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Digital Re-print May | June 2013

Assessing nutritional value with NIR


Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872

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FEATURE

Results of a survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and cereals for animal nutrition
by Claire Relandeau, solution development manager, Europe Africa Middle East Adisseo, France

Assessing nutritional value with NIR

survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and wheat and corn for monogastric feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. Results show great variations in the nutrient value depending on year of harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and processing conditions. The survey included analysis of the digestible amino acid and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values using Adisseos NIR predictive equations which have been calculated in reference to in vivo digestibility tests. In 2012, Adisseo conducted a large survey of the nutritional content of soybean and rapeseed meals in Europe over a 6-week period. Great heterogeneity was observed, with variation coefficients ranging from 3 percent to 8 percent for the main components: crude protein, total and digestible lysine, total and phytic phosphorus and AME. Highest variations were observed for AME of soybean meals, and digestible amino acid contents of rapeseed meals (Table 1).

from Argentina contained the most, followed by those from the USA, then those from Brazil and finally, with the least, those from India (Figure 1).

An important influence of the country of origin


In 170 samples of soybean meals collected over a 6-week period from 13 countries in Europe and America, crude protein content ranged from 44 percent to 51 percent and total lysine from 2.54% to 3.01%. The lysine to crude protein ratio depended on the country of origin. Is this a botanical or cultural effect? It is difficult to say without further investigation, but observations are clear; for similar crude protein contents, samples coming from Argentina had higher lysine levels than samples coming from Brazil and the USA. Interestingly, lysine digestibility was higher in US samples, as reported by Mateos et al. (2010). Consequently regarding the total content of digestible lysine, soybean meals
40 | may - June 2013

Figure 1: Digestible lysine contents of soybean meal depend Even for a on crude protein and country of origin well-characterised product, great variations in nutritional content were observed. Soybean meal 48 ProFat is supposed to contain 48 percent crude protein + fat, with comparable digestible amino acid and energy contents. In fact, the Adisseo study showed that crude protein content varied by 1-2 percentage points Figure 2: Apparent metabolisable energy content of soybean and digestible meal 48 ProFat is highly variable amino acid content by 4-5 percent. The most variable nutrient was AME extent they perceive is necessary to create a protein + fat content of 48 percent. The with variations between 80 to 120 kcal/kg. The oil content is not the main cause of higher the initial protein content of the bean, the variation in AME. Crude fibre explains a the higher the amount of hulls to be added, part of it. Lets explain why. To manufacture and the higher the crude fibre content as soybean meal 48 ProFat, the crushers can well. We achieve a paradox where better decide to dehull the beans before extracting seeds may result in meals of lower nutrient the oil. They then add back the hulls to an interest.
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FEATURE contents for monogastrics should be the first Rapeseed meals reflex, but privileging (n=118) the raw materials with the lowest levels of fibre is not a guarantee of high nutritional 31 < 35 < 39 value. 1.53 < 1.81 < 2.03 Aurlie Preynat, enzyme research 0.97 < 1.03 < 1.11 manager, Adisseo 0.77 < 0.85 < 0.93 and author of several 0.08 < 0.18 < 0.23 reports on the efficacy of multi enzyme Rovabio in soybean meal, says, Indeed fibres do not act only 72 < 75 < 80 as nutrient diluent. 1.10 < 1.36 < 1.59 Their complex conn.d. stituents, such as mannans, pectins, xylans, and cellulose, also specifically decrease energy and amino acid digestibility. Our NIRs service is an efficient tool to rapidly and efficiently monitor the nutrients really available to the poultry. The commercial nomination 48 ProFat is not sufficient for precise nutrition and optimised feed production. More efficient characterisation and selection of the ingredients, based on their nutritional values, can result in savings as high as 10 /t of feed, calculates Elisabeth Bourgueil, technical manager France, Iberia and Italy, Adisseo.

Table 1: variations in nutrient values of oilseed meals* Min < Mean < Max Chemical components Crude protein (%) Total lysine (%) Total phosphorus (%) Phytic phosphorus (%) Non phytic phosphorus (%) Nutrients Lysine digestibility (%) Digestible lysine (%) 85 < 88 < 91 2.24 < 2.49 < 2.66 44 < 48 < 51 2.54 < 2.83 < 3.01 0.48 < 0.64 < 0.73 0.31 < 0.42 < 0.51 0.14 < 0.22 < 0.30 Soybean meals (n=170)

Rapeseed meal quality affected by crushing process


Rapeseed meal quality also depends on the country of production and crushing plants. In this 2012 survey, rapeseed meals produced in Germany appeared to have higher non-phytic to phytic phosphorus ratios than those produced in France, suggesting higher available phosphorus values. On average, digestible lysine contents are also higher. Differences within a country are however as high as between countries. Repeated sampling of six French rapeseed meal factories over a one-month period showed for example that lysine digestibility ranges between 72 and 80 percent and is very plant specific (Figure 3). This analysis shows an important effect of suppliers, especially for digestible amino acid contents. The method using regressions to predict digestible amino acid content based on crude protein content is unable to reflect these differences. Introducing NIR calibrations for digestible amino acids in quality control plans at raw material reception is therefore a step forward to optimise ingredient purchases and proper use in feed formulations.

Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 2055 < 2363 < 2517 * All analyses performed with NIR

Energy value is somewhat correlated with fibre content, but the linear regression from fibre to energy content is not precise enough to be used in formulation: with 5 percent crude fibre content, a soybean meal can contain 2300 or 2450 kcal AME/ Kg (Figure 2). This 150 Kcal difference, picked up by PNE, Adisseo NIRs Service, would correspond to a soybean meal shadow price difference of 45 / T. In practice, excluding high crude fibre

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FEATURE should be a concern shared by all functions: quality manager, nutritionist and buyer. Especially when feedstuffs are so expensive, it is important to ensure you are purchasing the right feedstuff for the right objective at the right price.

PNE for wheat and corn


Nutritionists also need Precise Nutrition Evaluation for wheat and corn. In 2009 and 2010, Adisseo also carried out a large survey of 300 samples of wheat and corn collected from 19 countries from Europe and Africa. The aim was to measure the nutritional profile of cereals according to harvest and country. All samples were analysed for their nutrient content, digestible amino acid concentrations and AME using NIR. The concentrations of digestible lysine in wheats ranged from 0.23 to 0.32 g/100 g, with a significant effect of

Figure 3: Rapeseed meal digestibility is pretty much affected by the manufacturing process. Different symbols represent rapeseed meals from crushing plants (29 samples from 6 crushing plants)

Figure 4: NIR analysis as shortcuts for in vivo nutrient value measurements

Apparent Metabolisable Energy


Digestible lysine content is a key marker of quality of rapeseed meals. We have similar findings in DDGS, the by products of ethanol production, and this observation may be applied to a larger range of processed feedstuffs, says Ccile Gady, Adisseo NIRs and feedstuff manager, Adisseo.

400 equations provide precise values


This large-scale study illustrates that classical laboratory analyses and knowledge of the origin of the raw material are a first steps in feedstuff characterisations, but they are not sufficient to get a good prediction of nutritional contents. Precise Nutrition Evaluation (PNE), the Adisseo NIR service,
42 | may - June 2013

gives the possibility to go one step further, with the measurement of the real digestible amino acid and AME values. For 15 years, Adisseo has been working on the correlations existing between feedstuff NIR spectra and in vivo data, obtained in vivo digestibility trials conducted at their research facility CERN in France. The outcome? 400 equations providing the most precise values on total and digestible amino acids, AME, total and phytic phosphorus and the possibility to estimate, on a routine basis, those most costly nutrients in monogastric diets (Figure 4). These NIRs analyses are useful to ensure that diets provide the expected nutrients at the lowest cost. Knowing ones raw materials

geographical origin. For AME, Eastern countries exhibited the lowest content (from 2,786 to 2,860 Kcal/kg) whereas the highest concentrations were found in the northern countries (2,880 to 2,923 Kcal/kg). Amino acids and AME contents of corn showed a similar level of variability, with a significant country effect. AME ranged from 3367 Kcal/ kg in Romania and Spain to 3,441 Kcal/kg in Germany and Argentina. This observation may be due to the interaction of many factors, including grain growing and drying conditions. More inforMation:
Website: www.adisseo.com

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Assessing nutritional value with NIR

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