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POKHARA UNIVERSITY Level: Bachelor Semester Fall Programme: BE Course: Engineering Hydrology Year : 2005 Full Marks: 100

0 Time : 3hrs.

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Attempt all the questions. 1. a) b) c) Explain the Energy Budget method of estimating evaporation loss of water from a lake. What are mass curve and hyetograph of storm? A reservoir had an average surface area of 20 km2 during June 1982. In that month the mean rate of inflow were 10 m3/s and 15m3/s respectively. The total rainfall in that month was 10 cm and change in storage was 16 million m3. Assuming the seepage losses to be 1.8 cm, estimate evaporation in that month. 5 5 5

2. The isohyet drawn for a storm which occurred over a drainage basin of area 1000 km2 yielded the following information.
Isohyet interval (mm) Area between Isohyet (km2) 80-70 125 75-65 250 65-55 300 55-45 175 45-35 150

a) b)

c) 3. a) b) c)

What is double mass curve? How is it use to check the consistency? A 6hr storm produced rainfall indemnities of 7, 18, 25, 12, 10, 3 mm/h in successive one hr interval over a basin of 800 km2. The resulting runoff is 2.64 million m3. Determine -index of basin. Explain the Thiessen Method of calculating mean precipitation over an area. What is a unit hydrograph? List the assumptions involved in the unit hydrograph theory. Describe the process of deriving a unit hydrograph from a complex storm data. An auxiliary gauge was used downstream of a main gauge in a river to provide correction to the gauge discharge relationship due to backward effects. The following data were noted at a certain main gauge reading (m Auxiliary gauge (m Discharge (m3/s) above datum)

5 5

5 5 5 5

Main gauge above datum)

86.00 86.00

85.50 84.80

275 600

If the main gauge reading is still 86.00 m and the auxiliary gauge reads 85.30m, estimate the discharge in the river 4. a) b)
Time Observed Flow (m3/s)

Explain Gumbel's extreme value frequency distribution function. Given below are the observed flows from a strom of 6 h duration on a stream with a catchment area of 500 Km2.
0 0 6 100 12 250 18 200 24 150 30 100 36 70 42 50 48 35 54 25 60 15 66 5 72 0

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Assuming the base flow to be zero, derive the ordinates of 6-h unit hydrograph. 5. a) b) Adopting usual notations derive an expression for the steady state discharge of a well in a confined aquifer. An unconfined aquifer has a thickness of 30 m. A fully penetrating 20 cm diameter well in this aquifer is pumped at the rate 35 1/s. The drawdown measured in two observation wells located at a distance of 10m and 100 m from the well are 7.5 m and 0.5 m respectively. Determine the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer. At what distance from the well, the drawdown is insignificant. During a recuperating test conducted on an open well in a region, the water level in the well was depressed by 3 m and it was observed to rise by 1.75 m in 75 minutes. i) What is the specific yield of an open well in that region? ii) What could be the yield from well of 5 m diameter under depression head of 2.5 m? iii) What should be the diameter of well to give a yield of 121/s under depression head of 2.5m? Explain the ways the ground water gets contaminated. 7 8

6. a)

b)

7. Write short notes on (any two): a) Infiltration indices b) Recording chart of different raingauge c) Hydrologic /cycle