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CHARLES WILLIAM WASON


COLLECTION
CHINA AND THE CHINESE

CHARLES WILLIAM WASON


CLASS OF 1876
1918

THE GIFT OF

Cornell University Library

N 8193.A4C32

AY

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023315363

PORTFOLIO OF BUDDHIST ART


HISTORICAL AND MODERN

ILLUSTRATIONS OF REPRESENTATIVE MONUMENTS


AND
:

OTHER PICTURES

-If I-

/-?>^
Collected by

DR.

PAUL CARUS

CHICAGO
THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY
London Agents kegan paul, trench, trubner & 1906
co., ltd.
,,

,0

i-:

|.iV.

H'

EDITOR'S ANXOUX'CEMEXT.

THIS

collection of I'.ufldhist pictures docs not pretend to be complete in any


It

res|)ect.

consists of a few sani|:)les onh'

which are chosen almost

at ran-

dom from
from time

a wealth of innumerable art productions that have originated under the


I'.uililiia's

influence of
to

religion.

Alcist

of the historical pictures have appeared


interested in the subject are rein

time

in

The Open Court, and those


l)e

ferred for ex].)lanations (if an\'

needed) to the several articles

which

they'

have been discussed.


'Jdie

illustrations

of

The Gosf^ei
'Idle

uf
a
(

Buddha

b\

luluard

fjiedermann conIllinois,

stitute

a novel
in

feature.

artist

is

ierman-.Vnierican of Chicago,

and
a

tifl'ers

these pictures a

modern

intcr])retation of the LSuddhist ideal, basing

\A'estern treatment u|)on a historical crjnception.

P. C.

COPYRIGHT BV

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING


1906

CO.

cn

Maya Devi

Visiting

Shuddhodana.

(Boiobudur.)

List of Illustrations.
Lotos-Flower
in India
;

]\Ioti\e.

Copied from a fresco

in

the Ajanta Caves

sixth century, A. D.

\'ignettc on Title-page.

Plate Plate

I.

The Enlightened One. By Eduard


Tlie

P)icdermann.

2.

Greek Conception of the Enlkiiitened One. Found in Gandhara, and now in the Aluseum at Calcutta presumably the oldest Buddha statue in existence. Second century, B. C.
;

Plate

3.

The

N.vtivity.

Gandhara sculpture; second

centnr\', B. C.

BoDHLS,\TT\'.\

A'lsiTiNG

THE Tkaiple.

On

the

approach of Prince

Siddartha, the statues of the gods

come

off their pedestals

and
This

prostrate themselves before Bodhisattva, the Buddha-to-be.


is

a sculpture of Corobudur, probably of the ninth century, A.D,

The
Plate 4.

FIealer.

Gandhara sculpture

second centur}-. B. C.
;

The Great
a
cell.

Renl-nci.\tion.

Gandhara sculpture second century, B.C.


External elevation of the front of

Scenes fro.m the Buddh.v's Life.

From

a sculpture at Jamalgiri,

now

in

the India ^luseum.

South Kensington.
Plate
5.

Date uncertain.
;

Mar.v's Arjty.

Gandhara sculpture

second centur\-. B. C.

Plate 6.

The

Gandh.vr.v Lami'.-i;eari:r C(n[rARi:n with Analogous Scur.r-

tures 0 P.\gan Greece and Chrkstlvnitv.


(second century B. C.
)

The Lamb-bearer
bears an aston
of

at the left of the plate

ishing resemblance to the Christian

Good Shepherd
The

whom

two representations are given

here, one

on the sarcophagus and


coincidence

the other as the famous statue in the Lateran.

is

easily

understood

if

we consider
b\'

that both iind their prototype

in ancient

Greece as evidenced

the adjoining tigures of the

calf-bearing Hermes, and the rani-l)earing ]lermcs.


Plate
-.

The Symbol

of Truth.

The lamp

is

frequently used allegoricalh'


attributed
to

in

passages which should


himself.

undoubtedly be

Buddha
Second

In his farewell address he said, "Live as lamps unto


(lit.

yourselves"
centur}-,
P..

"self-lamps"),

Gandhara

sculpture.

C,
Ca\i-:,

Cf.ii.ixg

IX

AX

.\t.\xt.\

Date of construction,

fifth

or sixth

century. A, D,
Plate
8.

IxTERiOR of ax Aj.\xta Cave,

Sixth century A, D.

Plate 9,

The Temptation.

Fresco

in the

Ajanta Caves,

Sixth century, A. D.

Plate to. P)UDDnA Pictures in

the Aj.xnta Caves.


Ca\i;s.

Sixth century. A, D,

Plate II, Frescoes of

the Ajanta

Prince Siddhartha,

Worshipers,^
Sixth

Waiting
Plate 12.

for the Blessed

One,
in the

Sixth century, A, D.

The

W^heei. of Life.
centur_\',

Fresco

cave temples of Ajanta.

A. D.

This

is still

typical for all

Buddhist countries.

Plate

13.

BunDH.v Statue Discovered on the Site of the Diamond Seat at

Buddha-Gaya.

The

original

is

in the possession of the


.-\,

Ana-

garika Dharmapala.
Plate 14,

Twelfth century.

D,

The Mah.xbodhi Temple

at Buddfia-Ga^'a After Its Restoration,


site

This ancient temple was built on the

of the bodlii tree, under


\'estiges of the original

which Buddha attained enlightenment,


tree

have been discovered near the "diamond seat."

The

Chi-

nese travelers

Fa Hien (fourth century) and Hsuen Tsang

(seventh century) visited the spot most sacred to Buddhists, and

found monasteries

built
is

there.

Whether

the present building


inahaiif
is in

existed in those days

doubtful,

Hindu

charge

of the building which the British government has restored.

The
privi-

government

retains the right of supervision

and allows the

lege of worship to Buddhist as well as ITindu pilgrims,

Plate 15,

The Diamond Seat


Buddha

at Buddha-Gaya,

This marks the


j\Ir,

site

where

attained to enlightenment,
Seat, while the

Olcott stands at the


is

Diamond
in the

Anagarika H, Dharmapala

sitting

foreground reading from the Buddhist Suttas,


Burm.v,
of

Plate

16,

The Ananda Temple at Pagan,


:

Eleventh century. A. D.

Plate 17. Prajxapar.\mit.\


cient

The Perfection
museum.

Wisdom,

Specimen of the anOriginal


in

Buddhist art of Java,

Ninth century, A. D,

the Le\(len

Plate i8.

A
A

TirsEXAN Priest
is

with the Buddhist Eucharist.

The ceremony

described in Waddell's Lamaisiii, p. 444 ct scq.

Rei-ic Case.

Two

relics in the

shape of

rice

grains are visible behind

the crystal stone.

Proti-x'toI'!

of the Goon Law.

Japanese bronze; sixteenth centur)-,

A. D.
Plate 19. Ai\rrTAP.H.\.

Fifteenth ccntnry, A. D.

KwAN-YiN.
i\L\iTRE\A.

Buddha

as the

Goddess of Charity and Motherly Love

(Chinese).

The FJuddha

to

Come.
mystical

Sixteenth century, A. D.

Plate 20.

The

Buddh.v of Bliss.

Buddha

of Tibetan

Lamaism.

BoDHis.VTTVA.

Buddha

the Preacher; a statue of gilded

wood

dating

from the

fifteenth century.

The

Ascetic.
cause he

This feature
is

in

Buddha's

life is

rarely represented be-

most commonly thought of as the Blessed One.

Plate 21. BunniTA

the Teacher.
A. D.

t\-pical

Buddha

statue;

seventeenth cen-

tury,

The

original

was a present to the Editor from


Lord Abbot of Kamakura.
probability that the Japanese

the Rev.

Shaku Soyen,

a Buddhist
is

Plate 22.

The Devil
artist
lish

as a IMonk.

There

little

ever heard of Rabelais, whose verse has become an Ensfo


the Devil

proverb

"When

When
Plate 23.

the Devil

was was

sick, the

Devil a

well, the devil a

monk would be: monk was he."

Buddha's Nirvana.
This
artist

sacred Buddhist picture by

Wu

Tao Tze.

lived in the

Tang Dynasty which


The
in

ruled from 620

to 905, A. D.

Plate 24.

Buddhist Festi\'al at Cevlon.

building to the

left

is is

the

temple of the Tooth of Buddha,

honor of which there

an
a

annual

celebration.

In the foreground to the right stands

dagoba, one of those monuments so


tries,

common

in

Buddhist coun-

which contain
of

relics.

Plate 25.

The Meeting
mada.

Buddha and King Bimbisara.


original
is

By Keichyu Ya'Court Pub-

The

in possession of

The Open

lishing Co.

The Buddha

of the Maitayana Faitli.

Buddha

is

seated on

lotus throne in the attitude of teaching, with love, the principle

of particularity, on his right side of universality, on his


sattva
left.

and wisdom, the principle


is

The former

personified in Bodhilatte.-

Samanta Bhadra, riding

a white elephant, and the

in

I'.oilliisattva

A[aniusliri,

riding a lion.

The

o-roup

is

comand

pleted

by

the

|iresence

of

Ananda, the

disciple

of

love,

Kashyapa. the disciple of wisdom equipped with his begginc;bowl.


Plate
J').

J.\PAxi:sF.

ISunniiA

Status at IUthit-ia-Gava.

The framed

letter of

donation standing
is

at the left of the statue states that the statue

a present of the jajianese lUiddhists to the

Alahabodhi temple

at

ISuddha-daya. lluddha as Fatherly Love, by Shaku Sowatsu.

Dzizo-sox.
inal

The

orig-

was

a present to the Editor


is

from the Rev. Shaku Soyen of

Kamakura. who

the author of the Butklhist

poem above
an almost

the
lit-

]Mcture of Iluddha.
eral translation
:

The following

lines furnish

"'riiniughiiut the tliree woi'lds


.\11

am
I

evcrywlie re.
cherish.

creatures as

my

loved children

And though
I

e'en time

ne'er shall cease to

and space may perish, emhrace them in prayer."

Plate 27. .^.\ixT Jo.sAPii.VT OF

Ini)i.\.
1

P>uddha as a

Roman

Catholic Saint, photo-

graphed for the

[on.

Andrew
in

D. White from the image in the


In the transmission of the
to Giosafat, or Josa-

church of San (liosafat


story, the

Palermo.

name

Podhisattx-a

was changed

phat.

Plate 28. X.\.\nA.

the Chief

SiiEPriERD'.s

D.vughter.

Py Eduard Piedermann.
rice

-\fter

severe fasts,

Podhisattva fainted, and Manda, the shep-

herd's daughter, refreshed

him with

milk, whereb\- he in-

curred the indignation of his companions, the five

monks who,

seated under a tree, watch the scene from a distance.

Plate 29.

The

Temi'T.\tion.

By Eduard Piedermann.
Y.\SHoi)n.\R.\.
P)-

Plate 30. Pudoua'.s

Mi:etikg with

Eduard Piedermann,
b\'

After Cautama Siddhartha had been recognized


tudes as the Puddha. he returned to the

large multi-

home

of his father,
his little

Shudodana, where he met


son Rahula.
Plate 31.

his wife,

Vashodhara, and

The

L.\.st

Ser.mox.

Py Eduard Piedermann.

When Buddha

felt

that his end had come, he had the Mallas, the people of the

neighborhoofl, collected around him, and preached his last ser-

mon, which he closed with the words,

''Deca\'

is

inherent in

all

component

things,

but the truth will remain

forever.

W'ork

out \'our salvation with diligence."

REFERENCES.

THE Court
ill

originals of the Iliedcnnann illustrations are in possession of

The

fjpen

Publishing Co.

Frescoes and views of the Ajanta Caves are re-

produced from the rare and exquisite volumes of John Griffith, The Paintings the Buddhist Cave Temples of Ajanta. Some of the pictures have been taken

from photographs of the


literature

originals,

and others are gathered from the standard

on the subject.

The

dates ascribed to the pictures in the List of Illus-

trations, are necessarily only

approximate.

The order and arrangement cannot

be expected

t'o

be always systematic.

For detailed explanations see the following articles Buddha Pictures and Statues, The Open Conrt, xii, t^^j. Similarities in Religious Art, The Open Conrt, xiii, 710.

Collection of Japanese Paintings, ibid., p. 695.

The Food of Life and the Sacrament, The Monist. x. 246. Mahayana Doctrine and Art, llie Open Conrt, xvi. 562 and 621. Wu Tao Tze's Nirvana Picture, ibid., p. 163. Prajnaparamita, The Open Conrt. xv, 367. Japanese Calligraphy, The Open Conrt, xiii, 120. Mythology of Buddhism, The Monist, vii, 431. Also in Carus, History
of the Devil,
p.

104.
xvi, 478.

The Wheel and the Cross, The Open Court, Buddhism and Christianity, The Monist, v,
dhism and
Its Christian Critics, p. 198.

65.

Also
xvii,

in

Carus, Bud-

The Religion

of Enlightenment,

The Open Conrt,

567.

Buddhist Priest's A'iews of Relics. Containing a communication from the Rev. Seelakkhanda, The Open Court, xi, 122.
Saint Josaphat of
Inilia,

The Holy

from the account of the Hon. Andrew

D. White, The Open Conrt. xv, 284.

The Temples and


wedel,

Archasological Treasures of Burma, by Albert Griin464.

ibid., p.

The following books by Gospel of Buddha Karma,


:

the editor are suggested as collateral reading"


a

The

Story of Buddhist Ethics

Nirvana, a Story of
(

Amithabha, a Story of Buddhist Theology The Open Court, xvi, 415, 486, 536) The Dharma Buddhism and Its Christian Critics: Scenes from the Life of Buddha, a reproduction in colors of modern Japanese paintings by Keichyu Yamada.
Buddhist Psychology
: ;

Thk Whkei,

(ji

the La' on the Sanl'hi Tc

Buddhist Art, plate

i.

COPVRIGHT, 1905, 8Y THE OPEN CO

LISHiNG CO.

The Enlightened One.


By Eduard Biedermann.

Buddhist Art, plate

2.

The Greek Conception

of the Enlightened One.

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"^

<
a:

u X

w H H w

o
cq

2;

o u
z;

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< W
ci

o
w

Buddhist Art, plate .

Mara's Army.

BuddJiist Art, plate

7.

"
,

.,_

oo

:5

< < H <


2;

o
H <

Buddhist Art, plate lO.

Buddha Pictures

in

the Ajanta Caves.

s s

<

<

z
<

w a H

O o

U-i

Buddhist Alt, platr 12.

The Wheel

of Life.

Buddhist Art, plate ij.

I
Buddha Statue Discovered at Buddha-Gava.

i?

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Buddhist Art,

f'latc\lj.

Prajnaparamita, the Perfection of Wisdom.

1?

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o

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pq

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Biiddliist All, plate 31.

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jt

iM

iiaMflffr

iiHiltfMi

iiiaii

iinitiyMrii

^.inmKlWWIiitWIga

Buddha the Teacher.

Buddhist Art, plate 22.

The Devil

as a

Monk.

F>i<ddliist

Art, plate 2j

-->;

^^;;j-~^m- :,-; *-.-;.s"i^i-ij i-ti^'-tt^^osn'-

-*'

X D Q

s
^

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<
in

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m w

r{%^*i'^i^^^4
\-

i^ V^ >^

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-^>

^js-

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ii>_-

Buddliist Art, plate 2~

Buddha

as St. Jusaphat.

-5

<

Jiiidiilust

Art, plate 2g.

?IGHT, 1305, BY THE OPEN

COURT PUBLISHING CO,

The Temptation.
By Eduard Biedermann.

Buddhist All,

f'ldtc

JO.

BT THE OPEN COiJHT

MF.F.TfNG WITH

YasHODHARA.

By Eduard Biedermann.

Biid.lhist Art. plate ji.

COPYRIGHT, 1905, BY THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO.

The Last Sermon.


By Eduard Biedermann.