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Non-performing Assets While gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made by banks, net NPA shows

the actual burden of banks. Now it is increasingly evident that the major defaulters are the big borrowers coming from the non-priority sector. The banks and financial institutions have to take the initiative to reduce NPAs in a time bound strategic approach.

Public sector banks figure prominently in the debate not only because they dominate the banking industries, but also since they have much larger NPAs compared with the private sector banks. This raises a concern in the industry and academia because it is generally felt that NPAs reduce the profitability of a banks, weaken its financial health and erode its solvency.

For the recovery of NPAs a broad framework has evolved for the management of NPAs under which several options are provided for debt recovery and restructuring. Banks and FIs have the freedom to design and implement their own policies for recovery and write-off incorporating compromise and negotiated settlements.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Type of Research

The research methodology adopted for carrying out the study were In this project Descriptive research methodologies were use. At the first stage theoretical study is attempted. At the second stage Historical study is attempted. At the Third stage Comparative study of NPA is undertaken.

Scope of the Study Concept of Non Performing Asset Guidelines

Impact of NPAs Reasons for NPAs Preventive Measures Tools to manage NPAs

Sampling plan To prepare this Project we took five banks from public sector as well as five banks from private sector.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The basic idea behind undertaking the Grand Project on NPA was to: To evaluate NPAs (Gross and Net) in different banks. To study the past trends of NPA To calculate the weighted of NPA in risk management in Banking To analyze financial performance of banks at different level of NPA To evaluate profitability positions of banks To evaluate NPA level in different economic situation. To Know the Concept of Non Performing Asset To Know the Impact of NPAs To Know the Reasons for NPAs To learn Preventive Measures

Source of data collection The data collected for the study was secondary data in Nature.

((( CONTENTS ))) CHAPTER

NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6

SUBJECT COVERED PAGE NO. Introduction to NPAs Research Methodology Scope of Research Type of Research Sources of Data Collection Objective of Study Data Collection Introduction to Topic Definition History of Indian Banking Non Performing Assets Factor for rise in NPAs Problem due to NPAs Types of NPAs Income Recognition Reporting of NPAs Provisioning Norms General Floating provisions Leased Assets Guideline under special circumstances Impact, Reasons and Symptoms of NPAs Internal & External Factor Early Symptoms Preventive Measurement

7 8 9 10

Early Recognition of Problem Identifying Borrowers with genuine Intent Timeliness Focus on Cash flow Management Effectiveness Multiple Financing Tools for Recovery Willful default Inability to Pay Special Cases Role of ARCIL Analysis Deposit-Investment-Advances Gross NPAs and Net NPAs Priority and Non-Priority Sector Finding, Suggestions and Conclusions Bibliography

Introduction to the topic

The three letters NPA Strike terror in banking sector and business circle today. NPA is short form of Non Performing Asset. The dreaded NPA rule says simply this: when interest or other due to a bank remains unpaid for more than 90 days, the entire bank loan automatically turns a non performing asset. The recovery of loan has always been problem for banks and financial institution. To come out of these first we need to think is it possible to avoid NPA, no can not be then left is to look after the factor responsible for it and managing those factors.

Definitions:

An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank.

A non-performing asset (NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/ or instalment of principal has remained past due for a specified period of time.

With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt the 90 days overdue norm for identification of NPAs, from the year ending March 31, 2004. Accordingly, with effect from March 31, 2004, a non-performing asset (NPA) shall be a loan or an advance where;

Interest and/ or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of than 90 days in respect of a term loan,

more

The account remains out of order for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC),

The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted,

Interest and/or instalment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and

Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts.

As a facilitating measure for smooth transition to 90 days norm, banks have been advised to move over to charging of interest at monthly rests, by April 1, 2002. However, the date of classification of an advance as NPA should not be changed on account of charging of interest at monthly rests. Banks should, therefore, continue to classify an account as NPA only if the interest charged during any quarter is not serviced fully within 180 days from the end of the quarter with effect from April 1, 2002 and 90 days from the end of the quarter with effect from March 31, 2004.

HISTORY OF INDIAN BANKING

A bank is a financial institution that provides banking and other financial services. By the term bank is generally understood an institution that holds a Banking Licenses. Banking licenses are granted by financial supervision authorities and provide rights to conduct the most fundamental banking services such as accepting deposits and making loans. There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank, a so-called Nonbank. Banks are a subset of the financial services industry.

The word bank is derived from the Italian banca, which is derived from German and means bench. The terms bankrupt and "broke" are similarly derived from banca rotta, which refers to an out of business bank, having its bench physically broken. Moneylenders in Northern Italy originally did business in open areas, or big open rooms, with each lender working from his own bench or table.

Typically, a bank generates profits from transaction fees on financial services or the interest spread on resources it holds in trust for clients while paying them interest on the asset. Development of banking industry in India followed below stated steps.

Banking in India has its origin as early as the Vedic period. It is believed that the transition from money lending to banking must have occurred even before Manu, the great Hindu Jurist, who has devoted a section of his work to deposits and advances and laid down rules relating to rates of interest.

Banking in India has an early origin where the indigenous bankers played a very important role in lending money and financing foreign trade and commerce. During the days of the East India Company, was the turn of the agency houses to carry on the banking business. The General Bank of India was first Joint Stock Bank to be established in the year 1786. The others which followed were the Bank Hindustan and the Bengal Bank.

In the first half of the 19th century the East India Company established three banks; the Bank of Bengal in 1809, the Bank of Bombay in 1840 and the Bank of Madras in 1843. These three banks also known as Presidency banks were amalgamated in 1920 and a new bank, the Imperial Bank of India was established in 1921. With the passing of the State Bank of India Act in 1955 the undertaking of the Imperial Bank of India was taken by the newly constituted State Bank of India.

The Reserve Bank of India which is the Central Bank was created in 1935 by passing Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 which was followed up with the Banking Regulations in 1949. These acts bestowed Reserve Bank of India (RBI) with wide ranging powers for licensing, supervision and control of banks. Considering the proliferation of weak banks, RBI compulsorily merged many of them with stronger banks in 1969.

The three decades after nationalization saw a phenomenal expansion in the geographical coverage and financial spread of the banking system in the country. As certain rigidities and weaknesses were found to have developed in the system, during the late eighties the Government of India felt that these had to be addressed to enable the financial system to play its role in ushering in a more efficient and competitive economy. Accordingly, a high-level committee was set up on 14 August 1991 to examine all aspects relating to the structure, organization, functions and procedures of the financial system. Based on the recommendations of the Committee (Chairman: Shri M. Narasimham), a comprehensive reform of the banking system was introduced in 1992-93. The objective of the reform measures was to ensure that the balance sheets of banks reflected their actual financial

health. One of the important measures related to income recognition, asset classification and provisioning by banks, on the basis of objective criteria was laid down by the Reserve Bank. The introduction of capital adequacy norms in line with international standards has been another important measure of the reforms process.

1. Comprises balance of expired loans, compensation and other bonds such as National Rural Development Bonds and Capital Investment Bonds. Annuity certificates are excluded. 2. These represent mainly non- negotiable non- interest bearing securities issued to International Financial Institutions like International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Asian Development Bank. 3. At book value. 4. Comprises accruals under Small Savings Scheme, Provident Funds, Special Deposits of Non- Government

In the post-nationalization era, no new private sector banks were allowed to be set up. However, in 1993, in recognition of the need to introduce greater competition which could lead to higher productivity and efficiency of the banking system, new private sector banks were allowed to be set up in the Indian banking system. These new banks had to satisfy among others, the following minimum requirements:

(i) (ii) (iii)

It should be registered as a public limited company; The minimum paid-up capital should be Rs 100 crore; The shares should be listed on the stock exchange;

(iv) The headquarters of the bank should be preferably located in a centre which does not have the headquarters of any other bank; and (v) The bank will be subject to prudential norms in respect of banking operations, accounting and other policies as laid down by the RBI. It will have to achieve capital adequacy of eight per cent from the very beginning.

A high level Committee, under the Chairmanship of Shri M. Narasimham, was constituted by the Government of India in December 1997 to review the record of

implementation of financial system reforms recommended by the CFS in 1991 and chart the reforms necessary in the years ahead to make the banking system stronger and better equipped to compete effectively in international economic environment. The Committee has submitted its report to the Government in April 1998. Some of the recommendations of the Committee, on prudential accounting norms, particularly in the areas of Capital Adequacy Ratio, Classification of Government guaranteed advances, provisioning requirements on standard advances and more disclosures in the Balance Sheets of banks have been accepted and implemented. The other recommendations are under consideration.

The banking industry in India is in a midst of transformation, thanks to the economic liberalization of the country, which has changed business environment in the country. During the pre-liberalization period, the industry was merely focusing on deposit mobilization and branch expansion. But with liberalization, it found many of its advances under the non-performing assets (NPA) list. More importantly, the sector has become very competitive with the entry of many foreign and private sector banks. The face of banking is changing rapidly. There is no doubt that banking sector reforms have improved the profitability, productivity and efficiency of banks, but in the days ahead banks will have to prepare themselves to face new challenges.