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2.3 Objectives of the study The following are the objectives of the report 2.3.1 2.3.

2 To expose the applications of Nanotechnology in Robotics and Medical fields, and To identify the risks of Nanotechnology

2.4 Methods and Limitations of the Study In carrying out this study, an effective time planning is made to constraint the report of late submission. The complete report is given 14 weeks period as time is limited. Assumptions, ideas and the scope of the report are analyzed and justified by printed resources of articles and journals. This study is important to engineers to coupe nanotechnology in their benefits. Moreover, as this study is focused on medical and robotics terms of nanotechnologies, it is important to focus on the topic of the study because it is not general topic.

3.0 FINDINGS From the resources that were used, the findings Is stated in this section. Nanotechnology findings in this section are divided into two sections. One section is about the applications of nanotechnologies in robotic and medical fields and the other one is to identify risks of nanotechnologies. 3.1 Nanotechnology in Robotic Fields Nano Robot which can also can be called NanoBot which is capable of think and learn by themselves. The intelligences that have been made are Artificial Intelligence (AI) which usually work alone and Swarm Intelligence (SI) that always work in super-large scale of nanobots. The intelligence provides the nanobots the capabilities of self-assembly into large, self-sustaining, self-adjusting, and self-learning artificial robotics organism. 3.1.1 Military application Nowadays, nanotechnologies in robots caught the interest of the military. The University of California, Berkeley provides their Ariel and terrestrial surveillance (Smart BATS) design to the military. They are used to perimeter monitoring, target identification and tracking whatever moves. Homogeneous Swarm Robotics for Search Applications design created in collaborations of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), University of Tennessee, University of Southern California and Telecordia Technologies. They develop a robot team to explore an unknown building to find objects of interest and protect them in a 24-hour period, autonomously returning for battery recharging when only necessary . They collect data by using various sensors almost like human being, 3.2 Nanotechnology in Medical Fields Nanosized semiconducting particles or quantum-dots helps in many different areas like diagnostic tools for MRI, disease detection, and analysis of biomolecules, development of nonviral vectors for gene therapy, as transport vehicles for DNA, protein, drugs, or cells and finally in different therapeutic tools, for cancer treatment. Nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and biological detection can be divided into three formats: magnetic detection, optical detection, and electrical detection (still in progress) 3.2.1 Magnetic Detection 3.2.1.1 Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) used as a contrast agent for MRI to improve the image quality. It is magnetically saturated in the normal range of magnetic field strength used in MRI scanners, thereby establishing a substantial locally perturbing dipolar field which leads to a marked shortening of the spin-spin relaxation (T2) along with a less marked reduction of the spin-latice relaxation (T1).

3.2.1.2 Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Diagnostic Bio-MEMS (bioelectromechanical systems) are using superparamagnetic beads for antigen detection by using labeled beads with SPION as both substrates of antibodies and carriers of target antigens. 3.2.2 Optical Imaging and Detection 3.2.2.1 Quantum-Dots (nanosized semiconducting particels) Quantum-dots are highly light absorbing, luminescent nanoparticels whose emission maximum is shifted to higher energy with decreasing particle size due to quantum confinement effects. It emits much brighter light and much more photosable then fluorescent organic dyes. 3.2.3 Nanoparticles for Drugs Delivery 3.2.3.1 Nanoprticles are non-toxic materials which making it suitable for this application and the old methods are dangerous since most of it are highly toxic-based materials which can harm human life. For example, chemotherapy, drugs are not specifically delivered to the cancer cells. It will damage or kill healthy tissues on its paths. Thus, nanostructured drugs carriers with antibodies on their surface are used to target the deceased cell and the carrier can deliver its playload which minimizes the toxification of the surroundings. The drugs are normally ingested or implanted. 3.2.3.2 Drug Delivery Coupled to Magnetic Nanoparticles Specific biological entities must be separated from their native environment in order to concentrate samples. This can be done by coupled the drugs to magnetic nanoparticles. This method can limit the systemic of the cytotic drug by localizing the drug. It is because drugs usually have deleterious side effects as it attacks normal healthy cells in addition to the target tumor. First, a drug is attached to a biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles carrier which is mostly a bead with supermagnetic nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix. When the particles have entered the blood vessels, external, high-gradient magnetic fields are used to concentrate the drug loaded beads at a specific target site within the body. Once the drug or the carrier is concentrated at the target, the drug can be released by using different methods, like temperature, pH change or via enzymatic activity.

3.3 The risks of Nanotechnology. Everything that been produced had a lot a risks that should be consider. The risk such a problem in nanotechnologies is material failure. Materials can fail due to Mechanical and Thermal effects or because of chemical attack such as rust in metals or UV effects on polymers. Atoms also can be displaced from their normal positions in material. Problems start with localized nanoscale distortion in atomic material, which may be a precursor to crack and then total failure. An aim of nanosensor is used to detect these at very early stage. Alternatively it may possible to apply bacteria because it may be useful for some applications, since some bacteria produce metal and to reduce the impact of higher temperature, material with negative coefficients of expansion could be produce to reduce the impact at higher temperature. Materials will be shrinking when things get hotter. The problems can be detected before the problems become more critical.