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Session #3 Gears: Force Transmission &

Gear Trains

Dan Frey

Todays Agenda
Pass out second reading packet Pass out loaner laptops Introduce project teams Gears
Force Transmission Gear Trains

Survey

HW 1 Problem 1
A 17-tooth spur pinion paired with a 50 tooth gear has a diametral pitch of 2 teeth/in and a 20o pressure angle. Make a drawing of the gears showing one tooth on each gear (you may use a CAD program or other techniques as appropriate, you may choose a scale for your drawing as appropriate). Estimate the contact ratio.

Among other things, it is necessary that you be able to actually draw the teeth on a pair of meshing gears. You should understand, however, that you are not doing this for manufacturing or shop purposes. Rather, we make drawings of gear teeth to obtain an understanding of the problems involved in meshing of the mating teeth. -Shigley and Mischke

Involute Profile
How it is constructed
Demo

Properties
Conjugate action Allows design of whole sets of compatible gears Conjugate action not sensitive to center distance variations

Concept Question
Are the teeth on a matching rack and pinion set the same shape?

1. Yes 2. No, never 3. It depends on _____

Courtesy of OSHA.

Pressure Line
Where the teeth contact, the surface normal defines a pressure line The force transmitted acts along this line The pressure line always includes the point of tangency between the pitch circles With the involute gear profile, the pressure line is constant

Figure removed for copyright reasons. Source: Shigley and Mischke, Figure 13-17.

From Shigley and Mischke

Pressure Angle
The pressure line acts at some angle to the tangent of the pitch circles This angle can be chosen by the designer It affects
Separation forces Tooth shape
From Shigley and Mischke

Figure removed for copyright reasons. Source: Shigley and Mischke, Figure 13-17.

Gear Terminology
Line of action & pressure line & generating line are all synonymous

Source: Buchsbaum, Frank, Design and Application of Small Standardized components Data Book 757 Vol. 2, Stock Drive Products, 1983. See Handbook of Gears. http://www.sdpsi.com/D190/D190cat.htm (accessed 28 June 2006.) Courtesy of Stock Drive Products/Sterling Instrument.

Concept Question
A pair of gears are mated. One is driven at a set torque, the other is regulated at a set speed. The gears are the ones circled. What is the ratio of the separation forces and the total force on the bearing?

1. 2. 3. 4.
Courtesy of W. M. Berg, Inc. Used with permission.

<< 0.3 About 0.3 About 0.5 >> 0.5

Discussion Questions
Are there any disadvantage to a helical gear as compared to a spur gear? How can the disadvantages be remedied? Is a helical gear set stronger than a spur gear of the same diameter, pitch, face width, & material?

Image removed for Copyright reasons.

Simple Gear Trains


A simple gear train has only one gear on each shaft How does this arrangement behave?
1

Compound Gear Trains


A compound gear train has at least one shaft with multiple gears How does this arrangement behave?

Figure removed for copyright reasons. Source: Figure 9-29 in Norton, R. L. Design of Machinery. 3rd edition. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Discussion Question
State a relationship one would normally apply in choosing radii for gears 3, 4, and 5

Figure removed for copyright reasons. Source: Figure 9-29 in Norton, R. L. Design of Machinery. 3rd edition. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Manual Transmissions

Diagram of manual transmission components removed for copyright reasons.

If you find just two axles in a machine, does that mean there are just two stages?

Discussion Questions
How many stages in this device? How do you suppose this number is chosen? Are the reduction ratios typically all nearly the same in all successive stages?
72 teeth 10 teeth on pinion gear

42 teeth 16 teeth

10 teeth

48 teeth

10 teeth 36 teeth

Planetary Gear Trains


One or more of the gear axes are allowed to rotate aka epicyclic Used in
Power tools Automatic transmissions Gear boxes

Analysis of Planetary Gear Trains

Figure removed for copyright reasons. Source: Shigley and Mischke, Figure 13-28.

Differentials
Allows shafts to move at different speeds Applies same torque to both Slippage problem What can be done?

See animations at http://auto.howstuffworks.com/differential3.htm

Next Steps
On Thurs 16 FEB (right here) next session on gears Finish HW#1 On Fri 17 FEB, the first lab in the lab