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FACTS and THEORIES of COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

By: Engr. Boy A. Ramos

SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF A COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS HEAT + CO2 + N2O+ CO+ NO2+SO2 OTHER POLLUTANTS

CHIMNEY
(PANGHAW)

Generator TURBINE 200MWe POWER OUTPUT CONDENSER


(TRANSFORMS STEAM TO LIQUID PHASE)

FURNACE
(PUGON)

HEAT INPUT to boiler

BOILER
(BUKALANAN SA TUBIG)

600MW HEAT FROM THE BURNED COAL

PUMP WORK

HEAT REJECTED TO THE COOLING WATER

Thermal Pollution to Environment

(Colorless)

Greenhouse gases with air pollutants

ESP

Solid waste as bottom ash containing toxic pollutants

Solid waste as fly ash containing toxic pollutants

Environmental impacts of coalfired power plant: fuel supply - Mining -- Washing --- Transport

Underground mining is one of the most hazardous of occupations, killing and injuring many in accidents, and causing chronic health problems. COAL TRANSPORT A typical coal plant requires 40 railroad cars to supply 1.4 million tons in a year. Railroad locomotives, which rely on diesel fuel, emit nearly 1 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 52,000 tons of coarse and small particles in the United States. Dust blowing from coal trains contributes particulate matter to the air.

(Greenpeace) In the US , the 1.05 billion tons of coal burn each year contain 109 7,884 1,167 750 8,810 9,339 2,587 tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of tons of MERCURY ARSENIC BERYLLIUM CADMIUM CHROMIUM NICKEL SELENIUM

Mountaintop Coal-Mining

Coal Mining Site in Iowa, USA

NASA Image Captures Destruction of Island from Coal Mining A photograph taken by an astronaut on the International Space Station on March 31 captures a rare cloud-free glimpse of the Panian Coalfield, one of the largest coal mines in Asia and one of three coal operations on Semirara Island in the Philippines. The Semirara Mining Corporation, which operates the coal field, uses open-pit methods in which rock and soil are removed to reach coal seams below. In this image, released by NASA, several huge piles of rock and other mining debris can be seen ringing the northern half of the pit, with the dark coal seams visible along the southern wall of the mine. Also visible are plumes of sediment emanating from the piles of rock and soil known as overburden into the Sulu Sea off the islands northern coast. In recent years the mining company has denied allegations that waste from the coal operation has contaminated or damaged the islands coastal areas. The island is located about 174 miles south of Manila . Source: http://e360.yale.edu/content/images/0410-semirara-mining-nasa.html.
Accessed: 7/7/2010

Per 1.05 billion tons of coal/year,


13 tons of MERCURY, 3,236 tons of ARSENIC, 189 tons of BERYLLIUM , 251 tons of CADMIUM , 2,754 tons of NICKEL, 1,098 tons of SELENIUM (Greenpeace)

Environmental impacts of coalfired power plant: fuel burning - Stack Emissions -- Waste Heat --- Solid wastes

Situations in the USA

Emissions during burning

Per 1.05 billion tons of coal, 52 tons of

MERCURY, 47 tons of ARSENIC, 8 tons of BERYLLIUM, 3 tons of CADMIUM, 62 tons of CHROMIUM , 52 tons of NICKEL, 184 tons of SELENIUM, and Greenhouse gases such

CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, H20, N2O, etc.

ESP

PER 1.05 billion tons of coal, 44 tons of MERCURY, 4,601 tons of ARSENIC, 970 tons of BERYLLIUM , 496 tons of CADMIUM , 6,275 tons of CHROMIUM , 6,533 tons of NICKEL, 1,305 tons of SELENIUM which are trapped with the ashes (Bottom ash and fly ash). Greenpeace

For the Proposed

200-MWe Coal-Fired Power Plant


(Circulating Fluidized Combustion Technology)

Bituminous Coal has MERCURY content of 12.5 52.4 nanogram/g


Source: Mercury Analysis of Various Types of Coal By: Jae Young Park, et. Al. Department of Chemical Engineeering Yonsel University, Seoul, South Korea

Important!
47.71% of MERCURY content of coal is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion 40.37% of MERCURY content of coal, by weight, is TRAPPED with the FLY & BOTTOM ASHES which are bound for disposal to the ASH POND

Proponent had distributed flyers claiming negligible emission of arsenic, lead, and cadmium. But, 58.35 % ARSENIC and 66.13% CADMIUM in coal are trapped with the fly ash and are bound for disposal to a LANDFILL
(7 hectares of unknown depth and without roof)

Table 3. Estimated waste stream


Project phase Construction Type of generation Generation of sewage Estimated generation

(EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, P. 4)

Daily generation 118m3

Annual generation 43070m3

118m3/day

Operation

Heated Effluents
Wastewater

8.7m3/sec
260.4m3/day

751,680m3
68,790.4 gals.

27.44M m3
25.11 million gals.

Emissions from boiler

0.01 kg/s TSP 0.12 kg/s SO2 0.05 kg/s NO2 53.34 kg/s CO2

864 kg TSP 10,368 kg SO2 4,320 kg NO2 4,608.6 tons CO2

315360 kg TSP 3,784 tons SO2 1,577 tons NO2 1,682,130 tons CO2

Ash Domestic Solid Waste

1.3 kg/s FA 0.14 kg/s BA 871 kg/day

112320 kg FA 12096 kg BA 871 kg

40,997 tons FA 4,415 tons BA 317915 kg

400MW thermal heat to the environment

50% of Hg emitted from CFPPs can travel up to 600 miles (966 km) from source

NO2 (1,576,800kg/yr), SO2 (3,784,320kg/yr), CO2 (1,682,130,240 kg/yr) & Hg (3.33-13.91kg /yr), etc.

47.7% of Hg content of coal


SO2 react w/ limestone @ temp > 750oC

1,524,706 kg coal/day

Colorless GHG ESP

Limestone

NOx abatement Optimum @ 300-400oC

Bottom ash (4,415tons/yr) with pollutants

Fly ash (40,997 tons/yr) with Hg (2.81-11.77kg/yr) & other toxic matters such as arsenic, lead, etc.
40.37 % of Hg content of coal

Note: 45,412 tons of Ashes are for disposal in a 7 ha.-landfill without roof & unknown depth. Hg (61.8-259.2 ppb)

1 cu. meter of ash would range from 2100 3000 kg Therefore, 7 hectares landfill @ 20 meters deep may be filled with Coal Combustion By-Products in four (4) years.

ON CARBON SINK

A hectare of rubber trees (415 trees) can absorb 7.69 tons of CO2 per year

A mango tree absorbs 302 kg CO2/yr

Coffee/cacao trees absorb approximate 70 tons CO2/yearhectare at 1100 trees per hectare

CO2 Absorption of trees: Rubber Tree


International Rubber Research & Development

- 7.69 Tons of CO2/(ha)(yr) Board @ 415 trees/ha

Mango (carabao)

http://www.mangoseedling.com/advocacies2.htmlhttp://www.mangoseedling.com

- 302 kg CO2/(tree)(yr)

For Mango, 1,682,130,240 kg CO2/yr would need 55,700 hectares @ 100 trees/ha. Coffee/cacao (shaded) - 70 ton CO2/(ha)(yr)@ http:/www.agrometeorology.org 1,100 trees per ha. 24,030 hectares is necessary to absorb the projected emission Proponents forestation is only 7,500 hectares. Pls. take note of
this!

Kept in BALANCE by NATURAL SINKS

102 billion tons of CO2 /year

INCREASING AMOUNT OF GHG CONSTANTLY DISRUPTED THE BALANCE CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING

OCEAN
2006, NEW BOOK OF POPULAR SCIENCE
THE OCEAN SLIGHTLY ABSORBS MORE THAN IT EMITS

COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, TRANSPORT, DEFORESTATION DUE TO MINING

HEAT WASTE AS THERMAL POLLUTANT

SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF A COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS HEAT + CO2 + N2O+ CO+ NO2+SO2 OTHER POLLUTANTS

CHIMNEY
(PANGHAW)

Generator TURBINE 200MWe POWER OUTPUT CONDENSER


(TRANSFORMS STEAM TO LIQUID PHASE)

FURNACE
(PUGON)

HEAT INPUT to boiler

BOILER
(BUKALANAN SA TUBIG)

600MW HEAT FROM THE BURNED COAL

PUMP WORK

HEAT REJECTED TO THE COOLING WATER

Steam from the turbine

Heat emitted to the surrounding air which is the main portion of the 400,000 kJoules per second

Hot water being aerated at the cooling tower

Water to boiler
Cold Air entering the Cooling Tower Waste Water Pond Condenser Cooling Tower

Recycled Cooling Water Make-up Cooling Water From Raw Water Source

Wastewater treatment

Waste water to somewhere w/ temp higher than the receiver

Equivalent HEAT released when BURNING

25 kg of woods/sec
or

90,000 kg of woods/hour

WATER CONSUMPTION

WATER FOR STEAM GENERATION AND CONDENSER COOLING WATER the power plant will need

750 CUBIC METER/HOUR


(198,150 GALLONS/HOUR)
(Will be drawn from Siguil River or DEEP WELLS and to be supplied by a third party)
Note: 1 cu m = 264.2 US gallons = 6.3 barrels

(THIS HOURLY CONSUMPTION WOULD BE ENOUGH TO SUPPLY TO 30 HOUSEHOLDS WITH MONTHLY CONSUMTION OF 25 CUBIC METERS.)

Adverse Impacts of Coal-Fired Plants in the Philippines * Impacts on Health Due to Emitted Substances

* Flooding Due to Global Warming

Substances Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plants


Mercury Cadmium Chromium Lead Manganese Arsenic Boron Selenium
Molybdenum Uranium Radium 226, 228 Thorium 232 Aluminum Sulfate Beryllium

Source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry US Environmental Protection Agency

Adverse Impacts of CFPPs Philippine Experience


Increase in respiratory diseases like bronchitis & pneumonia (Brgy Dacanlao near Calaca plant) Lower forced vital capacity in almost all male children (Brgy Dacanlao) Increased incidence of skin, respiratory & heart ailments, & eye irritation (Calaca)

Wilson

Manuba, with his family. This Calancan Bay fisherman had his leg amputated due to arsenic poisoning
Sproule/Oxfam Australia

Photograph by David

Effects of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)


Potent respiratory irritant NOx + Hydrocarbons + sunlight

= GROUNDLEVEL OZONE

Ozone respiratory irritant burning sensation & difficulty of breathing during exercise --high risk groups: children, elderly, persons w/ lung diseases, people who exercise outdoors

Effects of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Inflammation of nose & lungs Triggering of asthma attacks Triggering of heart attacks in
people with heart ailments

Toxic Effects of Mercury


nervous system Eyes, Ears, Mouth and throat heart kidneys

Reproductive system

Muscle weakness

Minamata Disease

The US EPA has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methylmercury in a million parts of seafood (1 ppm).

LEAD
Lead is one out of four metals that have the most damaging effects on human health.
It can enter the human body through uptake of food (65%), water (20%) and air (15%).

10ug/dl impair mental and


physical development in children

>80 ug/dl causes convulsions,


coma and death

Lead

From www.kdheks.gov/ables/images/later.gif

House

painter with wasted muscles and wrist drop affected by chronic lead poisoning
Photo credit: www.corrosion-doctors.org

Specific Effects of LEAD


Toxic effects are noted after chronic
exposure Neurotoxicity encephalopathy, dizziness, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, headache, convulsions, lethargy, coma Harms the digestive systems, blood, kidneys Causes learning and behavioral problems in children Causes miscarriages

Specific effects of ARSENIC


Cancers of the bladder, prostate,
kidney, liver, lungs & skin Dysfunctions of the digestive system & kidneys Nervous system involvement w/ impairment in movement & sensation

Photo credit: arsenic project


www.physics.harvard.edu

Specific Effects of CHROMIUM


Hexavalent form is among the strongest known causes
of lung cancer Nasal cancers Respiratory tract disturbances Liver & kidney damage Stomach ulcers Convulsions Hematologic disturbances anemia, intravascular hemolysis Ocular disturbances corneal opacification, keratitis, conjunctivitis increased risk of bone, prostate, lymphomas, Hodgkins, leukemia, stomach, genital, renal and bladder cancer

WITH HSTORY OF FLY ASH EMISSIONS CONTAINING SOME TOXIC POLLUTANTS

EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Sual Location: Pangasinan Operator: TeaM Energy Corp Configuration: 2 X 647 MW Operation: 1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: Stein T/G supplier: GEC_Alstom EPC: Alstom, Arup, Slipform Quick facts: Development started when Consolidated Electric Power Asia Ltd (a subsidiary of Hopewell Holdings) bid and won a $900mn BOOT tender for a 1,000-MW power station at Sual. Site prep started in 1995 and construction started in Feb 1996. The 30ha site is on Bangayao Point on Lingayen Gulf. The plant has wet limestone FGD scrubbers from Alstom.
Photograph courtesy of Sound Research Laboratories Ltd Posted 18 Oct 2006

Sample Number M10202 Description fly ash Power Facility Sual Element (dry wt) mg/kg Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) 8.4 =8.4 ppm <1 6 8 22 1.2

WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic

Exceeds regualtory level


0.002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are unsafe to eat.

Source: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, 2002

Total Hg (.0012*50000*6.47=388.2kg)

Mauban, Quezon Location: Quezon Operator: Quezon Power Ltd Configuration: 1 X 490 MW Operation: 1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: FW T/G supplier: GE EPC: Bechtel Quick facts: This IPP on a 100ha site in Mauban has electrostatic precipitators, low-NOX burners, and an FGD scrubber. Union Bank of Switzerland agreed to underwrite up to $600mn of bank financing for the $860mn project, which also includes a 31km transmission line. The project has a 25yr PPA with Meralco. In late 1997, lead developer InterGen sold a 26% stake in Mauban to Global Power Investments LP, formed in 1994 by GE Capital, Soros Fund Management, and International Finance Corp. InterGen retains a 46% stake, with Covanta having a 26% share and PMR holding 2%. The plant has a long-term coal supply contract with Indonesias PT Adaro and Kaltim Prima and burns about 1.65mn tons per year. Dedicated port and coal handling facilities were built.

Photograph courtesy of Covanta Posted 28 Sep 2005

Sample Number M102013 Description fly ash Power Facility Mauban Element (dry wt) mg/kg
Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg)

WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic

41.8=41.8ppm <1 49 0.002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can 15 contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are 215 unsafe to eat 1.9

Exceeds regualtory level

Source: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, 2002

Total Hg(0.0019*50000*2.45=233kg

Masinloc Location: Zambales Operator: Masinloc Power Partners Co Ltd Configuration: 2 X 300 MW Operation: 1998-1999 Fuel: coal Boiler supplier: MHI T/G supplier: MHI, Melco EPC: Stone & Webster, Commonwealth Engineers, MHI Quick facts: In Dec 2004, PSALM awarded the Masinloc plant to a consortium of YNN Holdings Corp and Great Pacific Financial Group for $561.7mn. This was the largest sale by far to that date and was both double the next highest bid and substantially above the expected bid. In the event, the consortium could not consummate the sale and the plant was rebid in Jul 2007 and eventually sold to a consortium led by AES Corp. Financing closed in mid-April 2008, with the participation of the ADB, IFC and a syndicate of commercial banks. A new 600-MW unit is in planning.
Photograph courtesy of National Power Corp Re-posted 18 Oct 2006

Sample Number Description Power Facility Element (dry wt) Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg)

M02014 fly ash Masinloc mg/kg 10.4 <1 18 22 308 1.2

WHO regulatory level is 10 ppb of Arsenic

Exceeds regulatory level

Source: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, 2002

0.002 lbs (1 gm) of Hg a year can contaminate a 25 acre (10 ha) lake to the point where schools of fishes are unsafe to eat

Total Hg (0.0012*50000*3=180kg)

Mindanao Location: Misamis Oriental Operator: STEAG State Power Inc Configuration: 2 X 116 MW Operation: 2006 Fuel: bituminous coal Boiler supplier: Kawasaki T/G supplier: Toshiba EPC: Kawasaki, Commonwealth Engineers Co Quick Facts: This plant at the Phivdec Industrial Estate near Cagayan de Oro City was approved by NPC and PSALM in Sep 2003. The lead financing was by Taiwans State Investment Trust which has an 11% stake in the project with STEAG taking an 89% stake. The project dates to 1996 when a 25yr PPA was signed. This was formalized in Oct 2001 and in Apr 2002, Kawasaki was awarded the EPC contract for the plant, which burns Indonesian coal. Construction started in Jan 2004 and the plant cost $305mn. Financial close was in Dec 2003 with a group of lenders including JBIC, Nippon Export and Insurance Corp,and Germanys KfW, Bayerische Hypo-und Vereinsbank, and Dresdner Bank.
Photograph courtesy of STEAG Posted 13 Jan 2007

* No data available yet as to fly ash emissions. Necessary


investigation should be done soonest.

* Another area for investigation is the temperature rise in sea water.


The plant is not using cooling tower and the cooling water is drawn directly from the sea disposed back to the sea.

STEAM FROM TURBINE


TI
HEAT ABSORBED BY COOLING WATER HEAT REJECTED

BY STEAM

CONDENSER

CONDENSATE TO BOILER

HEAT REJECTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT (THE SEA WATER)

TE

Power Supply Situation in Mindanao


--Will there be a power crisis in 2010 or 2015?

Table 1

The peak demand for the whole of Mindanao in 2006 & 2007

Grid Luzon Visayas

2007

2006

% change

6,643

6,466

2.74

1,102

1,066 1,228

3.38 1.06

Mindanao 1,241

Table 2

MINDANAO POWER SUPPLY CAPACITY


AS OF April 2008

Capacity in
INSTALLED*

MW
DEPENDABLE**

DIESEL GEOTHERMAL HYDRO COAL THERMAL

594.29 108.48 997.65 232.00 1932.42

477.94 99.50 902.39 201.25 1681.08

Year 2015: Power Demand = 1,241X(1.03)8 = 1,572MW


To determine the year when the power shortage may be experience

n=

ln(1,681.08/1,241)/ln(1.03) = 10.3

In Year 2018, the peak demand will be approximately equal to the dependable power supply in Mindanao Grid. Except if a mining company
will be operated sooner.

Precautionary Principle
We should not proceed whenever there is no certainty for HEALTH and ENVIRONMENT

BETTER BE SAFE THAN SORRY!

Excerpt from the Political Hotsheet 4/22/2009 Posted by Brian Montopoli

Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. , an environment lawyer, says, There is nothing radical about protecting water and air for our children, he said, adding that it is a false choice to either protect the economy or the environment. Our children are going to pay for our JOYRIDE.

We are great people- natural geniuses in our love of Mother Earth. After all, we live in the richest and most beautiful country on earth. However, some of our so-called leaders had distracted our focus to the false expense of the real wealth of life that lies in our land, our air, our waters and in our hearts
Quoted by: ANTONIO OPOSA Oposa Wins Environmental Law Award Philippine Daily Inquirer 15 April 2009

Wind Energy The best wind resource areas, principally good (utilityscale) to excellent (rural scale), in Southern Mindanao are the higher terrain areas east of Davao Gulf, along the mountains that separate Davao del Sur from southern Cotabato, west of Sarangani Bay, and west of Isulan. Two locations, Sharp Peak and Saddle Peak, in Davao del Sur, are classified as having an excellent wind resource
Sources: PEDP Sustainable Energy Development Program USAID & USDOE

This beautiful forest will remain as is even w/o CO2 supply from Coal-Fired Power Plant

Thank You For Opposing the Establishment & Operation of a Coal-Fired Power Plant!

Let us defend
NATURE & HUMANITY