funded PEPFAR initiative and UNAIDS, though with very little difference in meaning. b. The Influence of Religion and Culture: No effort to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria can afford to ignore the dominant influence of religion and culture. There is no doubt about the fact that the high secrecy attached to womens sexual experiences through religiouscultural norms has contributed in no small way to womens vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. No culture is immune to change, hence Nigerians must let go of the traditional notions of male chauvinism (Isiramen, 2003) citing Martin Foreman (Director of AIDS programme of the Panos Institute, London) opines that the HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be curtailed until men are persuaded to reassess their traditional concepts of masculinity. Without men, there would be no HIV/AIDS epidemic. c. Education and Information: The role of qualitative education combined with accurate and timely information towards minimizing the spread of HIV/AIDS cannot be overemphasized. In Nigeria today, there are overwhelming evidences on the high rate of women among the statistics of the illiterates and uninformed. When women are not educated

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d.

e.

f.

and consequently well informed, they fall easy prey to all the excesses of the chauvinistic maledominated society. In the light of this, there is the urgent need to replace the secrecy surrounding sexual relations with effective and timely information and qualitative education. In this respect, we advocate for the inclusion of sex education in our school curriculum. It is also useful to stress that education means empowerment, hence women should be empowered to make decisions about all aspects of their lives, especially about the use of their bodies. They must be encouraged to resist those negative aspects of socio-cultural and economic pressures, while religious leaders should provide the correct interpretation of the various holy books (the Holy Quran and Bible). After all Islam in particular is the religion that has accorded women high status in the history of mankind. Islam saved the girl-child from being buried alive, a barbaric practice of the Arabs during the pre-Islamic era. Islam is kind to women in adolescence because she is granted rights of inheritance and the right to be educated and in old age, Islam adores women with garment of honour and dignity (Dindi, 1994). Poverty Alleviation/Eradication: While it is essential to stress that absolute poverty can be eradicated, relative poverty on the other hand can only be alleviated. Which ever angle we may take, it is very crucial to observe that it is possible to stop the spiraling crisis of HIV/AIDS by attacking head-on this monster called poverty. Sadly, we have burgeoning number of our citizens living below the poverty line, while many others could safely be referred to as living dead. With no job, no food, no hope, the devil easily engages otherwise vibrant youths in devilish activities, (the easiest being prostitution). Consequently, we all are common losers in the pauperization and dehumanization of the bulk of our citizens through economic theories which speak of macro and micro-effects of policies which sadly neglects and negates the common sense economic theory that democracy must start with the stomach (Daily, Sun, 2006). In the light of this, improved and intensified poverty efforts on the part of policy makers to promote equitable growth, generate employment, raise incomes, improve agricultural production, promote and expand informal sector livelihood. Nigeria can safeguard her current development achievements through effective integration of HIV/AIDS activities into her overall development agenda. Also each sector of the economy should take into account the issue of HIV/AIDS in their development plans through the introduction of measures that will sustain public sector functions. Work-place Legislation, Provision of Social Services and Justice: Given the current conducive political environment, the time is ripe for the policy makers to explore innovative ways of maintaining and rebuilding capacity towards containing the epidemic. In addition, effective and efficient labour and social legislations should be put in place in other to boost peoples rights, i.e. a National work-place policy on HIV/AIDS, while more effective ways of delivering social services should be aimed at those that are worst affected by the epidemic, i.e. the widows and orphaned children. There should also be legislation on good homes for the widows and those orphaned by the epidemic. In the same vein, legislation should be made for adoption of these orphans. In addition, if the battle against HIV/AIDS is going to be victorious, the need to maintain security, justice and democratic governance cannot be under estimated. In this respect the government should create a conducive environment that is confidential to enable people voluntarily present themselves for free counseling and testing. When the majority, if not everybody are aware of their HIV/AIDS status, it will help to control further spread. Empathy and Love for those already affected and infected: We have noted earlier that the issue of stigmatization is more deadly than the virus itself. Stigma devalues intervention for support, reduces sense of self-esteem and pride. One culture in Nigeria used to be such that we are our

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g.

brothers keepers. Nigerians are known for their love and affection for family ties and relationships especially during crisis period. No doubt, those already affected are seriously in daring need of love affection and understanding. Let us unite in our solidarity and dream that it is possible to have an HIV/AIDS Free Generation by empathizing with those already carrying the virus. It is not a death sentence as it was originally portrayed through sensational reporting by the mass media. We should not pity, scorn, despise or shun the infected if we all exhibit a positive attitude to these people infected, it will go long way in prolonging their life time. Hope should be communicated for their survival and encouragement. We should also note that with or without HIV/AIDS death will come one day. Let us all stretch a hand of love to our kit (s) and other affected neighbor (s) alike. Capacity Building: The need to provide relevant capacity for those already affected cannot be overemphasized. Dolling out stipend is only a temporary measure, but teaching them requisite skills will create a double-edged-sword, i.e. it will go a long way in reducing their emotional trauma and boredom, while at the same time empowering them economically. It is gratifying to note that a number of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have taken steps in this direction, but a lot still need to be done, especially by philanthropists and the Civil Society at large.

6. Conclusion There is no doubt about the fact that the initial negative presentation by some medical personnel and the sensational captions by the Nigerian Mass Media on the so-called dead-sentence nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic made it so scary that people found it difficult to accept its presence on time, hence its sporadic spread and consequently stigmatization of those affected. Thus lack of effective communication, information and acute ignorance has combined in no small measure to fuel the spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The fight is still raging, while the tide is still very high, but there seems to be hope at the end of the tunnel, especially given the general global concerns (Global Funds) and that of the current democratic government (NACA) in the struggle to reduce the epidemic. Nevertheless, we strongly believe that the spiraling case of HIV/AIDS can be stopped if there is a permanent solution to poverty generally and as it affects women in particular. In addition, religious organizations need to intensify efforts towards combating the epidemics. It is our belief that if leaders imbibe the political will and are transparent, honest, and accountable, by putting their minds and will into its permanent extermination, the dream of actualizing the Millennium Development Goals will be triumphantly attained, while Nigeria will lead the Committee of African Nations with respect to having future generations that are HIV/AIDS-Free. It is on this note we conclude the paper. References
Abdullahi, H. (2004): Poverty, Deprivation and Womens Health: A Review in Issues in Economics, 1 (eds.) by C. U. Aliyu, and Abdullahi, A. S., a publication of the Department of Economics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; p. 181 201. Akpobasah, M. (2004): Development Strategy for Nigeria, a paper presented at a 2 day Nigeria Meeting organized by the Overseas Development Institute, London, 16th 17th June. Avert (2005): The ABC of HIV Prevention, by Avert.org. Avert is an international AIDS charity. (file://D://Hivprevention/The ABC of HIV prevention.htm) Cadman, I. (2003): What is HIV? (http://www.thewellproject.org/HIV_The_Basics/ What_is_Hiv.jsp). Clarke, I. (2006): Nigeria: A Lethal Dose of Shame, in IRIN Plus News, HIV/AIDS News Service for Africa (http://plusnews.org/AIDSreport.asp?Report!!) =5335&SelectRegion=West Africa.

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Daily Sun, Friday December, 8th 2006 Front page Dindi, S. (1994): The Rights of Women in Islam, a paper presented at a workshop on the Them: Womens Health, Rights and Concerns, organized by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN), Southern Zone at The University of Ibadan Conference Hall, 19th 22nd May. EngenderHealth (2006): Reducing Stigma and Discrimination surrounding HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (http://www.engenderhealth.org/itf/nigeria-2.html) Ghali, R. B. (1996): An Agenda for Development, (former United Nations Security-General, Boutrus Boutrus Ghali). JAAIDS, (2006): Stigmatization Reduction Season Begins, eForum Message by Journalists against Aids Nigeria (JAAIDS), May 9th. (http://www.nigeria-aids.org/eforum/Msg/ Read.cfm?ID=5800). Ones, C. (1995): Marriage is not a Vaccine Against AIDS, World 53. Oshotimehi, B. (2006): NACAs Activity, on NTA Channel 10 Towards a Greater Nation, a programme presented by Omotayo-Omotosho, December 5th, 12.00 Noon (National Action Committee on AIDS, Chairman Prof. Babatunde Oshotimehi). Salaam, (2006): AIDS in Muslim African Countries. (http://www.salaam.com.uk/ themeofthemonth/ october02_index.pho?1=4) Trisdale, S. K. (2003): Myths and Misperceptions about HIV, July. (http://www.thewellproject.org /HIV_The_Basics/Myths_and_Misperceptions.jsp). United Nations (2001): HIV/AIDS and Development, Special Session on HIV/AIDS Global Crisis Global Action, Fact Sheet, 25th 27th June. Vasquez, C. (1994): The Myths of Invulnerability: Lesbians and HIV Disease, Focus, 8 (9):1.

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Beyond Refuge: Post Acceptance Challenges in New Identity Constructions of African Refugee Claimants in Canada
Michael Baffoe, M.S.W; Ph.D
Assistant Professor of Social Work University of Manitoba 500B Tier Building, Winnipeg, MB, R2N 2X2, Canada. Tel: (204) 474-9682, Fax:(204) 474-7594 e-mail: Michael.Baffoe@ad.umanitoba.ca
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p215

Abstract Undergoing the process of refugee claims and refugee determination in Canada is not easy: It involves long periods of waiting and uncertainty when the focus of the claimants is only on getting their claims accepted. The period after acceptance of refugee claims however, involves a difficult process of rebuilding disrupted and (in some cases), shattered lives, in safety and dignity. While government and mainstream settlement agencies focus on housing, language training and employment as the immediate and important settlement needs of new immigrants and refugees, the refugees themselves undergo very difficult processes of reconstructing new identities as part of their efforts to carve new ways of life for themselves and their families. They are eager to shed the refugee label/tag and take on new identities as they navigate their way through their new society. This article highlights findings from studies done with Africans who arrived as refugees and refugee claimants in Montreal and Toronto from the late 1980sto the mid 1990s, most of whom are now either permanent residents or Canadian citizens. Key Words: Africa, Refugees, re-settlement; new identity constructions, mental health, stigmatization. Labelling; counter-storytelling

1. Introduction With the changes in the geo-political landscapes around the world and political, economic and social upheavals, many people continue to find themselves at risk and seek asylum outside of their own borders (UNHCR, 1997c). This is involuntary or forced migration and many of such people who become known as refugees continue to seek protection and humanitarian assistance in other countries around the world. The UN Convention on Refugees emphasizes that the determination of refugee status reflects an incompatibility between the applicant and his/her state or country of origin (Boyd, 1999; Connors, 1997). Forced migration and its resultant turning of people into refugees have been an important component of international migration in Africa. The number of refugees in Africa increased steadily from 1960 to 1995, passing from 79,000 to 6.4 million in that period. Since 1970, refugees in Africa have constituted a substantial proportion of the world's refugees. The proportion of refugees in Africa peaked in 1975, when three out of every five of the world's refugees had found asylum in the continent. Since 1985, at least a third of all refugees in the world have been hosted by countries of Africa. In addition, the growing reluctance of receiving countries in Africa to grant asylum and refugee status on a prima facie basis has also contributed to the reduction of official numbers of refugees hoisted by other

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countries on African soil (Zlotnik, 2004). Many of them therefore sought asylum and protection in a number of Western countries including Canada. The refugee influx into Canada from Africa started in the mid 1980s reaching a peak in the early 1990s when political repression and social and economic instability were rampant and prevalent in most African countries (Zlotnik, 2004; Boyd, 1999). There are about 20,000 individual refugees annually in Canada representing a little less than 10% of total immigration into Canada (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 1994). The literature is replete with numerous studies on refugee movements around the world and on settlement services provided to refugees in host societies (see Keely, 1992; Loescher and Loescher, 1994; UNHCR, 1997). There is however a dearth in the literature on an important, but often overlooked, aspect of the lives of former refugees in host societies: their burning desires and quick attempts, in their post-refuge years to shed the refugee labels, and to reconstruct new identities, different from the refugee label and identity which many regard as stigmas. Around the world, images that are flashed on television screens and in newspapers portray refugees mainly in negative light: poor, hungry-looking and malnourished. A large number of Africans who arrived in Canada in the late 1980s and 1990s as refugees who were the subjects of this study, were very well educated professionals who escaped from their countries due to political repressions and persecutions in their countries of origin (Bauder, 2003; Grant, 2005b; Li, 2001; Mulder &Korenic, 2005). These do not fit the usual images that are portrayed about refugees as stated above. It is no wonder that this section of the refugee population in Canada have been eager to shed the refugee label as soon as their claims to refugee status are accepted. This study is therefore an attempt to shed light on this important aspect of the settlement lives of refugees in host societies, especially Canada. It focused on a group of African refugees who arrived in the Canadian cities of Montreal and Toronto between the late 1980s and mid 1990s. It begins with an overview of the United Nations Convention and Protocols on Refugee Protection, refugee movements into Canada from the 1980s to the early1990s, and Canadas Refugee Protection system which administers refugee claims in Canada. A brief look is taken at refugee sponsorships programs by the Canadian government and private-sponsoring organizations of refugees into Canada. This is in addition to those making refugee claims at Canadas ports of entry as well as those that make in-land refugee claims. Thirdly, the methodology and theoretical framework that guided the study are presented. The study then takes a look at settlement and integration services that are provided to refugees and new immigrants in Canada. Next, the findings from the study, which include narratives from the participants are presented. The final section discusses the findings from the study and concludes with some recommendations for assisting this new population groups not only in Canada, but in countries that receive and host refugees. 2. United Nations Convention relating to the status of Refugees Adopted on 28 July 1951 by the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons, the Convention stipulates that:
Any person who by reason of a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, nationality,religion, membership in a particular social group or political opinion is outside his country of origin or nationality and is unable or unwilling by reason of such fear, to return toor avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or (b). Not having a country of nationality, is outside the country of his former habitual residence and is unable or, by reason of such fear, is unwilling to return to that country (UNHCR, 2007; Loescher and Loescher, 1994).

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Persons in need of protection as stipulated in the UN Convention are people whose removal to their home countries would subject them personally to a danger of torture, a risk to their life, or a risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment (UNHCR, 1997). 3. Refugee Claimants and Refugees This study deals with two types of refugees: refugee claimants and refugees. A refugee claimant is a person who considers himself/herself as fitting the UN Convention Refugee definition and seeks/applies to another country he/she considers safe for protection under the UN Convention on refugees. Such a person is willing to remain permanently in the country to which he/she applies for protection with the hope of starting a new life (Loescher and Loescher, 1994). Millions of people are on the move around the world as a result of wars, civil strifes, political repression, climatic changes/natural disasters, and famine. Refugees for purposes of this study are former refugee claimants who have been deemed or accepted as refugees by the new host country to which they applied for protection as fitting the United Nations Convention on Refugees. They may also be persons who were sponsored into a host society by government or private organizations or agencies from refugee camps around the world. Such persons are those that had escaped from their former countries of origin or habitual residence, living in another country and are deemed to be facing danger to their lives if returned to those former countries. These are usually referred to as sponsored refugees(UNHCR, 1997c; Loescher and Loescher, 1994). 4. Canadas Refugee Determination Process Canada has an obligation to grant protection to Convention Refugees and other persons in need of protection. This is because Canada has signed a number of United Nations Conventions, including: the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees the 1984 Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment Canadas Refugee Determination process has evolved and undergone dramatic changes from the mid-1980s (Heckman, 2009). The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act governs matters concerning immigration and refugee protection in Canada, including much of the work of the IRB. The Act came into force on June 28, 2002, replacing the previous Immigration Act of 1976. Persons may claim refugee status at any point of entry into Canada: Land Borders, Airports, and Sea Ports. There are also those persons who make In-LandRefugee Claims. These are persons who have arrived in the host country earlier under different circumstances and may make a refugee claimto the appropriate immigration offices or offices designated for that purpose if they have reason to believe that they cannot return to their country of origin or habitual residence for reasons underlined in the UN Convention on refugees (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2009). In either situation, the refugee claimant is examined first by an Immigration Officer at the point of entry for eligibility to make a refugee claim. This is the first stage of the refugee claim that determines admissibility grounds of the Refugee Claimant. The officer may refuse the refugee claim on any of the following grounds: security risk; claimant is deemed to have committed crimes against humanity either in times of peace or war; serious criminality; health reasons; or inadmissible family member. If the claimant is deemed admissible, the claim is then referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) for Adjudication (Canadian Council for Refugees, 2003).

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Established in 1989, the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB), Canada's largest administrative Tribunal, is a quasi-judicial Commission which is supposed to be independent of both Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canada Border Services Agency (Heckman, 2009, Matas, 1989). Ithas four Divisions:The Immigration Division; Immigration Appeals Division; Refugee Protection Division; Refugee Appeals Division. It is the Refugee Protection Division that hears and determines refugee claims referred to it by the Immigration Officers that examined the claimants at the points of entry or points of refugee claim. These hearings were, during the period covered by this study, held before Refugee Panels consisting of two Refugee Board Members; a Refugee Hearing Officer (RHO) representing the government; the refugee claimantand his/her legal representative. If the IRB Adjudicating panel accepts the claimants story, it issues a decision recognizing the refugee claimant as a refugee under the United Nations Convention. The refugee claimant (now recognized as a conventionrefugee is then allowed to apply to Citizenship and Immigration Canada for permanent residence status. If the IRB disbelieves the claimant, it issues a negative decision stating that the claimants claim has no credible basis and is therefore not recognized as a refugee under the United Nations Convention (CCR, 2003). For the purpose of this study, the focus will be on those that are accepted as Convention Refugees. There has been constant criticism in Canada over the years on the work of the IRB especially appointments to the Board and the process of adjudication (Matas, 1989). Refugee and immigration advocates in Canada have for years complained about the competence of some of the personnel appointed to the Board. Some of the complaints and accusations, relevant to this study, have centred around suspicions and concerns of incompetence and bias attitudes of some Board members towards refugee claimants (Heckman, 2009). The IRB adjudication process has over the years been engulfed in lengthy delays during which some claimants have had to wait for periods ranging from two to five years to have their claims heard (Hathaway, 1991; 2005). These long periods of waiting have created uncertainties and a lot of stress among refugee claimants, many of whom were separated from their families as at the time they arrived in Canada as refugee claimants or sponsored refugees (Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees, 1988). 5. Methodology A qualitative research approach was the preferred choice in this study because it falls in the realm of phenomenology which, according to van Manen (1997), is the study of lived experience. Reflection on lived experience is always recollective; it is a reflection on experience that is already passed or lived through (van Manen, 1997). This study is therefore about the lived experience of its participants: former refugees and refugee claimants from Africa living in Canada. The research design and methodology therefore recognized the participants as expert knowers in their own lived experiences. The research process therefore recognized the expertise of the participants, through interviews which explored their ideas and understandings on their journeys, often painful, from their original homelands to Canada and the long struggles to seek acceptance and protection. It also focused on the second phase of their lifes journeys to reconstruct new identities in their new homelands. The study adopted the method of open-ended (in-depth) ethnographic interviews, which, according to Denzin and Lincoln (1998), is one of the mostcommon and powerful ways to grasp the meanings that people ascribe to their dailylives. The interview questions were designed to generate not only answersover the meanings that the interviewees have attached to their migration experiences as refugees but also their personal stories and accounts of life historiesand experiences in new societies. Secondary data included Canadian government statistics and annual immigration and refugee reports,

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reports and minutes of meetings of refugee community organizations and newspaper articles. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling techniques was applied. The researcher, who arrived in Canada in the late 1980s as a refugee claimant himself knew a number of people in the communities identified. He contacted a number of former refugee claimants from the communities who also recommended other potential participants who also agreed to participate in the study. The researcher also attended a number of meetings of some of the refugee communities in a participant observer status. There was trust between the researcher and participants as the latter regarded the researcher as one of us who understood our struggles. 6. Theoretical Framework The Critical Race Theorys tenet of counter story telling was the theoretical framework that guided the study. Critical race theory gives voice to marginalized people to tell their stories and experiences within a framework where the center of analysis is the narrative (Grant and Asimeng-Boahene, 2006). As a former refugee claimant in Canada who has experienced most of the issues that the participants alluded to, I find the use of counter-story telling very relevant to the lived experiences of the subjects of this study. Critical Race Theorys tenet of counter-storytelling refers to the illumination of the cultural and personal narratives, family histories, and metaphorical stories that present a contrast to dominant societal narratives about race. These stories are viewed as central sources of information necessary for an authentic and comprehensive understanding of racial stratification and subordination (Dixson and Rousseau, 2006).Given that storytelling is a significant aspect of human communication, CRT has advocated for marginalized people to tell their often unheard and unacknowledged stories and for these perspectives to be applied to the existing dominant narratives that influence the law (Solorzano and Yosso, 2002). Delgado and Stefanic (2001) also describe CRTs tenet of storytelling/counterstorytelling as a process of naming one's own reality. In the case of refugees, they are the only ones who can tell and re-enact the experiences that form their reality from their countries of origin or former places of habitual residence to the new societies to which they have run to seek protection and opportunities to start new lives. To get accepted as Convention Refugees in Canadas Refugee Determination system, refugees claimants have to recall painful experiences to tell and retell their stories to people (Immigration Officials and Refugee Board Members) who may have no such experiences and who sometimes decide not to believe the stories the refugees have to tell because they sound too much out reality for these immigration and refugee hearing officials (Matas, 1989). 7. Research Participants The participants in this study were sixty persons of African origin who had arrived in Canada as refugee claimants from the mid 1980s up to the mid 1990s. They were from Ghana and Nigeria in West Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire) in Central Africa, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa. The researcher, a former refugee, was a former resident of Montreal, frequently visiting Toronto and knew a number of former refugee claimants in those cities. There were large numbers of refugees and refugee claimants from the above countries in the two cities during the period of this study. Thirty participants from the former refugee communities in Montreal participated in the study. Ten participants each were selected from the Ghanaian and Somalian communities and five each from the Congolese and Nigerian communities respectively.

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An equal number of thirty participated in the study from Toronto. These were from three communities: ten each from the Ghanaian, Somalian and Nigerian communities. With the exception of the Somalian group, all the other participants in the study arrived in Canada as refugee claimants. Of the ten participants of Somalian origin in the study, six had arrived in Canada as refugee claimants while eight had been sponsored to Canada from refugee camps in Kenya.Most of the participants were interviewed about a year or two after the acceptance of their refugee claims or after their arrival in Canada as sponsored refugees. All the participants were interviewed again about three to four years after the first interviews. They had, as some of them put it, metamorphosed from refugees, to permanent residents of Canada and becoming Canadian citizens. In all, the study interviews took place over a period of about six years. All the participants were interviewed twice, the second being follow-up interviews, on their agreement, to check on how they were doing in their new identities as Canadian citizens and engaging in new vocations or professions. 8. The Refugee Resettlement and Integration process in Canada When a refugee claimant or refugee family is finally accepted to stay in Canada for protection, and permanently, they are then entitled to services provided by an array of Settlement Agencies that can be found in all the major cities and urban centers in Canada where refugees have been settled (Abu-Laban et al, 1999; Indra, 1993; Satzewich, 1993). Refugees that arrived on their own in Canada are usually referred to Provincial health and Social Services authorities for assistance. The Government Assisted Refugees (GARs) receive 12 months of income and settlement support from the Canadian Federal government (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2008). The Private Sponsored Refugees (PSRs) receive settlement support from their sponsoring groups and organizations which include housing. However all the refugee categories are entitled to receive health and other social services, language and job search training provided by the provincial governments (CIC, 2008). Settlement agencies and even government departments have tended to focus on the deficits of refugees instead of their strengths. Despite the educational backgrounds, language and occupational skills that most refugees come into Canada with (see CIC, 2003), they are usually regarded by host societies and their settlement agencies as lacking physical security, limited language and labour market skills, living in extreme poverty and having significant mental and physical health problems including disabilities (CIC, 2008; Indra, 1993; Lamba, 2002). They also are regarded, usually not backed by data as more likely to be on welfare or social assistance (Basran, &Zong, 1998; Bauder, 2003). They are all lumped together as needing the same traditional services of housing, language training, job training and job search (Lamba, 2003; Li, 2001; Reitz, 2001; Zetter, 1999). It is a one-size-fit all approach. It is this blanket image and stigma of helplessness and neediness attached to all refugees in Canada that the participants in this study struggled to shed during their post refugee acceptance periods. 9. Findings/Discussion In this section I analyze the view presented by the study participants with the objective of teasing out some significant emerging themes. The refugee experience is often characterized as uprooting and traumatic, which is true. They may have experienced war, persecution, imprisonment, displacement, trauma, rape and torture, among others (Lamba, 2003). In their new host societies, refugees continue to deal with the effects of the above as well as social isolation and exclusion, conflicts with cultural expectations and mainstream institutions, role changes, identity crises, and a social reconstruction of the concept of home, (Bernier, 1992).

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It was echoed over and over again by the study participants how they resented the negative refugee label and stigma and were eager to shed it at the earliest opportunity. Lamba(2003) points out that because refugees are often admitted due to a collective traumatic experience, their new identities frequently and traditionally come to be defined via this collective cause. Government personnel, settlement service providers, and even researchers have all being guilty of reducing groups of refugees, wherever and whatever backgrounds they come from, to a single category of needy and helpless persons (Daniel & Knudsen, 1995). In so doing, their distinctive life stories and histories, the push and pull factors for their escape, personal goals, individual needs, aspirations and ambitions are ignored or minimized (Zetter, 1999). Furthermore, as Gold (1993) point out, simplistically characterizing refugees as persons in need can have significant negative consequences. Other authors (see also Mazur, 1988; Kuo& Tsai, 1986) have also maintained that socially constructed expectations of refugee passivity and dependence create institutions and procedures that can discourage refugees from taking control of their lives. It leads to a situation where the thinking of settlement services and researchers come to revolve around lost capacity of refugees who are then viewed in only dependent roles, characterized by need and helplessness (Mazur, 1988). It is these images and perceptions that the former refugee participants in this study have been struggling to shed and overcome. The following narratives from some of the participants illuminate this point:
Escaping from the land of my birth...finding myself in Canada as a refugee is something that I never dreamt will happen to me. In Canada the images of refugees that are shown on television and in newspapers are those of hungry-looking, helpless people in camps. I never lived in a refugee camp. I was never hungry. I was a well-educated person holding a top professional job at home. It is the unfortunate political circumstances there that forced me to escape for my life. All I need here in Canada is protection and the chance to pursue my career which I am surely qualified for. To equate me to the category of a hungry-looking, helpless uneducated person coming from a refugee camp really hurts. You see, watching these pictures and reading about these in newspapers here contributes in lowering your self esteem

From another:
They never give us a chance here to prove ourselves as fit for careers that we have trained in prior to our coming to Canada as refugees. Whenever we go to some of the settlement agencies, they dont bother to enquire about our background. I have had all my education up to university level in English, but they keep referring me to ESL classes which I really dont need. Honestly, the settlement agencies did nothing for me. I had to struggle for information myself as to how to further my education. In fact I was determined to get some Canadian education to boost the ones I came with and move away from this distressing refugee stigma

10. New Identity Construction in host societies Identities are social constructions. As defined by Hall (1996), identities are about questions of using the resources of history, language, and culturein the process of becoming rather than being: not who we are or where we camefrom, so much as what we become, how we have been represented and how thatbears on how we represent ourselves.Always in process, identities undergo constant transformations and are increasinglyfragmented, fractured, and multiply or reconstructed across different, often antagonistic,discourses, practices, and positions Hall, 1994). Fragmented and shifting asthey are, however, identities strive for a closure, a belief in internal coherence, anda sense of eternity (Frith, 1996), which can be achieved through retelling the stories ofthe past, sometimes painful as in the case refugees, and imagining a new secure homeland.

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Participants in this study became engaged in struggles at creating new identities, from their assigned refugee labels which, as indicated above, many resented due to the stigma attached to it. But reconstructing new identities in foreign, often strange lands is not an easy undertaking. Hall, (1994 ) emphasises this point by pointing out that diasporic identities are constantly producing and reproducing themselves anew alongitineraries of migrating,but also re-creating the endless desire to return to lost origins. Diaspora members, living on culturalborderlands or interstitial zones, cluster around remembered or imaginedhomelands, practise authentic home cultures, form ethnic communities, so as tore-root their floating lives and reach a closure in making sense of their constantlychanging subjectivities (Frith, 1996; Hall, 1996). Some of the study participants attested to how they struggled to construct new identities from the refugee labels. All the refugee communities which were part of this study found the need, earlier on their arrival in Canada, to form advocacy groups clustered around the refugee label. There were the Ghana Refugee Union, Montreal formed in 1987, The Ghanaian Refugee Association, Toronto, formed in 1989, The Nigerian Refugee Association, Montreal formed in 1990 and a number of Somali Refugee Associations in Montreal and Toronto in the early 1990s. It emerged from the study that most newly-arrived refugee claimants and refugees in the above communities were eager to become members of these refugee associations when they first arrive in Montreal and Toronto. They became active members of the associations to assist in their advocacy work aimed at getting fair and speedy refugee hearings for their members. However, most of the same members who were active members of their refugee advocacy groups showed little or no interest in the same associations when their refugee processes were over and they became permanent residents. The associations were thus compelled to change their names, the Ghanaians from the Ghana Refugee Union to the Ghanaian-Canadian Association and the Nigerians from the Nigerian Refugee Association to the Nigerian-Canadian Association. The Ghana Refugee Association in Toronto completely folded up as most of the members lost interest altogether in the need for any grouping. The researcher attended some meetings of the Ghanaian-Canadian Association in its new identity in the mid to late 1990s. Some excerpts from the narratives of respondents attest to the above:
Most of our members have got their refugee claims accepted and are now permanent residents. We need now to move from the advocacy role for refugee acceptance of the former association to a new role of assisting our members with pressing settlement issues of education and employment and most importantly with their new struggles to sponsor their families some of whom have been separated for over five years. We also feel the urgent need to repackage the image of the association to retain our membership because many of them do not want to be associated with the refugee label anymore. Now they find it demeaning to be called refugees. It is ironic though since that is the label that got them accepted to stay permanently in this country. Well, we have no choice. We have to change with the times

Another interesting narrative from one participant:


During the three years that I was waiting for my refugee claim to be accepted, I had this Social Insurance Card number starting with a 9. It was like the number 9 was a dirty identity. Wherever you go, from looking for jobs or getting some government service, the moment they see your card with the 9, they look at you differently, I mean not in any positive light. So when I got my permanent residence paper, the first thing I did was to apply for a new Social Insurance Number. Now nobody looks at me with strange eyes or dirty looks when they see my card number starting with a 2. Hei, man, its not a nice experience in this country being a refugee

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Most of the study participants also lamented the fact that their lives were in limbo when they had the status of refugee claimants and refugees. Their children (if they had) could go to school, but they (the adults) were not allowed to continue their education because as refugee claimants, they were regarded as temporary residents. No wonder most of the participants pointed out that their first actions as accepted refugees or permanent residents were to rush to continue their education or get into job and skills training programs. Another narrative from a participant:
Some of the embarrassing moments of my life as a refugee here in Canada was being asked many times whether I speak English. Most occasions I have tried to explain to people that I have had all my education in English up to having a Masters Degree, and the official language of my former country is English. They dont pay attention. Its like the only thing they saw about me is being a refugee who needs help with food and how to speak English. It was embarrassing. In fact I dont want to remember those days.

When new comers move to a new society, they are likely to live in places where they find people who look like them in terms of ethnicity or cultural backgrounds (Owusu, 1999). This is sometimes out of the need for comfort, support and security (Simon, 1998). However, as some study participants point out, the places that they lived in the cities of Montreal: Parc Extension, Cote-des-Neiges, Mountain Sights and Pierrefonds came to be stigmatized as the refugee ghettos. In Toronto, study participants had the same complaints of their neighbourhoods being labelled and stigmatized. Most of the Ghanaians lived in the Jane and Finch suburb in Etobicoke, while most Somalis lived in the Dixon and Kipling area all of which were labelled and stigmatized as refugee ghettos. The following narratives from some participants highlight their frustration on the ethnic ghetto stigmas.
I constantly prayed for the day when my refugee status will be over so that I could further my education and get a good job to enable me move my family out of the Jane and Finch area. This is not a bad neighbourhood. Compared to the number of people who live in that area, the refugees were insignificant, but because the refugees were concentrated in a number of high rise buildings which were close to each other, the whole neighbourhood came to be associated with refugees. When you mention to someone that you live in Jane and Finch, they look at you differently. So we got our permanent residence, we moved very quickly to Brampton in the West End, far away from Jane and Finch. In fact I dont want to remember that area and I dont let my children go back there even though most of their friends still live there.

From another participant:


The Canadian media tried to portray the Somalian refugees who lived in the Dixon and Kipling area in Toronto as contaminating the neighbourhood. The CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) even did a documentary on us. It was a very bad Television series. They called it A Place called Dixon. The message the media sent to Canadians was that Somalian refugees were destroying their nice neighbourhood. We were very stressed and confused during this period. We had committed no crimes except coming to Canada and to Toronto as refugees. But the question is: what is wrong with many Somalis living in the same area? We need each other for support. Why dont they complain when many White people lived in the same neighbourhood? Something is wrong her, man.

11. Conclusion When refugees, who are people engulfed in forced migration due to situations of persecution, war, insecurities and trauma move to peaceful and sometimes wealthy countries, they have high expectations

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for better lives for themselves and their families. They have hopes that their children will have access to opportunities for better lives, different from the disrupted and insecure ones they (adult refugees) were subjected to before arriving in their country of refuge. As this study found out, these hopes of a better, secure future and opportunities for their children depend, to a large extent on how successfully the parents, who arrived in the host society as refugees, navigate their way through the system in their new society. As the findings from this study show, the opportunities that are available to them and their children are embedded within a complex broader social and cultural environment that stigmatized them because of their migration backgrounds. They engage in multiple tasks of trying to shed the painful memories of their past which brought them to Canada as refugees and another process of shedding this stigma. As many of the study participants lamented, this process saps a lot of their time and energy. An important and unique aspect of this study was its focus on how refugees who come to Canada, some of them well-educated professionals, experiencing stigmatization and labelling react with destigmatization moves and gestures. It should be realized that refugees are people first, like everyone else. They are just unfortunate to have found themselves on the wrong side of history and lifes journey at some points in their lives. What they need in their new societies is support, understanding and encouragement to enable them rebuild their disrupted lives. They certainly do not need stigmatization and labelling which may be another form of the persecution and harassments they escaped from and hope to leave behind them. References
Abu-Laban, B; Derwing, T; Krahn, H; Mulder, M; & Wilkinson, L. (1999). The settlement experiences of refugees in Alberta: A study prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Edmonton, AB: prairie Centre of Excellence for Research on immigration and Integration and Population research Laboratory. Basran, S. G., &Zong, L. (1998). Devaluation of foreign credentials as perceived by visible minority professional immigrants. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 30(3), 6-23. Bauder, H. (2003). Brain Abuse, or the devaluation of immigrant labour in Canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699-717. Bernier, D. (1992). Indochinese refugees: A perspective from various stress theories. In Ryan, A. S. (ed). Social Work with Immigrants and refugees. New York: Harworth. Boyd, M. (1999).Gender, Refugee Status and Permanent Resettlement. Gender Issues, vol. 17, no. 1, Winter 1999. Canadian Council for Refugees.(2003). State of Refugees in Canada. Retrieved from: www.web.ndt/`ccr/state/html. November 2010 Canadian Task Force on Mental Health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees. (1988). After the door has been opened: Mental health Issues Affecting Immigrants and Refugees in Canada (No. Ci96-38/1988E). Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services. Citizenship and Immigration Canada.(2009). Refugees. Retrieved October 2010, from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/index.asp Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2008). Canadas Refugee Resettlement Program Overview, Challenges and Priorities, CIC, Ottawa Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2003). Facts and Figures 2002: Immigration overview. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (1994). Refugee Claims in Canada and Resettlement from Abroad.Statistical Digest. Nov. 1994. Ottawa, Canada Connors, J. (1997). Legal Aspects of Women as a Particular Social Group: International Journal of Refugees 9 (Autumn, special issue supplement): 114-128. Daniel, V. F., & Knudson, J. C. (1995). Mistrusting Refugees. Berkley, CA: University of California Press. Delgado, R. and Stefancic, J. (2001).Critical Race Theory: An Introduction, NYU Press. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research. In Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (eds. 2000).Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

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Dixson, A. D. and Rousseau, Celia.K. (eds). Critical Race Theory in Education: All God's Children Got a Song. New York: Routledge, 2006. Frith, S. (1996).Music and identity.In: S. Hall & P. du Gay(Eds.). Questions of cultural studies (pp.108-117). London: Sage. Grant, P. R. (2005b). The devaluation of immigrants foreign credentials: The psychological impact of this barrier to integration into Canadian society. A final report to the Prairies Metropolis Center.http://www.pcerii.metropolis.net/, November, 2009. Grant, R. A., andAsimeng-Boahene, L. (2006). Culturally responsive pedagogy in citizenship education: Using African proverbs as tools for teaching in urban schools. Multicultural Perspective(8)4: 17-24. Hall, S. (1994). Cultural identity and diaspora. In P. Williams & L. Chrisman (Eds.), Colonial Discourse andPostcolonial Theory: A Reader (pp. 392-403). New York: Columbia UP. Hall, S. (1996). Introduction: who needs identity? In S. Hall & P. du Gay (Eds.), Questions of Culturalidentity(pp. 1-17). London: Sage Publications. Hathaway, J. C. (2005). The Rights of Refugees under International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hathaway, J. C. (1991). The Law of Refugee Status. Toronto: Butterworths. Heckman, G. P. (2009). Canadas Refugee Status Determination System and the International Norm of Independence. Refuge, vol. 25(2), p. 79-102. Indra, D. M. (1993). The spirit of the gift and the politics of resettlement: The Canadian private sponsorship of South East Asians. In Robinson, V. (ed). The international refugee crisis: British and Canadian responses, p. 229-254. London: Macmillan. Keely, C. B. (1992).The Resettlement of Women and Children Refugees.Migration World 20 (4): 14-18. Kouritzen, S. (2000).Bringing life to research.TESL, Canada Journal, 17(2), 1-23. Kuo, W. H., & Tsai, Y. (1986). Social networking, hardiness and immigrants mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 133-149. Lamba, N. K. (2003). The employment experiences of Canadian refugees: Measuring the impact of human and social capital on employment outcomes. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4091), 45-64. Li, P. (2001). The market worth of immigrants educational credentials.Canadian Public Policy, 27(1), 23-38. Loescher, G. and Loescher, A. D. (1994).The Global Refugee Crisis: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Matas, D. (1989). Closing the Doors: The Failure of Refugee Protection inCanada.Toronto: Summerhill Press. Mazur, R. E. (1988). Refugees in Africa: The role of sociological analysis and praxis. Current Sociology, 24, 1-24. Mulder, M., &Korenic, B. (2005).Portraits of immigrants and ethnic minorities in Canada: Regional comparisons. Alberta: PCERII. Owusu, T. (1999). Residential Patterns and Housing Choices of Ghanaian Immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Housing Studies, vol. 14(1), 77-97. Reitz, G. J. (2001). Immigrant skill utilization in the Canadian labour market. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2(3), 518-548. Satzewich, V. (1993). Migrant and immigrant families in Canada: State coercion and legal control in the formation of ethnic families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 24(3), 315-338. Simon, P. (1998). Ghettos, Immigrants, and Integration: The French Media. Neth. J. of Housing and the Built Environment, vol. 13(1). Solorzano, D. &Yosso, T. (2002). "A Critical Race Counterstory of Affirmative Action in Higher Education." Equity and Excellence in Education, 35, 155-168. UNHCR. (2007). Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Retrieved May 2009, from http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.pdf. UNHCR. (2007c). The State of the Worlds Refugees: A Humanitarian Agenda. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Van Manen, M. (1997). Researching lived experience. Edmonton, Alberta: The Althouse Press. Zetter, R. (1999). International perspectives on refugee assistance. In Ager, A. (ed), Refugees: Perspectives on the experiences of forced migration, p. 46-82. New York: Pinter

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Zlotnik, H. (2003). Migrants' rights, forced migration and migration policy in Africa. Paper Presented at the Conference on African Migration and Urbanization in Comparative Perspective held in Johannesburg, South Africa, June 2003.

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Pakistan: Considering a Failed State


Md. Kamal Uddin
Department of Asian and International Studies City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong & Assistant Professor (On Study Leave) Department of International Relations University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Email: kamalircu@yahoo.com

Md. Matiul Hoque Masud


Lecturer, Department of International Relations University of Chittagong Bangladesh Email: masud.ir.cu@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p227

Abstract Vibrant political situation and unstable foreign policy has more strongly raised the question whether Pakistan is a failed state or not? Its dependence on major powers for security and absence of specific sphere of nationalism has made Pakistan more exposed. Over the last few years Pakistan is going to be considered a failed state because the indicators of a failed state have harmonized with the real impasse of Pakistan. Pakistans failure as state would have an international and regional ramification. Pakistan backed war on terrorism and balance in South Asia would be more inconsistent if Pakistan failed. International community always would like to solve crisis related to Pakistan to fix up a men not by implementing a system. Pakistan was used as spring board by big powers for their own interest. If Pakistan failed it would be the first state which is not weak but failed. The paper will discuss the dubious position of Pakistan as a failed state; of course, without denying its internal dynamics and imminent tribulations related to its malfunction. The paper at last will propose some guiding principles to solve the setback. Key Words: Failed State, Democracy, Intervention, Foreign Policy

1. Introduction Internationally Pakistans position has always been dubious, questionable and unpredictable. Absence of democracy, religious politics, separatist movement and dependent foreign policy has been the symbol of Pakistan since its independence. Geo-strategically important Pakistan in the middle of India, China and Iran usually used by every major powers as playground. Mutuality of interest got preference in Pakistans foreign policy in dealing with major big powers. Frequent disputes, absence of confidence building measures, uneven development and big powers imbalance in assistance have made Pakistan more hostile to India. Building symmetry in power and getting international preference to India pushed Pakistan to change its allies. And thats why its foreign policy was not stable and independent.

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Internal dynamics and mutual mistrust have made the state a difficult country to govern. 1 According to Newsweek it is the most dangerous nation.2 However, most of the indicators essential to be failed state have been found in Pakistan. As strategically important de facto nuclear state and engaged in solving various common security problems of the world community, Pakistans failure as state will be far reaching and devastating. But still we notice a ray of hope at the end of the tunnel that cannot be overlooked. Many argue that both the failed state theory (like many other analysts Stewart Patrick feels that failed states concept is not analytically reliable)3 and Pakistans position as failed states are questionable. Last election in 2008 has opened a way to democracy after a bitter brutal autocratic background. Truly, every ally wanted to hold a titular men that serve well as their own interest as President of Pakistan. They never tried to nurture a stable and sound form of government. They never thought about the system which will be better suited in case of Pakistan. The US led war on terrorism gave Pakistan an international presence but took away its acceptance. By the name of combating terrorism, frequent drone attack on Pakistans territory without its approval compelled Pakistan to review its relations with the US. China can come forward to get to the bottom of political impasse that has risen from internal and external mistrust. 2. Failed state: Definition and Indicators The word Failed does not mean weak or unstable state. In the phrase Failed State, the word State is as important as Failed. State is not similar to nation. A state can be described as a group of people who share a common territory, history, culture, ethnic origin and language. A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to govern the people.4 It is the organization that has monopolistic power on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. It thus includes such institutions as the armed forces, civil service or state bureaucracy, courts, and the police. State means a sum of institutions that works together for the welfare of the people. It is not necessary to include a territory or heritage. State includes its government, military, public services etc. In 2006 Noam Chomsky in his book Failed States: The abuse of Power and the assault on democracy used the phrase and gave some indicators and elements essential to be considered failed state. He has indicated failed state to those states that have lost their physical control over their territory, whose legitimate authority is increasingly minor, whose public services have lessened; totally unable to interact with other states with trust, and internationally whose position is dubious. State failure suggests that the government if one exists is completely unable to maintain public services, institutions, or authority, and that central control over territory does not exist. State failure implies that central state authority and control do not de facto exist. Failed States refers to states in which institutions and law and order have totally or partially collapsed. Geographically, failed states are essentially associated with internal problem that have cross-border impacts they may face disintegration movement from their underdeveloped and exploited areas. Politically, collapse of law and order may fragment state authority that leads to civil war among paramilitary groups; they are unable to protect

Husain Haqqani, The Role of Islam in Pakistans Future,The Washington Quarterly, 28:1 Winter 2004-05, p-87 Nizar Diamond Ali, Is Pakistan a failed state? Daily Dawn, July 20, 2010.( The writer criticized The Newsweek Magazine in his writing for covering Pakistani nation negatively) 3 Stewart Patrick, Weak States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction?, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Spring 2006), pp. 2753; 4 Ali Hashmi, Is Pakistan a failed state? The Daily Times Wednesday, August 04, 2010
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their citizens from violence.5 Internationally, there will be no body representing the state to negotiate and enforce in world level without the outsiders influence. Historically, its history may rise in colonial regimes that destroyed its own local social traditions thats why unable to get an effective identity and nationalism. 6Some of them may face partiality in nation building process. Sociologically, in such states the police, judiciary and other bodies serving to maintain law and order may no longer able to operate. Democratically, they suffer from a serious democratic deficit that causes gradual destruction of formal democratic institutions. Its writ of government is challenged by militant groups.7 Legally, the term failed states is often used to describe a state that can no longer perform its basic security and development functions and that has no effective control over its territory and border. Since 2005, the USA based think tank Fund for Peace and well-known magazine Foreign Policy has been publishing Failed States Index. The index shows five types of failed State in terms of their intensity-alert (if index is 90+ ), warning (if index is 60+), dependent territory, moderate (if index is 30+), sustainable. Ranking is based on the total scores of the 12 indicators. For each indicator, the ratings are placed on a scale of 0(low intensity) to 10(high intensity). So, total scores will be 0 to 120. In 2011, 177 states were included in the list, of which 35 were classified as "alert", 88 as "warning", 40 as "moderate", and 11 as "sustainable". 8 The Failed State Index consider some indicators essential for being failed state- There are twelve indicators which demonstrate states failure.9 Out of twelve indicators four are social, two economic and six political.

2.1 Social indicators:


1. 2. 3. 4. Demographic Pressures high density in population in comparison to supply of food and other complementary resources, reserved ownership of land and transport; and religious and historical sites under strict national control etc; Humanitarian and Social Security problems- massive movement of Refugees and Internally Displaced Peoples (IDPs) by forced uprooting of large communities or ethnic groups Social Identification-atrocities committed with impunity against communal groups or specific groups, institutionalized political and communal identity over nationality; Continual Human Flight - both the brain drain of professionals, intellectuals and political dissidents and intentional emigration of the middle class, ethnic populace to other places of the state or any other state.

2.2 Economic indicators


1. 2. Imbalance in Economic Development inequality and injustice against a group or a tribe in education, jobs, and economic status according to their communal or religious identity. Stern Economic Decline high rate in inflation, fall in foreign investment, debt payments, deflation of the national currency and a growth in drug trade, smuggling.

5 6

Noam Chomsky, Superpower and Failed States, Khaleej Times, April 5, 2006 Daniel Threr, The "failed State" and international law International Review of the Red Cross, No. 836, 31-121999. 7 Dr Shabir Choudhry, Is Pakistan A Failed State? Countercurrents.org 8 See for details-Failed State Index-2011. 9 Shabir Choudhry, Op,cit.

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2.3 Political indicators:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lack of Transparencywidespread corruption and political elites use their positions to oppose transparency, accountability. Lack in Public Services state become useless and fail to defend citizens from terrorism and violence; and fail to provide crucial services, such as health, education, sanitation, public transportation and essential commodities. Violation of Human Rights through Politicization- widespread abuse of legal, political and social rights, including those of individuals, politicization of the judiciary, internal use of military for political ends State within a State- State-sponsored or state-supported private or religious militias will increase terrorism and religious riot. This army within an army will protect and promote the interests of the dominant military, religious or political elite. Rise of Political Elites continuous conflict between the ruling elites and state institutions, national decision will be taken in lines with religious, tribal or nationalistic or sub nationalistic identity Foreign Intervention receive free interference in internal affairs through military and economic assistance in accordance with foreign interest.

3. Questionable Position of Pakistan: According to the latest (2011) index scores, Pakistan ranks 12th out of 177 countries examined.10 In both 2009 and 2010, Pakistan took the number 10 spot on this index, whereas in 2008 it was ranked number nine. Looking at the indicators used for the ranking, Pakistans worst scoring categories were: Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (9.2), Group Grievance (9.3), Security Apparatus (9.4), External Interventions (9.3), Legitimacy of the State (8.6), and Uneven Economic Development (8.5).11In line with the above mentioned indicators of Failed States we have no other to defy Pakistan from the Failed States list: With a population exceeding 170 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world and as the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. Its demographic pressure is increasing at large extent. At 2.03% it has the highest population growth rate among the SAARC countries, resulting in an annual addition of 3.6 million people. The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by the year 2020 and would double in next 34 years.12 Diversity in unity in communal affairs is an ever emerging crisis in Pakistan. Communal identities get preference in nation matters. Panjabi, Pashto, and Mohajir identities are considered superior than others. So belonging to any high profiled community is recognized as compulsory in Pakistan. The major threat to Pakistan is that the populace of periphery area considers the law and regulations ordered by their communal leader are more legal and social oriented than state proposed laws. Religious identity is critical in Pakistan. Muslim of Pakistan believes them as real Muslim and different from other South Asian semi-Muslims,

Charles Bara, Pakistan: A Failed State? ISN Special Feature, on Thursday, 14 July 2011 ibid 12 Lecture delivered to the participants of the Command and Staff Course at Command and Staff College Quetta on September 4, 2009, available at: http://www.iba.edu.pk/News/speechesarticles_drishrat/ Pakistan_ Economy_Challenges_Prospects.pdf
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they think them more similar to Arabian Muslim. Mainly identity in Pakistan is socially constructed from upward. Institutionalizing the communal political identity creates atrocities in different area. For various reasons, Pakistani skilled professionals are gradually crossing the national border for better and secure life. Political impasse and insecure future is largely contributed to the skilled human flight to other states from Pakistan. According to official estimates of Pakistans Overseas Employment Corporation, near about 36000 professionals, including doctors, engineers and teachers, have migrated to other countries in last 30 years.13 Uneven development and imbalance in national social services causes mistrust to state authority. In 2011, 57.7% of adult Pakistanis were literate. While female literacy was 45.2% but in tribal areas this rate was 3% (Human Development Report, 2011). Pakistan hosts more refugees than any other country in the world including 1.7 million Afghan refugees from neighboring Afghanistan (UNHCR). Refugees and IDPs in major times take part in separatist and religious movement and causes insurgency to draw attention of the world community for their survival. Displacement is a key problem, by mid-July 2009; Pakistans National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) put the total of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) at just over 2m, while unofficial figures are as high as 3.5m. Economic situation is not well solving. Dependency on foreign debt and investment is the major setback of Pakistans economy. Necessary commodities are not available for all. The inflation rate for the fiscal year 2010-11 was 14.1% Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under age of five are malnourished. About 20% of the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.14 Economic status of Pakistan is not in first-rate. The rate of unemployment is 25% in 2011.15 According to Finance Ministry of Pakistan, the foreign exchange reserves had declined by $10 billion. Devaluation of currency is daily news now in Pakistan. In 2006, Pakistani Rupees per dollar was 60.35 and in 2010 it soar up to 85.27. The volume of external debt in December 2010 is around $56 billion which consumes 50.6% of GDP (Ministry of Finance, Pakistan). Lack of democracy within Party and the state give the social acceptance to wide spread corruption by political elites. Public services are useless. Political rights in Pakistan are very narrow, for example, The 2009 Freedom in the World report by Freedom House gave Pakistan a political rights rating of 4 (1 representing free and 7 representing not free), and a civil liberties rating of 5, earning it the designation of partly free .16 Throughout the country, there is an almost complete absence of legitimate authority and institutional mechanisms for decision-making. Most decisions are made by the President himself who also tends to personally conduct Pakistani diplomacy. Coordination between different branches of government is also virtually non-existent. Pakistan does not provide reasonable public services to all or at least most of its citizens (which flows directly from its lack of territorial control). Even in Karachi, the countrys biggest city, the authorities are unable to provide even a minimum of personal security, with an

Info available at :http://www.yespakistan.com/education/brain_drain.asp Economic Watch, 29th May, 2010, available at http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/ pakistan/ 15 ibid 16 Economic Watch, 29th May, 2010, available at: http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/ pakistan/
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average of 4.7 murders in the city every night most of which are politically motivated.17 And due to ongoing military operations and militant activities in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west Pakistan, there has been enormous internal displacement of persons. Violation of Human rights in every sector is common and legally accepted. Communal leaders are countered by using state force. Even, Political and military interests have been prioritized over humanitarian considerations in their offensives against the Taliban. Some popular, legal and recognized culture is not globally accepted like Blasphemies law. Pakistan is unable to control its territory physically. In the North-west, along the border with Afghanistan, tribal militants and the Taliban are actively challenging the governments physical control. In the south-west, Pakistan is close to losing one of its biggest provinces Baluchistan to a bloody insurgency that openly seeks independence under separatist movement. And while one tends to think of Pakistans military as a more professional, secular organization, the evidence now clearly shows that it has been infiltrated by violent Islamist, insurgent and terrorist groups at basically all levels. Pakistan faces many challenges. Since 9/11, 35,000 Pakistanis have died in suicide bombings, with an average of more than one such bombing a week (BBC News, 7th May, 2011). Since 9/11 the US led NATO forces ran drone operation over 120 times, without approval from authority, which is clearly a threat to Pakistani sovereignty. Interference in internal affairs has increased.

4. A State without an Independent Foreign Policy Under the flag of friendliness and goodwill towards the nations of the world Pakistan distinguished herself as moderate Muslim country. Security problem with India and Afghanistan pushed Pakistan towards alignments with the USA. Continuing developed relations between the USA and India pressurized Pakistan to ally with Socialist world namely the USSR and China. Pakistan withdrew from the SEATO, CENTO and joined in NAM to secure its interest. To deter secret enrichment of uranium by Pakistan the USA cut all security assistance. The Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan allowed Pakistan and the US to get involved in a marriage of convenience. The USA opened again its all assistance after 9/11. The US led war on terrorism made Pakistan more vulnerable in the middle of cross-fire. The US nuclear deal with India and mistrust in case of terrorism has posed Pakistan to get ally with China. From its independence, Pakistan had no stable foreign policy. It took alignment, nonalignment, bilateralism, anti-Indians, and isolationist foreign policy in the phase of history. Religion based social and political tradition has made Pakistan compelled to take Anti-Indian foreign policy. Then to present two nations have fought four wars between them. To counter India searching security allies was the foremost policy of Pakistan. As an Immediate aftermath of independence, Pakistan faced territorial boundary disputes from two sides with India and Afghanistan. First Kashmir war (1947-48) made Pakistan bound to explore allies. On the other side Afghanistan claimed its sovereignty over North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan.18 India and the USSR gave support to Afghanistan. In May 1954, Pakistan signed a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with the US. In September 1954, Pakistan joined the South East Asia Treaty Organization

17 18

ibid Dr.Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Pakistans Foreign Policy:An Overview 1947-2004,Pildat Briefing Paper,p-10

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(SEATO) though it was not East Asian states. In September 1955, Pakistan joined the CENTO that helps Pakistan to get ally with Muslim states. A Bilateral Agreement of Cooperation was signed in March 1959. Though all treaties have been signed but Pakistans security ambition (to counter India) has not been fulfilled because the US agreed to use its assistance against Communism. On the other hand most of the Middle Eastern states responded negatively to Pakistans security ties with the West. The USSR extended its support to India. Pakistan has lost its ground in NAM. Without any security commitments in return for arms transfer the US rushed military equipments to India in October 1962 to counter China. Pakistan began to review their alignment with the US. Pakistan decided to improve its relations with the USSR and China. The USSR adopted a balanced approach towards Indo-Pak disputes in 1965 and maintained neutrality in signing Tashkent Declaration in January 1966. Pakistan began to plead for the seating for China in the UNSC. China stood by Pakistan during 2nd Indo-Pak war. China was its the most important source of supply of weapons when the US imposed an arms embargo on the South Asia in the post 1965 war period. At the time of a widen rift between China and the USSR in 1969, Pakistan did not endorse Asian Collective Security System advocated by the USSR. The Soviets were disappointed by Pakistans role in Sino-American rapprochement. Concrete Soviet support (military support and action in UNSC) to India through Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation strengthened Indias interfering policies in East Pakistan. As a result of American limited help and arms embargos, Pakistan withdrew from the Commonwealth (returned in 1989) the SEATO, and the CENTO. After the independence of Bangladesh, Pakistan took independent approach to world affairs that helped to normalize its relations with India by signing Simla Peace Agreement in 1972. In 1974, when India exploded (peaceful) its first nuclear bomb, Pakistan was secretly working on setting up uranium experiment. The Soviet military intervention in December 1979 was a turning point for the US-Pak relations. Mutuality of interest has fulfilled. The US gave $ 7.4 billion assistance package between 1981 and 1993.19 After the completion of Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989, Pakistan made various attempts to install to new government in Kabul comprising pro-Pakistani mujahedeen groups. The US shifted its interest and imposed sanctions against Pakistan for its secret nuclear project under the Pressler Amendment in the Foreign Assistance Act. Pakistan had lost its strategic relevance for the US after Soviet collapse. Pakistan gave support to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan (1996-2001). It adversely affected Pakistans reputation at the international level. India took the chance and suspected that Pakistan armies and intelligences sponsored Islamic militant groups in Indian administered Kashmir. 20 The two states engaged in a limited war in Kargil region of Kashmir in 1999. To overthrow nuclear imbalance and show minimum credible deterrence, Pakistan exploded its first nuclear bomb in 1998.21 After the ground breaking event of 9/11 Pakistan got focus because the US identified the AlQaeda movement of Osama bin laden based in Afghanistan was the main culprit of the event. As Pakistan supported the Taliban regime and shared a long border with Afghanistan, its support to the US led war on terrorism was important. Both states gave immense strategic support. Pakistan was concerned like the past after the overthrow of Taliban government from Afghanistan Pak- US relations might not continue for a long time; the US would abandon Pakistan when its strategic interest shift away from in or around Pakistan. It happened. After the death of Osama bin laden, Pakistan has lost its significance

Ibid, p-19 Abdus Sattar, Pakistans Foreign Policy(1947-2005) (London: OUP,2007) p-53 21 M. Asghar Khan, Weve Learnt Nothing from History: Pakistan-Politics and Military Power, (Oxford University Press, Karachi 2005), P-67
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for the US interest. So, foreign policy of Pakistan is not independent. It varies if foreign policy of others changes. There is no basic foundation of Pakistans foreign policy. 5. Pakistans Failure: Regional and International Ramification: At present failed states are the single most security threat to liberal democratic states. According to Jack Straw, Terrorists are strongest where states are weakest, and weak or failed states provide a breeding ground or sanctuary for terrorism.22 According to Fukuyama, weak and failing states have arguably become the single most important problem for international order.23 If Pakistan fails, it will be a safe haven for Islamic militants. The state may misplace its nuclear project and clue to the militants. Weak and failing states are vulnerable to all forms of smuggling, including trafficking in small arms and light weapons. 24 It will create security concern in regional and international arena. Whole South Asia will lose its balance of power. Imbalance in power and uneven development in a region may raise security mistrust among neighboring states. Regional organization likewise SAARC will mislay a state that has leading power. Refugee flow from the failed states may create insurgency in neighboring states. Major Powers will start their great game to increase their sphere of influence in the region. Common security threat like- terrorism, drug trafficking, arms trade, nuclear proliferation will be difficult to tackle without the assistance from Pakistan. 6. Ever present Challenges ahead of Pakistan: Since independence to 1956, Pakistan was a dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations and it became a distinguished Islamic Parliamentary Republic in 1956. The civilian rule was hindered by a coup dtat by then-Army Commander-in-Chief General Ayub Khan, who was the first Chief Martial Law Administrator and also the President during 195869. Ayub Khan's successor, General Yahya Khan (196971), also an Army Commander, General Yahya Khan surrendered his authority to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who became the first and to-date the only civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator. Civilian rule resumed in Pakistan from 1972 to 1977. Bhutto was removed by a coup d'tat and in 1979, General Zia-ul-Haq became the third military president and fourth Chief Martial Law Administrator. Military government lasted until 1988. When Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. She was followed by Nawaz Sharif and over the next ten years the two leaders fought for power and alternated as the country's situation worsened. Military tension in the Kargil with India was followed by Kargil War, after which General Pervez Musharraf took over through a Bloodless coup d'tat and captured vast executive powers. General Musharraf ruled Pakistan as the head of state from 19992001 and as President from 2001-08. On 15 November 2007, Pakistan's National Assembly completed tenure for the first time in its history when a new election was called. In the 2008 elections, Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) obtained the largest number of seats and its member Yousaf Raza Gillani was sworn in as Prime

Jack Straw, Reordering the World: The Long-Term Implications of September 11 (London: Foreign Policy Research Centre, 2002). 23 Francis Fukuyama, State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004), p. 92. 24 Edward Newman, Failed State and International Order, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol.30, No.3 (December 2009), pp.429.
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Minister. Musharraf resigned from the presidency when threatened with impeachment on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded by current president; Asif Ali Zardari. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973 suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985 is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. The Pakistani military establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's political history, with military presidents ruling from 19581971, 19771988 and 19992008. The election of 2008, despite a difficult start with voter registration and manipulation of electoral rules, was reasonably air and peaceful, despite Taliban threats to disrupt the process. That election saw the peaceful and democratic transfer of power which brought President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani into office. Despite the problems with President Zardari, who is widely viewed as corrupt, an important shift has taken place politically. Perhaps under Army pressure, Zardari began relinquishing the sweeping presidential powers he inherited from Musharraf. In April 2010, Zardari signed the 18thAmendment which returned Pakistan to a parliamentary democracy more in line with its 1973 Constitution, which remains the lodestone of democratic legitimacy in Pakistan. This is the first time in recent history when a president "willingly" ceded power to a prime minister. Democracy deficit, military intervention in politics, disputes in cabinet, failure in national integration and state within state are leading internal challenges ahead of Pakistan. Democracy is still not well practiced and well established. After its independence as sovereign and democratic state it took nearly a decade to frame a constitution. Since 1958-73, 1977-88, 1999-2008, there was not democratically elected government in Pakistan. Democracy and the rule of law were not nurtured. When military thinks that the civilian government is not capable to run the state and serve the nation, it upholds the state power from democratically elected government. Dispute within Cabinet between Prime Minister and President is not historically rare in Pakistan. Constitution gave Prime Minister the power to overthrow President. Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammed misplaced public council trice between 1953 and 1955. Then, being President Iskander Mirza announced martial law and made Muhammad Ayub Khan Commander In Chief but Ayub Khan in 1958 disposed Iskander Mirza and took the legal power of Presidency in 1960. General Zia took the power in 1977 and sentenced death to Bhutto in 1979. After death of General Zia, Benazir Bhutto crowned power in 1988 but overthrown by Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1990. Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif reached power in 1990 and overthrown in 1993. In 1996 President Farooq Leghari overthrew Benazir. In 1999 Musharraf overthrew government under a coup. The nation got sound democracy after 2008. Creation of Bangladesh in 1971 as independent nation was considered a failure of Pakistans national integration. Baluchistan may follow the so. Pakistan may break into pieces. The Baluchistan problem was potentially serious in that it sought to generate separatist and nationalist sentiment within a culturally distinct ethno-linguistic group that had its own autonomous history. The Baluchis were accustomed to having arms and historically overlapped with Iran as well as Afghanistan. Within Pakistan, the Baluchistan area made up 42 per cent of the entire country. Baluchi separatism was perceived as a threat to the state of Pakistan. The Sindhudesh or Sindhi nationalist problem was probably the most significant potential base of separatism in Pakistan because of the long history of Sindhi states prior to British rule, the highly developed language, and the relative size and territorial compactness of the Sindhi population in Sindh province. It was geographically an ominous threat too because Sindhi independence could turn northern Pakistan into a landlocked country.

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Olama mashaek (Islamic leaders) and Islamic militants have raised themselves as third party in the disputes between military and civilian government. State may lose its nuclear secrecy to these third parties. Pakistan has taken the challenge of defeating the Pakistani Taliban seriously. 25 Pakistan has made significant strides in securing its nuclear arsenal through the establishment of the National Command Authority and the Strategic Plans Directorate. 7. Conclusion State failure can only be countered through democracy, reform in governance, and positive international response in time. Pakistan has to give up its longstanding ties with radical Islam and share intelligence with the US to remove mistrust. Pakistan has the potentialities to frustrate antiterrorism operation and radicalize key segments of Islamic world. The militarys political ambition should not be encouraged. Pakistans excess focus on religious ideology, military capability and external alliance has weakened it internally that leads state governed institutions in decline. Pakistan should give more emphasis on developing own economy. It should remove its intersecting fault lines between civilians and the military, among different ethnic and provincial groups, and between Islamists and secularists. These countering measures can only tackle state falling. The US should not use its aid (Since 9/11 the US has provided Pakistan - or more accurately the Pakistani military - with more than $20bn in aid) 26as leverage to influence in Pakistans internal politics. Independent foreign policy will pave the way for Pakistan to solve common security problems. It may be difficult for the world community to force an end to Pakistans status as an Islamic ideological state. The world should demand reform in Pakistans governance. Military of Pakistan should not nurture Islamic militancy in home land and may give up national objectives like building pro-Pakistani government in Afghanistan or sponsoring terrorism in Indian Kashmir. It should give more emphasis on economic prosperity and popular participation in governance. There should be a balance in spending between military and social services. Establishing democracy, strengthening civil society and building secular political parties can contain its falling. Bibliography
Ali Hashmi(August 04, 2010), Is Pakistan a failed state? The Daily Times Wednesday Abdus Sattar(2007) Pakistans Foreign Policy(1947-2005) ,London: OUP, p-53 C. Christine Fair (June 24, 2010), Is Pakistan a failed state? No. in Foreign Policy Magazine Charles Bara (14 July 2011) Pakistan: A Failed State? ISN Special Feature, on Thursday Daniel Threr(1999), The "failed State" and international law International Review of the Red Cross, No. 836 Economic Watch, 29th May, 2010, available at http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/ pakistan/ Edward Newman (December 2009), Failed State and International Order, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol.30, No.3 pp.429. Francis Fukuyama (2004), State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, p. 92. Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Dr., Pakistans Foreign Policy: An Overview 1947-2004, Pildat Briefing Paper,p-10 Husain Haqqani(2004-05), The Role of Islam in Pakistans Future, The Washington Quarterly, 28:1 Jack Straw (2002), Reordering the World: The Long-Term Implications of September 11 , London: Foreign Policy Research Centre M. Asghar Khan (2005), Weve Learnt Nothing from History: Pakistan-Politics and Military Power, Oxford University Press, P-67

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C. Christine Fair, Is Pakistan a failed state? No. in Foreign Policy Magazine June 24, 2010 Owen Bennett-Jones, Pakistan: A failed state or a clever gambler? BBC News, Islamabad on 17th May 2011.

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Nizar Diamond Ali(July 20, 2010), Is Pakistan a failed state? Daily Dawn, ( The writer criticized The Newsweek Magazine in his writing for covering Pakistani nation negatively) Noam Chomsky ( April 5, 2006), Superpower and Failed States, Khaleej Times Stewart Patrick (Spring 2006), Weak States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction?, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 2 pp. 2753; Shabir Choudhry Dr, Is Pakistan A Failed State? Countercurrents.org Lecture delivered to the participants of the Command and Staff Course at Command and Staff College Quetta on September 4, 2009, available at: http://www.iba.edu.pk/News/ speechesarticles_drishrat/ Pakistan_Economy _Challenges_Prospects.pdf Owen Bennett-Jones, Pakistan: A failed state or a clever gambler? BBC News, Islamabad on 17th May 2011.

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Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana
Mavis Dako-Gyeke, Ph.D
Corresponding Author Department of Social Work, University of Ghana Accra, Ghana, West-Africa. Email: mavisdako@yahoo.com

Razak Oduro
Department of Social Policy London School of Economics and Political Science London, UK
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p239

Abstract Ghanas Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) program was implemented in 2008 to provide social protection to vulnerable groups, such as orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). This qualitative study explored how household size influenced the extent to which the basic needs of OVC were met. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit 21 households caring for OVC. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 caregivers and 10 OVC, to gather data for the study. The findings indicated that household size influenced spending decisions of caregivers, although the cash transfer was conditional. Additionally, it was found that the cash received by caregivers was used to benefit all children in the households, both beneficiary and non-beneficiary. Based on the findings, we conclude that cash transfers will have the intended impact on beneficiaries if traditional family living systems and practices are taken into consideration in the design and implementation of national social protection programs. Keywords: Caregivers, Cash transfer, Ghana, Household size, Orphans and vulnerable children

1. Introduction Cash transfer is a form of social assistance, which is increasingly becoming a major part of anti-poverty policy measures in most countries. International development partners and donor agencies have recognised cash transfer as a core pro-poor development tool for reducing short-term poverty and breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries (DFID, 2011; Holmes & Barrientos, 2009). In different parts of the world, cash transfer systems have evolved differently because there are variations between the well established and complex social protection systems that exist in Europe and North America (Schubert & Slater, 2006) and those in developing countries, like Ghana. The principal objective of cash transfers is to facilitate household consumption of basic needs and examples include social assistance payments, such as social pensions for the elderly, the disabled and widows as well as allowances to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and

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acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) orphans (Case & Deaton, 1998; Farrington, Slater & Holmes, 2004) and other livelihood support payments to households living below the poverty line (Slater, 2011). As a crisis response measure, cash transfers have gained prominence in most governments initiatives in meeting the Millennium Development Goals of 2015 (Bryant, 2009). The increased urgency, according to Adato and Basset (2009), has been as a result of continued interaction between HIV and AIDS and other drivers of poverty. Low-income countries affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic face the challenge of providing sufficient resources to satisfy the basic needs of their members, especially poor households (Fields, 2001). In Ghana, while considerable progress has been made in reducing high poverty levels as well as the prevalence rate of HIV and AIDS, major issues still persist. For instance, 18.2 percent of Ghanaians live in extreme poverty (Adjei, Aboagye & Yeboah, 2012; Ghana Statistical Service, 2008) and do not have adequate resources to meet their basic food requirements (Jones, Ahadzie & Doh, 2009). In addition, the HIV and AIDS epidemic has increased the burden of poor families in responding to their needs and that of their children, especially orphans (Marcus, 2004) and vulnerable children. Schubert (2008) opined that poor households most often adopt micro-coping mechanisms, including withdrawing children from school, children taking up informal employment and care responsibilities among others, and these reinforce the spiral of poverty. In the process, children could become vulnerable to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect (Badu-Nyarko & Manful, 2011; Jones et al., 2009). The number of children becoming vulnerable due to poverty, as well as orphans in Ghana continues to increase steadily as indicated by the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, 2006). The survey showed that about fifteen percent of children are not living with their biological parents and eight percent of them have one or both parents dead. In addition, the Ghana National HIV and AIDS report (2010) indicated that there were about one million and four hundred thousand orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in 2009 and this is expected to increase to about one million and five hundred thousand by the year 2015. These numbers present an ample concern as Lund and Agyei-Mensah (2008) contended that the increased number is likely to become one of Africas silent ticking bombs. The increased number of OVC suggests the need for policies and programs that could simultaneously address poverty and vulnerability among children and enable them achieve their full potential (Slater, 2011). Consequently, cash transfer has been identified as one potential way to improve the human capital development of vulnerable children (Bryant, 2009; DFID, 2011). Thus, the value of cash transfers is not only limited to its ability to tackle income poverty and support the achievement of broader social, economic and development objectives, but also to ensure the protection of societys most vulnerable groups (Mushunje & Mafico, 2010). Evidence from Latin American countries where conditional cash transfers (CCTs) are largely implemented suggests that CCTs have been successful in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Columbia among others (Baird, McIntosh, & Ozler, 2011). Conditional cash transfer is tagged as a magic bullet in development and perceived as a panacea to escape poverty, promote inclusion and provide the much needed stimulus to enhance the human capital development of children (Adato & Hoddinott, 2010). Conditional cash transfer schemes connect safety nets directly to human capital development, by making the receipt of cash conditional on school enrolment and /or attendance at certain health services (Handa & Davis, 2006; Schubert & Slater, 2006). In this regard, Ghana embraced cash transfer as an effective long-term response to extreme poverty among vulnerable groups in March 2008 and the program was named Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP). For the reason that strong and thorough evidence on cash transfer impacts to date come from conditional cash transfer schemes (Adatoa & Bassett, 2009), this study focuses on LEAPs conditional cash transfer for orphans and vulnerable children.

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2. Background of Ghanas LEAP Program The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Program was implemented in Ghana to address child poverty and vulnerability. The program was first piloted in 2008 with 1,654 beneficiary households in 21 districts, began expanding in 2009 and 2010, reached 68,000 households in 2012 and is expected to increase to 165,000 households across Ghana by 2015 (Daily Graphic, 2012). LEAP is a program that aims at supplementing the incomes of dangerously poor households through the provision of cash transfers and linking them up with complementary services so that over time, they can leap out of poverty (Gbedemah, Jones & Pereznieto, 2010; National Social Protection Strategy, NSPS, 2007). LEAP combines both conditional and unconditional cash transfers and eligibility is based on poverty and having a household member in at least one of three demographic categories; single parent with orphan or vulnerable child, elderly poor, or person with extreme disability unable to work (PWD). Under the LEAP, the categories of beneficiaries identified as the most vulnerable in society are: caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC); pregnant and lactating women; impoverished elderly; severely disabled persons; and households dependent on fishing and subsistence food crop farming. The LEAP program sets positive conditionalities that promote synergies with complementary social services, which include childrens school enrolment and retention, registration at birth, uptake of post-natal care and immunisations for young children (Gbedemah et al., 2010). Additionally, other conditionalities aim at eliminating certain behaviours, such as child trafficking and children engaging in worst forms of child labour. In order for orphans or vulnerable children to qualify as LEAP beneficiaries, households through caregivers are identified and given cash every two months on condition that they (a) enrol and retain the children in school, (b) do not engage the children in exploitative labour, and (c) ensure that the children have access to health care services and nutritional food (NSPS, 2007). Since the cash transfers are time bound, households receive money for three years before they are expected to graduate from the program (Jones et al., 2009). Even though in other parts of the world, most often, women are selected as recipients of cash grant, in Ghana, the LEAP manual of operation does not include this explicitly as a requirement. Nonetheless, the NSPS recommends that female caregivers should be prioritised, as this is likely to have maximum impact on households (Gbedemah et al., 2010). 3. Statement of the Problem Although the benefits of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) with respect to meeting the socioeconomic needs of poor and needy children in Latin America and other developing countries are well documented, little is known about the effectiveness of CCTs in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly Ghana. The scarce literature available has mostly concentrated on cash transfers and poverty reduction. This research, which is part of a larger study, therefore goes beyond extant literature by exploring the effects of household size on conditional cash transfer utilisation for beneficiary orphans and vulnerable children. This is essential because households play an important role by ensuring that the needs of children are met and invariably this is influenced by the surrounding circumstances within which the household operates. As Schubert and Slater (2006) argue, there are contextual differences between countries in the quality and quantity of service provision, the capacity to implement conditionality and socio-cultural, ethnic and political contexts. Additionally, while the conditionality of cash transfer schemes is believed to enable individual households take responsibility of beneficiary children (Lund et al., 2009), cultural beliefs and practices can influence how cash is utilised at the household level. The nature of family living in most Ghanaian communities could affect the extent to which conditional cash transfers are utilised for beneficiary

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children. In most households, family members are deeply rooted in family solidarity and engraved in the culture of sharing. Importantly, in large-sized households, sharing the cash received among targeted and other children, as well as other vulnerable persons could suggest that the targeted children will not benefit much and this could have implications for the impacts of the LEAP program. A major challenge therefore is how caregivers in poor households make decisions or are unconstrained to use the cash received on only LEAP beneficiary children. While poor households are given conditional cash with the belief that it will have trickle-down effects on targeted children, the unconditional use of this cash may cause undesirable spending (Schubert & Slater, 2006). This makes conditionality the most controversial part of social protection programming (Slater, 2011). Consequently, household level decision-making becomes crucial in determining how the cash is utilised and whether the targeted child or children would benefit fully from cash transfers. In this study, household is defined as a group of persons who live together as a unit with a caregiver who is responsible for their basic needs. This study therefore explored the influence of household size on conditional cash transfer utilisation for OVC in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana. The objectives of the study are: 1. To find out how household size influences cash transfer utilisation for orphans and vulnerable children with regard to provision of their school needs. 2. To determine how household size influences cash transfer utilisation for orphans and vulnerable children with regard to provision of their health needs. 3. To ascertain how household size influences cash transfer utilisation for orphans and vulnerable children with regard to provision of their food needs. 4. Methodology

4.1 Research Design


This article is based on primary data collected through a qualitative research methodology. Qualitative research methods give an understanding of the situation in its uniqueness, presenting what respondents perceive about the situation and what their meanings are (Patton, 2002). A phenomenological approach of inquiry was employed for the study because it gives a description of what people experience and how they experience what they experience (Patton, 2002). Additionally, the phenomenological paradigm provides complex descriptions of how respondents experienced a given phenomenon (Mack et al., 2005). In this study, participants were given the opportunity to share their experiences regarding the LEAPs conditional cash transfer for orphans and vulnerable children.

4.2 Study Area


The study was conducted in the Atwima Nwabiagya District in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It is one of the largest districts in that Region. The district was selected for the study because it was included in the LEAP pilot program in 2008. Also, a vulnerability analysis conducted through a District Survey in 2005, indicated that some communities within the district were vulnerable, particularly children in those communities. In addition, the district was ranked third in HIV and AIDS prevalence in the Ashanti Region. For the purpose of this study, three communities within the district were selected, namely, Amadumase Adankwame, Akyena and Gyankobaa. These communities were purposively selected because they were identified by the district Social Welfare Department as areas with increasing numbers of orphans and vulnerable children.

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4.3 Participants
Through a purposive sampling strategy, three LEAP beneficiary communities were selected for this study. This allowed for the selection of information-rich cases whose situation illuminate questions and provides issues of importance to the purpose of the study (Patton, 2002). Twenty-one beneficiary households were selected and there were forty-three (19 males and 24 females) LEAP beneficiary OVC in these households (Table 1). Sixteen OVC were between ages five and eight, eighteen were between ages nine and twelve, and nine were between thirteen and fifteen years old. Twenty-one female caregivers, aged 20 to 70+ years (one from each household) and ten OVC, aged 10 to 15 years were interviewed.

4.4 Data Collection Procedures


Data was collected from respondents through in-depth interviews using open-ended questions. The open-ended interview questions provided an opportunity for the researchers and participants to discuss emerging issues in much detail. It also enabled the researchers to probe participants responses for elaboration and to explore key issues raised by respondents, which were central to the study. The consent of the respondents was sought before the in-depth interviews were conducted. For the children, consent was sought from their caregivers and emphasis was placed on the willingness of the children themselves to participate in the study.

4.5 Data Analysis


Thematic analysis, a process aimed at uncovering embedded information and making explicit what respondents said, was used in analysing the data of this study (Hoepfl, 1997). Participants responses were recorded verbatim and read thoroughly and repeatedly. The data was organised under themes based on the narrative explanations and opinions of respondents. Using the methodology of reduction, the researchers analysed the data and searched for possible meanings that made the information more meaningful and understanding (Creswell, 1998). The most illustrative quotations were used to buttress important points that emerged from the data gathered from respondents. 5. Findings and Discussion

5.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Sampled Households


As indicated in Table 1, twenty-one households were selected from three LEAP beneficiary communities within the study area. A total number of forty-three children benefited from LEAP through their caregivers and out of this ten children were selected as participants for this study. The demographic information on the beneficiary OVC participants indicated that all of them were double orphans; they had lost both parents and were living with relatives who were their caregivers.

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Table 1: Composition of LEAP beneficiary households in the study area


Number of sampled households HH 1 HH 2 HH 3 HH 4 HH 5 HH 6 HH 7 HH 8 HH 9 HH 10 HH 11 HH 12 HH 13 HH 14 HH 15 HH 16 HH 17 HH 18 HH 19 HH 20 HH 21 Total Total number of children in selected households 1 6 8 7 3 6 5 9 10 2 4 5 6 7 4 3 8 5 7 4 6 118 Number of LEAP beneficiary OVC in selected households 1 2 3 3 1 3 3 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 43

**HH- Household

5.2 Cash Transfer and Provision of Beneficiary Orphans and Vulnerable Childrens Basic Needs
Gathering information on the number of children in the households and how that influenced households spending decisions was necessary because it could determine how cash transfers were utilised in households. The amount of money received from LEAP gets into the household purse to increase the monetary income of the household. However, decisions regarding how cash is utilised are the responsibility of caregivers, who are obliged to expend the money conditionally on beneficiary orphans and vulnerable children. In this study, beneficiary childrens basic needs explored were education, health and food.

5.3 Provision of LEAP Beneficiary OVCs School Needs


The study found that all children of school-going age in the households included in this study, irrespective of the household size were enrolled in school. This finding suggests that the number of nonLEAP beneficiary children in the selected households did not prevent the caregivers from enrolling beneficiary OVC in school. However, it is important to emphasise that both the beneficiary and nonbeneficiary children were enrolled in school before the introduction of the LEAP cash transfer program. Given that LEAP beneficiary households are poor and therefore retaining children in school could be a critical concern (Adatoa & Bassett, 2009), caregivers motivation for retaining children in school was further explored. It was found that the OVC attended public schools where students did not pay school fees because of the Education Capitation Grant introduced by the government of Ghana in the

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2005/2006 academic year. This initiative which aims at increasing access to basic education takes care of tuition fees and makes basic education free. During an in-depth interview, one caregiver remarked:
. . . today, if you do not take children to school, you deny them a better future . . . during my time, my father did not have money to provide us education. But now, if you go to school, you do not pay school fees . . . though there are other school expenses to pay, it is better to enrol children in school. (Caregiver in Household 2)

The above statement is similar to the responses of all the caregivers included in this study, which revealed that the capitation grant motivated them to enrol the OVC and other non-beneficiary children of their respective households in school. It is therefore difficult to make a linkage between beneficiary OVCs school enrolment and the cash transfer program. This notwithstanding, the importance of the cash transfer was examined beyond OVCs school enrolment. The study explored how the cash transfer was used to provide for educational materials, pay for other educational expenses and how that served as an incentive for school attendance. This is essential because beyond access to education, provision of required educational materials often becomes a challenge, especially for poor households. It was expected that because the OVC in this study did not pay school fees, their caregivers would use the cash received to provide for other educational needs and consequently encourage school attendance and retention. It was however found that the educational needs of the OVC were not met since the conditional cash received from the LEAP program was not spent on beneficiary children alone. The caregivers used the money for all dependants in their households and this negatively affected the school attendance of OVC. Given that the LEAP beneficiary households are poor, it is likely that all the children (both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries) in these households suffered from deprivation with regard to their educational needs except school fees, which was covered by the capitation grant. Thus, targeting only OVC in poor households may not be an effective way of reducing poverty (Farrington & Slater, 2006) as the objectives of the conditional cash transfer program would not be achieved. Due to the competition for educational materials among the LEAP beneficiary children and other children in the households, the caregivers used the cash unconditionally to benefit all the children. According to Schubert and Slater (2006), the unconditional use of cash transfers may cause undesirable spending. Mushunje and Mafico (2010) therefore suggest the value of cash transfers should not be limited to its ability to support the achievement of their objectives but also to ensure the protection of societys most vulnerable groups, such as all children in poor households. This is vital because children are disproportionately represented among the income-poor since majority of them suffer from severe deprivation and their vulnerability has cumulative and long-term consequences (Barrientos & DeJong, 2004). Even though the conditional cash transfers aim at keeping children from leaving school because of inability to pay fees or because of labour needed at home (Adatoa & Bassett, 2009; NSPS, 2007), the LEAP beneficiary children in this study reported absenting themselves from school even when they were not sick. The reasons they gave ranged from lack of school materials which led to dismissal from class to assisting caregivers on their farms. Schubert (2008) opines that poor households most often adopt micro-coping mechanisms, including withdrawing children from school and children taking up informal employment. The LEAP OVC in this study, especially those from households that had many non-LEAP children, revealed that they attended school two or three days in a week. This was a strategy the caregivers in those households adopted to have all the children benefit from school attendance since they did not have enough financial resources to cover the childrens school expenses for the entire school

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week. The findings showed that household spending decisions were most often influenced by household size. Echoing their concerns, two LEAP beneficiary children said:
I do not go to school every day, sometimes, two days or three days in a week. . . . I am in Junior High School second year, I dont have drawing board and the required mathematics book and because of that the teachers always punish me, so I find it difficult going to school every day. (A 12-year old OVC in Household 17) I have eight siblings . . . three LEAP beneficiaries, my mother gives each of us one Ghana Cedi everyday for school . . . she says the burden is too much, so at times, we do not attend school every day . . . sometimes I go to school three times in a week and some of my siblings go on different days . . . when we have class test, I run to school to take the test . . . also assist my mother on the farm on Fridays too. (A 15- year old OVC in Household 8)

During the interviews, the issue of OVC missing some school days because their labour was needed at home was raised. Some caregivers mentioned the option of children learning apprenticeship or engaging in trading activities if they were unable to complete their schooling due to absenteeism, among other factors. Also, when the caregivers were asked why the cash transfers were not spent on beneficiary children only because it was conditional, the caregivers indicated that it was difficult to isolate beneficiary children from non-beneficiary children since they were all members of the household and all should benefit from resources transferred to the household. This is what two caregivers had to say:
It is very difficult for me to separate my children . . . in the Akan tradition, your sisters children are your children, I dont want them to think I love my children more than them . . . we all belong to one family, so we share what we have. (Caregiver in Household 3) We are all having challenges in this family . . . I was having more difficulties more than my sister who died. We never knew such program would come to our aid. Now I have six children who are under my care including the orphaned children of my sister, how can I use the money only on my sisters children in such a situation? (Caregiver in Household 9)

In most of the households in the study area, caregivers utilised the cash received from LEAP for all children in the household irrespective of who was a beneficiary or not due to family cohesion and communal living. Although the extended family networks could negatively affect beneficiary OVCs school attendance and retention, the family is regarded the best place for caring for OVC. As Lund and Agyei-Mensah (2008) suggest, the household is an important place for effective care of OVC because of the familial and community care. In most instances, the family and the communal clan function as social support systems for individuals in need (Awusabo-Asare, 1995; Nunkuya, 1992), such as orphans and vulnerable children.

5.4 Provision of LEAP Beneficiary OVCs Health Needs


As part of the LEAP cash transfer conditions, caregivers are required to enrol OVC in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, NSPS, 2007). Enrolling beneficiary children in the scheme will enable them obtain NHIS cards to access free health care services at accredited health centres or hospitals. The NHIS requires annual renewal of cards by paying insurance premiums. The study explored the health decisions of caregivers with reference to OVC in their households. Specifically, the caregivers were asked whether beneficiary children were enrolled on the NHIS. If yes, how often the

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NHIS cards were renewed and if no, the alternative measures adopted by caregivers in seeking health treatment for beneficiary children were explored. The findings revealed that, thirty-three beneficiary children were not enrolled in the NHIS, four were registered with valid NHIS cards, and six were registered but their cards had expired. Given that the conditional cash transfer payment was subject to certain types of behaviour, including clinic attendance (Farrington & Slater, 2006; NSPS, 2007), this finding was very surprising. When asked why some beneficiary children were not enrolled in the NHIS, caregivers who had many children in their households reported it was difficult to get all the children, both the LEAP beneficiary and nonbeneficiary children registered because the financial burden was high. They stated that, the children had a lot of demands and the cash transfers were insufficient to cover all their expenses. The major challenge most caregivers faced had to do with registering only beneficiary children in their households and thereby excluding the non-beneficiary children. Two caregivers said:
. . . for the money, you know that the children go to school, eat everyday and have to wear clothes. I am taking care of seven children [three LEAP beneficiaries], so I was unable to register all of them. (Caregiver in Household 4) . . . the money cannot cover everything . . . the children are many [8 children, 3 LEAP beneficiaries] I was not able to get all of them registered . . . when I received the money, I bought food stuffs in order to benefit all of us. (Caregiver in Household 3)

With regard to LEAP beneficiary OVC who had valid cards and attended hospitals, caregivers reported spending extra cash to purchase drugs which were not covered by the NHIS. This could be difficult for beneficiary households since they live below the poverty line (Slater, 2011). In order to purchase drugs that were not covered by the NHIS for OVC, some caregivers resorted to borrowing with the anticipation that when they received the cash transfer, they would use it to offset their debts. One caregiver had this to say:
. . . at times you go to the hospital and you are told the insurance does not cover some drugs, so I come home to borrow money to buy drugs with the anticipation that when I get the government money, I can use it to settle my debts. (Caregiver in Household 9)

Additionally, exploring the alternative healthcare methods adopted by caregivers who did not register the OVC in their households with the NHIS, it was found that some caregivers resorted to herbal medicine in treating the children when they were sick. In Ghana, many people still patronise herbal medicines due to financial constraints, lack of healthcare facilities, religious or cultural beliefs, among others (Ofori, 2011).This is common practice in rural communities, such as the study area, where caregivers have easy access to herbal plants. Commenting on the issue, one respondent mentioned that:
I do not take the children to the hospital. They do not have NHIS cards because I could not afford having all the children registered. I use herbs when they fall sick. (Caregiver in Household 8)

Furthermore, it was found that the communities included in this study had no healthcare centres and therefore the residents often had to walk long distances to the district capital in order to access healthcare services. In such situations, the main barrier to accessing health care services is not the disinclination of caregivers to send OVC to health facilities, but structural limitations of the healthcare system in Ghana. These constraints hamper access to healthcare services, particularly in rural areas where distances are immense and the transport infrastructure is deficient (Schubert & Slater, 2006). In this

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instance, it is not the demand-side rather the supply-side bottlenecks that limit the access of poor rural households to basic health services (Schubert & Slater, 2006). The findings suggest that the principal objective of cash transfers to enable household consumption of basic needs (Case & Deaton, 1998; Farrington et al., 2004), such as attending health clinics may not be achieved.

5.5 Provision of LEAP Beneficiary OVCs Food Needs


Since the LEAP cash transfer scheme is subject to certain types of behaviour, such as caregivers ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children in their care have access to nutritional food (NSPS, 2007), beneficiary households food security was explored. In this regard, questions relating to (a) the number of meals consumed per day by beneficiary OVC and (b) how household size influenced spending decisions on food were asked by the researchers. It was found that twenty-four OVC had three meals in a day and and nineteen had two meals in a day. Also, the caregivers reported spending a greater part of the cash transfer on food items due to the large number of children (both beneficiary and non-beneficiary) in their households. According to them, the cash was used up during the first week and afterwards it was difficult providing enough food for the children in their respective households. This suggests that the in-flow of the LEAP cash every two months could not sustain the households till the next payment; the length of time the cash transfer remained in the households was therefore very short. In this study the caregivers also mentioned that the LEAP cash received was spent on the food needs of all members in each household because a household operates as a communal entity. Although, the cash transfers were to be utilised conditionally, the living arrangements, especially household size influenced spending decisions of caregivers. Thus, the cash received was used for the benefit of both OVC and other family members because each household ate from a common pot as they were considered members of one household. During the individual interviews, two caregivers remarked:
. . . almost all of the government money I receive through LEAP goes into the food budget. I am able to buy a lot of foodstuffs as soon as the money comes . . . food is very necessary so I make sure all the children eat three times a day. We all enjoy together when there is money (Caregiver in Household 15) . . . the children in my house enjoy most during the first week the money is paid . . . I am able to buy a lot of foodstuffs . . .when there is no money, we do not eat much and they understand. (Caregiver in Household 9)

The above responses from the caregivers clearly indicate that they did not discriminate by ensuring that the beneficiary OVC had food while the other children in the household did not. Since the LEAP beneficiary households are dangerously poor (Holmes & Barrientos, 2009) they do not have adequate resources to meet their basic food requirements (Jones et al., 2009). Thus, all the children in the sampled households needed food and therefore it was difficult for the caregivers to meet the conditionality of the cash transfer which was meant for the exclusive use of the LEAP beneficiaries. This was one of the reasons why some beneficiary OVC had meals twice daily. This finding could also explain why the educational and health needs of some beneficiary OVC were not met. Although, the cash transfers were to be utilised conditionally, the living arrangements, especially household size influenced spending decisions of caregivers. With regard to the LEAP beneficiary OVC who had meals twice daily, the study found that households living arrangement influenced the cooking schedules of most caregivers. The average household normally had two meals in a day. Majority of the households were located on compounds consisting of other households and all the people on a compound were extended family members.

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During the interview, some caregivers mentioned that they did not cook in the afternoons as reflected in a caregivers assertion:
. . . we live in an extended family compound . . . traditionally, cooking for lunch is not the practice, . . . so if I cook in the afternoon I am obliged to share with the all the children in the household . . . I am caring for nine children, I dont have enough money to cook three times. In the evening, every mother in each household cooks so there is enough food for all the children to eat. (Caregiver in Household 8)

The findings indicated that the extended family living structure negatively affected the number of meals beneficiary OVC had in a day. While it was difficult for caregivers with many dependants (beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries) to take care of the food needs of their respective households, it was more challenging to feed all the children of the extended families in different households within the various compounds. In these households, cooking meant sharing the food to benefit all the children on a compound instead of the OVC in the beneficiary households. As the family and the communal clan function as social support systems for individuals in need (Awusabo-Asare, 1995; Nunkuya, 1992), such as hungry children in low-income families, the caregivers had cultural responsibility to share the food among all the children on their compound when they cooked. However, in this circumstance, due to limited financial resources, large family sizes and cultural practices, the LEAP beneficiary OVC were deprived of lunch among other basic needs. Sharing limited resources among many children is a common practice in Ghana because the traditional household is more than the nuclear family with little consensus on its boundaries. 6. Conclusions and Implications The LEAP cash transfer is a form of social protection provided by the government to meet the needs of vulnerable groups in poor households in Ghana. This study explored the influence of household size on conditional cash transfer utilisation to meet the school, health and food needs of orphans and vulnerable children in the Atwima Nwabiagya District. The findings indicated that households, which were made up of different members of the extended family operated as single units and therefore cash transfers were utilised for all children (both LEAP beneficiary and non-beneficiary) who resided in the households of caregivers. This suggests that household size influenced the spending decisions of caregivers even though the cash transfer was conditional. In practice, the cash transfer failed to meet the conditionality requirement because the money was used to meet the needs of non-LEAP beneficiary children as well. The beneficiary children, especially those who resided in households with non-beneficiary children did not benefit much from the LEAP. Although all the OVC in this study were enrolled in school, they were deprived of other basic needs. Some caregivers were unable to (a) provide the school needs of OVC, (b) enrol OVC in the national health insurance scheme, and (c) adequately provide for the food needs of OVC. All these issues are crucial and deserve urgent policy attention because they could lead to school absenteeism and consequently have a negative impact on school retention. The LEAP program would achieve its aim of breaking the cycle of poverty in poor households if beneficiary OVC stay in school and are able to transition to higher levels of education While the amount of cash paid to the caregivers was determined by the number of OVC in the households, it is vital to emphasise that the OVC were part of larger poor families, where majority of children in the households were non-LEAP beneficiaries. Since these households were poor, the caregivers found it difficult to utilise the cash transfer exclusively on beneficiary children as the other children in these households equally had educational, health and food needs as well. In order for the LEAP program to achieve its intended impact of reducing household poverty, the cash transfer program

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should be extended to include all children in beneficiary households since they all have unmet needs. As Slater (2011) noted, targeting specific social groupings is likely to involve major errors of exclusion. In this regard, most children in poor households in the study area were excluded from the program though they were equally vulnerable. Even though conditionality requires behavioural change, this might be difficult to achieve in Ghana, especially in rural communities due to the extended family living system with its inherent sociocultural norms. This may influence cash transfer utilisation in households where OVC reside because the operations of these households depended largely on cohesion and sharing to benefit all family members. The conditionality notwithstanding, the caregivers made rational choices by using the cash received through the LEAP program to benefit their entire households as it was difficult to isolate the OVC from other household members. Hence, measures must be put in place to ensure that the program strengthens family cohesion rather than weakens it. Since, the LEAP conditional cash transfer targets orphans and vulnerable children in family households, we argue that the size of the household can contribute to or diminish the potential benefits embedded in the program. Given that conditional cash transfer interventions operate through and affect complex entwined structural and traditional social relationships, the conditionality of the program must be reassessed. We therefore conclude that cash transfers will have the intended impact on beneficiaries, especially OVC if deep rooted family living systems and structural challenges, such as difficult access to health-care facilities are taken into consideration in the design and implementation of national social protection programs. References
Adato, M., & Basset, L. (2009). Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: The potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition. AIDS Care 21 (1), 60-75. Adato, M., & Hoddinott, J. (2010). Conditional cash transfers in Latin America. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. Adjei, P. O., Aboagye, D., & Yeboah, T. (2012). Extreme poverty and vulnerability experiences on urban highways in Ghana: Assessing social protection policy responses. Educational Research 3(5), 436-446. Atwima Nwabiagya District Survey. (2005). Vulnerability Analysis Report. Retrieved on April 20, 2011, from http://atwimanwabiagya.ghanadistricts.gov.gh Awusabo-Asare, K. (1995). Living with AIDS: Perceptions, attitudes and post-diagnosis behaviour of HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana. Health Transition Review, 5, 265-278. Baird, S., McIntosh, C., & Ozler, B. (2011). Cash or Condition? Evidence from a cash transfer experiment. The Quaterly Journal of Economics 126, 1705-1753. Barrientos, A., & DeJong, J. (2004). Child poverty and cash transfers. Childhood poverty research and Policy Centre Report No. 4. London: Save the Children. Bryant, J. H. (2009). Kenyas cash transfer program: protecting the health and human rights of orphans and vulnerable Children. Health and Human Rights, 11(2), 65-76. Badu-Nyarko, S. K., & Saka-Manful, E. (2011). Where are the HIV/AIDS orphans? Exploring haracteristics of vulnerable children in public residential care in Ghana. Journal of Global Social Work Practice 4(1), 1-19. Case, A., & Deaton, A. (1998). Large scale transfers to the elderly in South Africa. Economic Journal 108(450), 1330-1361. Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Daily Graphic. (2012). 68,000 Households Benefit From LEAP. Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php/news/features/11651--68000-households-benefit-from-leap Department for International Development [DFID]. (2011). Cash transfers. Evidence Paper. London: Policy Division.

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Farrington, J., Slater, R., & Holmes, R. (2004). Social protection and pro-poor agricultural growth: What scope for synergies? Natural Resource Perspectives, 91. Retrieved on March 22, 2012 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/1664.pdf Fields, G. S (2001). Distribution and development: A new look at the developing world. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gbedemah, C., Jones, N., & Pereznieto, P. (2010). Gendered risks, poverty and vulnerability in Ghana: Is the LEAP cash transfer programme making a difference? London: Overseas Development Institute. Ghana National AIDS/STI Control Program & Ghana Health Service. (2010). National HIV prevalence and AIDS estimates report 2009-2015. Accra, Ghana. Ghana Statistical Service. (2008). Ghana living standards survey: report of the fifth round. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service. Handa, S., & Davis, B. (2006). Conditional cash transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Development Policy Review, 24(5), 513-536. Holmes, R., & Barrientos, A. (2009). Child poverty: A role for cash transfers in West and Central Africa? Briefing Paper: UNICEF and Overseas Development Institute. Jones, N., Ahadzie, W., & Doh, D. (2009). Social protection to tackle child poverty in Ghana. Briefing Paper: UNICEF and Overseas Development Institute. Lund, R., & Agyei-Mensah, S. (2008). Queens as Mothers: The role of the traditional safety net of care and support for HIV/AIDS orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana. GeoJournal, 71, 93-106. Lund, F., Noble, M., Barnes, H., & Wright, G. (2009). Is there a rationale for conditional cash transfers for children in South Africa? Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa, 70(1), 70-91. MacAuslan, I., & Riemenschneider, N. (2011). Richer but resented: What do cash transfers do to social relations? IDS Bulletin, 42(6), 60-66. Marcus, R. (2004). The role of cash transfers in tackling childhood poverty. CHIP Report 2, London: Childhood Poverty Research and Policy Centre. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey [MICS]. (2006). Monitoring the situation of children, women, and men. Ghana, Accra: Ghana Statistical Service/UNICEF/USAID. Mushunje, T. M., Mafico, M. (2010). Social protection for orphans and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe: The case for cash transfers. International Social Work, 53, 261-285. Ministry of Manpower Youth and Employment. (2007). The national social protection strategy of Ghana. Accra, Ghana. Nukunya, G. K. (1992). Tradition and change in Ghana: an introduction to Sociology. Accra, Ghana: University Press. Ofori, V. A. (2011). Return to natural living: the role of traditional medical practice in Ghana. Retrieved on September 25, 2012, from http://citifmonline.com/?id=1.671653 Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Schubert, B. (2008). Protecting the poorest with cash transfers in low income countries. In A. Barrientos & D. Hulme (Eds.), Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest: concepts, Policies and Politics (211223). London: Palgrave. Schubert, B., & Slater, R. (2006). Social cash transfers in low-income African countries: conditional or unconditional? Development Policy Review 24(5), 571-578. Slater, R. (2011). Cash transfers, social protection and poverty reduction. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(3), 250-259. Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank.

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Impact of Albanian Folklore in Literature


MA. Ermelinda Kashahu
University Eqrem Cabej Faculty of Education and Social Sciences Department of Literature Gjirokastr, Albania ekashahu@gmail.com

Edlira Dhima
Ismail Qemal University of Vlora College of Human Sciences Department of Language and Literature Vlora, Albania E-mail: edadhima@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p253

Abstract Folklore has a really important place in the literature of this country, where we can mention the (Cikli i Kreshnikeve) (The Cycle of the Valiant Heroes), and their opponents, "Kral-s" and "kapedan-s". Along with the epos, Albanians had created also the fund of the ballades, which came like shocking memories of the past ages. One of them is that which is known in the south with the name of Konstandin and Doruntine, whereas in the north "Knga e Halil Garris" (The song of Halil Garria). There are other authors who have being strongly inspired by the Albanian oral poetry, which is included in the Cikli i Kreshnikeve (The Cycle of the Valiant Heroes), while in the Lahuta e Malcise (The Lute of Malecia). Another poet is Palaj Bernardin. Palaj is classic lyrics and elegiac author, who published the majority of his works in thirty years in the Franciscan magazine "Hylli i Drites (Star of the light). The folklore is and will remain an invaluable asset for the Albanians, and will continue to be an inspiration for artists in the future, as it was in the past. Key words: Folklore, collectors, Albanian literature

1. Introduction The folklore has indeed an important role in the literature of this country. Our folklore is very rich, where we can mention the Ciklin e Kreshnikeve (The Cycle of the Valiant Heroes), with Muji1 and Halil2, Gjergj Elez Alia3 etc. in the centre of this cycle stand the jobs of the file of the Valiant Heroes, as

The history of the Albanian literature a publication of University of Tirana 1959, volume I page 3-136. Marchiano, Canti polulari, albanezi delle colonie dItalia, Foggia 1908, p. 26. 3 R. Sokoli, On the songs of work in our folklore, Nentori magazine, February 1995, p. 129.
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well as their opponents, the "kral-s"4 and "kapedan-s"5 [1] especially from the coastal regions. The war of the Valiant Heroes is situated at a time and in an environment that does not acknowledge yet the fire guns. Their content and the social outlook, the artistic elements they contain, the Songs of the Valiant Heroes send you back to an earlier period than that of the Ottoman occupation. Along with the epos, Albanians had created also the fund of the ballades, which came like shocking memories of the past ages. One of them is that which is known in the south with the name of Konstandin and Doruntine, whereas in the north "Knga e Halil Garris" (The song of Halil Garria). [2] The ballade of Kostandin and Doruntine is often treated as a masterpiece which raises the cult of besa (trust), the sanctity of the given word, for the sake of which the curse could follow you in this life and the other. The message of besa (trust) is present in the breath of the ballade, but before this message is the breath of the human power to come back to this life. In addition to the oral creativity, at this time began to emerge many other writings such as the koleksioni i kodikve (collection of the codices) which constitutes one of the most important cultural resources of the Albanian people. This collection contains over 100 volumes, which constitute complete works (manuscripts) and 17 fragments. The Codices of Albania, the oldest of which is "Kodiku i Purpurt i Beratit" (Purple Codex of Berati), are an important fund for the history of the development of the old biblical literature. [3]All these important parts of the Albanian folklore, earlier Albanian write a great drive for the continuance of the Albanian literature. These works became an inspiration for the young authors, who owing to them they became acquainted with the good and bad in the art. These works were not just an inspiration for the Albanian literature, but they also became a drive for the cinematography, ballet and many other fields of the Albanian art. It should be said that, many intellectuals of the renaissance were educated and were influenced by the European breath of that time but yet they did not forgot the folklore. From these legends are created works of a worldwide fame, such as the work of Ismail Kadare "Kush e solli Doruntinen"(Who brought Doruntina home), based on the tradition. Another case is that of Mitrush Kuteli, who took enough of the elements of his narrations from the Tosk6 folklore, the way he had heard it in his childhood and exploited it to recreate clear motives of life in the countryside. Among these works where Kuteli made the folklore a part of his creativity, we can mention here: Ago Jakupi and other narrations, a summary of seven narrations about life in the countryside; Kapllan Aga i Shaban Shpats (Kapllan Aga son of Shaban Shpata). [4] Narrations Tales, etc. Another poet, in whose works catch the eye, the close ties with oral literature, is Fishta, even though some authors have criticized Fishta for 'folklorism', for the imitation of the folklore, without being able to create a real epic poem. It is worthy to be mentioned that Fishta is mightily inspired by the Albanian oral poetry, as well as by the cycles of heroic poetry called Kng kreshniksh (Songs of Valiant Heroes) when he wrote Lahuta e malcis. [5] Another poet dedicated to the folklore was Bernardin Palaj. Palaj is also an author of classical and elegiac lyrics, in the most part published in the years 30 in the Franciscan magazine Hylli i Drits (Star of the light). [6]The folklore is and will remain an invaluable resource for the Albanians, and will continue to be an inspiration for artists in the future, the way it was in the past... Every people create its art and culture. Our people have also done this since in the earlier times, since the writing was not yet invented. Thus our people has created songs and fairy tales, legends and proverbs, the cycle of the valiant heroes and riddles, their characteristic music and dances, their rich costumes and their various habits, their special way of building houses, bridges, castles etc., In this way, in addition to other things, they have expressed the richness of their fantasy, the ability to create genuine

Lyric folk songs, Tirana 1955, p. 294. The Archive of the Albanian Folklore (Z. Sako) 6 The Nations Depositories, Volume III, Tirana, 1937, p. 131.
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art works, be it words, be it the diversity of the costumes, be it musical melody etc. This way, they had continuously brought their part in the culture and art of humanity, in the world civilization. This entire cultural and artistic heritage, earlier it has been a habit to be called folklore, a word derived from English (folk-people and lore-knowledge of art). Later with this name was called only that what was created by the people. Albanian folklore is very rich. Our thinker, Branko Merxhani, who highly evaluated our folklore, speaks more than once about the necessity of learning of this resource by us.[7]
We should enter within the people, - he writes, - and live along with the people, to cognize their sayings and narrations of their traditions; to follow the way of thinking and the rhythm of their feelings; to enter inside in the understanding of their religious life and to understand the feelings of their morals. Such a great endless and headless school, a whole lively university is the life of the people (). From this school of popular life emerged the genies of history.7

Has the folklore had influence in the Albanian literature? Certainly yes, During its history, the literature has been a bearer and the first source of the acknowledgement of the mythology, an expressive of the biblical thought, religious in general, laudatory of the creative power of the human being, an analytical mirror of the individual and the society, an elaborator and a spreader of the revolutionary thought etc., by remaining at the same time artistically organized word, with the natural tendency to make a life distinguished from other activities. This is our folklore, with a clear beauty, understood and experienced. The folklore is conserved orally by passing from a generation to the other. Therefore, it is exactly the popular memory that which conserves it, and has made it able that the songs, fairy tales, proverbs etc., to not be lost and that every good part of the ancient folklore to come to our days. In the beginning of the nineteenth century scholars from different countries began to show a great interest about the folklore, because in it, in addition to an artistic treasure, they saw also characteristics which determine features In the year 1635 we find an Latin-Albanian dictionary of the author Frank Bardhi which included some proverbs; later on the Arbresh8 of Italy, the great poet Jeronim De Rada publishes in 1866 a book with different songs entitled Rhapsody of an Albanian Poem gathered in the region of Napoli; Zef Jubani publishes in 1871 a Summary of folk songs and rhapsodies of Albanian poems whereas in the year 1878 Thimi Mitko publishes the most known folkloric summary Albanian Bee. It is worthy to mention here the summary entitled Sea Waves (1898) of the author Spiro Dine. [8] The most distinguished Albanian folklorists are: Zef Jubani, Jeronim De Rada, Bernardin Palaj, Ernest Koliqi, Qemal Haxhihasani, Ramadan Sokoli etc. One of the characteristics is the collective feature. We emphasize here that the collectors of the Cycle of The Brave Heroes at the Nations Depositories have also written down the names of the rhapsodists, who have sang masterpieces such as: Kenga e Gjergj Elez Alis (The Song of Gjergj Elez Alia), Martesa e Halilit (The Marriage of Halil) etc. According to Naim, the folklore as a permanent demand had its influence in the Albanian literature.9[9] It could support the point of views on the ancientness of the Albanians, without dealing with mythology and their antique polytheism, without holding on after the ancientness and originality.

M. Xhaxhiu, Literature and Folklore , The poem Narrations of the Arbr and problems of the poetry of De Rada. 8 A. Xhangolli, Folkloric Literature, Prishtina 1996, Bogdani, R. 9 Gj. Zheji, ajup and the folklore, on Nentori, Tirane, 1966.
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In supporting this opinion let us mention as an example the song Kur mrzen cjapi me zile (When the Billy goat with a bell rests in the shade), which has become one of the most preferred lyric folk songs of the southeastern regions of the country (Prmet, Skrapar, Kor, Pogradec etc). The various variants of this song are registered as a text or as a melody and they conserve the essential idea. The influence of the folklore appears often also in the poem History of Scanderbeg about which in any case is said that it does not contain obvious layers of the folkloric resource. But it is certain that the poet heard something, perhaps by his close friend Halit Brzeshta. At the Albanians of Italy, as it appears in a folkloric summary of Jeronim De Rada and Kamarda, the tradition of . has been alive. From the Albanian emigration, in those few elements we have from their folk culture, we find a lyrical wedding song. This song is heard even nowadays in Gjirokastra. Bibliography
The history of the Albanian literature a publication of University of Tirana 1959, volume I page 3-136. Marchiano, Canti polulari, albanezi delle colonie dItalia, Foggia 1908, p. 26. R. Sokoli, On the songs of work in our folklore, Nentori magazine, February 1995, p. 129. Lyric folk songs, Tirana 1955, p. 294. The Archive of the Albanian Folklore (Z. Sako) The Nations Depositories, Volume III, Tirana, 1937, p. 131. M. Xhaxhiu, Literature and Folklore , The poem Narrations of the Arbr and problems of the poetry of De Rada. A. Xhangolli, Folkloric Literature, Prishtina 1996, Bogdani, R. Gj. Zheji, ajup and the folklore, on Nentori, Tirane, 1966.

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The Impact of Contraceptive use on Women Health: A Study of District Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Asma Zafar
Sociology & Anthropology Department, PMAS University of Arid Agriculture-Rawalpindi

Muhammad Asim
M. Phil Scholar, Department of Sociology G.C University Faisalabad, Pakistan E. mail: masim202@gmail.com

Irum Gillani
Sociology & Anthropology Department, PMAS University of Arid Agriculture-Rawalpindi

Nazia Malik
Assistant professor, Department of Sociology G.C University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p257

Abstract Womens health is about issues and matters specific to female anatomy. Womens health issues are related to the female genitalia, breast, and other physiological structures. Womens health matters include menstruation; pregnancy and menopause. Contraceptives are a thoughtful and premeditated selection of a birth control technique or set of techniques. In Pakistan, there is an increasing trend of using contraceptives to regulate unwanted pregnancies due to recent awareness of family planning and several women health problems launched by government. However, unawareness about the use of contraceptives would be more dangerous and its prolonged use sometimes results in multiple complications. In order to study the impact of contraceptives use on women health, 100 female respondents were taken as study respondents through purposive sampling technique. It was found that (88%) female were using contraceptives continuously, (82%) female respondents found the contraceptives effective then (62%) female respondents reported physical problems are the disadvantages of contraceptives. (59%) of female respondents were from city and (41%) female respondents were from towns and majority of them were using contraceptives. Keywords: Impact, Contraceptives, Women health

1. Introduction Womens health was thought to include only issues of childbirth and reproductive health. Gender-specific medical research has demonstrated major differences between the way male

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and female physical systems develop and handle diseases. In addition to physical differences, men and women face different challenges in obtaining and paying for medical services. Economic status, health insurance coverage, a womens role as caregiver equally affect a womens health (Tina, 2006). Contraception is avoidance of pregnancy by different methods other than avoiding coitus or hysterectomy, whereas contraceptives are preventive methods to help women avoid unwanted pregnancies: they include all temporary and permanent measures to prevent pregnancy resulting from coitus. The contraceptives method may be broadly grouped into two classes-Spacing methods and Terminal methods. Spacing methods are of four types; Barrier methods, Hormonal methods, Intra-Uterine Devices and Natural Family Planning methods. Terminal methods are of two types; Male sterilization and Female Sterilization (Chohan, 2000) Pregnancy and contraceptive methods both have important health effects that include risks and benefits. The net impact of contraception on womens health has not been reported previously. Every method of contraception dominates nonuse in most clinical settings. Increasing the use of more effective methods even modestly at the expense of less effective methods will improve health and reduce costs. Method that require action by the user less frequently than daily are both less costly and more effective than methods requiring action on a daily basis (Sonnenberg, 2004) Effectiveness of a contraceptive is influenced by characteristics of both user and contraceptive method. Helping a women select the method that best meets her needs requires an understanding and careful assessment of these factors. A number of factors contribute to the user characteristics and affect a womens potential for successful contraceptive use. Life stage, socio-economic status, education, responsibilities, and work schedule are among the variables a provider needs to assess before recommending a specific contraceptive method to a client. Health concerns, religious and cultural beliefs, past experience with contraception play a vital role in choice and effectiveness of any contraceptive methods (Hatcher, 2000). Family planning saves womens and childrens lives and improves the quality of life for a substantial number of women. It is one of the most effective investments for helping to ensure the health and well-being of women, children, and communities, and is a key component of quality reproductive health services. Contraceptive use improves womens health by allowing women to avoid unwanted and poorly timed pregnancies. It also helps to empower women by allowing them to decide the number and spacing of their children; this, in turn, provides them increased opportunities for participation in educational, economic and social activities (WHO, 1991) 2. Materials and Methods A micro-level survey was conducted in two hospitals, Rawapindi General Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, in District Rawalpindi. There are eight government hospitals in Rawalpindi. These two hospitals were selected purposively because they were having family planning centers and fifteen to twenty females used to visit these centers daily. A sample of 100 females was drawn by using convenient sampling technique by including 50 females from Rawalpindi General Hospital and 50 females from Holy family hospital respectively. The data was

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collected through females interviews using a well-structured questionnaire. The data thus obtained was analyzed to draw conclusions and make pertinent recommendations. 3. Results and Discussions The present study shows significant results. With regard to the education of female respondents who had no qualification except their religious education or in other words illiterate were 36% which indicate that even in the city like Rawalpindi the female education is not of the satisfactory level, Even that most of the respondents were illiterate but awareness about contraceptive use among female was at high level due to the governmental Family Planning Programs. With regard to the husband income of female respondents 51% were earning 11-15 thousand per month which shows more concerned about the size of their families due to limited economic resources and the competition to improve the status of life. The percentage of female respondents in 15-20 income class was much less this is because the study was conducted in government a hospital which provides respondents contraceptive facilities at very cheap cost or approximately free for every one. The female respondents who have children 1-4 were 67% and the respondents having children 5-8 was also considerable because it was only 28 % so it is still needed to educate people about contraception. Percentage of respondents with regards to the contraceptive method used was shown in figure 1 where 29 % respondents uses condoms, 28% were using IUDs (Intra uterine devices) 17 % were using oral pills & the rest uses other methods.
35 30 25 Percentage 20 15 10 5 0 Condoms Oral pills Injections Norplants IUDs Ligation

Figure 1:- Contraceptive method used

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88% respondents continuously uses contraceptives while only 12% were not using it continuously due to complications they could not continue contraceptive use. Effectiveness of contraceptives is influenced by characteristics of both user and contraceptive method. The respondents who find the contraceptives effective was 82% & for whom contraception failed and they got pregnant was 18%.The reason behind the failure of the contraceptives was incorrect and inconsistent use of any method. 93% of respondents use only one contraceptive because they were satisfied with the effectiveness of their method and only 7% were using different contraceptives because they were having physical problem & due to the failure of contraception. 94% of the respondents consulted doctor before choosing any contraception because doctor suggested them which method to be used after complete medical check up and taking into consideration the history of the respondents and only 6% do not consult any doctor before using & selecting contraceptives. A comparison of different variables & choice of contraceptives was taken into consideration. Comparison of the female respondents with regard to their area, education, income, impact on women health & effectiveness with respect to the choice of contraceptives was studied Table 1: Comparison of female respondents with regard to the impact of contraceptives on women health.
Contraceptives Condoms Oral pills Injections Norplants IUDs Ligation Total Impact on women health No impact Positive Negative 29 0 0 7 5 1 7 2 51 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 16 0 21 2 49 Total 29 17 21 1 28 4 100

In comparison to the respondents with regard to their area and choice of contraceptives, the highest percentage of the choice of contraceptives in towns was condoms and in cities was IUDs, where as the lowest percentage of the of contraceptives in towns was Norplants and ligation, and in cities was nor plants. The choice of contraceptives was also influenced by the level of education of the respondents. There was also a great variation in the choice of the contraceptives regarding the economic status of the respondents. It is obvious from the table 1 that the respondents either reported negative or no impact of the contraceptives. Not a single respondent said that she felt any positive change due to the use of contraceptives. Along with the physical side effects of the contraceptives there were superstitions of the respondents because if they had any problem after using contraceptives whether it was related to it or not they thought that this problem might be the side effect of the contraceptives. So may be they had some positive impact on their health but they do not notice it. The other thing which is very clear from the table was that the respondents who were using condoms all of them

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reported no impact because condoms are non-hormonal contraceptives so they do not interfere with hormonal system and do not cause any problem. The only side effect associated with condoms is slight latex infection or lack of sexual satisfaction, but no respondent had even reported that. 4. Conclusion and Recommendation The present reveals that pregnancy and contraceptives methods both have important health impacts that include risks and benefits. Health conditions decrease the safety and effectiveness of any method. The effectiveness of a method depends on its correct and consistent use. Incorrect and inconsistent use leads to several health problems and failure of contraception. It was noticed during research that less educated people with low economic status have more children then educated and economically stable people. The interest will develop and people will further motivate to take preventive measures against unwanted pregnancies. So contraception is due to incorrect and inconsistent use of contraceptives so its consistent and correct use should be made possible by counseling and guidance. Contraceptives should be provided at affordable prices further its quality should be improved to reduce health problems. Awareness should be increased by media and other sources, male contraceptives should be introduced rather then female & government can help through the provision of better medical free camps for counseling and contraceptive availability. References
Chohan, A. 2000. Fundamentals of Gynaechology. 1st ed.,MAR Publishers Lahore. 145p Hatcher, J. 2000. Contraceptive Technology. 17th ed., Sage Publishers. London. 295p Sonnenberg, FA. 2004. Costs and net health effects of contraceptive methods. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi Tina, S. 2006. National conference of State Legislatures, Womens Health. http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/forum/womenhealth.htm#intro WHO. 1991. Communicating Family Planning in reproductive health. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/family_planning/index.html

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The Ecomomic Impact of Agricultural Products in the Albanian Exports


M. Sc. Eda Bezhani, Ph.D. Candidate
Lecturer, Aleksander Moisiu University, Durres, Albania Email: edabezhani82@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p263

Abstract Exports are considered as one of the priorities of government for the developing of the economy and facing the trade liberalization process of Albania in the international market. The increasement of exports is one of the most fundamental indicators for increasing the competitiveness in the economy, the increase of investors and one of the indicators for increasing the employment in Albania. The performance of the economy in these years has been characterized in quite large fluctuations in its stability, restructuring, growth rate and in this way of huge transformations. This kind of performance has accompanied also that part of exportoriented economy by turning the economy and the domestic market to a market economy that is relied mainly on imports. Based on the Intermediate Interim Agreement on the 1- December 2006, it is expected a significant impact on domestic economic structure. Due to this agreement the export tariffs will decrease faster than those of imports. This is expected to have a positive effect because in the EU countries perform about 60% of imports and 80% of exports 1 . Because of the rapid expansion of exports and moderate growth in imports , there has been an improved trade deficit, helping to balance the demand and supply for foreign currency and to maintain the national currency 2 . Exports during the first 8 months of the year increased 25 billion ALL compared with the year 2010. Domestic Exports includes the agricultural products (medicinal plants, tobacco), by metals (ferrochrome and aluminum), leather, from timber and mineral products (fuels). Exports of agricultural products include all countries in the region, but we are also exporting to Hungary, Germany and other countries of the European Union. Keywords: Exports, agricultural products, agricultural marketing.

1. Introduction
Export growth is important because of its effect on internal trade and economic stability. Even more, the rate of economic growth and the distribution of income and wealth in a country are closely related to export growth.

By the given statistical data is observed that the export-import ratio in years has varied almost at the same levels 1:9 (export-import).

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Table 1: Exports and imports in agro-food industry and trade balance (in Million Euro)
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 -600 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Agri-food exports Agri-food imports Agri-food trade balance

The good performance of exports has contributed to narrowing the trade deficit with 5.9% annually for this period. The average coverage of imports by exports was estimated at 47.3% and this is recorded as its higher historical point. Trade exchanges recorded an increasement of 30.4% during the first two months of the year. Exports in value continued in upward trend to accelerate during the first start of the year 2010 and expanded 66% in annual report 3. Despite this, it is worthly emphasizing that there is a considerable increase in production, increase in exports, imports, but also are increased the country's needs (so increase in consumption). Noting that domestic export is represented mostly by agricultural products. During the year 2010 have seen an improvement in trade balance (calculate local needs from domestic production plus exports minus imports), some products of agro-processing sector. Valueadded services sector and the agricultural sector contributed positively but to a lesser extent annual increase of real GDP. One of the strategic policies of Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection (MAFCP), is the promotion of agro-industry sector because the Albania's geographical location offers a trade potential, especially with the EU markets. Albania has also entered into free trade agreements with all Balkan countries creating the opportunity for trade throughout the region. In the agro-food industry there is a gradual development and sustainability in recent years providing an average annual increase in value of about 3-5%. Given that agricultural-livestock products and agro-processing have a considerable potential to increase export volumes, in particular the support for increased production of bio.

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Agro-industry sector productivity has increased by 4.7 in the year 2008 and 5.2 in the year 2010 (calculated as the total output value by the number of employees), however the competitiveness of agrofood industry is limited. So 91% of cheese that is needed for a year and only 9% are imported; 89% of butter is produced in the country, 86% olive oil, 68% sausage and bacon, and about 57% natural and sparkling water4. Table 2: Export-Import in 2000-2010

Export opportunities in Albania for agricultural products and processed have increased significantly but still are far from their real capacity. This is mainly result of: i. lack of marketing facilities (storage, processing, packaging of products); ii. low standards concerning food safety; iii. low degree of competition in the Albanian market of agricultural products because of low quality and relatively high cost of Albanian products. The development of exports plays a very important role on improving macroeconomic indicators. The importance of export growth is seen not only to reduce the trade balance, but also to improve the quality of products and increased manufacturing skills, creation of new jobs, improving the welfare and general economic development of the country. Improving the quality of our products will positively affect the growth of exports and will increase the the level of replacing imports with locally produced products.

Ministry of Agriculture Statistical Yearbook, 2010

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2. Exports: In the year 2010, the value of exports in agricultural and food products accounted 9 154 million leks, from which 73% with EU countries (Italy and Greece, with greater weight); 5% the United States; 3.5% in Turkey; and about 18% with regional countries (Kosovo, Macedonia, etc.). From export growth during 2000-2005 was about 45%; from 2005-2008 about 33%; in 2009 had only 2% growth of exports (compared with 2008); and in 2010 had increased by 22%. The main products have been exported on: medicinal plants, fresh vegetables and processed; oily seeds, watermelons, internal livestock, canned fish, and raw hides. If you look at the data of 2010 noted that the largest share of export value of agro-industry occupies about 54%, followed by agriculture and livestock 35% to 11%. 3. Imports: In 2010, imports of agricultural product services accounted for about 80 293 milion ALL, of which 54% of the EU countries (notably Italy and Greece). The products that play the most important role on imports were: fresh vegetables, wheat, vegetable oils, cereals, flour or starch, edible mix, alcoholic beverages, tobacco and processed tobacco. Greater importance to the value of imports of processed products are occupied (agro-industry) by about 62%, followed by agricultural products and livestock products 26% to 12%. 4. Some of the reasons for restricting Albanian exports: Deficiency and low levels of agricultural production and agro-processing industry; Lack of marketing facilities (storage, processing, packaging of products); Low standards on food safety; Low degree of competition in the Albanian market of agricultural products because of low quality and relatively high cost of Albanian products.

Table 3: Structure of Export 2005 - 2010

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Low competitiveness of our products mainly is associated with low quality, but also with food insecurity and high cost of production. These are the main factors limiting exports. This confirms the fact that the products exported have a little more demand for food safety, or guarantee them a higher degree (canned fish, medicinal plants, tobacco, watermelon, etc.) 5. Instruments to promote exports Some of the instruments for promoting and increasing exports are: - Competitiveness Fund for promotion of exports; - Support scheme in agriculture; - Exposure of the products through organizing National and International Fairs; - Improvement of network marketing, etc. Competitiveness Fund for promotion of exports implemented by Albanian Investment Development Agency (AIDA). Albanian Investment Development Agency as a public agency responsible for the implementation of private sector development and particularly for SMEs, promoting export and foreign direct investment in Albania, was established and operates under the Law No. 10303, dated on 15 July, 2010 "On the Establishment and organization of the Albanian Investment Development Agency". Besides these activities, it also manages promotional and fund program competitiveness. Financial support is provided through the implementation of a grants scheme for cost-sharing to a maximum of 1 million per company exporters but not more than 50% of the total cost. Support is provided for activities such as product certification, implementation of quality management system, market research, sales missions, conformity assessments required to penetrate the target market, representation abroad (costs related to finding agents and distributors, participation in fairs as a visitor, participation in trade fairs as exhibitors, promotion, publishing and design promotional materials for the target market). Costs need to be approved in accordance with standard procurement procedures, use of specific consulting services, customized product (including coverage and labeling, creating web pages, etc.). Support Scheme in Agriculture: The second instrument supporting the scheme was applied to the state budget funds by the Agency of Agriculture and Rural Development (AZHBR) in the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Protection in the framework of support for agriculture. This scheme directly affects the growth of production; support agro-processing businesses, therefore increase the possibility of exports. Also this scheme is a financial support to cover the cost of certification of organic agricultural products and intended for export. Organization of fairs: Serves as one of the main instruments in terms of encouraging exports and promoting businesses and products of the Albanian regional and international market. So for years planned a fund from the Ministry of Agriculture Food and Consumer Protection budget for participation in these events. Only for 2010 are based on the participation in international fairs 5 and 6 national regional fairs. This in close cooperation with business associations, financial institutions, donor projects, local governments, etc. Positive impact not only affected the revenue growth of businesses through the conclusion of new contracts, knowing the latest trends, technologies, etc., But above all in creating a stable image of Albanian businesses and products. Improvement of marketing: Establishment of wholesale and retail markets, slaughter of cattle collection centers; refrigerating rooms; have been some interventions to improve quality and storage products to a possible increase in their exports. Farmers have begun to orient the marketing of products, the selection of seeds. These measures have given high yields.

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6. Conclusions To reach a sustainable economic development, firstly we should take into consideration that exports is a very important factor on this development. Export opportunities in Albania for the agricultural products and also for the processed products have been increasing significantly, but still they are far from their real capacity. This is mainly due to some factors: a) Lack of marketing facilities ( storage, processing, packaging of products); b) Low standards related to food safety; c) Low level of competitiveness in the market of the albanian agricultural products due to low quality and relatively high cost of the albanian products. The importance of increasing export is not only seen for reducing the trade balance, but also for improving quality of the product and increasing production capability, opening new jobs, improving the wellfare and also for the economic development of the country. Increasing the quality of our products will have a positive impact on export growth and will increase the rate of imports with the locally produced products. Bibliography
Strategy and business development investments (2007-2013) Monetary Policy Report, April 2011 Ministry of Agriculture Statistical Yearbook, 2010 Sector Strategy of Agriculture and Food (SSBU), 2007 2013 National Plan for Implementation of the SAA 2009 2014 Institute of Statistics

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The 21st Century Educated African Person and the Loss of Africans Educational Identity: Towards an Afro Education Model
Dr. Wycliffe Amukowa
Economic Policy and Education Research Centre (ECO-PERC) New Jersey, USA kwamukowa@yahoo.com

Ms. Caroline Vihenda Ayuya


Department of Psychology Daystar University ayuyac@yahoo.com
Doi:10.5901/ajis/2013.v2n1p269

Abstract Africa like other parts of the world strongly believes in the axiom of education per excellence, that is, African nations share in the vision of education as a pivot for social change and integrated development. However review of literature shows a discontent from some African scholars over the practice of Western formal education on the Continent of Africa. This discontent stems from the belief that Western formal education destroys Africa; resulting into the loss of Africans educational identity, underdevelopment, moral decadence and cultural erosion. Several concerns emerge in the light of this discontent: 1).What is Education? 2).Who is an educated person? 3) Who is responsible for Africans loss of educational identity? This paper engages a critical appraisal and review of this discontent with the intentions of arriving at an understanding of the 21st Century educated African Person and proposes an educational model for Africa in this regard. Key Words: Africa, Colonialism, Culture, Development, Education, European, Schooling

1. Introduction The praxis of education being a condition for social change and development can only cease to be a mirage in Africa, if the African connotation of an educated person can be disseminated and made ingrained in our living consciousness. Such an African orientation will bring about an attitudinal behaviour change that will aid developmental drive. In fact, such an understanding will set Africa nations on the pace of catalyzing, sustaining and consolidating their developmental efforts in the 21st Century (Balogun, 2008). However, survey of literature shows that Africans seem to make dismal contributions, not only to the Continent of Africa, but to the world at large with blame on what is argued as improper practice of education on the continent. Nsamenang (2009), notes that the African school, the social institution officially mandated to deliver relevant education, has been responsible for Africas inability to ensure a good life, renew and strengthen its own culture and worse yet to generate and share its cultures knowledge and know-how. Hirsh (2010), informs that in Africa, education is creating poverty throughout the continent in which

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the culprit is the school system itself, which is more suitable for foreign than national labor markets. Consequently, increasing numbers of African school leavers, graduates and professionals now imagine their futures away from their countries, depriving their countries of human resources as many are part of brain drain statistics around the world. According to Nsamenang, (2008), there is little continent-wide evidence to show for the expressed wish of the then Organization of African Unity (OAU) and UNESCO that African educational authorities revise and reform the content of education in the areas of the curriculum, textbooks, and methods, so as to take account of the African environment, child development, cultural heritage, and the demands of technological progress and economic development, especially industrialisation. This implies that the problem of educational relevance persists in Africa. This paper proposes an account of understanding the 21st Century educated African person and proposes an Afro educational model that would facilitate Africans educational identity and contributions to development. The Afro Educational model proposed is not merely an aspect of educational practice in place, but it is, in fact, a completely different way to approach gaps in educational practice in Africa. It utilizes the critical, analytic and speculative methods of philosophizing coupled with documentary review. The literature reviewed sets forth as an indicator of educational concerns in Africa. The ineffectiveness of education in Africa as unearthed from the review of literature and the need for development in Africa towards improved quality of life serves as evidence for the timeliness and relevance of an Afro Educational model. However, there are some limitations of the literature reviewed as basis of this paper: First, the literature is based on arguments raised by Africans and this may fail the objectivity test. The discontent among the African scholars may be seen as mere subjective opinions as they are not supported by scientific findings. Second, the dissenting scholars have all been trained in Western Educational model and as such, it may be argued that they are not propagating anything new but gaps in their lives. Considering the population, varied educational practice and cultures in Africa such opinions may call into question whether education in Africa is as ineffective as the reviewed literature would indicate. Nonetheless, this discontent provides a jumping-off point for this discussion and an Afro educational model would be successful even if the discontent is only but subjective opinions. This paper has four main parts. The first part makes an exploration of the conceptualization of education and the case against schools, while the second part concentrates on the idea of an educated person. In its third part, this paper discusses the loss of Africas educational identity and in its last part the paper presents the 21st century educated African person and proposes an Afro educational model. 2. Conceptualization of Education Deciding how to care for and educate the next generation is an old matter to which individuals and cultural communities the world over have evolved various approaches. By revealing that Africa is home to the earliest humans, scientific evidence informs us that the continent has had the longest experience with the care and education of children. (Callaghan, 1998). So, what is education? What is it to educate? Scholars provide a variety of the definition of education. Peters (1967) argued that to lay claim to education, first the learner must possess the capability to understand what he is being taught. Second, the process must be done in a manner that is morally acceptable and third, it must be a conscious effort to bring about a positive change in the state of the mind of the recipient which must be directed at achieving a desirable goal. Boyd and King (1977), consider education to be the training and instruction of the young for the business of life. Gwanfogbe (2006) supports this definition of education as given by Boyd and King (1977) and argues that this definition is appropriate because since the beginning of

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human civilization each human society has been interested in training the future generation to improve on their social, economic, cultural and political life of their society. Mohanan (http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/publications/educated/intro.htm) disagrees with the definition of education as training and observes that education is not the same as training, even though training may be one of its ingredients. He argues that for instance, a person who has been taught to repair refrigerators, drive an automobile, or play basketball can be said to have received training, but such training per se does not constitute education. Similarly, even though learning is a necessary ingredient of education, not all forms of learning lead to education. Monkeys, birds, and rats can learn from experience, and they can even be trained, but it cannot be said that they can be educated. Mohanan(ibid) then defines education as the process of actualizing what is unique to the human mental potential. Education enhances the human mental capability because it is a preparation for future life, and a good way of preparing individuals for future life is to enhance their mental capability so that they can cope with the challenges of life more effectively. According to Balogun (2008), in its etymological derivation, education comes from the Latin word educere meaning to lead out or to bring out. Balogun (2008) argues that this definition is sterile as another school of thought has denied that education comes from educere, to lead out, but rather from educare which means to form or train. This way Balogun (2008) maintains that education refers to the act of developing knowledge, skills or character of a child. It may also be defined as the act of bringing up, rearing, guiding or directing a child. The 1828 edition of Noah Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language http://modernedfailedus.blogspot.com /2005/12/times-have-changed.html) presents the definition of Education as the bringing up, as of a child; instruction; formation of manners. However, Omona (1998) argues that education is not only tied to children because adults or persons beyond the connotation of a child continue to be nurtured through education. Indeed, to conceptualize education with focus on a child pays no respect to the present day reality of continuing and adult education. With the coming of industrialism and increase in demand for knowledge and skills, education became increasingly associated with schooling and with sort of training and instruction that went on in special schools. According to Hirst (1990), this has culminated in the development of compulsory schooling for all, and may well have brought about such a conceptual tightening up that education is used with a connotation of knowledge and understanding. Within this purview, UNESCO (19995) defines education as comprising organized and sustained communication designed to bring about learning. This definition associates education with schooling or literacy. Indeed in its part of definition of