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Initial considerations

There are three important aspects that should be considered when determine the best threading method; the thread, the component and machine parameters.

The thread
Analyse dimensions and quality demands of the thread; profile and pitch are the main parameters:

External or internal thread Through or blind hole Thread profile (metric, UN etc.) Thread pitch Right or left-hand thread No. of thread starts Tolerance (profile, position)

The component
After analyzing the thread features, look at the component:

Can the component be fixed securely? Chip evacuation issues? Does the material have good chip breaking qualities? Component batch size. Mass production of threads may justify an optimized tool to maximize productivity Single or multi-start threads Material Component shape

Machine parameters

Finally take a look at some important machine considerations: Stability, power and torque requirements, especially for larger diameters Component clamping Tool position (upside-down can facilitate chip evacuation) Thread cycle should be easy to program Cutting fluid and coolant

Choice of method

1. 2. 3. 4.

Thread turning Thread milling Tapping Thread whirling Sandvik Coromant offers different threading methods. Each method has its own advantages in certain situations.

Thread turning

Productive threading method Threading of rotating, symmetrical components Covers the largest number of thread profiles An easy and well known threading process Provides a good surface finish

Thread milling

Threading of non-rotating components Interrupted cuts offer good chip control in long-chipping materials Low cutting forces make it possible to thread in long overhangs and thin-walled components Possible to thread close to a shoulder or bottom, no need for a relief groove Enables machining of large work pieces which cannot be easily mounted on a lathe


An easy and well known threading process Productive and economical threading method, especially for smaller threads Covers the most common thread profiles Suitable for all kind of machine tools, both rotating and non-rotating components. Good chip control due to a wide range of material specific products Easy to thread in deep holes Form threading possible

Thread whirling

For long, slender components Creates high quality threads without bending Single-pass threading from stock diameter reduces cycle time Accurate threads produced by tilt of whirling ring to the helix angle Good chip control enabling more continuous and productive machining

The rapidly increasing demand for high-value threaded parts with exceptionally high length-to-diameter ratios has created a lot of interest in thread whirling technology.

Thread forms
The thread profile defines the geometry of a thread and includes component diameters (major diameter, minor diameter and pitch), the thread profile angle, pitch and helix angle. The most common thread forms or profiles produced today are shown below. Application Connecting
General usage Pipe threads Whitworth, British Standard (BSPT), American National, Pipe Threads, NPT, NPTF Round DIN 405

Thread form

Thread type
ISO metric, America UN

Food and fire



Oil and gas

API Rounded, API Buttress, VAM

General usage

Trapezoidal, ACME, Stub ACME

Threading terms
1. 2. 3. Root/bottom The bottom surface joining the two adjacent flanks of the thread Flank/side The side of a thread surface connecting the crest and the root Crest/top The top surface joining the two sides, or flanks. P = Pitch, mm or threads per inch (t.p.i.) = Profile angle = Helix angle of the thread d / D = Major diameter, external/internal d1 / D1 = Minor diameter, external/internal d2 / D2 = Pitch diameter, external/internal

Pitch diameter, d2 / D2
This is the effective diameter of the screw thread; approximately half way between the major and minor diameters.

Helix angle
The helix angle () is the geometrical shape of the screw thread, it is based on the pitch diameter of the thread (d2, D2), and the pitch (P) the distance from one point on a thread profile to the corresponding point on the next. This measurement can be represented by a triangle being unwound from the component.

The same pitch on different diameters gives a different helix angle.

Thread designations

International standards
To ensure that the two (internal and external) halves of a threaded joint fit together properly to produce a connection capable of bearing a specified load, threads must maintain certain standards. International standards for thread forms have therefore been established for all common thread types.

ISO metric thread designations

The complete thread designation is made up of values for the thread form and the tolerance. The tolerance is indicated by a number for the tolerance grade, and letters for the tolerance position.

Thread designation and nominal dimension Tolerance class for pitch and crest position

M16 - 6h Pitch Tolerance class for pitch diameter Tolerance class for crest diameter

M10 x 1.25 5g6g

A fi t between threaded parts is indicated by the internal thread tolerance class followed by the external thread tolerance class, separated by an oblique stroke.

Tolerance positions
The tolerance position identifies the fundamental deviation and is indicated with an upper-case letter for internal threads and a lower case letter for external threads. A combination of tolerance grade and position give the tolerance class. The values of the tolerance classes are given in the standards for the different threading systems. Internal threads: H and G External threads: h, g, f and e

ISO inch threads (UNC, UNF, UNEF, UN)

The UN system has three tolerance classes, ranging from 1 (course) to 3 (fine). A typical UN thread is designated as follows:

20UNC 2A

2A Indicates a medium tolerance

UNC Indicates a course pitch 20 Pitch value: threads per inch (t.p.i.) Major thread diameter

ISO - unified (UN):

Loose tolerance Medium tolerance

Tight tolerance

Types of UN thread

UNC thread diameter with course pitch UNF thread diameter with fi ne pitch UNEF thread diameter with extra-fi ne pitch UN thread diameter with constant pitch

All of the above types of thread can be created using the UN insert from Sandvik Coromant.

Whitworth threads (G, R, BSW, BSF, BSPF)

Whitworth screw threads are now obsolete, but Whitworth pipe threads are a recognized international standard. There are two tolerance classes for external-, and one tolerance class for internal Whitworth pipe threads.

Whitworth pipe thread designations

These threads are divided into 2 groups:

Pressure-tight joints not made on the thread, ISO 228/1 Pressure-tight joints made on the thread, ISO 7/1

Whitworth pipe threads:



Tolerance position Examples of Whitworth pipe thread designations: Pressure tight joints not made on the thread:
ISO 228/1 =G1A (external) =G1 (internal) G = parallel thread

1 =

pipe diameter, not thread diameter

A or B =

external tolerance class only


Pressure tight joints not made on the thread:

ISO 7/1 = Rp 1 Rp = parallel thread, internal

7/1 = Rc 1

Rc =

conical thread, internal

7/1 = R 1

R =

conical thread, external