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TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

OF THE UPPER APTIAN-MAASTRICHTIAN


OF THE SERGIPE BASIN, BRAZIL
Eduardo A. M. KOUTSOUKOS (*) & Peter BENGTSON (**)
(*) Petrobnis - CENPES - DIVEX/SEBIPE, Cidade Universitliria, Quadra 7, Iiha do Fundao, 21949-900 Rio de
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
(**) Geologisch-Palaontologisches Institut der Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, W-6900 Hei-
delberg, Germany.
Docum. Lab. Geol. Lyon, nO 125, 1993, p. 241-262, 8 fig.
241
TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
OF THE UPPER APTIAN-MAASTRICHTIAN
OF THE SERGIPE BASIN, BRAZIL
Eduardo A. M. KOUTSOUKOS (*) & Peter BENGTSON (**)
(*) Petrobnis - CENPES - DIVEX/SEBIPE, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Iiha do Fundao, 21949-900 Rio de
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
(**) Geologisch-Palaontologisches Institut der Universitat Heidelberg, 1m Neuenheimer Feld 234, W-6900 Hei-
delberg, Germany.
Docum. Lab. Geol. Lyon, nO 125, 1993, p. 241-262, 8 fig.
241
TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
OF THE UPPER APTIAN-MAASTRICHTIAN
OF THE SERGIPE BASIN, BRAZIL
Eduardo A. M. KOUTSOUKOS (*) & Peter BENGTSON (**)
(*) Petrobnis - CENPES - DIVEX/SEBIPE, Cidade Universitliria, Quadra 7, Iiha do Fundao, 21949-900 Rio de
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
(**) Geologisch-Palaontologisches Institut der Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234, W-6900 Hei-
delberg, Germany.
Docum. Lab. Geol. Lyon, nO 125, 1993, p. 241-262, 8 fig.
241
Resume
Vers une biostratigraphie integree de I' Aptien superieur-Maastrichtien du bassin de Sergipe, Bresil
Les echantillons d' age Aptien superieur aMaastrichtien, collectes sur le terrain ou en subsurface dans le bassin
de Sergipe du Nord-Est bresilien contiennent des associations abondantes et diversifiees de foraminif'eres, radiolaires et
ostracodes, representant des environnements allant de paralique (estranet lagon) abathyal inferieur. Les ammonites sont
abondantes dans la serie carbonatee d'age aConiacien, et permettant une subdivision macrobiostratigraphique detaillee
facilement applicable sur le terrain. On presente un premier essai d'integration des zonations de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites pour le Cretace de Sergipe, en utilisant la methode d'intercalibration. Les zones de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites sont principalement des zones d'Oppel, dont les lirnites sont marquees, pour les foraminif'eres, par leur
apparition ou disparition locale, et pour les ammonites, par leur premiere occurrence locale. Des zones reposant sur des
associations de foraminif'eres benthiques, localement applicables, et plutOt contrOlees par le milieu, sont proposees pour
I' Aptien sup6rieur. Pour I' intervalle Aptien-Albien,la zonation integree est encore tres provisoire. Un grande nombre de
correlations biostratigraphiques de premier ordre reste aetablir, en se basant sur l'echantillonnage integre de coupes
contenant ala fois des microfaunes diagnostiques et des ammonites.
MOTS-CLES : Aptien, Albien, Cenomien, Turonien, Coniacien, Santonien, Campanien, Maastrichtien, Cretace infe-
rieur, Cretace superieur, biostratigraphie, methode d'intercalibration, methode d'integration totale, zone d'Oppel,
paleoenvironnements, foraminiferes, ammonites, echinodermes, inocecames, bassinde Sergipe, Bresil, OceanAtlantique
Sud.
Resumen
Hacia una bioestratigrafia integrada del Aptiano superior-Maastrkhtiano de la Cuenca de Sergipe, Brasll.
Muestras de campo y de subsuelo, collectadas en capas del Aptiano superior al Maastrichtiano de la Cuenca de
Sergipe en el Nordeste de Brasil, contienen asociaciones ricas y diversificadas de foraminiferos, radiolarios y ostra.codos,
que representan medios sedimentarios desde el ambiente panilico (llanura mareica y lagon) hasta el batial inferior. Los
ammonites son abundantes en la secuencia mayormente carbonatada de edad Aptiano a Coniaciano, y forman la base de
una zonaci6n macrobioestratignifica detallada facilmente utilisable en el campo. Se propone un primer intento de
integraci6n de las zonaciones de foraminfferos y ammonites para el Cretaceo de Sergipe, utilizando el metodo de
intercalibraci6n. Las zonas tanto de foraminfferos como de ammonites son mayormente zonas de Oppel, cuyos lfmites
estan marcados, para los foraminfferos, por su primera 0 ultima ocurrencia local, y para los ammonites, por sus primeras
apariciones locales. Zonas de asociaci6n de foraminiferos bent6nicos, localmente aplicables y rolls bien controladas por
el medio, estan propuestas para el Aptiano superior. Para el intervalo Aptiano-Albiano,la zonaci6n integrada estli todavfa
muy provisional. Un numero importante de correlaciones bioestratigraficas de primer orden quedan por ser establecidas,
basandose sobre el muestro integrado de secciones que contengan a la vez microf6siles diagn6sticos y ammonites.
PALABRAS CLAVE : Aptiano, Albiano, Cenomaniano, Turoniano, Coniaciano, Santoniano, Campaniano, Maastrich-
tiano, Cretliceo inferior, Cretliceo superior, bioestratigraffa, metodo de intercalibraci6n, metodo de integraci6n total,
zonas de Oppel, medios sedimentarios, foraminiferos, ammonites, equinoideos, inoceramideos, Cuenca de Sergipe,
Brasil, Oceano Atlantico Sur.
Abstract
Towards an integrated biostratigraphy of the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil.
Upper Aptian to Maastrichtian surface and subsurface samples from the Sergipe Basin in north-eastern Brazil
yield abundant and diversified assemblages of foraminiferids, radiolarians and ostracods, representing environments that
range from paralic (tidal flat and lagoon) to lower bathyal settings. Ammonites are abundant in the Aptian to Coniacian
carbonate-dominated sequence and form the basis for a detailed macrobiostratigraphical subdivision, which can easily
be applied in the field. A first attempt is made to integrate the foraminiferid and ammonite zonations for the Sergipe
Cretaceous, using the intercalibration method. The foraminiferal and ammonite zones are chiefly Oppel zones, the boun-
daries of which are marked for foraminiferids by local first andIor last appearances and for ammonites by local first
appearances. Locally applicable assemblage zones, which are more environmentally controlled, are proposed for benthic
foraminiferids of the upper Aptian. For the Aptian-Albian interval the integrated biozonation is as yet highly provisio-
nal. Aconsiderable amount of first-order biostratigraphical correlation is yet to be done, based on integrated sampling of
sections that contain both diagnostic microfossils and ammonites.
KEYWORDS: Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian, Campanian, Maastrichtian, Lower
Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, biostratigraphy, total-integration method, intercalibration method, Oppel zones, pa-
laeoenvironrnents, Forarninifera, ammonites, echinoids, inocerarnids, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean.
242
Resume
Vers une biostratigraphie integree de I' Aptien superieur-Maastrichtien du bassin de Sergipe, Bresil
Les echantillons d' age Aptien superieur Ii Maastrichtien, collectes sur Ie terrain ou en subsurface dans Ie bassin
de Sergipe du Nord-Est bresilien contiennent des associations abondantes et diversifiees de foraminif'eres, radiolaires et
ostracodes, representant des environnements allant de paralique (estranet lagon) Ii bathyal inferieur. Les ammonites sont
abondantes dans la serie carbonatee d'age Ii Coniacien, et permettant une subdivision macrobiostratigraphique detaillee
facilement applicable sur Ie terrain. On presente un premier essai d'integration des zonations de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites pour Ie Cretace de Sergipe, en utilisant la methode d'intercalibration. Les zones de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites sont principalement des zones d'Oppel, dont les lirnites sont marquees, pour les foraminif'eres, par leur
apparition ou disparition locale, et pour les ammonites, par leur premiere occurrence locale. Des zones reposant sur des
associations de foraminif'eres benthiques, localement applicables, et plutOt contrOlees par Ie milieu, sont proposees pour
I' Aptien superieur. Pour I' intervalle Aptien-Albien,la zonation integree est encore tres provisoire. Un grande nombre de
correlations biostratigraphiques de premier ordre reste Ii etablir, en se basant sur l'echantillonnage integre de coupes
contenant Ii la fois des microfaunes diagnostiques et des ammonites.
MOTS-CLES : Aptien, Albien, Cenomien, Turonien, Coniacien, Santonien, Campanien, Maastrichtien, Cretace infe-
rieur, Cretace superieur, biostratigraphie, methode d'intercalibration, methode d'integration totale, zone d'Oppel,
paleoenvironnements, foraminiferes, ammonites, echinodermes, inocecames, bassinde Sergipe, Bresil, OceanAtlantique
Sud.
Resumen
Hacia una bioestratigrafia integrada del Aptiano superior-Maastrkhtiano de la Cuenca de Sergipe, Brasil.
Muestras de campo y de subsuelo, collectadas en capas del Aptiano superior al Maastrichtiano de la Cuenca de
Sergipe en el Nordeste de Brasil, contienen asociaciones ricas y diversificadas de foraminiferos, radiolarios y ostra.codos,
que representan medios sedimentarios desde el ambiente panilico (llanura mareica y lagon) hasta el batial inferior. Los
ammonites son abundantes en la secuencia mayormente carbonatada de edad Aptiano a Coniaciano, y forman la base de
una zonaci6n macrobioestratignifica detallada facilmente utilisable en el campo. Se propone un primer intento de
integraci6n de las zonaciones de foraminfferos y ammonites para el Cretaceo de Sergipe, utilizando el metodo de
intercalibraci6n. Las zonas tanto de foraminfferos como de ammonites son mayormente zonas de Oppel, cuyos lfmites
estan marcados, para los foraminfferos, por su primera 0 ultima ocurrencia local, y para los ammonites, por sus primeras
apariciones locales. Zonas de asociaci6n de foraminiferos bent6nicos, localmente aplicables y mas bien controladas por
el medio, estan propuestas para el Aptiano superior. Para el intervalo Aptiano-Albiano,la zonaci6n integrada estli todavfa
muy provisional. Un numero importante de correlaciones bioestratigraficas de primer orden quedan por ser establecidas,
basandose sobre el muestro integrado de secciones que contengan ala vez microf6siles diagn6sticos y ammonites.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Aptiano, Albiano, Cenomaniano, Turoniano, Coniaciano, Santoniano, Campaniano, Maastrich-
tiano, Cretliceo inferior, Cretliceo superior, bioestratigrafia, metodo de intercalibraci6n, metodo de integraci6n total,
zonas de Oppel, medios sedimentarios, foraminiferos, ammonites, equinoideos, inoceramideos, Cuenca de Sergipe,
Brasil, Oceano Atlantico Sur.
Abstract
Towards an integrated biostratigraphy of the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil.
Upper Aptian to Maastrichtian surface and subsurface samples from the Sergipe Basin in north-eastern Brazil
yield abundant and diversified assemblages of foraminiferids, radiolarians and ostracods, representing environments that
range from paralic (tidal flat and lagoon) to lower bathyal settings. Ammonites are abundant in the Aptian to Coniacian
carbonate-dominated sequence and form the basis for a detailed macrobiostratigraphical subdivision, which can easily
be applied in the field. A first attempt is made to integrate the foraminiferid and ammonite zonations for the Sergipe
Cretaceous, using the intercalibration method. The foraminiferal and ammonite zones are chiefly Oppel zones, the boun-
daries of which are marked for foraminiferids by local first and/or last appearances and for ammonites by local first
appearances. Locally applicable assemblage zones, which are more environmentally controlled, are proposed for benthic
foraminiferids of the upper Aptian. For the Aptian-Albian interval the integrated biozonation is as yet highly provisio-
nal. Aconsiderable amount of first-order biostratigraphical correlation is yet to be done, based on integrated sampling of
sections that contain both diagnostic microfossils and ammonites.
KEYWORDS: Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian, Campanian, Maastrichtian, Lower
Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, biostratigraphy, total-integration method, intercalibration method, Oppel zones, pa-
laeoenvironments, Foraminifera, ammonites, echinoids, inocerarnids, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean.
242
Resume
Vers une biostratigraphie integree de I' Aptien superieur-Maastrichtien du bassin de Sergipe, Bresil
Les echantillons d' age Aptien superieur aMaastrichtien, collectes sur le terrain ou en subsurface dans le bassin
de Sergipe du Nord-Est bresilien contiennent des associations abondantes et diversifiees de foraminif'eres, radiolaires et
ostracodes, representant des environnements allant de paralique (estranet lagon) abathyal inferieur. Les ammonites sont
abondantes dans la serie carbonatee d'age aConiacien, et permettant une subdivision macrobiostratigraphique detaillee
facilement applicable sur le terrain. On presente un premier essai d'integration des zonations de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites pour le Cretace de Sergipe, en utilisant la methode d'intercalibration. Les zones de foraminif'eres et
d'ammonites sont principalement des zones d'Oppel, dont les lirnites sont marquees, pour les foraminif'eres, par leur
apparition ou disparition locale, et pour les ammonites, par leur premiere occurrence locale. Des zones reposant sur des
associations de foraminif'eres benthiques, localement applicables, et plutOt contrOlees par le milieu, sont proposees pour
I' Aptien sup6rieur. Pour I' intervalle Aptien-Albien,la zonation integree est encore tres provisoire. Un grande nombre de
correlations biostratigraphiques de premier ordre reste aetablir, en se basant sur l'echantillonnage integre de coupes
contenant ala fois des microfaunes diagnostiques et des ammonites.
MOTS-CLES : Aptien, Albien, Cenomien, Turonien, Coniacien, Santonien, Campanien, Maastrichtien, Cretace infe-
rieur, Cretace superieur, biostratigraphie, methode d'intercalibration, methode d'integration totale, zone d'Oppel,
paleoenvironnements, foraminiferes, ammonites, echinodermes, inocecames, bassinde Sergipe, Bresil, OceanAtlantique
Sud.
Resumen
Hacia una bioestratigrafia integrada del Aptiano superior-Maastrkhtiano de la Cuenca de Sergipe, Brasll.
Muestras de campo y de subsuelo, collectadas en capas del Aptiano superior al Maastrichtiano de la Cuenca de
Sergipe en el Nordeste de Brasil, contienen asociaciones ricas y diversificadas de foraminiferos, radiolarios y ostra.codos,
que representan medios sedimentarios desde el ambiente panilico (llanura mareica y lagon) hasta el batial inferior. Los
ammonites son abundantes en la secuencia mayormente carbonatada de edad Aptiano a Coniaciano, y forman la base de
una zonaci6n macrobioestratignifica detallada facilmente utilisable en el campo. Se propone un primer intento de
integraci6n de las zonaciones de foraminfferos y ammonites para el Cretaceo de Sergipe, utilizando el metodo de
intercalibraci6n. Las zonas tanto de foraminfferos como de ammonites son mayormente zonas de Oppel, cuyos lfmites
estan marcados, para los foraminfferos, por su primera 0 ultima ocurrencia local, y para los ammonites, por sus primeras
apariciones locales. Zonas de asociaci6n de foraminiferos bent6nicos, localmente aplicables y rolls bien controladas por
el medio, estan propuestas para el Aptiano superior. Para el intervalo Aptiano-Albiano,la zonaci6n integrada estli todavfa
muy provisional. Un numero importante de correlaciones bioestratigraficas de primer orden quedan por ser establecidas,
basandose sobre el muestro integrado de secciones que contengan a la vez microf6siles diagn6sticos y ammonites.
PALABRAS CLAVE : Aptiano, Albiano, Cenomaniano, Turoniano, Coniaciano, Santoniano, Campaniano, Maastrich-
tiano, Cretliceo inferior, Cretliceo superior, bioestratigraffa, metodo de intercalibraci6n, metodo de integraci6n total,
zonas de Oppel, medios sedimentarios, foraminiferos, ammonites, equinoideos, inoceramideos, Cuenca de Sergipe,
Brasil, Oceano Atlantico Sur.
Abstract
Towards an integrated biostratigraphy of the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil.
Upper Aptian to Maastrichtian surface and subsurface samples from the Sergipe Basin in north-eastern Brazil
yield abundant and diversified assemblages of foraminiferids, radiolarians and ostracods, representing environments that
range from paralic (tidal flat and lagoon) to lower bathyal settings. Ammonites are abundant in the Aptian to Coniacian
carbonate-dominated sequence and form the basis for a detailed macrobiostratigraphical subdivision, which can easily
be applied in the field. A first attempt is made to integrate the foraminiferid and ammonite zonations for the Sergipe
Cretaceous, using the intercalibration method. The foraminiferal and ammonite zones are chiefly Oppel zones, the boun-
daries of which are marked for foraminiferids by local first andIor last appearances and for ammonites by local first
appearances. Locally applicable assemblage zones, which are more environmentally controlled, are proposed for benthic
foraminiferids of the upper Aptian. For the Aptian-Albian interval the integrated biozonation is as yet highly provisio-
nal. Aconsiderable amount of first-order biostratigraphical correlation is yet to be done, based on integrated sampling of
sections that contain both diagnostic microfossils and ammonites.
KEYWORDS: Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian, Campanian, Maastrichtian, Lower
Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, biostratigraphy, total-integration method, intercalibration method, Oppel zones, pa-
laeoenvironrnents, Forarninifera, ammonites, echinoids, inocerarnids, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean.
242
INTRODUCTION
The fonnation of the Brazilian marginal basins is directly related to the rupture of the African-South
American plate. Separation of the two continents took place along a typical, divergent, Atlantic-type
continental margin extending along nearly 8 000 km. The depositional basins on both sides of the present
South Atlantic thus have a common evolutionary history, which encompasses four main tectonosedimentary
phases (Ojeda & Fugita 1976; Ponte & Asmus 1976; Ojeda 1982; Asmus & Baisch 1983): pre-rift [late
Jurassic(?) to earliest Cretaceousl, rift [earliest Cretaceous to early(?) Aptianl, transitional, proto-marine,
evaporitic (Aptian), and a marine drift phase (late Aptian to Recent).The palaeogeographic setting of the
Sergipe Basin in north-eastem Brazil (fig. 1) during the mid- and late Cretaceous is a direct consequence of
the strong tectonic activity that affected the area since the beginning of the rifting between South America and
Africa in the early Cretaceous. The basin consists ofa series of half-grabens with a regional dip averaging 10-
15 to the south-east, resulting from NE-SW trending nonnal faults.
post-Coniacian
(piayabuyu Formation)
Cenomanian-Coniacian
(Cotinguiba Formation)
Aptian-Cenomanian
(Riachuelo Formation)
POTIGUAR
.::: JEQUITINHONHA
.::. CUMURUXATIBA
........ MUCURI
o pre-Aptian
fault
o 500
./ .... ' ---:"k-m ,
N
r
50
,
km
.. .. .
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .
.. .. .. .
...
.
o
,
SERGIPE
BASIN
11
0
Fig. 1 - Geology of onshore portion of the Sergipe Basin (from Berthou & Bengtson 1988).
A =Aracaju, E =Estiincia, I =Itaporanga, J =Japaratuba.
243
INTRODUCTION
The fonnation of the Brazilian marginal basins is directly related to the rupture of the African-South
American plate. Separation of the two continents took place along a typical, divergent, Atlantic-type
continental margin extending along nearly 8 000 km. The depositional basins on both sides of the present
South Atlantic thus have a common evolutionary history, which encompasses four main tectonosedimentary
phases (Ojeda & Fugita 1976; Ponte & Asmus 1976; Ojeda 1982; Asmus & Baisch 1983): pre-rift [late
Jurassic(?) to earliest Cretaceous], rift [earliest Cretaceous to early(?) Aptian], transitional, proto-marine,
evaporitic (Aptian), and a marine drift phase (late Aptian to Recent).The palaeogeographic setting of the
Sergipe Basin in north-eastem Brazil (fig. 1) during the mid- and late Cretaceous is a direct consequence of
the strong tectonic activity that affected the area since the beginning of the rifting between South America and
Africa in the early Cretaceous. The basin consists ofa series of half-grabens with a regional dip averaging 10-
15 to the south-east, resulting from NE-SW trending nonnal faults.
post-Coniacian
(piayabuyu Formation)
Cenomanian-Coniacian
(Cotinguiba Formation)
Aptian-Cenomanian
(Riachuelo Formation)
POTIGUAR
.::: JEQUITINHONHA
.::. CUMURUXATIBA
........ MUCURI
o pre-Aptian
fault
o 500
./ .... ' ---:"k-m ,
N
r
50
,
km
.. .. .
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .
.. .. .. .
...
.
o
,
SERGIPE
BASIN
11
0
Fig. 1 - Geology of onshore portion of the Sergipe Basin (from Berthou & Bengtson 1988).
A =Aracaju, E =Estancia, I =Itaporanga, J =Japaratuba.
243
INTRODUCTION
The fonnation of the Brazilian marginal basins is directly related to the rupture of the African-South
American plate. Separation of the two continents took place along a typical, divergent, Atlantic-type
continental margin extending along nearly 8 000 km. The depositional basins on both sides of the present
South Atlantic thus have a common evolutionary history, which encompasses four main tectonosedimentary
phases (Ojeda & Fugita 1976; Ponte & Asmus 1976; Ojeda 1982; Asmus & Baisch 1983): pre-rift [late
Jurassic(?) to earliest Cretaceousl, rift [earliest Cretaceous to early(?) Aptianl, transitional, proto-marine,
evaporitic (Aptian), and a marine drift phase (late Aptian to Recent).The palaeogeographic setting of the
Sergipe Basin in north-eastem Brazil (fig. 1) during the mid- and late Cretaceous is a direct consequence of
the strong tectonic activity that affected the area since the beginning of the rifting between South America and
Africa in the early Cretaceous. The basin consists ofa series of half-grabens with a regional dip averaging 10-
15 to the south-east, resulting from NE-SW trending nonnal faults.
post-Coniacian
(piayabuyu Formation)
Cenomanian-Coniacian
(Cotinguiba Formation)
Aptian-Cenomanian
(Riachuelo Formation)
POTIGUAR
.::: JEQUITINHONHA
.::. CUMURUXATIBA
........ MUCURI
o pre-Aptian
fault
o 500
./ .... ' ---:"k-m ,
N
r
50
,
km
.. .. .
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .
. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .
.. .. .. .
...
.
o
,
SERGIPE
BASIN
11
0
Fig. 1 - Geology of onshore portion of the Sergipe Basin (from Berthou & Bengtson 1988).
A =Aracaju, E =Estiincia, I =Itaporanga, J =Japaratuba.
243
TheSergipe Basincontains oneofthe most extensivemiddleCretaceous marinecarbonate successions
among the northern South Atlantic basins. The sequence, although far from complete, spans the upper Aptian
to middle Coniacian interval (fig. 2) and can be subdivided into two main depositional systems (cf.
Koutsoukos et al., in press) :
(1) a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (latest Aptian to Albian : Riachuelo Formation,
normally about 500 m thick, locally up to 1 700 m) ;
(2) a carbonate ramp system, chiefly developed as a massive succession of fine-grained deep-water
limestones (Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian : Cotinguiba Formation, normally about 200 m thick, locally
exceeding 1 000 m).
The carbonate-dominated succession is overlain unconformably by a sequence of siliciclastic depo-
sits; these form the Formation (upper Coniacian or Santonian to Miocene or Pliocene, up to and
exceeding 2 000 m).
Form.
Ulhostratigraphy
Members
Calumbi (Cal)
Sapucari (Sap)
Aracaju (Aju)
SE
_ Tq_-_ - _ - _ Aguilhada (Ag)
Maruim (Mar)
Taquari (Tq)
Angico(An)
-------------
-------------

Facies relationships
---------------
----------------
----------------

-----------------
------------------
-----------------
-----------------
-----------------
=-=-=-:Cal:-=-=:-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
----------------
---------_._-----
---------------
---------------
-_._-----------
--------------
:'cl!i"n"
Conglomerates
Ma Stages
NW
Shales
70 Maastricht.
1:::::::::1 Sandstones
Carbonate
- mudstones
Campanian
m Ooliticloncolitic
80
grainstones or
packstones

Sanlonian
limestones
c........
90
Turonian
I::: -:- ::::1 Siltstones
Cenomanian
rV"V' Unconformity
100
Albian
110
Fig. 2 - Schematic stratigraphy of the marine Cretaceous sequences of the Sergipe Basin.
The stratigraphyand the depositional and geological history of the marine Cretaceous ofSergipe have
been described by Schaller (1970), Ojeda & Fugita (1976), Bandeira Jr. (1978), Feij6 (1980), Schaller et al.
(1980), Bengtson (1983), Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Lana (1990), and Koutsoukos et al. (in press), among
others. Biostratigraphical research has until now been focused on individual fossil groups, with only
preliminary attempts at integrating the different schemes. A systematic survey initiated by P. and S. I.
Bengtson in the 1970's (see Bengtson 1983) provides the basis for a detailed integrated biostratigraphy
comprising all biostratigraphically important groups. In this paper we report on the results achieved to date
using chiefly foraminiferids and ammonites. We also discuss the palaeoenvironmental conclusions drawn
from the occurrences of the faunas, in particular the microfossils.
The paper is a contribution to IGCP Project 242 Cretaceous of Latin America.
244
TheSergipe Basincontains oneofthe most extensivemiddleCretaceous marinecarbonate successions
among the northern South Atlantic basins. The sequence, although far from complete, spans the upper Aptian
to middle Coniacian interval (fig. 2) and can be subdivided into two main depositional systems (cf.
Koutsoukos et aI., in press) :
(1) a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (latest Aptian to Albian: Riachuelo Formation,
normally about 500 m thick, locally up to 1 700 m) ;
(2) a carbonate ramp system, chiefly developed as a massive succession of fine-grained deep-water
limestones (Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian : Cotinguiba Formation, normally about 200 m thick, locally
exceeding 1 000 m).
The carbonate-dominated succession is overlain unconformably by a sequence of siliciclastic depo-
sits; these form the Formation (upper Coniacian or Santonian to Miocene or Pliocene, up to and
exceeding 2 000 m).
Form.
Uthostratigraphy
Members
Calumbi (Cal)
Sapucari (Sap)
Aracaju (Aju)
SE
_ Tq_-_ - _ - _ Aguilhada (Ag)
Maruim (Mar)
Taquari (Tq)
Angico(An)
-------------
-------------

Facies relationships
---------------
----------------
----------------

-----------------
------------------
-----------------
-----------------
-----------------
=-=-=-:Cal:-=-=:-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
----------------
---------_._-----
---------------
---------------
-_._-----------
--------------
:'''!i"n"
Conglomerates
Ma Stages
NW
Shales
70 Maastricht.
1:::::::::1 Sandstones
Carbonate
- mudstones
Campanian
m Ooliticloncolitic
80
grainstones or
packstones

Santonian
limestones
c........
90
Turonian
I::: -:- ::::1 Siltstones
Cenomanian
rV"V' Unconformity
100
Albian
110
Fig. 2 - Schematic stratigraphy of the marine Cretaceous sequences of the Sergipe Basin.
The stratigraphyand the depositional and geological history of the marine Cretaceous ofSergipe have
been described by Schaller (1970), Ojeda & Fugita (1976), Bandeira Jr. (1978), Feij6 (1980), Schaller et al.
(1980), Bengtson (1983), Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Lana (1990), and Koutsoukos et al. (in press), among
others. Biostratigraphical research has until now been focused on individual fossil groups, with only
preliminary attempts at integrating the different schemes. A systematic survey initiated by P. and S. I.
Bengtson in the 1970's (see Bengtson 1983) provides the basis for a detailed integrated biostratigraphy
comprising all biostratigraphically important groups. In this paper we report on the results achieved to date
using chiefly foraminiferids and ammonites. We also discuss the palaeoenvironmental conclusions drawn
from the occurrences of the faunas, in particular the microfossils.
The paper is a contribution to IGCP Project 242 Cretaceous of Latin America.
244
TheSergipe Basincontains oneofthe most extensivemiddleCretaceous marinecarbonate successions
among the northern South Atlantic basins. The sequence, although far from complete, spans the upper Aptian
to middle Coniacian interval (fig. 2) and can be subdivided into two main depositional systems (cf.
Koutsoukos et al., in press) :
(1) a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (latest Aptian to Albian : Riachuelo Formation,
normally about 500 m thick, locally up to 1 700 m) ;
(2) a carbonate ramp system, chiefly developed as a massive succession of fine-grained deep-water
limestones (Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian : Cotinguiba Formation, normally about 200 m thick, locally
exceeding 1 000 m).
The carbonate-dominated succession is overlain unconformably by a sequence of siliciclastic depo-
sits; these form the Formation (upper Coniacian or Santonian to Miocene or Pliocene, up to and
exceeding 2 000 m).
Form.
Ulhostratigraphy
Members
Calumbi (Cal)
Sapucari (Sap)
Aracaju (Aju)
SE
_ Tq_-_ - _ - _ Aguilhada (Ag)
Maruim (Mar)
Taquari (Tq)
Angico(An)
-------------
-------------

Facies relationships
---------------
----------------
----------------

-----------------
------------------
-----------------
-----------------
-----------------
=-=-=-:Cal:-=-=:-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
----------------
---------_._-----
---------------
---------------
-_._-----------
--------------
:'cl!i"n"
Conglomerates
Ma Stages
NW
Shales
70 Maastricht.
1:::::::::1 Sandstones
Carbonate
- mudstones
Campanian
m Ooliticloncolitic
80
grainstones or
packstones

Sanlonian
limestones
c........
90
Turonian
I::: -:- ::::1 Siltstones
Cenomanian
rV"V' Unconformity
100
Albian
110
Fig. 2 - Schematic stratigraphy of the marine Cretaceous sequences of the Sergipe Basin.
The stratigraphyand the depositional and geological history of the marine Cretaceous ofSergipe have
been described by Schaller (1970), Ojeda & Fugita (1976), Bandeira Jr. (1978), Feij6 (1980), Schaller et al.
(1980), Bengtson (1983), Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Lana (1990), and Koutsoukos et al. (in press), among
others. Biostratigraphical research has until now been focused on individual fossil groups, with only
preliminary attempts at integrating the different schemes. A systematic survey initiated by P. and S. I.
Bengtson in the 1970's (see Bengtson 1983) provides the basis for a detailed integrated biostratigraphy
comprising all biostratigraphically important groups. In this paper we report on the results achieved to date
using chiefly foraminiferids and ammonites. We also discuss the palaeoenvironmental conclusions drawn
from the occurrences of the faunas, in particular the microfossils.
The paper is a contribution to IGCP Project 242 Cretaceous of Latin America.
244
BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
BiostratigraphicaI integration
Integrated biostratigraphy, in the true sense of the term, is a technique that is still in its infancy.
Although it is a well-known fact that all organisms are facies-bound to a varying degree, it is only during the
last decades that biostratigraphers seem to have realised that more precise and reliable results can be achieved
ifdiagnostic fossils from as many different groups as possible are applied simultaneously instead ofonly one
group at a time. The term integrated biostratigraphy is in common use today ; however, much of what is
labelled as integratedbiostratigraphyconsists ofcomparisons ofexisting biozonal schemes for different fossil
groups rather than truly integrated biostratigraphy based on detailed integrated sampling. Most of the
biostratigraphical work underlying such zonal comparisons dates back to the not-too-distant time when each
fossil group was sampled and studied in isolation. These single-group zonal schemes and biozonal
comparisons must be used with caution when attemptinl!; to establish an integrated biostratigraphy. An inte-
grated biostratigraphy can be achieved and presented in tW0 nrincipal ways (fig. 3), by using: (1) the total-
integration method, by which the entire biota is treated as one large fossil group, and by WhICh the diagnostic
taxa, irrespective of systematic position, are singled out and used for the definition and characterization of
biozones; (2) the intercalibration method, by which conventional single-group zonal schemes are used and/
or erected but through precise stratigraphical control are fIrmly calibrated to each other (for an exemplary
work of this kind, see, for example, Rasplus et al. 1987). Integrated biostratigraphy based on the total-
integration method can perhaps be seen as the only truly integrated biostratigraphy and, indeed, it is tempting
to conceive as a final goal an all-embracing biostratigraphical zonation scheme, whereby zones can be
identified using members of virtually any fossil group. However, to establish an integrated biostratigraphy of
this kind would mean that entirely new zonations had to be produced to replace existing single-group zonal
schemes, a huge task that has no prospects of being completed within the foreseeable future. Another disad-
vantage of the total-integration method is that zones will be based on varying properties (first appearances,
last appearances, acmes, etc.) of probably several tens of taxa, which will contribute to making zonal
definitions unclear and of difficult use.
The intercalibration method aims at calibrating existing and new single-group zonal schemes through
improved stratigraphical control. This method utilizes all available biostratigraphical information, old and
new, with its faults and virtues, and may therefore give less precise results than the total-integration method.
However, biozones will be more clearly defined and easier to grasp and apply than those based on the total-
integration method. Also, comparisons with other areas will be easier to make, as biogeographic restraints can
be avoided with the selection ofcommon diagnostic taxa, and because further improvements and refinements
can be made without upsetting the entire integratedbiozonal scheme. In our work on an integratedCretaceous
biostratigraphy of Sergipe we have opted for the intercalibration method.
Review of foraminiferal and ammonite biozonal integration.
The current integrated foraminiferal-ammonite biostratigraphical scheme for the Aptian-Maastrich-
tian of the Sergipe Basin is shown in fig. 4. Several studies have focused on the palaeontology and
biostratigraphy of this basin (see Bengtson 1983 for a review; also Berthou & Bengtson 1988). The first
attempt at an ammonite zonation was by Beurlen (1961) for the upper Aptian and Albian, whereas Petri (1962)
proposed a foraminiferal zonation for the entire Albian-Maastrichtian interval. Petri also attempted to
correlate the microbiostratigraphical scheme with the macrofossil succession, which until then hadbeenbased
chiefly on the work ofMaury (1937). Beurlen (1969,1970) complemented K. Beurlen's (1961) ammonite
zonation with a Cenomanian-lower Coniacian subdivision; further additions to this zonation were by
Reyment&Tait(1972), Reyment etal. (1976), Bengtson (1979, 1983),andSmith& Bengtson (1991). Freitas
(1984) discussed the stratigraphy and distribution of calcareous nannofossils in the basin. Lower Turonian
inoceramid bivalves and Albian to Coniacian echinoids were subsequently described by Hessel (1988) and
Smith (1991), respectively.
A microbiostratigraphical scheme was proposed by Koutsoukos (1989), based on foraminiferids; 23
planktonic and benthic foraminiferid zones were recognized for the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian strata. Work
is currently in progress to fully integrate and refme the foraminiferid and ammonite biozonal schemes
(Koutsoukos & Bengtson, in preparation), based on joint studies of further field sections. The timing of the
245
BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
Biostratigraphical integration
Integrated biostratigraphy, in the true sense of the term, is a technique that is still in its infancy.
Although it is a well-known fact that all organisms are facies-bound to a varying degree, it is only during the
last decades that biostratigraphers seem to have realised that more precise and reliable results can be achieved
ifdiagnostic fossils from as many different groups as possible are applied simultaneously instead ofonly one
group at a time. The term integrated biostratigraphy is in common use today ; however, much of what is
labelled as integratedbiostratigraphyconsists ofcomparisons ofexisting biozonal schemes for different fossil
groups rather than truly integrated biostratigraphy based on detailed integrated sampling. Most of the
biostratigraphical work underlying such zonal comparisons dates back to the not-tao-distant time when each
fossil group was sampled and studied in isolation. These single-group zonal schemes and biozonal
comparisons must be used with caution when attemptinl!; to establish an integrated biostratigraphy. An inte-
grated biostratigraphy can be achieved and presented in tW0 nrincipal ways (fig. 3), by using: (1) the total-
integration method, by which the entire biota is treated as one large fossil group, and by WhICh the diagnostic
taxa, irrespective of systematic position, are singled out and used for the definition and characterization of
biozones; (2) the intercalibration method, by which conventional single-group zonal schemes are used and/
or erected but through precise stratigraphical control are fIrmly calibrated to each other (for an exemplary
work of this kind, see, for example, Rasplus et al. 1987). Integrated biostratigraphy based on the total-
integration method can perhaps be seen as the only truly integrated biostratigraphy and, indeed, it is tempting
to conceive as a final goal an all-embracing biostratigraphical zonation scheme, whereby zones can be
identified using members of virtually any fossil group. However, to establish an integrated biostratigraphy of
this kind would mean that entirely new zonations had to be produced to replace existing single-group zonal
schemes, a huge task that has no prospects of being completed within the foreseeable future. Another disad-
vantage of the total-integration method is that zones will be based on varying properties (first appearances,
last appearances, acmes, etc.) of probably several tens of taxa, which will contribute to making zonal
definitions unclear and of difficult use.
The intercalibration method aims at calibrating existing and new single-group zonal schemes through
improved stratigraphical control. This method utilizes all available biostratigraphical information, old and
new, with its faults and virtues, and may therefore give less precise results than the total-integration method.
However, biozones will be more clearly defined and easier to grasp and apply than those based on the total-
integration method. Also, comparisons with other areas will be easier to make, as biogeographic restraints can
be avoided with the selection ofcommon diagnostic taxa, and because further improvements and refinements
can be made without upsetting the entire integratedbiozonal scheme. In our work on an integratedCretaceous
biostratigraphy of Sergipe we have opted for the intercalibration method.
Review of foraminiferal and ammonite biozonal integration.
The current integrated foraminiferal-ammonite biostratigraphical scheme for the Aptian-Maastrich-
tian of the Sergipe Basin is shown in fig. 4. Several studies have focused on the palaeontology and
biostratigraphy of this basin (see Bengtson 1983 for a review; also Berthou & Bengtson 1988). The first
attempt at an ammonite zonation was by Beurlen (1961) for the upper Aptian and Albian, whereas Petri (1962)
proposed a foraminiferal zonation for the entire Albian-Maastrichtian interval. Petri also attempted to
correlate the microbiostratigraphical scheme with the macrofossil succession, which until then hadbeenbased
chiefly on the work of Maury (1937). Beurlen (1969,1970) complemented K. Beurlen's (1961) ammonite
zonation with a Cenomanian-lower Coniacian subdivision; further additions to this zonation were by
Reyment&Tait(1972), Reyment etal. (1976), Bengtson (1979, 1983),andSmith& Bengtson (1991). Freitas
(1984) discussed the stratigraphy and distribution of calcareous nannofossils in the basin. Lower Turonian
inoceramid bivalves and Albian to Coniacian echinoids were subsequently described by Hessel (1988) and
Smith (1991), respectively.
A microbiostratigraphical scheme was proposed by Koutsoukos (1989), based on foraminiferids; 23
planktonic and benthic foraminiferid zones were recognized for the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian strata. Work
is currently in progress to fully integrate and refme the foraminiferid and ammonite biozonal schemes
(Koutsoukos & Bengtson, in preparation), based on joint studies of further field sections. The timing of the
245
BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
BiostratigraphicaI integration
Integrated biostratigraphy, in the true sense of the term, is a technique that is still in its infancy.
Although it is a well-known fact that all organisms are facies-bound to a varying degree, it is only during the
last decades that biostratigraphers seem to have realised that more precise and reliable results can be achieved
ifdiagnostic fossils from as many different groups as possible are applied simultaneously instead ofonly one
group at a time. The term integrated biostratigraphy is in common use today ; however, much of what is
labelled as integratedbiostratigraphyconsists ofcomparisons ofexisting biozonal schemes for different fossil
groups rather than truly integrated biostratigraphy based on detailed integrated sampling. Most of the
biostratigraphical work underlying such zonal comparisons dates back to the not-too-distant time when each
fossil group was sampled and studied in isolation. These single-group zonal schemes and biozonal
comparisons must be used with caution when attemptinl!; to establish an integrated biostratigraphy. An inte-
grated biostratigraphy can be achieved and presented in tW0 nrincipal ways (fig. 3), by using: (1) the total-
integration method, by which the entire biota is treated as one large fossil group, and by WhICh the diagnostic
taxa, irrespective of systematic position, are singled out and used for the definition and characterization of
biozones; (2) the intercalibration method, by which conventional single-group zonal schemes are used and/
or erected but through precise stratigraphical control are fIrmly calibrated to each other (for an exemplary
work of this kind, see, for example, Rasplus et al. 1987). Integrated biostratigraphy based on the total-
integration method can perhaps be seen as the only truly integrated biostratigraphy and, indeed, it is tempting
to conceive as a final goal an all-embracing biostratigraphical zonation scheme, whereby zones can be
identified using members of virtually any fossil group. However, to establish an integrated biostratigraphy of
this kind would mean that entirely new zonations had to be produced to replace existing single-group zonal
schemes, a huge task that has no prospects of being completed within the foreseeable future. Another disad-
vantage of the total-integration method is that zones will be based on varying properties (first appearances,
last appearances, acmes, etc.) of probably several tens of taxa, which will contribute to making zonal
definitions unclear and of difficult use.
The intercalibration method aims at calibrating existing and new single-group zonal schemes through
improved stratigraphical control. This method utilizes all available biostratigraphical information, old and
new, with its faults and virtues, and may therefore give less precise results than the total-integration method.
However, biozones will be more clearly defined and easier to grasp and apply than those based on the total-
integration method. Also, comparisons with other areas will be easier to make, as biogeographic restraints can
be avoided with the selection ofcommon diagnostic taxa, and because further improvements and refinements
can be made without upsetting the entire integratedbiozonal scheme. In our work on an integratedCretaceous
biostratigraphy of Sergipe we have opted for the intercalibration method.
Review of foraminiferal and ammonite biozonal integration.
The current integrated foraminiferal-ammonite biostratigraphical scheme for the Aptian-Maastrich-
tian of the Sergipe Basin is shown in fig. 4. Several studies have focused on the palaeontology and
biostratigraphy of this basin (see Bengtson 1983 for a review; also Berthou & Bengtson 1988). The first
attempt at an ammonite zonation was by Beurlen (1961) for the upper Aptian and Albian, whereas Petri (1962)
proposed a foraminiferal zonation for the entire Albian-Maastrichtian interval. Petri also attempted to
correlate the microbiostratigraphical scheme with the macrofossil succession, which until then hadbeenbased
chiefly on the work ofMaury (1937). Beurlen (1969,1970) complemented K. Beurlen's (1961) ammonite
zonation with a Cenomanian-lower Coniacian subdivision; further additions to this zonation were by
Reyment&Tait(1972), Reyment etal. (1976), Bengtson (1979, 1983),andSmith& Bengtson (1991). Freitas
(1984) discussed the stratigraphy and distribution of calcareous nannofossils in the basin. Lower Turonian
inoceramid bivalves and Albian to Coniacian echinoids were subsequently described by Hessel (1988) and
Smith (1991), respectively.
A microbiostratigraphical scheme was proposed by Koutsoukos (1989), based on foraminiferids; 23
planktonic and benthic foraminiferid zones were recognized for the upper Aptian-Maastrichtian strata. Work
is currently in progress to fully integrate and refme the foraminiferid and ammonite biozonal schemes
(Koutsoukos & Bengtson, in preparation), based on joint studies of further field sections. The timing of the
245
first marine connection between the central and South Atlantic oceans is indicated by ammonites and
microfossils contained in the lowermost marine beds of the Riachuelo Formation (Bengtson & Koutsoukos
1992). The sequence has yielded upper Aptian ammonites of the early douvilleiceratid lineage Cheloniceras-
Eodouvilleiceras. The upper Aptian is subdivided with planktonic foraminiferids into two zones, the Globi-
gerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae and Globigerinelloides ex. gr. maridalensis-Hedbergel-
la (H.) similis zones. The upper boundary of the latter zone is defined by the last appearance of diagnostic
species like G. barri (Bolli,Loeblich & Tappan, 1957), G. exgr. maridalensis(Bolli, 1959),andH. (H.)similis
Longoria, 1974, among others, at or near the Aptian-Albian boundary (Koutsoukos 1989, Bengtson &
Koutsoukos 1992). The zone correlates with the lower part of the Globigerinelloidesferreolensis-Ticinella
bejaouensis Zone of van Hinte(1976) ; see fig. 5.
TOTAL-INTEGRATION METHOD
Zone 4
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 3
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, eChinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 2
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
ostracods, bivalves,etc.
Zone 1
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
INTERCALlBRATION METHOD
Fig. 3- Hypothetical zonations
to illustrate the total-integra-
tion and intercalibration me-
thods.
AMMONITES FORAMINIFERS DINOFLAGELLATES BIVALVES
ZoneA4
ZoneF4
Zone 04
ammonites
foraminifers
dinoflagellates
Zone 83
bivalves
ZoneA3 Zone F3
Zone 03
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
Zone 02 Zone 82
ZoneA2
ZoneF2 dinoflagellates bivalves
ammonites
foraminifers
Zone 01
ZoneA1
ZoneF1
Zone 81
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
bivalves
246
first marine connection between the central and South Atlantic oceans is indicated by ammonites and
microfossils contained in the lowermost marine beds of the Riachuelo Formation (Bengtson & Koutsoukos
1992). The sequence has yielded upper Aptian ammonites of the early douvilleiceratid lineage Cheloniceras-
Eodouvilleiceras. The upper Aptian is subdivided with planktonic foraminiferids into two zones, the Globi-
gerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae and Globigerinelloides ex. gr. maridalensis-Hedbergel-
la (H.) similis zones. The upper boundary of the latter zone is defined by the last appearance of diagnostic
species like G. barri (Bolli,Loeblich & Tappan, 1957), G. ex gr. maridalensis(Bolli, 1959),andH. (H.)similis
Longoria, 1974, among others, at or near the Aptian-Albian boundary (Koutsoukos 1989, Bengtson &
Koutsoukos 1992). The zone correlates with the lower part of the Globigerinelloidesferreolensis-Ticinella
bejaouensis Zone of van Hinte(1976) ; see fig. 5.
TOTAL-INTEGRATION METHOD
Zone 4
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 3
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, eChinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 2
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
ostracods, bivalves,etc.
Zone 1
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
INTERCALIBRATION METHOD
Fig. 3- Hypothetical zonations
to illustrate the total-integra-
tion and intercalibration me-
thods.
AMMONITES FORAMINIFERS DINOFLAGELLATES BIVALVES
ZoneA4
ZoneF4
Zone 04
ammonites
foraminifers
dinoflagellates
Zone 83
bivalves
ZoneA3 Zone F3
Zone 03
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
Zone 02 Zone 82
ZoneA2
ZoneF2 dinoflagellates bivalves
ammonites
foraminifers
Zone 01
ZoneA1
ZoneF1
Zone 81
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
bivalves
246
first marine connection between the central and South Atlantic oceans is indicated by ammonites and
microfossils contained in the lowermost marine beds of the Riachuelo Formation (Bengtson & Koutsoukos
1992). The sequence has yielded upper Aptian ammonites of the early douvilleiceratid lineage Cheloniceras-
Eodouvilleiceras. The upper Aptian is subdivided with planktonic foraminiferids into two zones, the Globi-
gerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae and Globigerinelloides ex. gr. maridalensis-Hedbergel-
la (H.) similis zones. The upper boundary of the latter zone is defined by the last appearance of diagnostic
species like G. barri (Bolli,Loeblich & Tappan, 1957), G. exgr. maridalensis(Bolli, 1959),andH. (H.)similis
Longoria, 1974, among others, at or near the Aptian-Albian boundary (Koutsoukos 1989, Bengtson &
Koutsoukos 1992). The zone correlates with the lower part of the Globigerinelloidesferreolensis-Ticinella
bejaouensis Zone of van Hinte(1976) ; see fig. 5.
TOTAL-INTEGRATION METHOD
Zone 4
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 3
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, eChinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
Zone 2
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
ostracods, bivalves,etc.
Zone 1
ammonites, foraminifers,
dinoflagellates, pollen,
bivalves, echinoids,
radiolarians, etc.
INTERCALlBRATION METHOD
Fig. 3- Hypothetical zonations
to illustrate the total-integra-
tion and intercalibration me-
thods.
AMMONITES FORAMINIFERS DINOFLAGELLATES BIVALVES
ZoneA4
ZoneF4
Zone 04
ammonites
foraminifers
dinoflagellates
Zone 83
bivalves
ZoneA3 Zone F3
Zone 03
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
Zone 02 Zone 82
ZoneA2
ZoneF2 dinoflagellates bivalves
ammonites
foraminifers
Zone 01
ZoneA1
ZoneF1
Zone 81
dinoflagellates
ammonites foraminifers
bivalves
246
FORAMINIFERAL ZONES
AGES
"STANDARD AMMONITE
ZONES" ZONES PLANKTONIC BENTHIC
G. contusa-G. aegyptiaca O. clarki-P. kickapooensis
Maastrichtian
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. loetterlei-a. velascoensis
G. ex gr. fornicata- G. ex gr. beaumontiana-
G.finneiana G. nonionoides
G. orientalis-G. ventricosa L. gouskovi-O. clavata
Campanian
G. patelliformis-G. elevatal S. bramlettei-
stuartiformis plexus R. ex gr. szajnochae
Dicarinella asymetrica N. texana-O. clarki
Santonian
D. concavata-M. sinuosa L. revoluta-
G. spinea
Coniacian
Peroniceras tridorsatum S. armatus-P lenti
Gavellinella sp. A-
B. onilahyense-
A. cretacea-D. primitiva
Valvulineria sp. A
Forrester/a (H.) petrocor/ensis
Forresteria
SUbprionocyclus Suprionocyclus-
Valvulineria sp. B-
Dicarinella prim/t/va G. berthelini-plummerae-
neptuni Reesidites
reussi plexus
Turonian
Mammites nodosoides M. nodoso/des-
K. turon/ense H. aprica- G.levis-
W. amudar/ense-
H. (W) baltica N. ex gr. obscura
Watinoceras spp.
K.se/tzj
V. harttii- H (W) archaeocretacea-
G. obesa-G. levis
Neocardioceras juddii
P. footeanum H. reussi
Meto/coceras
E. septemseriatum
H. (W) aprica-
G. levis-Discammina sp. A
G. bentonensis
gesfinianum
Pharpax-T. aft. sornayi
H.(W) baltica- Nodosaria ex. gr. obscura-
Cenomanian
Acanthoceras jukesbrowne/ A. jukesbr.-E. pen/ago
H(W) brittonensis Gibicides sp. A
Turrilites acutus-costatus A. spathi-Dunveganoc.
P. delrioensis-
L. (?) cf. thalmanniformis-
Mantelliceras
G.lozoi- R. appenninica S. cretacea
mantelli
H. betaitraensis
R. brotzeni Gibides sp. A-P. complanata
Mortoniceras
H. (H.) gorbachikae- N. subcretacea-
Morton/ceras
T. raynaudi T. ex gr. excavata
inflatum
G. texomaensis-
N. subcretacea-
Elobiceras
B. breggiens/s
S. cf. crassicosta
B. breggiensis-
G. berthefini-plummerae-
Albian
Euhopfites
?
T. ex gr. primula reussi plexus-G. cf.gradata
lautus
Oxytropidoceras
T. ex gr. primula-
E. spinufifera-E. carpenteri
T. bejaouaensis
T. bejaouaensis
a. schloenbachi-
Douvilleiceras
P.IS. ex gr. dividens
mamillatum
Douvilleiceras
----- ? -----.-
G. cushmani-
E. carpenteri-G. filiformis
Leymeriella regularis ?
T. bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensis- L. ex gr. sUbangulata-
H (H.) similis L. ex gr. nodosa
Late
Epicheloniceras- A. cf. copro/ithiformis-
Aptian
Diadochoceras- B. cf. hedbergi-
Eodouvilleiceras
G. barri-
H.lueckei
H (H.) gorbachikae
L. ciryi-
L. nodosaria-
M. ex gr. aequivoca
Fig. 4 - Integrated foramlnlferid-ammonite blostratlgraphy of the marine Cretaceous of the Serglpe Basin.
(Foraminiferids after Koutsoukos 1989 ; Aptian ammonites from Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992; Albian ammonites
modifiedafter Beurlen 1969. 1970; Cenomanian-Coniacian ammonites modified after Bengtson 1983. Smith& Bengtson
1991 and S. I. Bengtson (Uppsala). personal communication 1992; age lengths not to scale).
247
FORAMINIFERAL ZONES
AGES
"STANDARD AMMONITE
ZONES" ZONES PLANKTONIC BENTHIC
C. contusa-G. aegyptiaca O. clarki-P. kickapooensis
Maastrichtian
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. loetterlei-a. velascoensis
C. ex gr. fornicata- C. ex gr. beaumontiana-
G.linneiana G. nonionoides
G. orienta/is-G. ventricosa L. gouskovi-O. clavata
Campanian
G. patelliformis-G. elevata/ S. bramlettei-
stuartiformis plexus R. ex gr. szajnochae
Dicarinella asymetrica N. texana-O. clarki
Santonian
D. concavata-M. sinuosa L. revoluta-
G. spinea
Coniacian
Peroniceras tridorsatum S. armatus-P lenti
Gavellinella sp. A-
B. oni/ahyense-
A. cretacea-D. primitiva
Valvulineria sp. A
Forrester/a (H.) petrocor/ensis
Forresteria
SUbprionocyclus Suprionocyclus-
Valvulineria sp. S-
Dicarinella prim/t/va G. berthelini-plummerae-
neptuni Reesidites
reussi plexus
Turonian
Mammites nodosoides M. nodoso/des-
K. turon/ense H. aprica- G.levis-
W. amudar/ense-
H. (W) baltica N. ex gr. obscura
Watinoceras spp.
K. seitz;
V. harttii- H (W) archaeocretacea-
G. obesa-G. levis
Neocardioceras juddii
P. footeanum H. reussi
Meto/coceras
E. septemseriatum
H. (W) aprica-
G. levis-Discammina sp. A
G. bentonensis
geslinianum
Pharpax-T. aft. samayi
H.(W) baltica- Nodosaria ex. gr. obscura-
Cenomanian
Acanthoceras jukesbrowne/ A. jukesbr.-E. pen/ago
H(W) brittonensis Cibicides sp. A
Turri/ites acutus-costatus A. spathi-Dunveganac.
P. delrioensis-
L. (?) ct. thalmanniformis-
Mantelliceras
G.lozoi- R. appenninica S. cretacea
mantelli
H. betaitraensis
R. brotzeni Cibides sp. A-P. complanata
Mortoniceras
H. (H.) gorbachikae- N. subcretacea-
Morton/ceras
T. raynaudi T. ex gr. excavata
inflatum
G. texomaensis-
N. subcretacea-
Elobiceras
B. breggiens/s
S. ct. crassicosta
B. breggiensis-
G. berthelini-plummerae-
Albian
Euhoplites
?
T. ex gr. primula reussi plexus-G. ct.gradata
lautus
Oxytropidoceras
T. ex gr. primula-
E. spinulifera-E. carpenteri
T. bejaouaensis
T. bejaouaensis
a. schloenbachi-
Douvilleiceras
P./S. ex gr. dividens
mamillatum
Douvilleiceras
----- ? -----.-
G. cushmani-
E. carpenteri-G. filiformis
Leymeriella regularis ?
T. bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensis- L. ex gr. sUbangulata-
H (H.) similis L. ex gr. nodosa
Late
Epicheloniceras- A. ct. copro/ithiformis-
Aptian
Diadochoceras- B. ct. hedbergi-
Eodouvilleiceras
G. barri-
H.lueckei
H (H.) gorbachikae
L. ciryi-
L. nodosaria-
M. ex gr. aequivoca
Fig. 4 - Integrated foramlnlferid-ammonite biostratigraphy of the marine Cretaceous of the Serglpe Basin.
(Foraminiferids after Koutsoukos 1989 ; Aptian ammonites from Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992; Albian ammonites
modifiedafter Beurlen 1969. 1970; Cenomanian-Coniacian ammonites modified after Bengtson 1983. Smith&Bengtson
1991 and S. I. Bengtson (Uppsala). personal communication 1992; age lengths not to scale).
247
FORAMINIFERAL ZONES
AGES
"STANDARD AMMONITE
ZONES" ZONES PLANKTONIC BENTHIC
G. contusa-G. aegyptiaca O. clarki-P. kickapooensis
Maastrichtian
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. loetterlei-a. velascoensis
G. ex gr. fornicata- G. ex gr. beaumontiana-
G.finneiana G. nonionoides
G. orientalis-G. ventricosa L. gouskovi-O. clavata
Campanian
G. patelliformis-G. elevatal S. bramlettei-
stuartiformis plexus R. ex gr. szajnochae
Dicarinella asymetrica N. texana-O. clarki
Santonian
D. concavata-M. sinuosa L. revoluta-
G. spinea
Coniacian
Peroniceras tridorsatum S. armatus-P lenti
Gavellinella sp. A-
B. onilahyense-
A. cretacea-D. primitiva
Valvulineria sp. A
Forrester/a (H.) petrocor/ensis
Forresteria
SUbprionocyclus Suprionocyclus-
Valvulineria sp. B-
Dicarinella prim/t/va G. berthelini-plummerae-
neptuni Reesidites
reussi plexus
Turonian
Mammites nodosoides M. nodoso/des-
K. turon/ense H. aprica- G.levis-
W. amudar/ense-
H. (W) baltica N. ex gr. obscura
Watinoceras spp.
K.se/tzj
V. harttii- H (W) archaeocretacea-
G. obesa-G. levis
Neocardioceras juddii
P. footeanum H. reussi
Meto/coceras
E. septemseriatum
H. (W) aprica-
G. levis-Discammina sp. A
G. bentonensis
gesfinianum
Pharpax-T. aft. sornayi
H.(W) baltica- Nodosaria ex. gr. obscura-
Cenomanian
Acanthoceras jukesbrowne/ A. jukesbr.-E. pen/ago
H(W) brittonensis Gibicides sp. A
Turrilites acutus-costatus A. spathi-Dunveganoc.
P. delrioensis-
L. (?) cf. thalmanniformis-
Mantelliceras
G.lozoi- R. appenninica S. cretacea
mantelli
H. betaitraensis
R. brotzeni Gibides sp. A-P. complanata
Mortoniceras
H. (H.) gorbachikae- N. subcretacea-
Morton/ceras
T. raynaudi T. ex gr. excavata
inflatum
G. texomaensis-
N. subcretacea-
Elobiceras
B. breggiens/s
S. cf. crassicosta
B. breggiensis-
G. berthefini-plummerae-
Albian
Euhopfites
?
T. ex gr. primula reussi plexus-G. cf.gradata
lautus
Oxytropidoceras
T. ex gr. primula-
E. spinufifera-E. carpenteri
T. bejaouaensis
T. bejaouaensis
a. schloenbachi-
Douvilleiceras
P.IS. ex gr. dividens
mamillatum
Douvilleiceras
----- ? -----.-
G. cushmani-
E. carpenteri-G. filiformis
Leymeriella regularis ?
T. bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensis- L. ex gr. sUbangulata-
H (H.) similis L. ex gr. nodosa
Late
Epicheloniceras- A. cf. copro/ithiformis-
Aptian
Diadochoceras- B. cf. hedbergi-
Eodouvilleiceras
G. barri-
H.lueckei
H (H.) gorbachikae
L. ciryi-
L. nodosaria-
M. ex gr. aequivoca
Fig. 4 - Integrated foramlnlferid-ammonite blostratlgraphy of the marine Cretaceous of the Serglpe Basin.
(Foraminiferids after Koutsoukos 1989 ; Aptian ammonites from Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992; Albian ammonites
modifiedafter Beurlen 1969. 1970; Cenomanian-Coniacian ammonites modified after Bengtson 1983. Smith&Bengtson
1991 and S. I. Bengtson (Uppsala). personal communication 1992; age lengths not to scale).
247
Stages This study
Contusotruncana contusa-
Globotruncana aegyptiaca
Zone
Gansserina gansseri-
GJobotruncanda stuartiformis
Zone
Caron
1985
A. mayaroensis
van Hint.
1976
A. msyafOBns;S
G. contusa
MaastrIChtlanl- _
ContU50truncana ex gr. fornicata-
Globotruncana linneiana
Zone
Globotruncana orientalis-
Globotruncana ventricosa
Zone
Campanlan
Contusotruncana patelliformis-
Globotruncanita elevata/
stuartiformis plexus
Zone
Dicarinella asymetrica
Zone
G. gansseri
G. aegyptiaca
G. havanensis
G, ca/carata
G. ventricosa
G. elevara
D. asymetrica
G.stuar1i
G. gansseri
G. scutilla
G, calcarata
G. 5ubspinosa
G. stuartiformis
G, elevata
G. concavata-
G. elevata
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Ciear/nella conCBvata-
Marginorruncana sinuosa
Zone
Archaeoglobigerina
cretacea-
Ciearinells primitiva
Zone
Dlc,Wile/la primitivil
Zone
Hedbecge"" (W) apcica-

Hedbergella (W) baltica-
Hedb, (W) brittonensJs
Zone
D, conC8vata
D. prirnilivB
M sigali
H. helvetica
W archaeocretacea
R. cushmani
G. sigali-
G. concavata
G. renzi-
G, siga/i
"G. " helvetica
H.lehmani
R, cushmani
Cenomanian f----:--...,..,------
Praecglobotruncana
delrioensis-
Rotalipora appenninica
Zone
Rotalipora brotzeni
Zone

Zone
Globigerinelloides
texomaensis-
Biticine/la breggiensis
Zone
Alblan
aiticinelJa breggiensis-
Tlcmella ex gr. primula
Zone
Tic. ex gr, primula
TicineJ1a beJaouaensis Zone
R reicheli
R. brotzeni
R. appenninica
R. ticinensis
R. subticiensis
a, breggiensis
T primula
R. gandolfii-
R. greenhornensis
R.
f---------
P ticinensis-
P. buxtorfi
T (a.) breggiensis
T. praeticinensis
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone
cushmani-
Tlcmelfa be]aousensis Zone
Upper
Aptlan
Globigerinelloides ex gr,
(H)
Globigerinelloldes barri-
HedbergelJa gorbachikae
T bejaouaensis
H. gorbachikae
G. algerians
T bejaouaensis
1---------
G. ferffJOJensis-
T. bejaouaensis
H.trocoidelt-
G. ferreolensis
248
Fig. 5 - Correlation ofplankto-
nlc foramlnlferal zonal sche-
mes proposed for the Aptian-
Maastrlchtlan (stage thicknes-
ses not to scale).
Stages This study
Contusotruncana contusa-
Globotruncana aegyptiaca
Zone
Gansserina gansseri-
GJobotruncanda stuartiformis
Zone
Caron
1985
A. mayaroensis
van Hint.
1976
A. msyafOBns;S
G. contusa
MaastrIChtlanl- _
ContU50truncana ex gr. fornicata-
Globotruncana linneiana
Zone
Globotruncana orientalis-
Globotruncana ventricosa
Zone
Campanian
Contusotruncana patelliformis-
Globotruncanita elevata!
stuartiformis plexus
Zone
Oiearinella asymetrica
Zone
G. gansseri
G. aegyptiaca
G. havanensis
G, calcarata
G. ventricosa
G. elevars
D. asymetrica
G. stuarti
G. gansseri
G. scutilla
G, calcarata
G. 5ubspinosa
G.stuartiformis
G, elevata
G. concavata-
G. elevata
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Oicar/nella conCBvata-
Marginorruncana sinuosa
Zone
Archaeoglobigerina
cretacea-
Oiearinella primitiva
Zone
olc,wile/la primitivil
Zone
Hedbecge"" (Wi apcica-

Hedbergella (W) baltica-
Hedb, (W) brittonenSJS
Zone
D, COnC8vata
D. primiliv8
M sigali
H. helvetica
W archaeocretacea
R. cushmani
G. sigali-
G. concavata
G. renzi-
G,siga/i
"G. " helvetica
H.lehmani
R, cushmani
Cenomanian f----:--...,..,------
Praecglobotruncana
delrioensis-
Rotalipora appenninica
Zone
Rotalipora brotzeni
Zone

Zone
Globigerinelloides
texomaensis-
Biticinella breggiensis
Zone
Albian
aiticinelJa breggiensis-
Tlcmella ex gr. primula
Zone
Tic. ex gr, primula
TicineJ1a beJsousensis Zone
R reicheli
R. brotzeni
R. appenninica
R. ticinensis
R. subticiensis
a, breggiensis
T primula
R. gandolfii-
R. greenhornensis
R.
f---------
P ticinensis-
P. buxtorfi
T (a.) breggiensis
T. praeticinensis
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone
cushmani-
Tlcmelfa be]sousensis Zone
Upper
Aptian
Globigerinelloides ex gr,
(H)
Globigerinelloides barri-
HedbergelJa gorbachikae
T bejaouaensis
H. gorbachikae
G. algerians
T bejaouaensis
1---------
G. ferffJOJensis-
T. bejaouaensis
H.trocoidelt-
G. ferreolensis
248
Fig. 5 - Correlation ofplankto-
nle foraminiferal zonal sche-
mes proposed for the Aptian-
Maastrichtian (stage thicknes-
ses not to scale).
Stages This study
Contusotruncana contusa-
Globotruncana aegyptiaca
Zone
Gansserina gansseri-
GJobotruncanda stuartiformis
Zone
Caron
1985
A. mayaroensis
van Hint.
1976
A. msyafOBns;S
G. contusa
MaastrIChtlanl- _
ContU50truncana ex gr. fornicata-
Globotruncana linneiana
Zone
Globotruncana orientalis-
Globotruncana ventricosa
Zone
Campanlan
Contusotruncana patelliformis-
Globotruncanita elevata/
stuartiformis plexus
Zone
Dicarinella asymetrica
Zone
G. gansseri
G. aegyptiaca
G. havanensis
G, ca/carata
G. ventricosa
G. elevara
D. asymetrica
G.stuar1i
G. gansseri
G. scutilla
G, calcarata
G. 5ubspinosa
G. stuartiformis
G, elevata
G. concavata-
G. elevata
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Ciear/nella conCBvata-
Marginorruncana sinuosa
Zone
Archaeoglobigerina
cretacea-
Ciearinells primitiva
Zone
Dlc,Wile/la primitivil
Zone
Hedbecge"" (W) apcica-

Hedbergella (W) baltica-
Hedb, (W) brittonensJs
Zone
D, conC8vata
D. prirnilivB
M sigali
H. helvetica
W archaeocretacea
R. cushmani
G. sigali-
G. concavata
G. renzi-
G, siga/i
"G. " helvetica
H.lehmani
R, cushmani
Cenomanian f----:--...,..,------
Praecglobotruncana
delrioensis-
Rotalipora appenninica
Zone
Rotalipora brotzeni
Zone

Zone
Globigerinelloides
texomaensis-
Biticine/la breggiensis
Zone
Alblan
aiticinelJa breggiensis-
Tlcmella ex gr. primula
Zone
Tic. ex gr, primula
TicineJ1a beJaouaensis Zone
R reicheli
R. brotzeni
R. appenninica
R. ticinensis
R. subticiensis
a, breggiensis
T primula
R. gandolfii-
R. greenhornensis
R.
f---------
P ticinensis-
P. buxtorfi
T (a.) breggiensis
T. praeticinensis
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone
cushmani-
Tlcmelfa be]aousensis Zone
Upper
Aptlan
Globigerinelloides ex gr,
(H)
Globigerinelloldes barri-
HedbergelJa gorbachikae
T bejaouaensis
H. gorbachikae
G. algerians
T bejaouaensis
1---------
G. ferffJOJensis-
T. bejaouaensis
H.trocoidelt-
G. ferreolensis
248
Fig. 5 - Correlation ofplankto-
nlc foramlnlferal zonal sche-
mes proposed for the Aptian-
Maastrlchtlan (stage thicknes-
ses not to scale).
Thepositionof the Aptian-Albian boundary in Sergipe is difficult to determine in terms of the so-called
standard zonation. The upper Aptian Hypaeanthoplitesjaeobi and the lower AlbianLeymeriella tardefureata
zones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991) are not recognizable in Sergipe, if at all present in the Tethyan
Realm. Indirect correlation, based on the Cheloniceras-Eodouvilleieeras lineage representatives, points to a
broadly late Aptian age for the lowermost marine beds. The absence of the genus Douvilleieeras in these beds
is also significant. Because of the limited geographical distribution of the L. tardefureata Zone, Hancock
(1991) suggested that the first appearance of species of Douvilleieeras should be used instead to define the
base of the Albian. This would mean a shift to a slightly higher boundary, although with the advantage of its
being globally recognizable.
Above the upper Aptian fauna in Sergipe there occurs Douvilleieeras sp., which we interpret as
lowermost Albian. This species is followed byDouvilleieeras ex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813), which
can be correlated with the upper lower Albian Douvilleieeras mammillatumZone of north-west Europe. The
lower and middle Albian Douvilleieeras and Oxytropidoeeras ammonite zones of Sergipe are each subdivi-
ded into two planktonic foraminiferal zones, the Globigerinelloides eushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis and
Ticinella bejaouaensis zones, .and the T,icinella ex gr. primula-Ticinella bejaouaensis and Bitieinella
breggiensis-Tieinella ex gr. primula zones, respectively. These are based chiefly on abundances of Ticinella
bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966, as well as on occurrences of species of Globigerinelloides and Hedbergella. For
correlation with other areas, see figs. 4 and 5.
The overlying upper Albian Elobieeras and Mortonieeras ammonite wnes are represented by the
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-BiticinellabreggiensisandHedbergella (H.) gorbaehikae-Ticinella raynau-
di planktonic foraminiferal zones, respectively. Correlation with the north-west European ammonite zonation
(Hancock 1991) is hampered by increased ammonite provincialism in the late Albian, and only a broad
assignment to the Mortonieeras (M.) inflatumZone is possible. The Stoliezkaia dispar standard zone has
not been identified in Sergipe and may be missing.
The lower Cenomanian, i. e. the base of the Cotinguiba Formation, is represented by two foraminiferal
zones, Rotalipora brotzeni and Praeglobotruneana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenniniea zones, respectively,
in part corresponding to the Graysonites lozoi-Hypoturrilites betaitraensis ammonite wne. This zone corre-
lates with the broader Mantellieeras mantelli Zone of north-west Europe, although its exact vertiCal exten-
sion in relation to this wne is as yet uncertain. The Albian-Cenomanian boundary is not exposed in Sergipe,
but is recorded in well-sections at the boundary between the foraminiferid zones of Hedbergella (H.)
gorbaehikae-Tieinella raynaudi and Rotalipora brotzeni. The middle-upper Cenomanian Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) baltiea-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone appears to be subdivisible into three zones on the
basis ofammonites. Thelower two, theAeompsoeerasspathi-DunveganoeerasandAeanthoeerasjukesbrownei-
Euealyeoeeras pentagonumzones, correspond broadly to the middle Cenomanian Turrilites eostatus-aeutus
and Aeanthoeeras jukesbrowni subzones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991), respectively. The upper
Cenomanian Hedbergella (Whiteinella) apriea-Globigerinelloides bentonensis foraminiferal zone containS
the globally distributed ammonite Euomphaloeeras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893), which is diagnostic for
the Metoieoeeras geslinianumstandard wne [M. geslinianum(d'Orbigny, 1850) is with doubt recorded in
Sergipe from the underlying Pseudoealyeoeeras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone].
Above the apriea-bentonensis/septemseriatum zones correlation becomes difficult; in particular the
position of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary is uncertain. Smith & Bengtson (1991, p. 9) tentatively
correlated the Vaseoeeras harttii-Pseudaspidoeerasfooteanum ammonite zone with the Neoeardioeeras
juddii Zone of north-west Europe, i. e. uppermost Cenomanian. This is in agreement with the succession in,
for example, Portugal, where P.footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) occurs in the N. juddii Zone (Berthou 1984).
Hancock (1991, p. 273-274) discussed the varying defmitions of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, and
Kennedy & Cobban (1991) proposed that the boundary should be drawn at the base of a Watinoeeras
devonense Zone, which is recognizable in Europe and in the U.S. Western Interior. W. devonense Wright &
Kennedy, 1981, itself does not occur in Sergipe, but the faunal association of the Watinoeeras amudariense-
Kamerunoeeras seitzi ammonite zone places this zone firmly in the lower Turonian, and at least partial
contemporaneity with the W. devonense Zone appears probable. The underlying problematic V. harttii-P.
footeanum Zone contains pseudotissotiids known from other areas, where they have consistently been
referred to the Turonian. Other elements of this zone, for example, Euomphaloeeras aff. septemseriatum,
point rather to a Cenomanian age (cf. also the Cenomanian occurrence ofP.footeanumin Portugal (Berthou
1984, which suggests a mixed assemblage. Occurrences in this zone of the inocerarnid bivalve Mytiloides
249
Thepositionof the Aptian-Albian boundary in Sergipe is difficult to determine in terms of the so-called
standard zonation. The upper Aptian Hypaeanthoplitesjaeobi and the lower AlbianLeymeriella tardefureata
zones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991) are not recognizable in Sergipe, if at all present in the Tethyan
Realm. Indirect correlation, based on the Cheloniceras-Eodouvilleieeras lineage representatives, points to a
broadly late Aptian age for the lowermost marine beds. The absence of the genus Douvilleieeras in these beds
is also significant. Because of the limited geographical distribution of the L. tardefureata Zone, Hancock
(1991) suggested that the first appearance of species of Douvilleieeras should be used instead to define the
base of the Albian. This would mean a shift to a slightly higher boundary, although with the advantage of its
being globally recognizable.
Above the upper Aptian fauna in Sergipe there occurs Douvilleieeras sp., which we interpret as
lowermost Albian. This species is followed byDouvilleieeras ex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813), which
can be correlated with the upper lower Albian Douvilleieeras mammillatumZone of north-west Europe. The
lower and middle Albian Douvilleieeras and Oxytropidoeeras ammonite zones of Sergipe are each subdivi-
ded into two planktonic foraminiferal zones, the Globigerinelloides eushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis and
Ticinella bejaouaensis zones, .and the T,icinella ex gr. primula-Ticinella bejaouaensis and Bitieinella
breggiensis-Tieinella ex gr. primula zones, respectively. These are based chiefly on abundances of Ticinella
bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966, as well as on occurrences of species of Globigerinelloides and Hedbergella. For
correlation with other areas, see figs. 4 and 5.
The overlying upper Albian Elobieeras and Mortonieeras ammonite wnes are represented by the
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-BiticinellabreggiensisandHedbergella (H.) gorbaehikae-Ticinella raynau-
di planktonic foraminiferal zones, respectively. Correlation with the north-west European ammonite zonation
(Hancock 1991) is hampered by increased ammonite provincialism in the late Albian, and only a broad
assignment to the Mortonieeras (M.) inflatumZone is possible. The Stoliezkaia dispar standard zone has
not been identified in Sergipe and may be missing.
The lower Cenomanian, i. e. the base of the Cotinguiba Formation, is represented by two foraminiferal
zones, Rotalipora brotzeni and Praeglobotruneana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenniniea zones, respectively,
in part corresponding to the Graysonites lozoi-Hypoturrilites betaitraensis ammonite wne. This zone corre-
lates with the broader Mantellieeras mantelli Zone of north-west Europe, although its exact vertiCal exten-
sion in relation to this wne is as yet uncertain. The Albian-Cenomanian boundary is not exposed in Sergipe,
but is recorded in well-sections at the boundary between the foraminiferid zones of Hedbergella (H.)
gorbaehikae-Tieinella raynaudi and Rotalipora brotzeni. The middle-upper Cenomanian Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) baltiea-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone appears to be subdivisible into three zones on the
basis ofammonites. The lower two, theAeompsoeerasspathi-DunveganoeerasandAeanthoeerasjukesbrownei-
Euealyeoeeras pentagonumzones, correspond broadly to the middle Cenomanian Turrilites eostatus-aeutus
and Aeanthoeeras jukesbrowni subzones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991), respectively. The upper
Cenomanian Hedbergella (Whiteinella) apriea-Globigerinelloides bentonensis foraminiferal zone contains
the globally distributed ammonite Euomphaloeeras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893), which is diagnostic for
the Metoieoeeras geslinianumstandard wne [M. geslinianum(d'Orbigny, 1850) is with doubt recorded in
Sergipe from the underlying Pseudoealyeoeeras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone].
Above the apriea-bentonensis/septemseriatum zones correlation becomes difficult; in particular the
position of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary is uncertain. Smith & Bengtson (1991, p. 9) tentatively
correlated the Vaseoeeras harttii-Pseudaspidoeerasfooteanum ammonite zone with the Neoeardioeeras
juddii Zone of north-west Europe, i. e. uppermost Cenomanian. This is in agreement with the succession in,
for example, Portugal, where P.footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) occurs in the N. juddii Zone (Berthou 1984).
Hancock (1991, p. 273-274) discussed the varying defmitions of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, and
Kennedy & Cobban (1991) proposed that the boundary should be drawn at the base of a Watinoeeras
devonense Zone, which is recognizable in Europe and in the U.S. Western Interior. W. devonense Wright &
Kennedy, 1981, itself does not occur in Sergipe, but the faunal association of the Watinoeeras amudariense-
Kamerunoeeras seitzi ammonite zone places this zone firmly in the lower Turonian, and at least partial
contemporaneity with the W. devonense Zone appears probable. The underlying problematic V. harttii-P.
footeanum Zone contains pseudotissotiids known from other areas, where they have consistently been
referred to the Turonian. Other elements of this zone, for example, Euomphaloeeras aff. septemseriatum,
point rather to a Cenomanian age (cf. also the Cenomanian occurrence ofP.footeanumin Portugal (Berthou
1984, which suggests a mixed assemblage. Occurrences in this zone of the inoceramid bivalve Mytiloides
249
Thepositionof the Aptian-Albian boundary in Sergipe is difficult to determine in terms of the so-called
standard zonation. The upper Aptian Hypaeanthoplitesjaeobi and the lower AlbianLeymeriella tardefureata
zones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991) are not recognizable in Sergipe, if at all present in the Tethyan
Realm. Indirect correlation, based on the Cheloniceras-Eodouvilleieeras lineage representatives, points to a
broadly late Aptian age for the lowermost marine beds. The absence of the genus Douvilleieeras in these beds
is also significant. Because of the limited geographical distribution of the L. tardefureata Zone, Hancock
(1991) suggested that the first appearance of species of Douvilleieeras should be used instead to define the
base of the Albian. This would mean a shift to a slightly higher boundary, although with the advantage of its
being globally recognizable.
Above the upper Aptian fauna in Sergipe there occurs Douvilleieeras sp., which we interpret as
lowermost Albian. This species is followed byDouvilleieeras ex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813), which
can be correlated with the upper lower Albian Douvilleieeras mammillatumZone of north-west Europe. The
lower and middle Albian Douvilleieeras and Oxytropidoeeras ammonite zones of Sergipe are each subdivi-
ded into two planktonic foraminiferal zones, the Globigerinelloides eushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis and
Ticinella bejaouaensis zones, .and the T,icinella ex gr. primula-Ticinella bejaouaensis and Bitieinella
breggiensis-Tieinella ex gr. primula zones, respectively. These are based chiefly on abundances of Ticinella
bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966, as well as on occurrences of species of Globigerinelloides and Hedbergella. For
correlation with other areas, see figs. 4 and 5.
The overlying upper Albian Elobieeras and Mortonieeras ammonite wnes are represented by the
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-BiticinellabreggiensisandHedbergella (H.) gorbaehikae-Ticinella raynau-
di planktonic foraminiferal zones, respectively. Correlation with the north-west European ammonite zonation
(Hancock 1991) is hampered by increased ammonite provincialism in the late Albian, and only a broad
assignment to the Mortonieeras (M.) inflatumZone is possible. The Stoliezkaia dispar standard zone has
not been identified in Sergipe and may be missing.
The lower Cenomanian, i. e. the base of the Cotinguiba Formation, is represented by two foraminiferal
zones, Rotalipora brotzeni and Praeglobotruneana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenniniea zones, respectively,
in part corresponding to the Graysonites lozoi-Hypoturrilites betaitraensis ammonite wne. This zone corre-
lates with the broader Mantellieeras mantelli Zone of north-west Europe, although its exact vertiCal exten-
sion in relation to this wne is as yet uncertain. The Albian-Cenomanian boundary is not exposed in Sergipe,
but is recorded in well-sections at the boundary between the foraminiferid zones of Hedbergella (H.)
gorbaehikae-Tieinella raynaudi and Rotalipora brotzeni. The middle-upper Cenomanian Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) baltiea-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone appears to be subdivisible into three zones on the
basis ofammonites. The lower two, theAeompsoeerasspathi-DunveganoeerasandAeanthoeerasjukesbrownei-
Euealyeoeeras pentagonumzones, correspond broadly to the middle Cenomanian Turrilites eostatus-aeutus
and Aeanthoeeras jukesbrowni subzones of north-west Europe (Hancock 1991), respectively. The upper
Cenomanian Hedbergella (Whiteinella) apriea-Globigerinelloides bentonensis foraminiferal zone containS
the globally distributed ammonite Euomphaloeeras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893), which is diagnostic for
the Metoieoeeras geslinianumstandard wne [M. geslinianum(d'Orbigny, 1850) is with doubt recorded in
Sergipe from the underlying Pseudoealyeoeeras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone].
Above the apriea-bentonensis/septemseriatum zones correlation becomes difficult; in particular the
position of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary is uncertain. Smith & Bengtson (1991, p. 9) tentatively
correlated the Vaseoeeras harttii-Pseudaspidoeerasfooteanum ammonite zone with the Neoeardioeeras
juddii Zone of north-west Europe, i. e. uppermost Cenomanian. This is in agreement with the succession in,
for example, Portugal, where P.footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) occurs in the N. juddii Zone (Berthou 1984).
Hancock (1991, p. 273-274) discussed the varying defmitions of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, and
Kennedy & Cobban (1991) proposed that the boundary should be drawn at the base of a Watinoeeras
devonense Zone, which is recognizable in Europe and in the U.S. Western Interior. W. devonense Wright &
Kennedy, 1981, itself does not occur in Sergipe, but the faunal association of the Watinoeeras amudariense-
Kamerunoeeras seitzi ammonite zone places this zone firmly in the lower Turonian, and at least partial
contemporaneity with the W. devonense Zone appears probable. The underlying problematic V. harttii-P.
footeanum Zone contains pseudotissotiids known from other areas, where they have consistently been
referred to the Turonian. Other elements of this zone, for example, Euomphaloeeras aff. septemseriatum,
point rather to a Cenomanian age (cf. also the Cenomanian occurrence ofP.footeanumin Portugal (Berthou
1984, which suggests a mixed assemblage. Occurrences in this zone of the inocerarnid bivalve Mytiloides
249
(cf. Kauffman & Bengtson 1985) are as yet to be evaluated. The coeval Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi foraminiferal zone lacks diagnostic elements for interregional correla-
tion. The H. (W.) archaeocretacea-H. reussi and V. harttii-P.footeanumzones are thus here interpreted as
straddling the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, using the defmition of Kennedy & Cobban (1991).
The lower-middle Turonian is represented by the planktonic foraminiferal zone of Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) aprica-Hedbergella (Whiteinella) baltica and the two ammonite zones of Watinoceras
amudariense-Kamerunoceras seitzi and Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. These zones
correlate well with the Watinoceras spp. andMammites nodosoides zones of north-west Europe, respectively.
The middle Turonian Collignoniceras woollgari standard zone has not been recognized in Sergipe,
probably in part owing to significant depositional breaks in the present onshore part of the basin (Bengtson
1983). The upper Turonian is represented by the approximately coeval Dicarinella primitiva and
Subprionocyclus-Reesidites zones, which correlatewell with the Subprionocyclusneptuni Zoneofnorth-west
Europe.
The lower-middle Coniacian interval is represented by the Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinella
primitiva foraminiferal zone and the Barroisiceras onilahyense-Forr;esteria and Solgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti ammonite zones, respectively. Coniacian international zonation is in a state of flux,
and the Sergipe sequences cannot as yet be firmly tied to the European or other schemes. It is possible that
the lower Coniacian is partly missing in Sergipe, at least in the present onshore areas. TheSolgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti Zone marks the endofthe carbonate-dominated depositional cycle in Sergipe. In most
onshore areas there follows a significant hiatus, whereas locally offshore the sequence is more complete. The
foraminiferal zone of Dicarinella concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa spans the Coniacian-Santonian
boundary.
Only a fewammonites have as yet been found in the clastic deposits formed during the post-Coniacian
cycle, the Pial;abul;u Formation (Bengtson et al., in prep.). The biostratigraphy is based on planktonic fora-
miniferids, supported by benthic foraminiferal assemblages.
Zonal definitions and characterizations
In the following, zones are defined and characterized in chronostratigraphical order, using the most
diagnostic taxa. Additional, stratigraphically less useful taxa, are not listed.
Some zones are sharply defined, others are more vaguely characterized, many (especially for
ammonites) are based on recorded assemblages. For several fossil groups only isolated observations of taxa
are available (e. g. echinoids, inoceramids, non-inoceramid bivalves, gastropods) ; these are currently being
integrated into the scheme.
Because of caving and sample mixing that commonly occurs in oil-well cuttings, normally only the
top down-hole occurrences (the evolutionary extinction datum level or the local last appearance in the
stratigraphical section due to major environmental changes) of microfossils and their peaks of abundances
have biostratigraphical significance. However, with the careful examination of all the assemblages and
differentiation of caved and/or reworked specimens (e. g., decrease in abundance and stray occurrences, dif-
ferentiation in colour and preservation) it was also possible to record the first appearances of several taxa (see
figs. 6-7), thereby allowing the establishment of a more refined microbiostratigraphical framework.
The benthic microfaunas are depth-related and biostratigraphically less useful than the planktonic
ones. However, facies-constant stratigraphical sequences, where no major environmental change has taken
place over a long time-interval, occur within the thick succession of the Pial;abul;u Formation (Calumbi
Member) in the offshore south-eastern part of the basin (Mosqueiro Low). The study of these strata allows
the selection of benthic zonal markers and the precise recognition of their first appearance and extinction
levels, which provide potentially isochronous zonal boundaries for the post-Coniacian deposits within the
basin.
Unless otherwise indicated the foraminiferal and ammonite zones are Oppelzones (Hedberg 1976,
p. 58), the boundaries of which are marked for ammonites chiefly by first appearances and for foraminiferids
by first and/or last appearances. The zones are named after one or more characteristic taxa that occur in the
zone, although not necessarily confined to the zone. More environmentally controlled, locally applicable
assemblage zones (sensu Hedberg 1976, p. 50-52) are proposed for thebenthic foraminiferids of the upper
Aptian.
250
(cf. Kauffman & Bengtson 1985) are as yet to be evaluated. The coeval Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi foraminiferal zone lacks diagnostic elements for interregional correla-
tion. The H. (W.) archaeocretacea-H. reussi and V. harttii-P.footeanumzones are thus here interpreted as
straddling the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, using the defmition of Kennedy & Cobban (1991).
The lower-middle Turonian is represented by the planktonic foraminiferal zone of Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) aprica-Hedbergella (Whiteinella) baltica and the two ammonite zones of Watinoceras
amudariense-Kamerunoceras seitzi and Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. These zones
correlate well with the Watinoceras spp. andMammites nodosoides zones of north-west Europe, respectively.
The middle Turonian Collignoniceras woollgari standard zone has not been recognized in Sergipe,
probably in part owing to significant depositional breaks in the present onshore part of the basin (Bengtson
1983). The upper Turonian is represented by the approximately coeval Dicarinella primitiva and
Subprionocyclus-Reesidites zones, which correlatewell with the Subprionocyclusneptuni Zoneofnorth-west
Europe.
The lower-middle Coniacian interval is represented by the Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinella
primitiva foraminiferal zone and the Barroisiceras onilahyense-Forr;esteria and Solgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti ammonite zones, respectively. Coniacian international zonation is in a state of flux,
and the Sergipe sequences cannot as yet be firmly tied to the European or other schemes. It is possible that
the lower Coniacian is partly missing in Sergipe, at least in the present onshore areas. TheSolgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti Zone marks the endofthe carbonate-dominated depositional cycle in Sergipe. In most
onshore areas there follows a significant hiatus, whereas locally offshore the sequence is more complete. The
foraminiferal zone of Dicarinella concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa spans the Coniacian-Santonian
boundary.
Only a fewammonites have as yet been found in the clastic deposits formed during the post-Coniacian
cycle, the Pial;abul;u Formation (Bengtson et aI., in prep.). The biostratigraphy is based on planktonic fora-
miniferids, supported by benthic foraminiferal assemblages.
Zonal definitions and characterizations
In the following, zones are defined and characterized in chronostratigraphical order, using the most
diagnostic taxa. Additional, stratigraphically less useful taxa, are not listed.
Some zones are sharply defined, others are more vaguely characterized, many (especially for
ammonites) are based on recorded assemblages. For several fossil groups only isolated observations of taxa
are available (e. g. echinoids, inoceramids, non-inoceramid bivalves, gastropods) ; these are currently being
integrated into the scheme.
Because of caving and sample mixing that commonly occurs in oil-well cuttings, normally only the
top down-hole occurrences (the evolutionary extinction datum level or the local last appearance in the
stratigraphical section due to major environmental changes) of microfossils and their peaks of abundances
have biostratigraphical significance. However, with the careful examination of all the assemblages and
differentiation of caved and/or reworked specimens (e. g., decrease in abundance and stray occurrences, dif-
ferentiation in colour and preservation) it was also possible to record the first appearances of several taxa (see
figs. 6-7), thereby allowing the establishment of a more refined microbiostratigraphical framework.
The benthic microfaunas are depth-related and biostratigraphically less useful than the planktonic
ones. However, facies-constant stratigraphical sequences, where no major environmental change has taken
place over a long time-interval, occur within the thick succession of the Pial;abul;u Formation (Calumbi
Member) in the offshore south-eastern part of the basin (Mosqueiro Low). The study of these strata allows
the selection of benthic zonal markers and the precise recognition of their first appearance and extinction
levels, which provide potentially isochronous zonal boundaries for the post-Coniacian deposits within the
basin.
Unless otherwise indicated the foraminiferal and ammonite zones are Oppel zones (Hedberg 1976,
p. 58), the boundaries of which are marked for ammonites chiefly by first appearances and for foraminiferids
by first and/or last appearances. The zones are named after one or more characteristic taxa that occur in the
zone, although not necessarily confined to the zone. More environmentally controlled, locally applicable
assemblage zones (sensu Hedberg 1976, p. 50-52) are proposed for the benthic foraminiferids of the upper
Aptian.
250
(cf. Kauffman & Bengtson 1985) are as yet to be evaluated. The coeval Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi foraminiferal zone lacks diagnostic elements for interregional correla-
tion. The H. (W.) archaeocretacea-H. reussi and V. harttii-P.footeanumzones are thus here interpreted as
straddling the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, using the defmition of Kennedy & Cobban (1991).
The lower-middle Turonian is represented by the planktonic foraminiferal zone of Hedbergella
(Whiteinella) aprica-Hedbergella (Whiteinella) baltica and the two ammonite zones of Watinoceras
amudariense-Kamerunoceras seitzi and Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. These zones
correlate well with the Watinoceras spp. andMammites nodosoides zones of north-west Europe, respectively.
The middle Turonian Collignoniceras woollgari standard zone has not been recognized in Sergipe,
probably in part owing to significant depositional breaks in the present onshore part of the basin (Bengtson
1983). The upper Turonian is represented by the approximately coeval Dicarinella primitiva and
Subprionocyclus-Reesidites zones, which correlatewell with the Subprionocyclusneptuni Zoneofnorth-west
Europe.
The lower-middle Coniacian interval is represented by the Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinella
primitiva foraminiferal zone and the Barroisiceras onilahyense-Forr;esteria and Solgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti ammonite zones, respectively. Coniacian international zonation is in a state of flux,
and the Sergipe sequences cannot as yet be firmly tied to the European or other schemes. It is possible that
the lower Coniacian is partly missing in Sergipe, at least in the present onshore areas. TheSolgerites armatus-
Prionocycloceras lenti Zone marks the endofthe carbonate-dominated depositional cycle in Sergipe. In most
onshore areas there follows a significant hiatus, whereas locally offshore the sequence is more complete. The
foraminiferal zone of Dicarinella concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa spans the Coniacian-Santonian
boundary.
Only a fewammonites have as yet been found in the clastic deposits formed during the post-Coniacian
cycle, the Pial;abul;u Formation (Bengtson et al., in prep.). The biostratigraphy is based on planktonic fora-
miniferids, supported by benthic foraminiferal assemblages.
Zonal definitions and characterizations
In the following, zones are defined and characterized in chronostratigraphical order, using the most
diagnostic taxa. Additional, stratigraphically less useful taxa, are not listed.
Some zones are sharply defined, others are more vaguely characterized, many (especially for
ammonites) are based on recorded assemblages. For several fossil groups only isolated observations of taxa
are available (e. g. echinoids, inoceramids, non-inoceramid bivalves, gastropods) ; these are currently being
integrated into the scheme.
Because of caving and sample mixing that commonly occurs in oil-well cuttings, normally only the
top down-hole occurrences (the evolutionary extinction datum level or the local last appearance in the
stratigraphical section due to major environmental changes) of microfossils and their peaks of abundances
have biostratigraphical significance. However, with the careful examination of all the assemblages and
differentiation of caved and/or reworked specimens (e. g., decrease in abundance and stray occurrences, dif-
ferentiation in colour and preservation) it was also possible to record the first appearances of several taxa (see
figs. 6-7), thereby allowing the establishment of a more refined microbiostratigraphical framework.
The benthic microfaunas are depth-related and biostratigraphically less useful than the planktonic
ones. However, facies-constant stratigraphical sequences, where no major environmental change has taken
place over a long time-interval, occur within the thick succession of the Pial;abul;u Formation (Calumbi
Member) in the offshore south-eastern part of the basin (Mosqueiro Low). The study of these strata allows
the selection of benthic zonal markers and the precise recognition of their first appearance and extinction
levels, which provide potentially isochronous zonal boundaries for the post-Coniacian deposits within the
basin.
Unless otherwise indicated the foraminiferal and ammonite zones are Oppelzones (Hedberg 1976,
p. 58), the boundaries of which are marked for ammonites chiefly by first appearances and for foraminiferids
by first and/or last appearances. The zones are named after one or more characteristic taxa that occur in the
zone, although not necessarily confined to the zone. More environmentally controlled, locally applicable
assemblage zones (sensu Hedberg 1976, p. 50-52) are proposed for thebenthic foraminiferids of the upper
Aptian.
250
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
Ages Zones
e. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
First app.
datums
Last app.
datums
l
e. contusa
G. aeflyptiaca
P. vanans
-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - -
C. patelliformis
G. gansseri
G.osetta
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. ventricosa
J
G. cretacea S. stuartiformis
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G..f:tr:r:
i
- ~ _
C. fornicata
C. ex gr. fornicata- G. bulloides
G. /inneiana G. /inneiana
G. subspinosa
~ - - ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
~
.J
-
C
III
'2
III
>-
Q.
~
E
w
III
U
C
Sl
.!!!
.. l:
.J
0
...
-
C
III
Early
If)
l:
Late
III
'u
~
.!!!
c
l;
0
w U
Late
c
-
.!!!
Middle
C
0
>---
...
Early
.=
~
c
.J .!!!
l:
I-- III
Middle
E
0
I-- l:
~
CII
l;
U
w
Sl
..
.J
C
-
.!!!
J:I
..
:cc
'5
..,
:E
I--
>-
'l:
01
W
Sl
C
III
01
a
.J
cc
- -- - -
l
G' Imneiana
G. onenta/is-G. ventncosa G. onentalls
G. ventricosa
-------------- ~ : ~ ~ ; ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - -
G. stuartiformis
G. elevata plexus
H. reussi
, ~
- . barri - - -
. ~ ' 1 gr. .mfl.ridal.
__..J.H..d.I,!!i[s__
251
Fig. 6 - FAD and LADof biostrati-
graphically important planktonic
Foraminiferida (age lengths not to
scale).
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
Ages Zones
e. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
First app.
datums
Last app.
datums
l
e. contusa
G. aeflyptiaca
P. vanans
-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - -
C. patelliformis
G. gansseri
G.osetta
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. ventricosa
J
G. cretacea S. stuartiformis
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G..f:tr:r:
i
- ~ _
C. fornicata
C. ex gr. fornicata- G. bulloides
G. linneiana G. linneiana
G. subspinosa
~ - - ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
~
oJ
-
C
III
'2
III
>-
Q.
~
E
w
III
U
C
Sl
.!!!
.. l:
oJ
0
...
-
C
III
Early
If)
l:
Late
III
'u
~
.!!!
c
l;
0
w U
Late
c
-
.!!!
Middle
C
0
>---
...
Early
.=
~
c
oJ .!!!
l:
I-- III
Middle
E
0
I-- l:
~
CII
l;
U
w
Sl
..
oJ
C
-
.!!!
J:I
..
< '5
..,
:E
I--
>-
'l:
01
W
Sl
C
III
01
a
oJ
ce
- -- - -
l
G. Ilnneiana
G. onentalis-G. ventncosa G. onentalls
G. ventricosa
-------------- ~ : ~ ~ ; ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - -
G. stuartiformis
G. elevata plexus
H. reussi
, ~
- . barri - - -
. ~ ' 1 gr. .mfl.ridal.
__..J.H..d.I,!!i[s__
251
Fig. 6 - FAD and LADof biostrati-
graphically important planktonic
Foraminiferida (age lengths not to
scale).
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
Ages Zones
e. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
First app.
datums
Last app.
datums
l
e. contusa
G. aeflyptiaca
P. vaf/ans
-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - -
C. patelliformis
G. gansseri
G.osetta
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis G. ventricosa
J
G. cretacea S. stuartiformis
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G..f:tr:r:
i
- ~ _
C. fornicata
C. ex gr. fornicata- G. bulloides
G. /inneiana G. /inneiana
G. subspinosa
~ - - ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
~
.J
-
C
III
'2
III
>-
Q.
~
E
w
III
U
C
Sl
.!!!
.. l:
.J
0
...
-
C
III
Early
If)
l:
Late
III
'u
~
.!!!
c
l;
0
w U
Late
c
-
.!!!
Middle
C
0
>---
...
Early
.=
~
c
.J .!!!
l:
I-- III
Middle
E
0
I-- l:
~
CII
l;
U
w
Sl
..
.J
C
-
.!!!
J:I
..
:cc
'5
..,
:E
I--
>-
'l:
01
W
Sl
C
III
01
a
.J
cc
- -- - -
l
G' Imneiana
G. Of/enta/is-G. ventf/cosa G. of/entaIls
G. ventricosa
-------------- ~ : ~ ~ ; ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - -
G. stuartiformis
G. elevata plexus
H. reussi
, ~
- . barri - - -
. ~ ' 1 gr. .mfl.ridal.
__..J.H..d.1,!!i[S__
251
Fig. 6 - FAD and LADof biostrati-
graphically important planktonic
Foraminiferida (age lengths not to
scale).
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA
-------
---------
ValvulineriB
G-: berthe7inr: - - -
..
sp.
plummeras-
Ages Zones
First app. Last app. 10
plummerae-- reU$S; plexus
datums datums
...J
I:
_ _ _
---------
1--:-
.!II
G./evis
I:
B. ex gr. colonensis
..,
e G.f8vis-
N. ex 9r. obscura
N. aspsrs
I.....!...
N. ex gr. obscura Gaboni!a cf. paNa
O. clarki-
N. canadenss

P. kickapooensis
O. c/arki
.. ------- --------- 11:01le'a- - - --
P. k;ckapooensis w

I:
C ex gr. triJamra P. rsussi G. obesa-G. levis
Cassidella ex gr.

P arena!a P. plummerse
G.obess viscidus
-------
;- - - - - - --
iOBiter/er - - - -
------ --------
---------
.g
A. impexu5

O. ve/ascoensis A. paterslla
..

i
O. vslascoensis
..
G.l8vis-
A. imp8XUS
Discammina sp .A
10
1-
------- ---------
8X-g,:-b8aumont;anus
...J Discammina sp. A
A. patereJJa
Discammina sp .A -

C. ex Qr.
G. nonionoides Gabonita levis
beaumontJana- P. ex gr. prolixa
------- -------- --------
w
G, nonionoides
I A...;. cl _
P. ex gr. fang I:
NOdOSaria ex. gr. Cibicides sp.A
.!II _ ____
I: obscura-
. supracretsces .!!

CiblcK1es sp, A
_ _
-------
--------- G. corrects
L. tormarpensis
G.lorneiana
I:
G. sandidgei

L. (?)cf L. (?) cf. thalmannii


r--
Ihalmanniformis-
formis
G. subconica $. crelacea
-'
L. gouskovi
S. cretaceae
N. rugosa
Spiroloculina sp .A
------- --------
---------

O. ex gr. halfe/di
f
l- A. ex gr. globigerin;-
O. clavata
I /ormis
V. amaraJi
w Cibldes sp.A-
I:
G. mOnlere/ensis
P complanata
Cibicides sp. A
.!II
O. navarroana S. cI.crass/costats
I:
K. ex gr. conV8rsa
P comp/anata
l!- L. gouskovi
P. faylorensis ------ --------
---------
E P spinafa
N. subcretacea
tl -------
--------- T( ---- ---
N. subcretacea-
R. tetrahedralis
E. velascoensis
P. jarvisi T. ex gr. 8xcavata
R. tetrahedra/is
T ex gr.excavata

G. nacatochensis
R . ex gr. szajnochae
..
w G. subconica 10 ------ --------
----------
G. loetterlei
...J
N. subcrelacea- N. subcretacea
S.
H. ex gr. subsphaerica
S. et. crassicosla S. et. crassicostata
R. ex gr, szajnochae

------ --------
---------
G. berthefini-
0. schloenbachi
S. bramJettei lJIum.merae-
G. berthelini-
T!!aE.e!i. _____
---------
r-- rsussl p1exus-
plummerae...
------- G. cf.gradata
'!.u:,sij''!.x,:s _ _ _
G. cf. gradata
ill"" ".
o1l
------
---------
Glaphyrammina sp. A .., E. carpenteri

N. texana-o, clarki N. texana


:i
E. spmuUfera-
C. ex gr.
G. cf. mulfisepta
0. darkl I:
E, carpenteri
-' I: 0. clavara .!II E. spinu/nera
.!!
------- --------
IT - - - -
r-- & ------ --------
--------- I: E. chapmani
M. ozawai
1-

O. schloenbachi-
T. ex gr. excavata
PIS ex gr. dividens
ex gr bulleta
PIS. ex gr. divid&ns
>- O. sch/oenbachi
iii
G. spissocostara
w
R. ex gr. globulosa
------ --------
---------

w
8.
L revoIU'B-
rr ;p-A
E'J.arcrcw:Z-
G. filiformls
G, spinea
L. revoluta E. carpenteri
E. aracajuensis
G./Hiformis
!
G. ex gr. beccariiformis
------
6! _
---------
I: G. correcta
su';,:rr.:;a-
L. ex gr. nodosa
.!II G. sandldgei
L. ex gr. sUbangulata
j Gavelinopsis(?) sp. B L. ex gr. nodosa
B. nonioninoides
I: L. revoluta I:
--A.cT-- --------
.3
P ex gr. capitosa .. .!II
A. cf. coprofithiformis
,-
------ loo- --------
j

coprolithiformis-
8. hedbe'9i
GaveJlne7Ja-sp B - -
8 cl. hedber9i-
H.lueckel
H.luecksl
>-
Gavel/inella sp. A-
L formarpensls
-"LCi';---
L. nodosaria
1.i Valvulineria sp. A T. ex r SUbCOnlC8 L. ciryi
w
sp B
L. nodosaria-
__ J,f-
M. ex gr. aequivocs
-------

Fig. 7 - FAD and LAD ofbiostratigraphlcally important benthlc Foraminiferlda (age lengths not to scale).
Owing to the limited vertical extent of most outcrop sections (nonnally only a few metres) in relation
to the considerable total thickness of the carbonate sequence (well over 500 m), no significant faunal shifts
were nonnally observed during macrofossil sampling of each locality. Bed-by-bed sampling was therefore
not consideredpractical; however, as a result of this broad collecting procedure some samples may represent
mixed assemblages.
Macrofossil sampling in Sergipe is hampered by lackof continuous outcrop. Nonnally small quarries
and road cuttings expose only up to a few metres of section, and initial collecting procedures yielded only a
small number of specimens. The few existing larger quarries have in many cases yielded sizeable collections
252
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA
-------
---------
ValvulineriB
G-: berthe7inr: - - -
..
sp.
plummeras-
Ages Zones
First app. Last app. 10
plummerae-- reU$S; plexus
datums datums
...J
c:
_ _ _
---------
1--:-
.!II
G./evis
c:
B. ex gr. colonensis
..,
e G.f8vis-
N. ex gr.obscura
N. aspers
I.....!...
N. ex gr. obscura Gaboni!a cf. paNa
O. clarki-
N. canadenss

P. kickapooensis
O. clarki
.. ------- --------- 11:01le'o- - - --
P. k;ckapooensis w

c:
C ex gr. tri/atera P. fsussi G. obesa-G. levis
Cassidella ex gr.

P arena!a P. plummerse
G. abess viscidus
-------
;- - - - - - --
ioeffe,l"r - - - -
------ --------
---------
.g
A. impexus

O. ve/ascoensis A. paterslla
..

i
O. vslascoensis
..
G.l8vis-
A. impexus
Discammina sp .A
10
1-
------- ---------
8X-g,:-b80umont;onus
...J Discammina sp, A A. patereJJa
Discammina sp .A -

C. ex Qf.
G. nonionoides Gabonita levis
beaumontJana- P. ex gr. prolixa
------- -------- --------
w
G, nonionoides
I A...;. c!: _
P. ex gr. fang c:
NOdOSaria ex. gr. Cibicides sp.A
.!II _ ____
c: obscura-
E. supracretsces .!!

CiblcK1es sp, A
_ _
-------
--------- G. corrects
L. tormarpensis
G./orneiana
c:
G. sandidge;

L. (?)cf L. (?) ct. tha/mannii-


r--
Ihalmanniformis-
'armis
G. subconica $. crelacea
-'
L. gouskovi
S. cretaceae
N. rugosa
Spir%culina sp .A
------- --------
---------

O. ex gr. halfe/di
f
1- A. ex gr. globigerini
O. clavata
I lormis
V. amaraJi
w Cibldes sp.A-
c:
G. mOnlere/ensis
P complanata
Cibicides sp. A
.!II
O. navarroana S. cf.crassicostata
c:
K. ex gr. conV8rsa
P comp/anata
l!. L. gouskovi
P. raylorensis ------ --------
---------
E P spinara
N. subcretacea
tl -------
--------- T( ---- ---
N. subcretacea-
R. tetrahedralis
E. velascoensis
P. jaNisi T. ex gr. 8xcavata
R. tetrahedra/is
T ex gr.excavata

G. nacatochensis
R . ex gr. szajnochae
..
w G. subconica 10 ------ --------
----------
G. /oetterlei
...J
N. subcrelacea- N. subcretacea
S.
H. ex gr. subsphaerica
S. cf. crassicosla S. cf. crassicostata
R. ex gr, szajnochae

------ --------
---------
G. berthefini-
0. schloenbachi
S. bramJettei lJIum.merae-
G. berthelini-
T!!aE.e!i. _____
---------
r-- rsuss/ p1exus-
p/ummerae...
------- G. cf.gradata
'!.u:,sij''!.x,:s _ _ _
G. ct. gradata
ill"" ".
o1l
------
---------
Glaphyrammina sp. A .., E. carpenteri

N. texana-o, clarki N. texana


:i
E. spmuUfera-
C. ex gr.
G. cf. mulrisepta
0. clarki c:
E, carpenteri
-' c: 0. clavara .!II E. spinu/nera
.!!
------- --------
IT - - - -
r-- & ------ --------
--------- c: E. chapmani
M. ozawai
1-

O. schloenbachi-
T. ex gr. excavata
PIS ex gr. dividens
ex gr bulleto
PIS. ex gr. divid&ns
>- O. sch/oenbachi
iii
G. spissocostara
w
R. ex gr. globulosa
------ --------
---------

w
8.
L revoIU'B-
rr ;p-A
E'J.arcrcw:Z-
G. fili/ormls
G, spinea
L. rBvo/uta E. carpenter;
E. aracajuensis
G.lili/ormis
!
G. ex gr. beccariiformis
------
6! _
---------
c: G. correcta
su';,:rr.:;a-
L. ex gr. nodosa
.!II G. sandldgei
L. ex gr. sUbangulata
j Gavelinopsis(?) sp. B L. ex gr. nodosa
B. nonioninoides
c: L. revo/uta c:
--A.cT-- --------
.3
P ex gr. capitosa .. .!II
A. cf. coprofithiformis
,-
------ fo. --------
j

coprolithiformis-
8. hedbe'9i
GoveJlne7Jo-sp B - -
8 cf. hedber9i-
H. luecke,
H.luecks/
>-
Gavellinel/a sp. A-
L rormarpens/s
-"LCi';---
L. nodosaria
1.i Valvulineria sp. A T. ex r SUbCOnlC8 L. ciryi
w
sp B
L. nodosaria-
__ J,f-
M. ex gr. aequivocs
-------

Fig. 7 - FAD and LAD ofbiostratigraphlcally important benthic Foraminiferida (age lengths not to scale).
Owing to the limited vertical extent of most outcrop sections (nonnally only a few metres) in relation
to the considerable total thickness of the carbonate sequence (well over 500 m), no significant faunal shifts
were nonnally observed during macrofossil sampling of each locality. Bed-by-bed sampling was therefore
not consideredpractical; however, as a result of this broad collecting procedure some samples may represent
mixed assemblages.
Macrofossil sampling in Sergipe is hampered by lackof continuous outcrop. Nonnally small quarries
and road cuttings expose only up to a few metres of section, and initial collecting procedures yielded only a
small number of specimens. The few existing larger quarries have in many cases yielded sizeable collections
252
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA
-------
---------
ValvulineriB
G-: berthe7inr: - - -
..
sp.
plummeras-
Ages Zones
First app. Last app. 10
plummerae-- reU$S; plexus
datums datums
...J
I:
_ _ _
---------
1--:-
.!II
G./evis
I:
B. ex gr. colonensis
..,
e G.f8vis-
N. ex 9r. obscura
N. aspsrs
I.....!...
N. ex gr. obscura Gaboni!a cf. paNa
O. clarki-
N. canadenss

P. kickapooensis
O. c/arki
.. ------- --------- 11:01le'a- - - --
P. k;ckapooensis w

I:
C ex gr. triJamra P. rsussi G. obesa-G. levis
Cassidella ex gr.

P arena!a P. plummerse
G.obess viscidus
-------
;- - - - - - --
iOBiter/er - - - -
------ --------
---------
.g
A. impexu5

O. ve/ascoensis A. paterslla
..

i
O. vslascoensis
..
G.l8vis-
A. imp8XUS
Discammina sp .A
10
1-
------- ---------
8X-g,:-b8aumont;anus
...J Discammina sp. A
A. patereJJa
Discammina sp .A -

C. ex Qr.
G. nonionoides Gabonita levis
beaumontJana- P. ex gr. prolixa
------- -------- --------
w
G, nonionoides
I A...;. cl _
P. ex gr. fang I:
NOdOSaria ex. gr. Cibicides sp.A
.!II _ ____
I: obscura-
. supracretsces .!!

CiblcK1es sp, A
_ _
-------
--------- G. corrects
L. tormarpensis
G.lorneiana
I:
G. sandidgei

L. (?)cf L. (?) cf. thalmannii


r--
Ihalmanniformis-
formis
G. subconica $. crelacea
-'
L. gouskovi
S. cretaceae
N. rugosa
Spiroloculina sp .A
------- --------
---------

O. ex gr. halfe/di
f
l- A. ex gr. globigerin;-
O. clavata
I /ormis
V. amaraJi
w Cibldes sp.A-
I:
G. mOnlere/ensis
P complanata
Cibicides sp. A
.!II
O. navarroana S. cI.crass/costats
I:
K. ex gr. conV8rsa
P comp/anata
l!- L. gouskovi
P. faylorensis ------ --------
---------
E P spinafa
N. subcretacea
tl -------
--------- T( ---- ---
N. subcretacea-
R. tetrahedralis
E. velascoensis
P. jarvisi T. ex gr. 8xcavata
R. tetrahedra/is
T ex gr.excavata

G. nacatochensis
R . ex gr. szajnochae
..
w G. subconica 10 ------ --------
----------
G. loetterlei
...J
N. subcrelacea- N. subcretacea
S.
H. ex gr. subsphaerica
S. et. crassicosla S. et. crassicostata
R. ex gr, szajnochae

------ --------
---------
G. berthefini-
0. schloenbachi
S. bramJettei lJIum.merae-
G. berthelini-
T!!aE.e!i. _____
---------
r-- rsussl p1exus-
plummerae...
------- G. cf.gradata
'!.u:,sij''!.x,:s _ _ _
G. cf. gradata
ill"" ".
o1l
------
---------
Glaphyrammina sp. A .., E. carpenteri

N. texana-o, clarki N. texana


:i
E. spmuUfera-
C. ex gr.
G. cf. mulfisepta
0. darkl I:
E, carpenteri
-' I: 0. clavara .!II E. spinu/nera
.!!
------- --------
IT - - - -
r-- & ------ --------
--------- I: E. chapmani
M. ozawai
1-

O. schloenbachi-
T. ex gr. excavata
PIS ex gr. dividens
ex gr bulleta
PIS. ex gr. divid&ns
>- O. sch/oenbachi
iii
G. spissocostara
w
R. ex gr. globulosa
------ --------
---------

w
8.
L revoIU'B-
rr ;p-A
E'J.arcrcw:Z-
G. filiformls
G, spinea
L. revoluta E. carpenteri
E. aracajuensis
G./Hiformis
!
G. ex gr. beccariiformis
------
6! _
---------
I: G. correcta
su';,:rr.:;a-
L. ex gr. nodosa
.!II G. sandldgei
L. ex gr. sUbangulata
j Gavelinopsis(?) sp. B L. ex gr. nodosa
B. nonioninoides
I: L. revoluta I:
--A.cT-- --------
.3
P ex gr. capitosa .. .!II
A. cf. coprofithiformis
,-
------ loo- --------
j

coprolithiformis-
8. hedbe'9i
GaveJlne7Ja-sp B - -
8 cl. hedber9i-
H.lueckel
H.luecksl
>-
Gavel/inella sp. A-
L formarpensls
-"LCi';---
L. nodosaria
1.i Valvulineria sp. A T. ex r SUbCOnlC8 L. ciryi
w
sp B
L. nodosaria-
__ J,f-
M. ex gr. aequivocs
-------

Fig. 7 - FAD and LAD ofbiostratigraphlcally important benthlc Foraminiferlda (age lengths not to scale).
Owing to the limited vertical extent of most outcrop sections (nonnally only a few metres) in relation
to the considerable total thickness of the carbonate sequence (well over 500 m), no significant faunal shifts
were nonnally observed during macrofossil sampling of each locality. Bed-by-bed sampling was therefore
not consideredpractical; however, as a result of this broad collecting procedure some samples may represent
mixed assemblages.
Macrofossil sampling in Sergipe is hampered by lackof continuous outcrop. Nonnally small quarries
and road cuttings expose only up to a few metres of section, and initial collecting procedures yielded only a
small number of specimens. The few existing larger quarries have in many cases yielded sizeable collections
252
of biostratigraphically significant macrofossils ; however, because the material was collected chiefly by
quarry workers, the relative position in sequence of most of the specimens is unknown. Position in sequence
of isolated localities was inferred mainly on the basis of regional dip and altitude of the beds exposed. Thus,
in contrast to microbiostratigraphical procedures, the true first appearances and the true vertical distribution
of the diagnostic macrofossil taxa have not been observed.
For the definition of the base ofeach ammonite zone, the first appearance of a well-known, abundant,
wide-spread, and easily identifiable taxon was chosen. In addition to the defining taxon, a number of other
taxa characterize the zone and thus aid in its identification.
Reference sections and profiles for the biownes will be given in a forthcoming publication (Koutsou-
kos & Bengtson, in preparation)..
Legend - The abbreviations given after the diagnostic taxa listed represent local biotic events and
occurrences, recorded at outcrop and in well-sections in the Sergipe Basin.
(FAD) =First Appearance Datum
(FAWZ) = First Appearance Within Zone
(LAD) =Last Appearance Datum
(LAWZ) =Last Appearance Within Zone
(TR) = Total Range
(AC) = ACme (abundance peak)
(OWZ) =Occurrence Within Zone
(OWZPR) = Occurrence Within Zone, Probably Restricted to zone
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERIDA
The succession of planktonic foraminiferids is based in part on the works of Masters (1977),
Robaszynski & Caron (1979), Robaszynski et al. (1984) and Caron (1985).
Globigerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Zone: Hedbergella (H.) trocoidea (Gandol-
fi, 1942) (FAWZ), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria, 1974 (FAWZ), Globigerinelloides barri (Bolli,
Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides ex gr. maridalensis-Hedbergella (H.) similis Zone: Ticinella spp. (FAD), Globi-
gerinelloids barri (Bolli, Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (LAD), Globigerinelloidsferreolensis (Moullade, 1961)
(LAD), Globigerinelloids ex gr. maridalensis (Bolli, 1959) (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) similis Longoria, 1974
(LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (FAD, AC; "1st abundance peak"). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides cushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Globigerinelloids cushmani (Tappan,
1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966(AC; "2ndabundancepeak"). Assignedage : earliest Albian.
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Category: Acme-wne (sensu Hedberg, 1976, p. 59-60). Hedbergella
(H.) subcretacea (Tappan, 1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (AC ; "3rd abundance peak").
Assigned age: early Albian.
Tiein'ella ex gr. primula-Tieinella bejaouaensis Zone: Hedbergella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow,
1934) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Ticinella ex gr.primulaLuterbacher,
1963 (FAD), Globigerinelloides cushmani (Tappan, 1943) (LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966
(LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Bi/ieinella breggiensis-Tieinella ex gr. primula Zone: Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942)
(FAD), Ticinella raynaudi Sigal, 1966 (FAD), Ticinella madecassiana Sigal, 1966 (TR?), large-sized
Ticinellinae (AC ; 4th abundance peak; in the upper limit). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-Bitieinella breggiensis Zone: Globigerinelloides texomaensisMi-
chael, 1972 (FAD), Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer, 1931) (FAD), Heterohelix spp. (FAD),
Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942) (LAD), Ticinella ex gr. primulaLuterbacher, 1963 (LAD). Assigned
age: late Albian.
Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae-Ticinella raynaudi Zone: Guembelitria cenomana (Keller, 1935)
(FAD), Globigerinelloides texomaensis Michael, 1972 (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria,
1974 (LAD), Ticinella spp. (T. raynaudi Sigal, 1966, T. roberti (Gandolfi, 1942); (LAD). Assignedage : latest
Albian.
253
of biostratigraphically significant macrofossils; however, because the material was collected chiefly by
quarry workers, the relative position in sequence of most of the specimens is unknown. Position in sequence
of isolated localities was inferred mainly on the basis of regional dip and altitude of the beds exposed. Thus,
in contrast to microbiostratigraphical procedures, the true first appearances and the true vertical distribution
of the diagnostic macrofossil taxa have not been observed.
For the definition of the base ofeach ammonite zone, the first appearance of a well-known, abundant,
wide-spread, and easily identifiable taxon was chosen. In addition to the defining taxon, a number of other
taxa characterize the zone and thus aid in its identification.
Reference sections and profiles for the biownes will be given in a forthcoming publication (Koutsou-
kos & Bengtson, in preparation)..
Legend - The abbreviations given after the diagnostic taxa listed represent local biotic events and
occurrences, recorded at outcrop and in well-sections in the Sergipe Basin.
(FAD) = First Appearance Datum
(FAWZ) = First Appearance Within Zone
(LAD) = Last Appearance Datum
(LAWZ) = Last Appearance Within Zone
(TR) = Total Range
(AC) = ACme (abundance peak)
(OWZ) = Occurrence Within Zone
(OWZPR) = Occurrence Within Zone, Probably Restricted to zone
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERIDA
The succession of planktonic foraminiferids is based in part on the works of Masters (1977),
Robaszynski & Caron (1979), Robaszynski et al. (1984) and Caron (1985).
Globigerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Zone: Hedbergella (H.) trocoidea (Gandol-
fi, 1942) (FAWZ), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria, 1974 (FAWZ), Globigerinelloides barri (Bolli,
Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides ex gr. maridalensis-Hedbergella (H.) similis Zone: Ticinella spp. (FAD), Globi-
gerinelloids barri (Bolli, Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (LAD), Globigerinelloidsferreolensis (Moullade, 1961)
(LAD), Globigerinelloids ex gr. maridalensis (Bolli, 1959) (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) similis Longoria, 1974
(LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (FAD, AC; "1st abundance peak"). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides cushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Globigerinelloids cushmani (Tappan,
1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966(AC; "2ndabundancepeak"). Assignedage : earliest Albian.
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Category: Acme-wne (sensu Hedberg, 1976, p. 59-60). Hedbergella
(H.) subcretacea (Tappan, 1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (AC ; "3rd abundance peak").
Assigned age: early Albian.
Ticin'ella ex gr. primula-Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Hedbergella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow,
1934) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Ticinella ex gr.primulaLuterbacher,
1963 (FAD), Globigerinelloides cushmani (Tappan, 1943) (LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966
(LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Biticinella breggiensis-Ticinella ex gr. primula Zone: Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942)
(FAD), Ticinella raynaudi Sigal, 1966 (FAD), Ticinella madecassiana Sigal, 1966 (TR?), large-sized
Ticinellinae (AC ; 4th abundance peak; in the upper limit). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-Biticinella breggiensis Zone: Globigerinelloides texomaensisMi-
chael, 1972 (FAD), Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer, 1931) (FAD), Heterohelix spp. (FAD),
Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942) (LAD), Ticinella ex gr. primulaLuterbacher, 1963 (LAD). Assigned
age: late Albian.
Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae-Ticinella raynaudi Zone: Guembelitria cenomana (Keller, 1935)
(FAD), Globigerinelloides texomaensis Michael, 1972 (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria,
1974 (LAD), Ticinella spp. (T. raynaudi Sigal, 1966, T. roberti (Gandolfi, 1942); (LAD). Assignedage : latest
Albian.
253
of biostratigraphically significant macrofossils ; however, because the material was collected chiefly by
quarry workers, the relative position in sequence of most of the specimens is unknown. Position in sequence
of isolated localities was inferred mainly on the basis of regional dip and altitude of the beds exposed. Thus,
in contrast to microbiostratigraphical procedures, the true first appearances and the true vertical distribution
of the diagnostic macrofossil taxa have not been observed.
For the definition of the base ofeach ammonite zone, the first appearance of a well-known, abundant,
wide-spread, and easily identifiable taxon was chosen. In addition to the defining taxon, a number of other
taxa characterize the zone and thus aid in its identification.
Reference sections and profiles for the biownes will be given in a forthcoming publication (Koutsou-
kos & Bengtson, in preparation)..
Legend - The abbreviations given after the diagnostic taxa listed represent local biotic events and
occurrences, recorded at outcrop and in well-sections in the Sergipe Basin.
(FAD) = First Appearance Datum
(FAWZ) = First Appearance Within Zone
(LAD) = Last Appearance Datum
(LAWZ) = Last Appearance Within Zone
(TR) = Total Range
(AC) = ACme (abundance peak)
(OWZ) = Occurrence Within Zone
(OWZPR) = Occurrence Within Zone, Probably Restricted to zone
PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERIDA
The succession of planktonic foraminiferids is based in part on the works of Masters (1977),
Robaszynski & Caron (1979), Robaszynski et al. (1984) and Caron (1985).
Globigerinelloides barri-Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Zone: Hedbergella (H.) trocoidea (Gandol-
fi, 1942) (FAWZ), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria, 1974 (FAWZ), Globigerinelloides barri (Bolli,
Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides ex gr. maridalensis-Hedbergella (H.) similis Zone: Ticinella spp. (FAD), Globi-
gerinelloids barri (Bolli, Loeblich & Tappan, 1957) (LAD), Globigerinelloidsferreolensis (Moullade, 1961)
(LAD), Globigerinelloids ex gr. maridalensis (Bolli, 1959) (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) similis Longoria, 1974
(LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (FAD, AC; "1st abundance peak"). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Globigerinelloides cushmani-Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Globigerinelloids cushmani (Tappan,
1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966(AC; "2ndabundancepeak"). Assignedage : earliest Albian.
Ticinella bejaouaensis Zone: Category: Acme-wne (sensu Hedberg, 1976, p. 59-60). Hedbergella
(H.) subcretacea (Tappan, 1943) (FAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966 (AC ; "3rd abundance peak").
Assigned age: early Albian.
Tiein'ella ex gr. primula-Tieinella bejaouaensis Zone: Hedbergella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow,
1934) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Ticinella ex gr.primulaLuterbacher,
1963 (FAD), Globigerinelloides cushmani (Tappan, 1943) (LAD), Ticinella bejaouaensis Sigal, 1966
(LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Bi/ieinella breggiensis-Tieinella ex gr. primula Zone: Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942)
(FAD), Ticinella raynaudi Sigal, 1966 (FAD), Ticinella madecassiana Sigal, 1966 (TR?), large-sized
Ticinellinae (AC ; 4th abundance peak; in the upper limit). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Globigerinelloides texomaensis-Bitieinella breggiensis Zone: Globigerinelloides texomaensisMi-
chael, 1972 (FAD), Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer, 1931) (FAD), Heterohelix spp. (FAD),
Biticinella breggiensis (Gandolfi, 1942) (LAD), Ticinella ex gr. primulaLuterbacher, 1963 (LAD). Assigned
age: late Albian.
Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae-Ticinella raynaudi Zone: Guembelitria cenomana (Keller, 1935)
(FAD), Globigerinelloides texomaensis Michael, 1972 (LAD), Hedbergella (H.) gorbachikae Longoria,
1974 (LAD), Ticinella spp. (T. raynaudi Sigal, 1966, T. roberti (Gandolfi, 1942); (LAD). Assignedage : latest
Albian.
253
Rotaliporabrol%eni Zone: Rotaliporabrotzeni (Sigal. 1948) (FAD/LAD; lR). Assignedage: earliest
Cenomanian.
Praeglobotruncana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenninica Zone :Hedbergella (Favusella) washiten-
sis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer. 1931) (LAD). Rotalipora appennini-
ca (Reoz. 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (Whiteinelltl) baltica-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
baltica Douglas &Rankin. 1969 (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) brittonensis Loeblich &Tappan. 1961
(FAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Hedbergelltl (W.)aprka-Globigerinelloides bentonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica
(Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age:
late Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (W.) archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) archaeo-
eretacea Pessagno. 1967 (FAD). Heterohelix reussi (Cushman. 1938) (FAWZ). Assigned age: latest Ceno-
manian to earliest Turonian.
Hedbergelltl (W.) aprka-Hedbergella (W.) baUica Z o n ~ : Marginotruncana undulata (Lehmann.
1963) (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica (Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (LAD). Hedbergella (Whitei-
nella) baltica Douglas & Rankin,l969 (LAD), Heterohelix moremani (Cushman. 1938) (LAWZ). Assigned
age: early to late Turonian.
Dicarinella primitiva Zone: Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (FAD). Guembelilria cenomana
(Keller. 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinellaprimitiva Zone: Archaeoglobigerina spp. (A. blowi Pes-
sagno. 1967, A. erelacea (d'Orbigny. 1840) ; (FAD). Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (LAD). Hedber-
gella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Dicarinelltl concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa Zone: Marginotruncana sinuosa Porthault. 1970
(FAD). Dicarinella concavala (Brotzen. 1934) (FAD/LAD ; lR?). Hedbergella (H.) flandrini Porthault.
1970 (LAD), Marginotruncana renzi (Gandolfi. 1942) (LAWZ; late Coniacian).Marginotruncana undulata
(Lehmann. 1963) (LAWZ ; late Coniacian). Conlusolruncana ex gr.fornicata (plummer. 1931) (FAWZ;
Santonian). Ventilabrella auslinana Cushman. 1938 (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to
early-late Santonian.
Dicarinella asymetrica Zone: Dicarinella asymelrica (Sigal. 1952) (FAD/LAD; lR?), Hedbergel-
la (H.) ex gr. delrioensis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Contusotruncana patellijormis-Globotruncanita elevata-stuartijormis plexus Zone :
Contusotruncanapatelliformis (Gandolfi, 1955) (FAD). Globotruncanitaelevata (Brotzen. 1934) - G. stuar-
tiformis (Dalbiez, 1955) plexus (FAD/LAD; lR?). G/obotruncanella havanensis (Voorwijk. 1937) (FAD).
G/obotruncanita stuartiformis S.s. (FAD), Heterohe/ix reussi (Cushman) (LAWZ). Assigned age: early
Campanian.
Globotruncana orientaUs-Globotruncana ventricosa Zone: Globotruncana linneiana (d'Orbigny.
1839) (FAD). G. bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (FAD). G. orienta/is El Naggar. 1966 (FAD). G. ventricosa White.
1928 (FAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (FAD). P/anog/obu/ina varians (Rzehak. 1895)
(FAD). Pseudotextu/aria e/egans (Rzehak, 1891) (FAD). Rugog/obigerina ex gr. rugosa (plummer. 1926)
(FAD). G/obotruncanita stuarti (de Lapparent. 1918) (FAD). Assigned age: early-late Campanian.
Contusotruncana ex gr. jornicata-Globotruncana linneiana Zone: Pseudotextularia browni
Masters. 1976 (FAD). Pseudoguembelina palpebra Bronnimann & Brown, 1953 (FAD), Contusotruncana
ex gc. fornicata (plummer. 1931) (LAD), G/obotruncana bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (LAD). G. /inneiana
(d'Orbigny. 1839) (LAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (LAD). Gansserina gansseri
(Bolli. 1951) (FAWZ). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady, 1950 (FAWZ), G/obotruncanella peta/oidea
(Gandolfi. 1955) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Maastrichtian.
Gansserinagansseri-Globotruncanitastuartiformis Zone: Contusotruncanapatelliformis (Gandol-
fi, 1955) (LAD). Globotruncanita pettersi (Gandolfi. 1955) (FAD), Guembe/itria eretacea Cushman. 1933
(FAD). Gansserina gansseri (Bolli. 1951) (LAD). G/obotruncana rosetta (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). G.
ventricosaWhite. 1928(LAD). G/obotruncanita stuartiformis (Dalbiez. 1955) S.s. (LAD). Assignedage: late
Maastrichtian.
Contusotruncana contusa-Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone: Contusotruncana contusa (Cushman,
1926) (LFAD/LLAD ; lR). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady. 1950 (LAD). P/anoglobu/ina varians
254
Rotaliporabrol%eni Zone: Rotaliporabrotzeni (Sigal. 1948) (FAD/LAD; lR). Assignedage: earliest
Cenomanian.
Praeglobotruncana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenninica Zone :Hedbergella (Favusella) washiten-
sis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer. 1931) (LAD). Rotalipora appennini-
ca (Reoz. 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (Whiteinelltl) baltica-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
baltica Douglas & Rankin. 1969 (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) brittonensis Loeblich & Tappan. 1961
(FAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Hedbergelltl (W.)aprka-Globigerinelloides bentonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica
(Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age:
late Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (W.) archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) archaeo-
cretacea Pessagno. 1967 (FAD). Heterohelix reussi (Cushman. 1938) (FAWZ). Assigned age: latest Ceno-
manian to earliest Turonian.
Hedbergelltl (W.) aprka-Hedbergella (W.) baUica Z o n ~ : Marginotruncana undulata (Lehmann.
1963) (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica (Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (LAD). Hedbergella (Whitei-
nella) baltica Douglas & Rankin,l969 (LAD), Heterohelix moremani (Cushman. 1938) (LAWZ). Assigned
age: early to late Turonian.
Dicarinella primitiva Zone: Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (FAD). Guembelilria cenomana
(Keller. 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinellaprimitiva Zone: Archaeoglobigerina spp. (A. blowi Pes-
sagno. 1967, A. crelacea (d'Orbigny. 1840) ; (FAD). Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (LAD). Hedber-
gella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Dicarinelltl concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa Zone: Marginotruncana sinuosa Porthault. 1970
(FAD). Dicarinella concavala (Brotzen. 1934) (FAD/LAD ; lR?). Hedbergella (H.) flandrini Porthault.
1970 (LAD), Marginotruncana renzi (Gandolfi. 1942) (LAWZ; late Coniacian). Marginotruncana undulata
(Lehmann. 1963) (LAWZ ; late Coniacian). Conlusolruncana ex gr.fornicata (plummer. 1931) (FAWZ;
Santonian). Ventilabrella auslinana Cushman. 1938 (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to
early-late Santonian.
Dicarinella asymetrica Zone: Dicarinella asymelrica (Sigal. 1952) (FAD/LAD; lR?), Hedbergel-
la (H.) ex gr. delrioensis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Contusotruncana patelli/ormis-Globotruncanita elevata-stuarti/ormis plexus Zone :
Contusotruncanapatelliformis (Gandolfi, 1955) (FAD). Globotruncanitaelevata (Brotzen. 1934) - G. stuar-
tiformis (Dalbiez, 1955) plexus (FAD/LAD; lR?). Globotruncanella havanensis (Voorwijk. 1937) (FAD).
Globotruncanita stuartiformis 5.5. (FAD), Heterohelix reussi (Cushman) (LAWZ). Assigned age: early
Campanian.
Globotruncana orientaUs-Globotruncana ventricosa Zone: Globotruncana linneiana (d'Orbigny.
1839) (FAD). G. bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (FAD). G. orientalis El Naggar. 1966 (FAD). G. ventricosa White.
1928 (FAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (FAD). Planoglobu/ina varians (Rzehak. 1895)
(FAD). Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak, 1891) (FAD). Rugoglobigerina ex gr. rugosa (plummer. 1926)
(FAD). Globotruncanita stuarti (de Lapparent. 1918) (FAD). Assigned age: early-late Campanian.
Contusotruncana ex gr. jornicata-Globotruncana linneiana Zone: Pseudotextularia browni
Masters. 1976 (FAD). Pseudoguembelina palpebra Bronnimann & Brown, 1953 (FAD), Contusotruncana
ex gr. fornicata (plummer. 1931) (LAD), Globotruncana bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (LAD). G. linneiana
(d' Orbigny. 1839) (LAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (LAD). Gansserina gansseri
(Bolli. 1951) (FAWZ). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady, 1950 (FAWZ), Globotruncanella petaloidea
(Gandolfi. 1955) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Maastrichtian.
Gansserinagansseri-Globotruncanitastuarti/ormisZone: Contusotruncanapatellijormis (Gandol-
fi, 1955) (LAD). Globotruncanita pettersi (Gandolfi. 1955) (FAD), Guembelitria cretacea Cushman. 1933
(FAD). Gansserina gansseri (Bolli. 1951) (LAD). Globotruncana rosetta (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). G.
ventricosaWhite. 1928(LAD). Globotruncanita stuartiformis (Dalbiez. 1955) S.s. (LAD). Assignedage: late
Maastrichtian.
Contusotruncana contusa-Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone: Contusotruncana contusa (Cushman,
1926) (LFAD/LLAD ; lR). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady. 1950 (LAD). P/anoglobu/ina varians
254
Rotaliporabrol%eni Zone: Rotaliporabrotzeni (Sigal. 1948) (FAD/LAD; lR). Assignedage: earliest
Cenomanian.
Praeglobotruncana delrioensis-Rotalipora appenninica Zone :Hedbergella (Favusella) washiten-
sis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Praeglobotruncana delrioensis (plummer. 1931) (LAD). Rotalipora appennini-
ca (Reoz. 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (Whiteinelltl) baltica-Hedbergella (W.) brittonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella)
baltica Douglas & Rankin. 1969 (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) brittonensis Loeblich & Tappan. 1961
(FAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Hedbergelltl (W.)aprka-Globigerinelloides bentonensis Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica
(Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (FAD), Globigerinelloides bentonensis (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age:
late Cenomanian.
Hedbergella (W.) archaeocretacea-Heterohelix reussi Zone: Hedbergella (Whiteinella) archaeo-
eretacea Pessagno. 1967 (FAD). Heterohelix reussi (Cushman. 1938) (FAWZ). Assigned age: latest Ceno-
manian to earliest Turonian.
Hedbergelltl (W.) aprka-Hedbergella (W.) baUica Z o n ~ : Marginotruncana undulata (Lehmann.
1963) (FAD). Hedbergella (Whiteinella) aprica (Loeblich & Tappan. 1961) (LAD). Hedbergella (Whitei-
nella) baltica Douglas & Rankin,l969 (LAD), Heterohelix moremani (Cushman. 1938) (LAWZ). Assigned
age: early to late Turonian.
Dicarinella primitiva Zone: Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (FAD). Guembelilria cenomana
(Keller. 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
Archaeoglobigerina cretacea-Dicarinellaprimitiva Zone: Archaeoglobigerina spp. (A. blowi Pes-
sagno. 1967, A. erelacea (d'Orbigny. 1840) ; (FAD). Dicarinella primiliva (Dalbiez. 1955) (LAD). Hedber-
gella (H.) ex gr. simplex (Morrow. 1934) (LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Dicarinelltl concavata-Marginotruncana sinuosa Zone: Marginotruncana sinuosa Porthault. 1970
(FAD). Dicarinella concavala (Brotzen. 1934) (FAD/LAD ; lR?). Hedbergella (H.) flandrini Porthault.
1970 (LAD), Marginotruncana renzi (Gandolfi. 1942) (LAWZ; late Coniacian).Marginotruncana undulata
(Lehmann. 1963) (LAWZ ; late Coniacian). Conlusolruncana ex gr.fornicata (plummer. 1931) (FAWZ;
Santonian). Ventilabrella auslinana Cushman. 1938 (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to
early-late Santonian.
Dicarinella asymetrica Zone: Dicarinella asymelrica (Sigal. 1952) (FAD/LAD; lR?), Hedbergel-
la (H.) ex gr. delrioensis (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Contusotruncana patellijormis-Globotruncanita elevata-stuartijormis plexus Zone :
Contusotruncanapatelliformis (Gandolfi, 1955) (FAD). Globotruncanitaelevata (Brotzen. 1934) - G. stuar-
tiformis (Dalbiez, 1955) plexus (FAD/LAD; lR?). Globotruncanella havanensis (Voorwijk. 1937) (FAD).
Globotruncanita stuartiformis S.s. (FAD), Heterohelix reussi (Cushman) (LAWZ). Assigned age: early
Campanian.
Globotruncana orientaUs-Globotruncana ventricosa Zone: Globotruncana linneiana (d'Orbigny.
1839) (FAD). G. bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (FAD). G. orienta/is El Naggar. 1966 (FAD). G. ventricosa White.
1928 (FAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (FAD). Pianoglobu/ina varians (Rzehak. 1895)
(FAD). Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak, 1891) (FAD). Rugoglobigerina ex gr. rugosa (plummer. 1926)
(FAD). Globotruncanita stuarti (de Lapparent. 1918) (FAD). Assigned age: early-late Campanian.
Contusotruncana ex gr. jornicata-Globotruncana linneiana Zone: Pseudotextularia browni
Masters. 1976 (FAD). Pseudoguembelina palpebra Bronnimann & Brown, 1953 (FAD), Contusotruncana
ex gc. fornicata (plummer. 1931) (LAD), Globotruncana bu/loides Vogler, 1941 (LAD). G. /inneiana
(d'Orbigny. 1839) (LAD). Globotruncanita subspinosa (pessagno. 1960) (LAD). Gansserina gansseri
(Bolli. 1951) (FAWZ). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady, 1950 (FAWZ), Globotruncanella petaloidea
(Gandolfi. 1955) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Maastrichtian.
Gansserinagansseri-GlobotruncanitastuartiformisZone: Contusotruncanapatelliformis (Gandol-
fi, 1955) (LAD). Globotruncanita pettersi (Gandolfi. 1955) (FAD), Guembe/itria eretacea Cushman. 1933
(FAD). Gansserina gansseri (Bolli. 1951) (LAD). Globotruncana rosetta (Carsey. 1926) (LAD). G.
ventricosaWhite. 1928(LAD). Globotruncanita stuartiformis (Dalbiez. 1955) S.s. (LAD). Assignedage: late
Maastrichtian.
Contusotruncana contusa-Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone: Contusotruncana contusa (Cushman,
1926) (LFAD/LLAD ; lR). Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady. 1950 (LAD). P/anoglobu/ina varians
254
(Rzehak, 1895) (TR), and Globotruncana spp. (LAD), Rugoglobigerina spp. (LAD), Archaeoglobigerina
spp. (LAD), Globotruncanita spp. (LAD), Globigerinelloides spp. (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrieh-
tian.
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERIDA
Ungulogavelinella ciryi-Lingulonodosaria nodosaria-Marginulina ex gr. aequivoca Zone: Cate-
gory: Assemblage-zone. Lingulogavelinella ciryi Malapris-Bizouard, 1967 (OWZ), Lingulonodosaria no-
dosaria (Reuss, 1863) (OWZ), Marginulina ex gr. aequivocaReuss, 1863 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Ammobaculites cr. coprolithiformis-Buccicrenata hedbergi-Haplophragmium lueckei Zone:
Category: Assemblage-zone. Ammobaculites cf. coprolithiformis (Sehwager, 1867) (OWZ), Buccicrenata
hedbergi (Mayne, 1953) (OWZ), Haplophragmium lueckei (Cushman & Hedberg, 1941) (OWZ). Assigned
age: late Aptian.
Lenticulina ex gr. ex gr. nodosa Zone: Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata
(Reuss, 1863) (FAD),Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Lenticulina ex gr. nodosa (Reuss,
1863) (LAD). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Epistominacarpenteri-Gaudryinopsisfl1iformisZone: Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
E.chapmanitenDam, 1948 (FAD),Gaudryinopsiscf.gradata(Berthelin, 1880) (FAD),Pseudogaudryinella/
Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959) (FAD), Buccicrenata hedbergi (Maync, 1953) (LAD),
Gaudryinopsis filiformis (Berthelin, 1880) (LAD). Assigned age: earliest Albian.
Osangularia ex gr.dividensZone: Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Pseudogaudryinella/Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959)
(LAD), Epistomina chapmani ten Dam, 1948 (LAD), Gavelinella barremiana Beuenstaedt, 1952 - G.
flandrini Moullade, 1960 plexus (LAD), Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Marssonella
ozawai Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Tristix ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Albian.
Epistomina spinulifera-Epistomina carpenteri Zone: Epistomina spinulifera (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (FAD), Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Globorotali-
tes eL multisepta (Brotzen, 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Gavelinella berthelini-plummerae-reussi plexus-Gaudryinopsis cf. gradata Zone : Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Quasispiroplectammina ex gr. alexanderi (Lalieker, 1935) (LAD), Q. ex
gr. goodlandana (Lalicker, 1935) (LAD), Q. linki (petri, 1962) (LAD), Gaudryinopsis ef. gradata (Berthe-
lin, 1880) (LAWZ), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae (Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan,
1950) plexus (FAWZ), Textularia ex gr. subconica Franke, 1928 (FAWZ). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Saracenaria cf. crassicosta Zone: Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman,
1936 (FAD), Saracenaria ef. crassicosta Eiehenberg, 1933 (FAD). Assigned age: late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Tristix. ex gr. excavata Zone: Ramulina tetrahedralis Ludbrook, 1966
(FADILAD; TR?), Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Tristix ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863)
(LAD), Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata (Reuss, 1863) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Cibicides sp. A-Planularia complanata Zone: Cibicides sp. A (FAD), Planularia complanata
(Reuss, 1845) (FAD), Praebulimina ex gr. nannina (Tappan, 1940) (FAD), Saracenaria ef. crassicosta
Eichenberg, 1933 (LAWZ). Assigned age: earliest Cenomanian.
Lingulogavelinella(?) cr. thalmanniformis-Spiroloculina cretacea Zone: Lingulogavelinella(?) ef.
thalmanniformis (plotnikova, 1962) (FAD), Lingulogavelinella tormarpensis (Brotzen, 1942) (FAD),
Spiroloculina cretaceaReuss, 1854 (FADILAD ; TR?), Spiroloculina sp. A(FAD), Gavelinellasp. A(FAD).
Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Nodosaria ex gr. obscura-Cibicides sp. A Zone: Nodosaria ex gr. obscura Reuss, 1845 (FAD),
Cibieides sp. A (LAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Gabonita levis-Discammina sp. A Zone: Gabonita levis (de Klasz, Marie & Recat, 1961) (FAD),
Ammobaculites impexus Eieher, 1965 (FADILAD; TR?), Ammomarginulina paterella Eieher, 1967 (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Discammina sp. A (FADILAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Cenomanian.
Gabonita obesa - Gabonita levis Zone: Gabonita obesa (de Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Buliminella sp. A (FAD), Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (LAD), Gabonita levis (de
Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (AC). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
255
(Rzehak, 1895) (TR), and Globotruncana spp. (LAD), Rugoglobigerina spp. (LAD), Archaeoglobigerina
spp. (LAD), Globotruncanita spp. (LAD), Globigerinelloides spp. (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrich-
tian.
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERIDA
Ungulogavelinella ciryi-Lingulonodosaria nodosaria-Marginulina ex gr. aequivoca Zone: Cate-
gory: Assemblage-zone. Lingulogavelinella ciryi Malapris-Bizouard, 1967 (OWZ), Lingulonodosaria no-
dosaria (Reuss, 1863) (OWZ), Marginulina ex gr. aequivocaReuss, 1863 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Ammobaculites cr. coprolithijormis-BuccicrenatIJ hedbergi-Haplophragmium lueckei Zone:
Category: Assemblage-zone. Ammobaculites cr. coprolithijormis (Schwager, 1867) (OWZ), Buccicrenata
hedbergi (Mayne, 1953) (OWZ), Haplophragmium lueckei (Cushman & Hedberg, 1941) (OWZ). Assigned
age: late Aptian.
Lenticulina ex gr. ex gr. nodosa Zone: Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata
(Reuss, 1863) (FAD),Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Lenticulina ex gr. nodosa (Reuss,
1863) (LAD). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Epistominacarpenteri-Gaudryinopsisfl1ijormisZone: Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
E.chapmanitenDam, 1948 (FAD),Gaudryinopsiscf.gradata(Berthelin, 1880) (FAD),Pseudogaudryinella/
Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959) (FAD), Buccicrenata hedbergi (Mayne, 1953) (LAD),
Gaudryinopsis[ili/ormis (Berthelin, 1880) (LAD). Assigned age: earliest Albian.
Osangularia ex gr.dividensZone: Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Pseudogaudryinella/Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959)
(LAD), Epistomina chapmani ten Dam, 1948 (LAD), Gavelinella barremiana Beuenstaedt, 1952 - G.
[landrini Moullade, 1960 plexus (LAD), Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Marssonella
ozawai Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Tristix ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Albian.
Epistomina spinulijera-Epistomina carpenteri Zone: Epistomina spinuli/era (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (FAD), Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Globorotali-
tes cf. multisepta (Brotzen, 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Gavelinella berthelini-plummerae-reussi plexus-Gaudryinopsis cr. gradatIJ Zone : Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Quasispiroplectammina ex gr. alexanderi (Lalicker, 1935) (LAD), Q. ex
gr. goodlandana (Lalicker, 1935) (LAD), Q. linki (petri, 1962) (LAD), Gaudryinopsis cf. gradata (Berthe-
lin, 1880) (LAWZ), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae (Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan,
1950) plexus (FAWZ), Textularia ex gr. subconica Franke, 1928 (FAWZ). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Saracenaria cr. crassicostIJ Zone: Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman,
1936 (FAD), Saracenaria cf. crassicosta Eichenberg, 1933 (FAD). Assigned age: late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Tristix. ex gr. excavata Zone: Ramulina tetrahedralis Ludbrook, 1966
(FADILAD; TR?), Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Trista ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863)
(LAD), Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata (Reuss, 1863) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Cibicides sp. A-Planularia complanata Zone: Cibicides sp. A (FAD), Planularia complanata
(Reuss, 1845) (FAD), Praebulimina ex gr. nannina (Tappan, 1940) (FAD), Saracenaria cf. crassicosta
Eichenberg, 1933 (LAWZ). Assigned age: earliest Cenomanian.
Lingulogavelinella(?) cr. thalmannijormis-Spiroloculina cretacea Zone: Lingulogavelinella(?) cf.
thalmanni/ormis (plotnikova, 1962) (FAD), Lingulogavelinella tormarpensis (Bratzen, 1942) (FAD),
Spiroloculina cretaceaReuss, 1854 (FADILAD ; TR?), Spiroloculina sp. A(FAD), Gavelinellasp. A(FAD).
Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Nodosaria ex gr. obscura-Cibicides sp. A Zone: Nodosaria ex gr. obscura Reuss, 1845 (FAD),
Cibicides sp. A (LAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Gabonita levis-Discammina sp. A Zone: Gabonita levis (de Klasz, Marie & Recat, 1961) (FAD),
Ammobaculites impexus Eicher, 1965 (FADILAD; TR?), Ammomarginulina paterella Eicher, 1967 (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Discammina sp. A (FADILAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Cenomanian.
Gabonita obesa - GabonitIJ levis Zone: Gabonita obesa (de Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Buliminella sp. A (FAD), Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (LAD), Gabonita levis (de
Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (AC). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
255
(Rzehak, 1895) (TR), and Globotruncana spp. (LAD), Rugoglobigerina spp. (LAD), Archaeoglobigerina
spp. (LAD), Globotruncanita spp. (LAD), Globigerinelloides spp. (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrieh-
tian.
BENTHIC FORAMINIFERIDA
Ungulogavelinella ciryi-Lingulonodosaria nodosaria-Marginulina ex gr. aequivoca Zone: Cate-
gory: Assemblage-zone. Lingulogavelinella ciryi Malapris-Bizouard, 1967 (OWZ), Lingulonodosaria no-
dosaria (Reuss, 1863) (OWZ), Marginulina ex gr. aequivocaReuss, 1863 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Ammobaculites cr. coprolithijormis-BuccicrenatIJ hedbergi-Haplophragmium lueckei Zone:
Category: Assemblage-zone. Ammobaculites cf. coprolithijormis (Sehwager, 1867) (OWZ), Buccicrenata
hedbergi (Mayne, 1953) (OWZ), Haplophragmium lueckei (Cushman & Hedberg, 1941) (OWZ). Assigned
age: late Aptian.
Lenticulina ex gr. ex gr. nodosa Zone: Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata
(Reuss, 1863) (FAD),Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Lenticulina ex gr. nodosa (Reuss,
1863) (LAD). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Epistominacarpenteri-Gaudryinopsisfl1ijormisZone: Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
E.chapmanitenDam, 1948 (FAD),Gaudryinopsiscf.gradata(Berthelin, 1880) (FAD),Pseudogaudryinella/
Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959) (FAD), Buccicrenata hedbergi (Maync, 1953) (LAD),
Gaudryinopsis filiformis (Berthelin, 1880) (LAD). Assigned age: earliest Albian.
Osangularia ex gr.dividensZone: Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (FAD), Pseudogaudryinella/Spiroplectinata ex gr. dividens (Grabert, 1959)
(LAD), Epistomina chapmani ten Dam, 1948 (LAD), Gavelinella barremiana Beuenstaedt, 1952 - G.
[landrini Moullade, 1960 plexus (LAD), Budashevaella nonioninoides (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Marssonella
ozawai Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Tristix ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863) (FAWZ). Assigned age: early Albian.
Epistomina spinulijera-Epistomina carpenteri Zone: Epistomina spinulifera (Reuss, 1863) (FAD),
Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (FAD), Epistomina carpenteri (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Globorotali-
tes eL multisepta (Brotzen, 1936) (LAD). Assigned age: mid-Albian.
Gavelinella berthelini-plummerae-reussi plexus-Gaudryinopsis cf. gradatIJ Zone : Osangularia
schloenbachi (Reuss, 1863) (LAD), Quasispiroplectammina ex gr. alexanderi (Lalieker, 1935) (LAD), Q. ex
gr. goodlandana (Lalicker, 1935) (LAD), Q. linki (petri, 1962) (LAD), Gaudryinopsis ef. gradata (Berthe-
lin, 1880) (LAWZ), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae (Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan,
1950) plexus (FAWZ), Textularia ex gr. subconica Franke, 1928 (FAWZ). Assigned age: mid to late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Saracenaria cf. crassicostIJ Zone: Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman,
1936 (FAD), Saracenaria ef. crassicosta Eiehenberg, 1933 (FAD). Assigned age: late Albian.
Neobulimina subcretacea-Tristix. ex gr. excavata Zone: Ramulina tetrahedralis Ludbrook, 1966
(FADILAD; TR?), Neobulimina subcretacea Cushman, 1936 (LAD), Tristix ex gr. excavata (Reuss, 1863)
(LAD), Lenticulina ex gr. subangulata (Reuss, 1863) (LAD). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Cibicides sp. A-Planularia complanata Zone: Cibicides sp. A (FAD), Planularia complanata
(Reuss, 1845) (FAD), Praebulimina ex gr. nannina (Tappan, 1940) (FAD), Saracenaria ef. crassicosta
Eichenberg, 1933 (LAWZ). Assigned age: earliest Cenomanian.
Lingulogavelinella(?) cr. thalmannijormis-Spiroloculina cretacea Zone: Lingulogavelinella(?) ef.
thalmanniformis (plotnikova, 1962) (FAD), Lingulogavelinella tormarpensis (Brotzen, 1942) (FAD),
Spiroloculina cretaceaReuss, 1854 (FADILAD ; TR?), Spiroloculina sp. A(FAD), Gavelinellasp. A(FAD).
Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Nodosaria ex gr. obscura-Cibicides sp. A Zone: Nodosaria ex gr. obscura Reuss, 1845 (FAD),
Cibieides sp. A (LAD). Assigned age: mid to late Cenomanian.
Gabonita levis-Discammina sp. A Zone: Gabonita levis (de Klasz, Marie & Recat, 1961) (FAD),
Ammobaculites impexus Eieher, 1965 (FADILAD; TR?), Ammomarginulina paterella Eieher, 1967 (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Discammina sp. A (FADILAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Cenomanian.
Gabonita obesa - GabonitIJ levis Zone: Gabonita obesa (de Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (FAD/
LAD; TR?), Buliminella sp. A (FAD), Cassidella ex gr. viscidus (Khan, 1950) (LAD), Gabonita levis (de
Klasz, Marie & Rerat, 1961) (AC). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
255
Gabonitalevis-NodosariIJ ex gr. obsCllraZone: Gabonitacf. parva (de Klasz, Marie&Meijer, 1960)
(FAD), Gabonitalevis(de Klasz, Marie&Rerat, 1961) (LAD), Nodosariaexgr. obscuraReuss, 1845(LAD).
Assigned age : early to late Turonian.
ValvlllineriIJ sp. A-GavelinelllJ berthelini-plllmmerae-rellssi plexus Zone: Valvulineria sp. A
(FAD), Bolivina cf. incrassata Reuss, 1851 (FAD), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae
(Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan, 1950) plexus (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
GavelinelllJ sp. A-ValvlllineriIJ sp. A Zone: Gavelinella sp. A (LAD), Valvulineria sp. A (LAD),
Lingulogavelinel/a tormarpensis (Brotzen, 1942) (LAD), Turrispirillina ex gr. subconica Tappan, 1943
(LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Lenticlllina revolllta-Globorotalites spinea Zone: Lenticulina revoluta (Israelsky, 1955) (FAD/
LAWZ ; late Coniacian ; TR?), Gavelinopsis sp. A (FAD/LAWZ ; late Coniacian ; TR?),Globorotalites
spinea (Cushman, 1926) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Eponides aracajuensis Petri, 1962 (FAD), Gavelinella ex gr.
beccariiformis (White, 1928) (FAD), G. correcta (Carsey, 1926) (FAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen, 1936)
(FAD), Gaudryina laevigata Franke, 1914 (FAD), Pseudogaudryinel/a ex gc. capitosa (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Gavelinella spissocostata (Cushman, 1938 (FAWZ ; Santonian), Reussel/a ex gr. szajnochae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian), Dorothia ex gr. bul/eta (Carsey, 1926) (FAWZ; Santonian),Re-
curvoides ex gr. globulosa (Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to early-
late Santonian.
Nllttallinella texana-Orthokarstenia clarki Zone: Nuttallinel/a texana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD),
Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman & Campbell, 1936) (FAD), O. clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz & Meijer,
1960) (FAD), Bolivina ex gr. afra (Reyment, 1959) (FAD), Verneuilina cretacea Karrer, 1870 (FAD),
Glaphyrammina sp. A (FAD/LAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Siphogenerinoides bramlettei-Rellssella ex gr. s1lJjnochae Zone: Siphogenerinoides bramlettei
Cushman, 1929 (FAD), Ellipsoglandulina velascoensis Cushman, 1926 (FAD), Gavelinella nacatochensis
(Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Globorotalites subconica (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tap-
pan, 1940) (FAD), Osangularia navarroana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Planulina taylorensis (Carsey, 1926)
(FAD), Hagenowella ex gr. subsphaerica (Reuss, 1846) (FAD), Recurvoides cf. subturbinata (Grzybowski,
1898) (FAD), Trochamminoidesflagleri Cushman & Hedberg, 1941 (FAD), Reussella ex gr. szajnochae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (LAD), Pullenia jarvisi Cushman, 1936 (LAD). Assigned age: early Campanian.
Lacosteina gouskovi-Orthokarstenia clavata Zone: Lacosteina gouskovi Marie, 1945 (FAD/LAD;
TR?), Ammoglobigerina ex gr. globigeriniformis (parker & Jones, 1865) (FAD), Epistomina supracretacea
ten Dam, 1948 (FAD/LAD; TR?), GavelinellamonterelensisMarie, 1941 (FAD),Karreriellaexgr. conversa
(Grzybowski, 1901) (FAD), Neoflabelina rugosa (d'Orbigny, 1840) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Praebulimina
spinata(Cushman &Campbell,1935) (FAD), Osangularianavarroana (Cushman, 1938) (LAWZ),Planulina
taylorensis (Carsey, 1926) (LAWZ), Orthokarstenia clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz &Meijer, 1960) (LAD),
Gavelinella correcta (Carsey, 1926) (LAD), G.lorneiana (d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen,
1936) (LAD), Globorotalites subconica (Morrow, 1934) (LAD), Orithostel/a ex gc. halfeldi (petri, 1962)
(FAD), Valvulineria amaraliPetri, 1962 (LAD),B. ex gr. afra (AC; at the upper limit). Assigned age: early
to late Campanian.
Cibicides ex gr. beaumontiana-Gyroidinoides nonionoides Zone: Ammobaculites cf.fragmentaria
Cushman, 1927(FAD), Cibicidesex gr. beaumontiana(d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), Gyroidinoidesnonionoides
(Bandy, 1951) (LAD), Neoflabelina reticulata (Reuss, 1851) (LAD), N. ex gr. pilulifera (Cushman &
Campbell, 1935) (LAWZ), Praebulimina ex gr.fang de Klasz, Magne &Rerat, 1963 (LAD), P. ex gc. prolixa
(Cushman & Parker, 1925) (LAD), P. spinata (Cushman & Campbell, 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: early
Maastrichtian.
Gyroidinoides loetterki-OsanglllariIJ velascoensis Zone: Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tappan, 1940)
(LAD), Osangularia velascoensis (Cushman, 1925) (LAD), Nodogenerina stephensoni (Cushman, 1936)
(LAD), Praebulimina ex gr. bantu de Klasz, Magne & Rerat, 1963 (LAD), Ammobaculites cf.fragmentaria
Cushman, 1927 (LAD), RzehakinaflSsistomata (Grzybowski, 1901) (LAD), Verneuilina cretosa Cushman,
1933 (LAD). Assigned age: late Maastrichtian.
Orthokarstenia clarki-Praeblllimina kickapooensis Zone: Clavlllinoides ex gr. trilatera (Cushman,
1926) (FAD), Gaudryinopsis glabrata (Cushman, 1933) (FAD),Pseudoclavulina arenata (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman &Campbell, 1936) (LAD), Buliminel/aex gc. colonensis Cushman
256
GabonitalevisNodosariIJ ex gr. obsCllraZone: Gabonitacf. parva (de Klasz, Marie& Meijer, 1960)
(FAD), Gabonitalevis(de Klasz, Marie& Rerat, 1961) (LAD), Nodosariaexgr. obseuraReuss, 1845(LAD).
Assigned age : early to late Turonian.
ValvlllineriIJ sp. AGavelinelllJ bertheliniplllmmeraerellssi plexus Zone: Valvulineria sp. A
(FAD), Bolivina cf. incrassata Reuss, 1851 (FAD), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae
(Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan, 1950) plexus (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
GavelinelllJ sp. AValvlllineriIJ sp. A Zone: Gavelinella sp. A (LAD), Valvulineria sp. A (LAD),
Lingulogavelinella tormarpensis (Brotzen, 1942) (LAD), Turrispirillina ex gr. subeoniea Tappan, 1943
(LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Lenticlllina revollltaGloborotalites spinea Zone: Lentieulina revoluta (Israelsky, 1955) (FAD/
LAWZ ; late Coniacian; TR?), Gavelinopsis sp. A (FAD/LAWZ ; late Coniacian; TR?),Globorotalites
spinea (Cushman, 1926) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Eponides araeajuensis Petri, 1962 (FAD), Gavelinella ex gr.
beeeariijormis (White, 1928) (FAD), G. eorreeta (Carsey, 1926) (FAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen, 1936)
(FAD), Gaudryina laevigata Franke, 1914 (FAD), Pseudogaudryinella ex gr. eapitosa (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Gavelinella spissoeostata (Cushman, 1938 (FAWZ ; Santonian), Reussella ex gr. szajnoehae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian), Dorothia ex gr. bulleta (Carsey, 1926) (FAWZ; Santonian),Re-
eurvoides ex gr. globulosa (Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to early-
late Santonian.
Nllttallinella texanaOrthokarstenia clarki Zone: Nuttallinella texana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD),
Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman & Campbell, 1936) (FAD), O. clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz & Meijer,
1960) (FAD), Bolivina ex gr. ajra (Reyment, 1959) (FAD), Verneuilina cretaeea Karrer, 1870 (FAD),
Glaphyrammina sp. A (FAD/LAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Siphogenerinoides bramletteiRellssella ex gr. s1lJjnochae Zone: Siphogenerinoides bramlettei
Cushman, 1929 (FAD), Ellipsoglandulina velaseoensis Cushman, 1926 (FAD), Gavelinella naeatoehensis
(Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Globorotalites subeonica (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tap-
pan, 1940) (FAD), Osangularia navarroana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Planulina taylorensis (Carsey, 1926)
(FAD), Hagenowella ex gr. subsphaeriea (Reuss, 1846) (FAD), Reeurvoides cf. subturbinata (Grzybowski,
1898) (FAD), Trochamminoidesjlagleri Cushman & Hedberg, 1941 (FAD), Reussella ex gr. szajnoehae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (LAD), Pullenia jarvisi Cushman, 1936 (LAD). Assigned age: early Campanian.
Lacosteina gouskovi-Orthokarstenia clavata Zone: Laeosteina gouskovi Marie, 1945 (FAD/LAD;
TR?), Ammoglobigerina ex gr. globigerinijormis (parker & Jones, 1865) (FAD), Epistomina supracretaeea
ten Dam, 1948 (FAD/LAD; TR?), GavelinellamonterelensisMarie, 1941 (FAD),Karreriellaexgr. eonversa
(Grzybowski, 1901) (FAD), Neojlabelina rugosa (d'Orbigny, 1840) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Praebulimina
spinata(Cushman & Campbell,1935) (FAD), Osangularianavarroana (Cushman, 1938) (LAWZ),Planulina
taylorensis (Carsey, 1926) (LAWZ), Orthokarstenia clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz & Meijer, 1960) (LAD),
Gavelinella eorreeta (Carsey, 1926) (LAD), G.lorneiana (d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen,
1936) (LAD), Globorotalites subeoniea (Morrow, 1934) (LAD), Orithostella ex gr. halfeldi (petri, 1962)
(FAD), Valvulineria amaraliPetri, 1962 (LAD),B. ex gr. afra (AC; at the upper limit). Assigned age: early
to late Campanian.
Cibicides ex gr. beaumontiana-Gyroidinoides nonionoides Zone: Ammobaeulites cf.jragmentaria
Cushman, 1927(FAD), Cibicidesex gr. beaumontiana(d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), Gyroidinoidesnonionoides
(Bandy, 1951) (LAD), Neojlabelina retieulata (Reuss, 1851) (LAD), N. ex gr. pi/ulijera (Cushman &
Campbell, 1935) (LAWZ), Praebulimina ex gr.jang de Klasz, Magne & Rerat, 1963 (LAD), P. ex gr. prolixa
(Cushman & Parker, 1925) (LAD), P. spinata (Cushman & Campbell, 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: early
Maastrichtian.
Gyroidinoides loetterkiOsanglllariIJ velascoensis Zone: Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tappan, 1940)
(LAD), Osangularia velaseoensis (Cushman, 1925) (LAD), Nodogenerina stephensoni (Cushman, 1936)
(LAD), Praebulimina ex gr. bantu de Klasz, Magne & Rerat, 1963 (LAD), Ammobaeulites cf.jragmentaria
Cushman, 1927 (LAD), Rzehakina[lSsistomata (Grzybowski, 1901) (LAD), Verneuilina eretosa Cushman,
1933 (LAD). Assigned age: late Maastrichtian.
Orthokarstenia clarkiPraeblllimina kickapooensis Zone: Clavlliinoides ex gr. tri/atera (Cushman,
1926) (FAD), Gaudryinopsis glabrata (Cushman, 1933) (FAD),Pseudoclavulina arenata (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman & Campbell, 1936) (LAD), Buliminel/aex gr. eolonensis Cushman
256
GabonitalevisNodosariIJ ex gr. obsCllraZone: Gabonitacf. parva (de Klasz, Marie&Meijer, 1960)
(FAD), Gabonitalevis(de Klasz, Marie&Rerat, 1961) (LAD), Nodosariaexgr. obscuraReuss, 1845(LAD).
Assigned age : early to late Turonian.
ValvlllineriIJ sp. AGavelinelllJ bertheliniplllmmeraerellssi plexus Zone: Valvulineria sp. A
(FAD), Bolivina cf. incrassata Reuss, 1851 (FAD), Gavelinella berthelini (Keller, 1935) - G. plummerae
(Tappan, 1940) - G. reussi (Khan, 1950) plexus (LAD). Assigned age: latest Turonian.
GavelinelllJ sp. AValvlllineriIJ sp. A Zone: Gavelinella sp. A (LAD), Valvulineria sp. A (LAD),
Lingulogavelinella tormarpensis (Brotzen, 1942) (LAD), Turrispirillina ex gr. subconica Tappan, 1943
(LAD). Assigned age: early to mid-Coniacian.
Lenticlllina revollltaGloborotalites spinea Zone: Lenticulina revoluta (Israelsky, 1955) (FAD/
LAWZ ; late Coniacian ; TR?), Gavelinopsis sp. A (FAD/LAWZ ; late Coniacian ; TR?),Globorotalites
spinea (Cushman, 1926) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Eponides aracajuensis Petri, 1962 (FAD), Gavelinella ex gr.
beccariijormis (White, 1928) (FAD), G. correcta (Carsey, 1926) (FAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen, 1936)
(FAD), Gaudryina laevigata Franke, 1914 (FAD), Pseudogaudryinella ex gc. capitosa (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Gavelinella spissocostata (Cushman, 1938 (FAWZ ; Santonian), Reussella ex gr. szajnochae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian), Dorothia ex gr. bulleta (Carsey, 1926) (FAWZ; Santonian),Re-
curvoides ex gr. globulosa (Grzybowski, 1896) (FAWZ; Santonian). Assigned age: late Coniacian to early-
late Santonian.
Nllttallinella texanaOrthokarstenia clarki Zone: Nuttallinella texana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD),
Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman & Campbell, 1936) (FAD), O. clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz & Meijer,
1960) (FAD), Bolivina ex gr. afra (Reyment, 1959) (FAD), Verneuilina cretacea Karrer, 1870 (FAD),
Glaphyrammina sp. A (FAD/LAD ; TR?). Assigned age: late Santonian.
Siphogenerinoides bramletteiRellssella ex gr. s1lJjnochae Zone: Siphogenerinoides bramlettei
Cushman, 1929 (FAD), Ellipsoglandulina velascoensis Cushman, 1926 (FAD), Gavelinella nacatochensis
(Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Globorotalites subconica (Morrow, 1934) (FAD), Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tap-
pan, 1940) (FAD), Osangularia navarroana (Cushman, 1938) (FAD), Planulina taylorensis (Carsey, 1926)
(FAD), Hagenowella ex gr. subsphaerica (Reuss, 1846) (FAD), Recurvoides cf. subturbinata (Grzybowski,
1898) (FAD), Trochamminoidesjlagleri Cushman & Hedberg, 1941 (FAD), Reussella ex gr. szajnochae
(Grzybowski, 1896) (LAD), Pullenia jarvisi Cushman, 1936 (LAD). Assigned age: early Campanian.
Lacosteina gouskovi-Orthokarstenia clavata Zone: Lacosteina gouskovi Marie, 1945 (FAD/LAD;
TR?), Ammoglobigerina ex gr. globigerinijormis (parker & Jones, 1865) (FAD), Epistomina supracretacea
ten Dam, 1948 (FAD/LAD; TR?), GavelinellamonterelensisMarie, 1941 (FAD),Karreriellaexgr. conversa
(Grzybowski, 1901) (FAD), Neojlabelina rugosa (d'Orbigny, 1840) (FAD/LAD ; TR?), Praebulimina
spinata(Cushman &Campbell,1935) (FAD), Osangularianavarroana (Cushman, 1938) (LAWZ),Planulina
taylorensis (Carsey, 1926) (LAWZ), Orthokarstenia clavata (Chenouard, de Klasz &Meijer, 1960) (LAD),
Gavelinella correcta (Carsey, 1926) (LAD), G.lorneiana (d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), G. sandidgei (Brotzen,
1936) (LAD), Globorotalites subconica (Morrow, 1934) (LAD), Orithostella ex gc. halfeldi (petri, 1962)
(FAD), Valvulineria amaraliPetri, 1962 (LAD),B. ex gr. afra (AC; at the upper limit). Assigned age: early
to late Campanian.
Cibicides ex gr. beaumontiana-Gyroidinoides nonionoides Zone: Ammobaculites cf.fragmentaria
Cushman, 1927(FAD), Cibicidesex gr. beaumontiana(d'Orbigny, 1840) (LAD), Gyroidinoidesnonionoides
(Bandy, 1951) (LAD), Neojlabelina reticulata (Reuss, 1851) (LAD), N. ex gr. pilulijera (Cushman &
Campbell, 1935) (LAWZ), Praebulimina ex gr.fang de Klasz, Magne &Rerat, 1963 (LAD), P. ex gc. prolixa
(Cushman & Parker, 1925) (LAD), P. spinata (Cushman & Campbell, 1935) (LAD). Assigned age: early
Maastrichtian.
Gyroidinoides loetterkiOsanglllariIJ velascoensis Zone: Gyroidinoides loetterlei (Tappan, 1940)
(LAD), Osangularia velascoensis (Cushman, 1925) (LAD), Nodogenerina stephensoni (Cushman, 1936)
(LAD), Praebulimina ex gr. bantu de Klasz, Magne & Rerat, 1963 (LAD), Ammobaculites cf.fragmentaria
Cushman, 1927 (LAD), Rzehakina[lSsistomata (Grzybowski, 1901) (LAD), Verneuilina cretosa Cushman,
1933 (LAD). Assigned age: late Maastrichtian.
Orthokarstenia clarkiPraeblllimina kickapooensis Zone: Clavlllinoides ex gr. trilatera (Cushman,
1926) (FAD), Gaudryinopsis glabrata (Cushman, 1933) (FAD),Pseudoclavulina arenata (Cushman, 1933)
(FAD), Orthokarstenia clarki (Cushman &Campbell, 1936) (LAD), Buliminel/aex gc. colonensis Cushman
256
& Hedberg, 1930 (LAD), Neobulimina aspera (Cushman & Parker, 1940) (LAD), N. canadensis Cushman
& Wickenden, 1928 (LAD), Praebulimina kickapooensis (Cole, 1938) (LAD), P. reussi (Morrow, 1934)
(LAD), Pseudouvigerina plummerae Cushman, 1927 (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrichtian.
AMMONITES
EpichelonicerasDiadochoceras.EodouYilleiceras Zone: Category: Assemblage wne.Epichelonice-
ras sp. (OWZ), Diadochoceras sp. (OWZ), Eodouvilleiceras horridum(Riedel, 1937) (OWZ), Eodouvillei-
ceras sp. (OWZ), <<Dufrenoyia cf.justinae Hill, 1893 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Douvilleiceras Zone: Douvilleicerasex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813) (FAD),Douvilleiceras
inaequinodum (Quenstedt, 1849) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Albian.
Oxytropidoceras Zone: Oxytropidoceras buarquianum (White, 1887) (FAD), Oxytropidoceras spp.
(OWZ). Assigned age: mid Albian.
Elobiceras Zone: Elobiceras intermedium Spath, 1922 (FAD), Elobiceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned
age: early late Albian.
Mortoniceras Zone: Mortonicerascf.lastroensis Maury, 1937 (FAD), Mortoniceras spp. (OWZPR),
Neokentroceras cf. tectorium (White, 1887) (OWZPR). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Graysonites lozoiHypoturrilites betaitraensis Zone: Graysonites lozoi Young, 1958 (FAD),
Sharpeicerasvohipalense Collignon, 1964 (OWZPR), Hypoturrilites betaitraensis Klinger & Kennedy,
1978 (OWZPR), Stoliczkaia (Shumarinaia) africana Pervinquiere, 1907 (OWZPR), Forbesiceras brundret-
ti(Young, 1958) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Acompsoceras spathiDunveganoceras Zone: Acompsoceras spathi Basse, 1940 (FAD), Acompso-
ceras aff. renevieri (Sharpe, 1857) (OWZPR), Dunveganoceras sp. (OWZPR), Euomphaloceras (E.) meri-
dionale (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801 (OWZ). Assigned age: early mid
Cenomanian.
AcanthocerasjukesbrowneiEucalycoceraspentagonumZone: Acanthocerasjukesbrownei (Spath,
1926) (FAD), Eucalycoceras pentagonum(Jukes-Browne & Hill, 1896) (OWZ). Assigned age : late midCe-
nomanian.
Pseudocalycoceras harpaxThomelites aft sornayi Zone: Pseudocalycoceras harpax (Stoliczka,
1864) (FAD), Thomelites aff. sornayi (Thomel, 1967) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early late Cenomanian.
Euomphaloceras septemseriatum Zone: Euomphaloceras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893) (FAD),
Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat, 1899) (OWZ), Vascoceras gamai Choffat, 1899 (OWZ),
Thomasites gongilensis (Woods, 1911) (OWZ). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian.
Vascoceras harttiiPseudaspidocerasfooteanum Zone: Pseudotissotia nigeriensis (Woods, 1911)
(FAD), Pseudotissotia gabonensis Lombard, 1931 (OWZPR), Vascoceras hamii (Hyatt, 1870) (OWZPR),
Pseudaspidoceras footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Wrightoceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned age: latest
Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
Watinoceras amudarienseKamerunoceras seitzi Zone: Watinoceras amudariense (Arkhangel' skij,
1916) (FAD), Kamerunoceras seitzi (Riedel, 1932) (OWZ), Mitonia reesidei (Maury, 1937) (OWZPR).
Assigned age: early Turonian.
. Mammites nodosoidesKamerunoceras turoniense Zone: Mammites nodosoides (Schltiter, 1871)
(FAD), Kamerunoceras turoniense (d'Orbigny, 1850) (OWZPR), Fagesia bomba Eck, 1909 (OWZPR),
Romaniceras deverianum (d'Orbigny, 1841) (OWZ). Assigned age: early-mid Turonian.
SubprionocyclusReesidites Zone : Subprionocyclus sp. (FAD), Reesidites sp. (OWZPR),
Paralenticeras leonhardianum (Karsten, 1858) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Turonian.
Bllrroisiceras (B.) onilahyense.Forresteria Zone: Barroisiceras (B.) onilahyense Basse, 1948
(FAD), Forresteria sp: (OWZ). Assigned age: early Coniacian.
Solgerites armatusPrionocycloceras lenti Zone : Solgerites armatus (Solger, 1904) (FAD),
Prionocycloceras lenti (Gerhardt, 1897) (OWZ), Prionocycloceras guayabanum(Steinmann, 1897) (OWZ),
Heterotissotia sp. (OWZ), Bostrychoceras indicum (Stoliczka, 1865) (OWZ), Peroniceras spp. (OWZ).
Assigned age: mid Coniacian.
257
& Hedberg, 1930 (LAD), Neobulimina aspera (Cushman & Parker, 1940) (LAD), N. canadensis Cushman
& Wickenden, 1928 (LAD), Praebulimina kickapooensis (Cole, 1938) (LAD), P. reussi (Morrow, 1934)
(LAD), Pseudouvigerina plummerae Cushman, 1927 (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrichtian.
AMMONITES
EpichelonicerasDiadochoceras.EodouYilleiceras Zone: Category: Assemblage wne.Epichelonice-
ras sp. (OWZ), Diadochoceras sp. (OWZ), Eodouvilleiceras horridum(Riedel, 1937) (OWZ), Eodouvillei-
ceras sp. (OWZ), (<Dufrenoyia cf.justinae Hill, 1893 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Douvilleiceras Zone: Douvilleicerasex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813) (FAD),Douvilleiceras
inaequinodum (Quenstedt, 1849) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Albian.
Oxytropidoceras Zone: Oxytropidoceras buarquianum (White, 1887) (FAD), Oxytropidoceras spp.
(OWZ). Assigned age: mid Albian.
Elobiceras Zone: Elobiceras intermedium Spath, 1922 (FAD), Elobiceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned
age: early late Albian.
Mortoniceras Zone: Mortonicerascf.lastroensis Maury, 1937 (FAD), Mortoniceras spp. (OWZPR),
Neokentroceras cf. tectorium (White, 1887) (OWZPR). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Graysonites lozoiHypoturrilites betaitraensis Zone: Graysonites lozoi Young, 1958 (FAD),
Sharpeicerasvohipalense Collignon, 1964 (OWZPR), Hypoturrilites betaitraensis Klinger & Kennedy,
1978 (OWZPR), Stoliczkaia (Shumarinaia) africana Pervinquiere, 1907 (OWZPR), Forbesiceras brundret-
ti(Young, 1958) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Acompsoceras spathiDunveganoceras Zone: Acompsoceras spathi Basse, 1940 (FAD),Acompso-
ceras aff. renevieri (Sharpe, 1857) (OWZPR), Dunveganoceras sp. (OWZPR), Euomphaloceras (E.) meri-
dionale (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bose, 1801 (OWZ). Assigned age: early mid
Cenomanian.
AcanthocerasjukesbrowneiEucalycoceraspentagonumZone: Acanthocerasjukesbrownei (Spath,
1926) (FAD), Eucalycoceras pentagonum(Jukes-Browne & Hill, 1896) (OWZ). Assigned age : late midCe-
nomanian.
Pseudocalycoceras harpaxThomelites aft sornayi Zone: Pseudocalycoceras harpax (Stoliczka,
1864) (FAD), Thomelites aff. sornayi (Thomel, 1967) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early late Cenomanian.
Euomphaloceras septemseriatum Zone: Euomphaloceras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893) (FAD),
Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat, 1899) (OWZ), Vascoceras gamai Choffat, 1899 (OWZ),
Thomasites gongilensis (Woods, 1911) (OWZ). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian.
Vascoceras harttiiPseudaspidoceras!ooteanum Zone: Pseudotissotia nigeriensis (Woods, 1911)
(FAD), Pseudotissotia gabonensis Lombard, 1931 (OWZPR), Vascoceras hamii (Hyatt, 1870) (OWZPR),
Pseudaspidoceras footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Wrightoceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned age: latest
Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
Watinoceras amudarienseKamerunoceras seitzi Zone: Watinoceras amudariense (Arkhangel' skij,
1916) (FAD), Kamerunoceras seitzi (Riedel, 1932) (OWZ), Mitonia reesidei (Maury, 1937) (OWZPR).
Assigned age: early Turonian.
. Mammites nodosoidesKamerunoceras turoniense Zone: Mammites nodosoides (SchlUter, 1871)
(FAD), Kamerunoceras turoniense (d'Orbigny, 1850) (OWZPR), Fagesia bomba Eck, 1909 (OWZPR),
Romaniceras deverianum (d'Orbigny, 1841) (OWZ). Assigned age: early-mid Turonian.
SubprionocyclusReesidites Zone : Subprionocyclus sp. (FAD), Reesidites sp. (OWZPR),
Paralenticeras leonhardianum (Karsten, 1858) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Turonian.
Bllrroisiceras (B.) onilahyense.Forresteria Zone: Barroisiceras (B.) onilahyense Basse, 1948
(FAD), Forresteria sp: (OWZ). Assigned age: early Coniacian.
Solgerites armatusPrwnocycloceras lenti Zone : Solgerites armatus (Solger, 1904) (FAD),
Prionocycloceras lenti (Gerhardt, 1897) (OWZ), Prionocycloceras guayabanum(Steinmann, 1897) (OWZ),
Heterotissotia sp. (OWZ), Bostrychoceras indicum (Stoliczka, 1865) (OWZ), Peroniceras spp. (OWZ).
Assigned age: mid Coniacian.
257
& Hedberg, 1930 (LAD), Neobulimina aspera (Cushman & Parker, 1940) (LAD), N. canadensis Cushman
& Wickenden, 1928 (LAD), Praebulimina kickapooensis (Cole, 1938) (LAD), P. reussi (Morrow, 1934)
(LAD), Pseudouvigerina plummerae Cushman, 1927 (LAD). Assigned age: latest Maastrichtian.
AMMONITES
EpichelonicerasDiadochoceras.EodouYilleiceras Zone: Category: Assemblage wne.Epichelonice-
ras sp. (OWZ), Diadochoceras sp. (OWZ), Eodouvilleiceras horridum(Riedel, 1937) (OWZ), Eodouvillei-
ceras sp. (OWZ), <<Dufrenoyia cf.justinae Hill, 1893 (OWZ). Assigned age: late Aptian.
Douvilleiceras Zone: Douvilleicerasex gr. mammillatum(Schlotheim, 1813) (FAD),Douvilleiceras
inaequinodum (Quenstedt, 1849) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Albian.
Oxytropidoceras Zone: Oxytropidoceras buarquianum (White, 1887) (FAD), Oxytropidoceras spp.
(OWZ). Assigned age: mid Albian.
Elobiceras Zone: Elobiceras intermedium Spath, 1922 (FAD), Elobiceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned
age: early late Albian.
Mortoniceras Zone: Mortonicerascf.lastroensis Maury, 1937 (FAD), Mortoniceras spp. (OWZPR),
Neokentroceras cf. tectorium (White, 1887) (OWZPR). Assigned age: latest Albian.
Graysonites lozoiHypoturrilites betaitraensis Zone: Graysonites lozoi Young, 1958 (FAD),
Sharpeicerasvohipalense Collignon, 1964 (OWZPR), Hypoturrilites betaitraensis Klinger & Kennedy,
1978 (OWZPR), Stoliczkaia (Shumarinaia) africana Pervinquiere, 1907 (OWZPR), Forbesiceras brundret-
ti(Young, 1958) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early Cenomanian.
Acompsoceras spathiDunveganoceras Zone: Acompsoceras spathi Basse, 1940 (FAD),Acompso-
ceras aff. renevieri (Sharpe, 1857) (OWZPR), Dunveganoceras sp. (OWZPR), Euomphaloceras (E.) meri-
dionale (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801 (OWZ). Assigned age: early mid
Cenomanian.
AcanthocerasjukesbrowneiEucalycoceraspentagonumZone: Acanthocerasjukesbrownei (Spath,
1926) (FAD), Eucalycoceras pentagonum(Jukes-Browne & Hill, 1896) (OWZ). Assigned age : late midCe-
nomanian.
Pseudocalycoceras harpaxThomelites aft sornayi Zone: Pseudocalycoceras harpax (Stoliczka,
1864) (FAD), Thomelites aff. sornayi (Thomel, 1967) (OWZPR). Assigned age: early late Cenomanian.
Euomphaloceras septemseriatum Zone: Euomphaloceras septemseriatum (Cragin, 1893) (FAD),
Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat, 1899) (OWZ), Vascoceras gamai Choffat, 1899 (OWZ),
Thomasites gongilensis (Woods, 1911) (OWZ). Assigned age: latest Cenomanian.
Vascoceras harttiiPseudaspidocerasfooteanum Zone: Pseudotissotia nigeriensis (Woods, 1911)
(FAD), Pseudotissotia gabonensis Lombard, 1931 (OWZPR), Vascoceras hamii (Hyatt, 1870) (OWZPR),
Pseudaspidoceras footeanum (Stoliczka, 1864) (OWZ), Wrightoceras sp. (OWZ). Assigned age: latest
Cenomanian-earliest Turonian.
Watinoceras amudarienseKamerunoceras seitzi Zone: Watinoceras amudariense (Arkhangel' skij,
1916) (FAD), Kamerunoceras seitzi (Riedel, 1932) (OWZ), Mitonia reesidei (Maury, 1937) (OWZPR).
Assigned age: early Turonian.
. Mammites nodosoidesKamerunoceras turoniense Zone: Mammites nodosoides (Schltiter, 1871)
(FAD), Kamerunoceras turoniense (d'Orbigny, 1850) (OWZPR), Fagesia bomba Eck, 1909 (OWZPR),
Romaniceras deverianum (d'Orbigny, 1841) (OWZ). Assigned age: early-mid Turonian.
SubprionocyclusReesidites Zone : Subprionocyclus sp. (FAD), Reesidites sp. (OWZPR),
Paralenticeras leonhardianum (Karsten, 1858) (OWZ). Assigned age: late Turonian.
Bllrroisiceras (B.) onilahyense.Forresteria Zone: Barroisiceras (B.) onilahyense Basse, 1948
(FAD), Forresteria sp: (OWZ). Assigned age: early Coniacian.
Solgerites armatusPrionocycloceras lenti Zone : Solgerites armatus (Solger, 1904) (FAD),
Prionocycloceras lenti (Gerhardt, 1897) (OWZ), Prionocycloceras guayabanum(Steinmann, 1897) (OWZ),
Heterotissotia sp. (OWZ), Bostrychoceras indicum (Stoliczka, 1865) (OWZ), Peroniceras spp. (OWZ).
Assigned age: mid Coniacian.
257
OTHER MACROFOSSILS
Among the various macrofossil groups, other thanammonites, only inoceramidbivalves seemtohave
the biostratigraphical potential to allow the establishment of a detailed separate zonal scheme. Even so, an
inoceramid zonation for Sergipe will probably only comprise the Turonian and Coniacian stages, since ino-
ceramids are not abundant enough in other parts of the sequence. Based on studies of a restricted geographic
area, Ressel (1988) recognized two distinct lower Turonian inoceramidassociations: a lower Mytiloides my-
tiloides andan upper Mytiloides hercynicus association. Todetermine whether theseassociations arelaterally
persistent and thus potential biozones requires further study. They appear tofall entirely within the ammonite
zone of Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. Acharacteristic andeasilyrecognizable taxon in
the lower inoceramid association is the new genus Rhyssomytiloides Ressel, 1988, which can then aid in the
identification of the nodosoides-turoniense Zone. Other inoceramid taxa described by Ressel (1988) do not
seem to be confmed to one zone only.
Kauffman & Bengtson (1985) listed a number of provisionally determined inoceramid taxa ; the
material is still under study and will eventually be integrated with the current biostratigraphical scheme.
Ofother macrofossil groups, only the echinoids have as yet received full systematic treatment (Smith
1991). Although a separate biozonation for echinoids is not justified, selected species were found to be
confined to one or two ammonite zones and thus potentially biostratigraphically useful (Smith & Bengtson
1991, fig. 3). For example, the occurrence of Micropedina olisiponensis (Forbes, 1850) in the lower upper
Cenomanian Pseudocalycoceras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone is consistent with its occurrence in
Portugal and North Africa [Berthou &Lauverjat 1978 ; Smith & Bengtson 1988, fig. 3 (although wrongly
given as middle Cenomanian on pp. 11,32)].
PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION
OF THE SERGIPE BASIN
Several authors have discussed the palaeoenvironmenta! development of the Sergipe Basin during the
Cretaceous, for example, Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Koutsoukos (1989), and Koutsoukos et al. (1991a,
1991b). We attempt here a synthesis of the time range that extends from the earliest marine incursion until
the end of the Cretaceous. Interpretations are based on our integratedbiostratigraphical work presented here,
within the currently available sedimentological and teetono-sedimentary framework.
The passage from the transitional, evaporitic phase to a fully marine drift phase was characterized by
progressive crusta! extension and thinning. This allowed for the establishment ofa narrowepicontinental sea,
coupled with the gradual development of oceanic conditions in the central South Atlantic. Open marine
conditions were established in Sergipe by late Aptian times, with neritic-oceanic circulation patterns, and
surface-water exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans (Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992),
possibly even at intermediate water-depths (epipelagic to mesopelagic) (Koutsoukos 1992). A mixed
carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (the Riachuelo Formation) developed from the late Aptian to late
Albian, with paralic (lagoonal and tidal flats) to upper bathyal environments. Intermittent dysoxic-anoxic
conditions occurred, with a maximum oxygen-depletion event in the late Aptian-earliest Albian (fig. 8). A
relative sea-level rise during the early Cenomanian caused the drowning of the shallow-water Riachuelo
platform. Fine-grained deep-water limestones of a carbonate ramp system (Cenomanian to middle Conia-
cian ; the Cotinguiba Formation), accumulated in neritic to upper bathyal environments, with moderately
dysoxic to truly anoxic bottom conditions and well oxygenated epipelagic water masses (Koutsoulcos et al.
1991b). Two maximum oxygen depletion events (dysaerobic to anaerobic) are recorded in the succession
(fig. 8) : in the early Cenomanian, and at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. More oxidized conditions
(dysaerobic to aerobic) are apparent from the middle-upper Albian and lower-middle Turonian deposits,
probably as aconsequence ofless restricted oceanic exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans,
with the progressive establishment of open oceanic circulation patterns (Koutsoukos et al. 1991b).
In the late Coniacian-early Santonian a major oceanographic event ended the carbonate-dominated
depositional cycle in the Sergipe Basin. The final structural detachment of the South American and African
258
OTHER MACROFOSSILS
Among the various macrofossil groups, other thanammonites, only inoceramidbivalves seemtohave
the biostratigraphical potential to allow the establishment of a detailed separate zonal scheme. Even so, an
inoceramid zonation for Sergipe will probably only comprise the Turonian and Coniacian stages, since ino-
ceramids are not abundant enough in other parts of the sequence. Based on studies of a restricted geographic
area, Hessel (1988) recognized two distinct lower Turonian inoceramidassociations: a lower Mytiloides my-
tiloides andan upperMytiloides hercynicus association. Todetermine whether theseassociations arelaterally
persistent and thus potential biozones requires further study. They appear tofall entirely within the ammonite
zone of Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. Acharacteristic andeasilyrecognizable taxon in
the lower inoceramid association is the new genus Rhyssomytiioides Hessel, 1988, which can then aid in the
identification of the nodosoides-turoniense Zone. Other inoceramid taxa described by Hessel (1988) do not
seem to be confmed to one zone only.
Kauffman & Bengtson (1985) listed a number of provisionally determined inoceramid taxa ; the
material is still under study and will eventually be integrated with the current biostratigraphical scheme.
Ofother macrofossil groups, only the echinoids have as yet received full systematic treatment (Smith
1991). Although a separate biozonation for echinoids is not justified, selected species were found to be
confined to one or two ammonite zones and thus potentially biostratigraphically useful (Smith & Bengtson
1991, fig. 3). For example, the occurrence of Micropedina olisiponensis (Forbes, 1850) in the lower upper
Cenomanian Pseudocaiycoceras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone is consistent with its occurrence in
Portugal and North Africa [Berthou & Lauverjat 1978 ; Smith & Bengtson 1988, fig. 3 (although wrongly
given as middle Cenomanian on pp. 11,32)].
PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION
OF THE SERGIPE BASIN
Several authors have discussed the palaeoenvironmental development of the Sergipe Basin during the
Cretaceous, for example, Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Koutsoukos (1989), and Koutsoukos et ai. (1991a,
1991b). We attempt here a synthesis of the time range that extends from the earliest marine incursion until
the end of the Cretaceous. Interpretations are based on our integratedbiostratigraphical work presented here,
within the currently available sedimentological and tectono-sedimentary framework.
The passage from the transitional, evaporitic phase to a fully marine drift phase was characterized by
progressive crustal extension and thinning. This allowed for the establishment ofanarrowepicontinental sea,
coupled with the gradual development of oceanic conditions in the central South Atlantic. Open marine
conditions were established in Sergipe by late Aptian times, with neritic-oceanic circulation patterns, and
surface-water exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans (Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992),
possibly even at intermediate water-depths (epipelagic to mesopelagic) (Koutsoukos 1992). A mixed
carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (the Riachuelo Formation) developed from the late Aptian to late
Albian, with paralic (lagoonal and tidal flats) to upper bathyal environments. Intermittent dysoxic-anoxic
conditions occurred, with a maximum oxygen-depletion event in the late Aptian-earliest Albian (fig. 8). A
relative sea-level rise during the early Cenomanian caused the drowning of the shallow-water Riachuelo
platform. Fine-grained deep-water limestones of a carbonate ramp system (Cenomanian to middle Conia-
cian ; the Cotinguiba Formation), accumulated in neritic to upper bathyal environments, with moderately
dysoxic to truly anoxic bottom conditions and well oxygenated epipelagic water masses (Koutsoulcos et ai.
1991b). Two maximum oxygen depletion events (dysaerobic to anaerobic) are recorded in the succession
(fig. 8) : in the early Cenomanian, and at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. More oxidized conditions
(dysaerobic to aerobic) are apparent from the middle-upper Albian and lower-middle Turonian deposits,
probably as aconsequence ofless restricted oceanic exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans,
with the progressive establishment of open oceanic circulation patterns (Koutsoukos et ai. 1991b).
In the late Coniacian-early Santonian a major oceanographic event ended the carbonate-dominated
depositional cycle in the Sergipe Basin. The final structural detachment of the South American and African
258
OTHER MACROFOSSILS
Among the various macrofossil groups, other thanammonites, only inoceramidbivalves seemtohave
the biostratigraphical potential to allow the establishment of a detailed separate zonal scheme. Even so, an
inoceramid zonation for Sergipe will probably only comprise the Turonian and Coniacian stages, since ino-
ceramids are not abundant enough in other parts of the sequence. Based on studies of a restricted geographic
area, Ressel (1988) recognized two distinct lower Turonian inoceramidassociations: a lower Mytiloides my-
tiloides andan upperMytiloides hercynicus association. Todetermine whether theseassociations arelaterally
persistent and thus potential biozones requires further study. They appear tofall entirely within the ammonite
zone of Mammites nodosoides-Kamerunoceras turoniense. Acharacteristic andeasilyrecognizable taxon in
the lower inoceramid association is the new genus Rhyssomytiloides Ressel, 1988, which can then aid in the
identification of the nodosoides-turoniense Zone. Other inoceramid taxa described by Ressel (1988) do not
seem to be confmed to one zone only.
Kauffman & Bengtson (1985) listed a number of provisionally determined inoceramid taxa ; the
material is still under study and will eventually be integrated with the current biostratigraphical scheme.
Ofother macrofossil groups, only the echinoids have as yet received full systematic treatment (Smith
1991). Although a separate biozonation for echinoids is not justified, selected species were found to be
confined to one or two ammonite zones and thus potentially biostratigraphically useful (Smith & Bengtson
1991, fig. 3). For example, the occurrence of Micropedina olisiponensis (Forbes, 1850) in the lower upper
Cenomanian Pseudocalycoceras harpax-Thomelites aff. sornayi Zone is consistent with its occurrence in
Portugal and North Africa [Berthou & Lauverjat 1978 ; Smith & Bengtson 1988, fig. 3 (although wrongly
given as middle Cenomanian on pp. 11,32)].
PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION
OF THE SERGIPE BASIN
Several authors have discussed the palaeoenvironmenta! development of the Sergipe Basin during the
Cretaceous, for example, Berthou & Bengtson (1988), Koutsoukos (1989), and Koutsoukos et al. (1991a,
1991b). We attempt here a synthesis of the time range that extends from the earliest marine incursion until
the end of the Cretaceous. Interpretations are based on our integratedbiostratigraphical work presented here,
within the currently available sedimentological and teetono-sedimentary framework.
The passage from the transitional, evaporitic phase to a fully marine drift phase was characterized by
progressive crusta! extension and thinning. This allowed for the establishment ofanarrowepicontinental sea,
coupled with the gradual development of oceanic conditions in the central South Atlantic. Open marine
conditions were established in Sergipe by late Aptian times, with neritic-oceanic circulation patterns, and
surface-water exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans (Bengtson & Koutsoukos 1992),
possibly even at intermediate water-depths (epipelagic to mesopelagic) (Koutsoukos 1992). A mixed
carbonate-siliciclastic platform system (the Riachuelo Formation) developed from the late Aptian to late
Albian, with paralic (lagoonal and tidal flats) to upper bathyal environments. Intermittent dysoxic-anoxic
conditions occurred, with a maximum oxygen-depletion event in the late Aptian-earliest Albian (fig. 8). A
relative sea-level rise during the early Cenomanian caused the drowning of the shallow-water Riachuelo
platform. Fine-grained deep-water limestones of a carbonate ramp system (Cenomanian to middle Conia-
cian ; the Cotinguiba Formation), accumulated in neritic to upper bathyal environments, with moderately
dysoxic to truly anoxic bottom conditions and well oxygenated epipelagic water masses (Koutsoulcos et al.
1991b). Two maximum oxygen depletion events (dysaerobic to anaerobic) are recorded in the succession
(fig. 8) : in the early Cenomanian, and at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. More oxidized conditions
(dysaerobic to aerobic) are apparent from the middle-upper Albian and lower-middle Turonian deposits,
probably as aconsequence ofless restricted oceanic exchange between the central and South Atlantic oceans,
with the progressive establishment of open oceanic circulation patterns (Koutsoukos et al. 1991b).
In the late Coniacian-early Santonian a major oceanographic event ended the carbonate-dominated
depositional cycle in the Sergipe Basin. The final structural detachment of the South American and African
258
plates restrltMin theestablishment ofadeep-ocean circulationregime. The basinwas abruptly tilted seawards
along a NE-SW-trending rotational axis, which caused uplift of the north-western margin of the basin and
created a prominent submarine topography (Koutsoukos & Hart 1990, fig. 13). Simultaneously there was a
rapid change from a dominantly dry to a more humid and warmclimate, probably causedby the development
of a high-pressure atmospheric cell at low latitudes over the widening Atlantic watermasses (e.g., Parrish &
Curtis 1982, Chang et al. 1988). This climatic turnover caused increased siliciclastic influx to the basin (due
to continental runoft), the material of which wasderived from the upliftedareas in the north-west.
Thick successions of shales and, suboidimltely, turbiditic sandstones weredeposited; these form theCalumbi.
Member of the Formation.
Stages
Maastrichtian
Campanian
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Cenomanian
Albian
Upper Aptian
Planktonic
foraminiferal
zones
C. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis
C. ex gr. fornicata-
G. linneiana
.G. orientalis-G. ventricosa
G. patelliformis-G. elevatal
stuartifonnis plexus
Dicarinella asymetrica
D concavata-M sinuosa
A. cretacea-D. primitiva
Dicarinella primitiva
H. aprica-
H. (W) baltica
H. (W) archaeocretacea-
H. reussi
H. (W) aprJca-G. bentonensis
H(W) baltica-
H. (W) brittonensis
P delrioensis-R. appennil1ica
R. brotzeni
H. (H.) gorbachlkae-
T raynaudi
G. texomaensis-
B. breggiensis
B. breggiel1sis-
.' T ex gr. primula
T ex gr. prJmula-
T bejaouaensis
T beJaouaensis
G. cushmani-
T bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensls-H (H.) slmilis
G. barri-H. (H.] gorbachlkae
NW
Palaeobathymetric
evolution
SE
,
,
,
: :: :.: :.:.:.: :.;.: :.:.: :::::::.
I
>,'
cnlQl
"0, c
EI'&
35 'I <5
,"55
0.1
Fig. 8 - Palaeobathymetric evolution of the Serglpe Basin. Shaded areas Indicate time of maximumdysoxlc-anoxic
episodes. The left-hand side of the diagram corresponds to the present-day, north-western onshore border of the basin
(Riachuelo and ltaporanga highs), and the right-hand side to the south-eastern limit of the studied area (off-shore area of
welll-SES-3 : Koutsoukos 1992, fig. 1) (from Koutspukos 1992, fig. 2(E) ; stage thicknesses not to scale). '
259
plates restrltMin theestablishment ofadeep-ocean circulationregime. The basinwas abruptly tilted seawards
along a NE-SW-trending rotational axis, which caused uplift of the north-western margin of the basin and
created a prominent submarine topography (Koutsoukos & Hart 1990, fig. 13). Simultaneously there was a
rapid change from a dominantly dry to a more humid and warmclimate, probably causedby the development
of a high-pressure atmospheric cell at low latitudes over the widening Atlantic watermasses (e.g., Parrish &
Curtis 1982, Chang et al. 1988). This climatic turnover caused increased siliciclastic influx to the basin (due
to intensificontinental runoft), the material of which wasderived from the upliftedareas in the north-west.
Thick successionsof shales and, suboidimltely, turbiditic sandstones weredeposited; these form theCalumbi.
Member of the P i ~ a b u ~ u Formation.
Stages
Maastrichtian
Campanian
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Cenomanian
Albian
Upper Aptian
Planktonic
foraminiferal
zones
C. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis
C. ex gr. fornicata-
G. linneiana
.G. orientalis-G. ventricosa
G. patelliformis-G. elevata!
stuartifonnis plexus
Oicarinella asymetrica
o concavata-M sinuosa
A. cretacea-O. primitiva
Oicarinella primitiva
H. aprica-
H. (W) baltica
H. (W) archaeocretacea-
H. reussi
H. (W) aprJca-G. bentonensis
H(W) baftica-
H. (W) brittonensis
P delrioensis-R. appennil1ica
R. brotzeni
H. (H.) gorbachlkae-
T raynaudi
G. texomaensis-
B. breggiensis
B. breggiel1sis-
.' T ex gr. primula
T ex gr. prJmula-
T bejaouaensis
T beJaouaensis
G. cushmani-
T bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensls-H (H.i slmilis
G. barri-H. (H.] gorbachlkae
NW
Palaeobathymetric
evolution
SE
,
,
,
: :: :.: :.:.:.: :.;.: :.:.: :::::::.
I
>,'
(\jIm
"0, c
EI'&
35 'I <5
~ ,"55
0.1
Fig. 8 - Palaeobathymetric evolution of the Serglpe Basin. Shaded areas Indicate time of maximumdysoxlc-anoxic
episodes. The left-hand side of the diagram corresponds to the present-day, north-western onshore border of the basin
(Riachuelo and ltaporanga highs), and the right-hand side to the south-eastern limit of the studied area (off-shore area of
welll-SES-3 : Koutsoukos 1992, fig. 1) (from Koutspukos 1992, fig. 2(E) ; stage thicknesses not to scale). '
259
plates restrltMin theestablishment ofadeep-ocean circulationregime. The basinwas abruptly tilted seawards
along a NE-SW-trending rotational axis, which caused uplift of the north-western margin of the basin and
created a prominent submarine topography (Koutsoukos & Hart 1990, fig. 13). Simultaneously there was a
rapid change from a dominantly dry to a more humid and warmclimate, probably causedby the development
of a high-pressure atmospheric cell at low latitudes over the widening Atlantic watermasses (e.g., Parrish &
Curtis 1982, Chang et al. 1988). This climatic turnover caused increased siliciclastic influx to the basin (due
to continental runoft), the material of which wasderived from the upliftedareas in the north-west.
Thick successions of shales and, suboidimltely, turbiditic sandstones weredeposited; these form theCalumbi.
Member of the Formation.
Stages
Maastrichtian
Campanian
Santonian
Coniacian
Turonian
Cenomanian
Albian
Upper Aptian
Planktonic
foraminiferal
zones
C. contusa-G. aegyptiaca
G. gansseri-G. stuartiformis
C. ex gr. fornicata-
G. linneiana
.G. orientalis-G. ventricosa
G. patelliformis-G. elevatal
stuartifonnis plexus
Dicarinella asymetrica
D concavata-M sinuosa
A. cretacea-D. primitiva
Dicarinella primitiva
H. aprica-
H. (W) baltica
H. (W) archaeocretacea-
H. reussi
H. (W) aprJca-G. bentonensis
H(W) baltica-
H. (W) brittonensis
P delrioensis-R. appennil1ica
R. brotzeni
H. (H.) gorbachlkae-
T raynaudi
G. texomaensis-
B. breggiensis
B. breggiel1sis-
.' T ex gr. primula
T ex gr. prJmula-
T bejaouaensis
T beJaouaensis
G. cushmani-
T bejaouaensis
G. ex gr. maridalensls-H (H.) slmilis
G. barri-H. (H.] gorbachlkae
NW
Palaeobathymetric
evolution
SE
,
,
,
: :: :.: :.:.:.: :.;.: :.:.: :::::::.
I
>,'
cnlQl
"0, c
EI'&
35 'I <5
,"55
0.1
Fig. 8 - Palaeobathymetric evolution of the Serglpe Basin. Shaded areas Indicate time of maximumdysoxlc-anoxic
episodes. The left-hand side of the diagram corresponds to the present-day, north-western onshore border of the basin
(Riachuelo and ltaporanga highs), and the right-hand side to the south-eastern limit of the studied area (off-shore area of
welll-SES-3 : Koutsoukos 1992, fig. 1) (from Koutspukos 1992, fig. 2(E) ; stage thicknesses not to scale). '
259
Apalaeobathymebic maximumappears to haveoccurred in the early Campanian (fig. 8) (Koutsoukos
1989), when the bathymebically deepest environments are recorded in all the sites studied. Foraminiferal
speciesdiversityreachedapeakin theCampanian, probably in responseto increasednicheavailability, which
promoted evolutionary diversification.
Palaeoenvironmental conclusions
The marine Cretaceous palaeoenvironmental evolutionofthe basincanbesubdividedintothree major
phases: (1) a late Aptian to late Albian paralic to upper bathyal phase (mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform
system; Riachuelo Formation) ; (2) an early Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian neritic to upper bathyal phase
(carbonate ramp system; Cotinguiba Formation) ; and (3) a late Coniacian or Santonian to late Maasbichtian
middle-deep neritic to lower bathyal phase(siliciclastic system; Calumbi Member Formation).
Foraminiferal species diversity reachedapeak in the Campanian. This was associated with a palaeobathyme-
bic maximum, probably in the early Campanian, from when the deepest environments are recordedat all the
sites studied.
Acknowledgements
We thank Petr61eo Brasileiro S.A. (petrobnis), Rio de Janeiro, for permission to publish the paper.
Paleontologiska institutionen, Uppsala University (Sweden), provided working facilities for P. B. during
research visits in 1991-1992. Marta C. Viviers (petrobnis) advised on the microfossil zonations, Suzana I.
Bengtson (Uppsala) revised determinations of the lower Cenomanian ammonites, and Pierre-Yves Berthou
(Paris) contributedstratigraphical data onechinoids. We thankP.Y. BerthouandFrancisRobaszynski (Mons)
for reviewing the manuscript for publication. The final drafting of the illustrations was by Rolf Koch and
Rainer Ziihlke (Universitat Heidelberg), using Aldus FreeHand on a Macintosh Quadra 950. Part of the
underlying work was financed by grants to P. B. from the SwedishNatural ScienceResearch Council (NFR).
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BANDEIRA A. N., Jr. (1978) - Sedimentologia e microfacies calcarias das Riachuelo e Cotinguiba
da Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 21, I, p. 17-69.
BENGrSON P. (1979) - Abioestratigrafia esquecida : dos metodos bioestratigraficos no Cretaceo
medio do BrasH. Anais Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 51, 3, p. 535-544.
BENGrSON P. (1983) - The Cenomanian-Coniacian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 12, p. 1-
78.
BENGrSON P. & KOursOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Ammonite and foraminiferal dating of the fIrst marine con-
nection between the central and South Atlantic. In R. Curnelle (ed.), Geologie Africaine, Compte-
rendu des Colloques de geologie de Libreville, 68 Mai, 1991. Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.- Produc. Elf
Aquitaine. Mem. 13, p. 403.
BmmmuP.-Y. (1984) - Albian-Turonian stageboundaries and subdivisions in the western Portuguese Basin,
with special emphasis on theCenomanian-Turonianboundaryin the ammonitefacies andrudist facies.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33,1-2, p. 41-55.
BBRTHOUP.-Y. &BENGrSONP. (1988) - Slratigraphic correlationbymicrofacies ofthe Cenomanian-Coniacian
of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 21, p. 1-88.
BBRTIIouP.-Y. &LAUVERJATJ. (1978) -Lebassinoccidental portugaisde I'AlbienauCampanien.AnnalsMus.
Hist. Nat. Nice, 4 [for 1976], p. 1.1-1.14.
BEURLENG. (1969) - Afauna do complexo Riachuelo/Maruim : I - Ammonoidea. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 11, 4
[for 1968], p. 437-482.
BEURLEN. G. (1970) - Uma nova fauna de amon6ides da SapucarilLaranjeiras (Cret8ceo de Ser-
gipe) : sabre sua bioesttatigrafia. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 12,2 [for 1969], p.147-169.
BEURLEN K. (1961) - Die Kreide im KUstenbereich von Sergipe bis Paraiba do Norte (Brasilien). Zeitschr.
Deutsch. Geol. Gesells., 112,3 [for 1960], p. 378-384.
260
Apalaeobathymetric maximumappears to haveoccurred in the early Campanian (fig. 8) (Koutsoukos
1989), when the bathymetrically deepest environments are recorded in all the sites studied. Foraminiferal
speciesdiversityreachedapeakin theCampanian, probably in responseto increasednicheavailability, which
promoted evolutionary diversification.
Palaeoenvironmental conclusions
The marine Cretaceous palaeoenvironmental evolutionofthe basincanbesubdividedintothree major
phases: (1) a late Aptian to late Albian paralic to upper bathyal phase (mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform
system; Riachuelo Formation) ; (2) an early Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian neritic to upper bathyal phase
(carbonate ramp system; Cotinguiba Formation) ; and (3) a late Coniacian or Santonian to late Maastrichtian
middle-deep neritic to lower bathyal phase (siliciclastic system; Calumbi Member Formation).
Foraminiferal species diversity reachedapeak in the Campanian. This was associated with a palaeobathyme-
tric maximum, probably in the early Campanian, from when the deepest environments are recordedat all the
sites studied.
Acknowledgements
We thank Petr61eo Brasileiro S.A. (petrobnis), Rio de Janeiro, for permission to publish the paper.
Paleontologiska institutionen, Uppsala University (Sweden), provided working facilities for P. B. during
research visits in 1991-1992. Marta C. Viviers (petrobras) advised on the microfossil zonations, Suzana I.
Bengtson (Uppsala) revised determinations of the lower Cenomanian ammonites, and Pierre-Yves Berthou
(Paris) contributedstratigraphical data onechinoids. We thankP.Y. BerthouandFrancisRobaszynski (Mons)
for reviewing the manuscript for publication. The final drafting of the illustrations was by Rolf Koch and
Rainer ZUhlke (Universitat Heidelberg), using Aldus FreeHand on a Macintosh Quadra 950. Part of the
underlying work was financed by grants to P. B. from the SwedishNatural ScienceResearch Council (NFR).
REFERENCES CITED
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p.3-9.
BANDEIRA A. N., Jr. (1978) - Sedimentologia e microfacies calcarias das Riachuelo e Cotinguiba
da Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 21, I, p. 17-69.
BENGrSON P. (1979) - Abioestratigrafia esquecida : dos metodos bioestratigraficos no Cretaceo
medio do Brasil. Anais Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 51, 3, p. 535-544.
BENGrSON P. (1983) - The Cenomanian-Coniacian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 12, p. 1-
78.
BENGrSON P. & KOursOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Ammonite and foraminiferal dating of the fIrst marine con-
nection between the central and South Atlantic. In R. Curnelle (ed.), Geologie Africaine, Compte-
rendu des Colloques de geologie de Libreville, 68 Mai, 1991. Bull. Centro Rech. Explor.- Produc. Elf
Aquitaine. Mem. 13, p. 403.
BmmmuP.-Y. (1984) - Albian-Turonian stageboundaries and subdivisions in the western Portuguese Basin,
with special emphasis on theCenomanian-Turonianboundaryin the ammonitefacies andrudist facies.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33,1-2, p. 41-55.
BBRTHOUP.-Y. &BENGrSONP. (1988) - Stratigraphic correlationbymicrofacies ofthe Cenomanian-Coniacian
of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 21, p. 1-88.
BBRTIIouP.-Y. &LAUVERJATJ. (1978) -Lebassinoccidental portugais de I'AlbienauCampanien.AnnalsMus.
Hist. Nat. Nice, 4 [for 1976], p. 1.1-1.14.
BEURLENG. (1969) - Afauna do complexo Riachuelo/Maruim : I - Ammonoidea. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, II, 4
[for 1968], p. 437-482.
BEURLEN. G. (1970) - Uma nova fauna de amon6ides da SapucarilLaranjeiras (Cret8ceo de Ser-
gipe) : sObre sua bioestratigrafia. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 12,2 [for 1969], p.147-169.
BEURLEN K. (1961) - Die Kreide im KUstenbereich von Sergipe bis Paraiba do Norte (Brasilien). Zeitschr.
Deutsch. Geol. Gesells., 112,3 [for 1960], p. 378-384.
260
Apalaeobathymebic maximumappears to haveoccurred in the early Campanian (fig. 8) (Koutsoukos
1989), when the bathymebically deepest environments are recorded in all the sites studied. Foraminiferal
speciesdiversityreachedapeakin theCampanian, probably in responseto increasednicheavailability, which
promoted evolutionary diversification.
Palaeoenvironmental conclusions
The marine Cretaceous palaeoenvironmental evolutionofthe basincanbesubdividedintothree major
phases: (1) a late Aptian to late Albian paralic to upper bathyal phase (mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform
system; Riachuelo Formation) ; (2) an early Cenomanian to mid-Coniacian neritic to upper bathyal phase
(carbonate ramp system; Cotinguiba Formation) ; and (3) a late Coniacian or Santonian to late Maasbichtian
middle-deep neritic to lower bathyal phase (siliciclastic system; Calumbi Member Formation).
Foraminiferal species diversity reachedapeak in the Campanian. This was associated with a palaeobathyme-
bic maximum, probably in the early Campanian, from when the deepest environments are recordedat all the
sites studied.
Acknowledgements
We thank Petr61eo Brasileiro S.A. (petrobnis), Rio de Janeiro, for permission to publish the paper.
Paleontologiska institutionen, Uppsala University (Sweden), provided working facilities for P. B. during
research visits in 1991-1992. Marta C. Viviers (petrobras) advised on the microfossil zonations, Suzana I.
Bengtson (Uppsala) revised determinations of the lower Cenomanian ammonites, and Pierre-Yves Berthou
(Paris) contributedstratigraphical data onechinoids. We thankP.Y. BerthouandFrancisRobaszynski (Mons)
for reviewing the manuscript for publication. The final drafting of the illustrations was by Rolf Koch and
Rainer Ziihlke (Universitat Heidelberg), using Aldus FreeHand on a Macintosh Quadra 950. Part of the
underlying work was financed by grants to P. B. from the SwedishNatural ScienceResearch Council (NFR).
REFERENCES CITED
ASMUS H. E. &BAISCH P. R. (1983) - Geological evolution of the Brazilian continental margin. Episodes, 4,
p.3-9.
BANDEIRA A. N., Jr. (1978) - Sedimentologia e microfacies calcarias das Riachuelo e Cotinguiba
da Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 21, I, p. 17-69.
BENGrSON P. (1979) - Abioestratigrafia esquecida : dos metodos bioestratigraficos no Cretaceo
medio do BrasH. Anais Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 51, 3, p. 535-544.
BENGrSON P. (1983) - The Cenomanian-Coniacian of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 12, p. 1-
78.
BENGrSON P. & KOursOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Ammonite and foraminiferal dating of the fIrst marine con-
nection between the central and South Atlantic. In R. Curnelle (ed.), Geologie Africaine, Compte-
rendu des Colloques de geologie de Libreville, 68 Mai, 1991. Bull. Centr. Rech. Explor.- Produc. Elf
Aquitaine. Mem. 13, p. 403.
BmmmuP.-Y. (1984) - Albian-Turonian stageboundaries and subdivisions in the western Portuguese Basin,
with special emphasis on theCenomanian-Turonianboundaryin the ammonitefacies andrudist facies.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Denmark, 33,1-2, p. 41-55.
BBRTHOUP.-Y. &BENGrSONP. (1988) - Slratigraphic correlationbymicrofacies ofthe Cenomanian-Coniacian
of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 21, p. 1-88.
BBRTIIouP.-Y. &LAUVERJATJ. (1978) -Lebassinoccidental portugaisde I'AlbienauCampanien.AnnalsMus.
Hist. Nat. Nice, 4 [for 1976], p. 1.1-1.14.
BEURLENG. (1969) - Afauna do complexo Riachuelo/Maruim : I - Ammonoidea. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 11, 4
[for 1968], p. 437-482.
BEURLEN. G. (1970) - Uma nova fauna de amon6ides da SapucarilLaranjeiras (Cret8ceo de Ser-
gipe) : sabre sua bioestratigrafia. Bol. Tee. Petrobras, 12,2 [for 1969], p.147-169.
BEURLEN K. (1961) - Die Kreide im KUstenbereich von Sergipe bis Paraiba do Norte (Brasilien). Zeitschr.
Deutsch. Geol. Gesells., 112,3 [for 1960], p. 378-384.
260
CARON M. (1985) - Cretaceous planktic foraminifera.ln BoLU H. M., SAUNDERS J. B. & PERcH-NIELSEN K.
(eds), Plankton Stratigraphy, p. 17-86. Cambridge University Press, London.
CHANG H. K., KOWSMANN R. O. & FIGUEIREDO A. M. F. DE (1988) - Newconcepts on the development of east
Brazilian marginal basins. Episodes, 11,3, p. 194-202.
FEu6 F. J. (1980) - Estudo dos carbonatos Muribeca e Riachuelo no Alto de Aracaju - Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas
- nordeste do Brasil. Anais XXXI Congr. Brasil. Geol. (Camboriu. SC). 1, p. 320-332.
FRErrAS L. C. S. (1984) - Nanof6sseis calc8rios e sua (Aptiano-Mioceno) na Bacia Sergipe/
Alagoas. Unpublished M. Sc. dissertation. Departarnento de Geociencias da Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
HANCOCK J. M. (1991) - Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous System. Cret. Res., 12,3, p. 259-291.
HEDBERG H. D. (1976) - International Stratigraphic Guide: a guide to Stratigraphic Classification, Termino-
logy and Procedure. 200 pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
HESSEL M. H. R. (1988) - Lower Turonian inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: systematics, stratigraphy and
palaeoecology. Fossils and Strata, 22, p. 1-49.
KAUFFMANE. G: & BENGTSON P. (1985) - Mid-Cretaceous inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: a progress report.
Cret. Res., 6, 3, p. 311-315.
KENNEDY W. J. & COBBAN W. A. (1991) - Stratigraphy and interregional correlation of the Cenomanian-
Turonian transition in the Western Interior of the United States near Pueblo, Colorado, a potential
boundary stratotype for the base of the Turonian Stage. Newsl. Strat., 24, 1/2, p. 1-33.
KoursoUKOS E. A. M. (1989) - Mid- to late Cretaceous microbiostratigraphy, palaeo-ecology and palaeogeo-
graphy of the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. 2 vols, 886 pp., Council
for National Academic Awards/polytechnic South West, Plymouth.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Late Aptian to Maastrichtian foraminiferal biogeography andpalaeoceanogra-
phy of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 92, p. 295-324.
KOursoUKOS E. A. M., DESTRO N., AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE & SPADINI A. R. (in press) - Upper Aptian-Iower
Coniacian carbonate sequences in the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. In T. SIMO, B. W. SCOIT &
J.-P. MASSE (eds), Cretaceous Carbonate Platforms. Mem. Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. & HART M. B. (1990) - Cretaceous foraminiferal morphogroup distribution patterns,
palaeocommunities and trophic structures: a case study from the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Trans. R. Soc.
Edinburgh, Earth Sci., 81, p. 221-246.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R., AzAMBUJAFILHON. C. DE, HARTM. B. & MAxWELLJ. R. (1991a) - The
upper Aptian-Albian succession of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil : an integrated paleoenvironmental
assessment Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 75, 3, p. 479-498.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R. & AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE (1991b) - Micropalaeontological and geo-
chemical evidence of mid-Cretaceous hypoxic-anoxic environments in the Sergipe Basin, northeas-
tern Brazil. I n R. V. TYSON & T. H. PEARSON (eds), Modern and ancient continental shelfanoxia. Geol.
Soc. Spec. Publ., 58, p. 427-447.
LANA M. C. (1990) - Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas: uma hip6tese de tectono-sedirnentar.ln G. P. R.
GABAGLIA & E. J. M!LANr (eds), Origem e de bacias sedimentares, p. 311-332. Ed. Gavea:
R. Redisch Prog. Visual Prod. Graf. e : Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro.
MASTERS B. A. (1977) - Mesowic planktonic Foraminifera: a world-wide review and analysis. In RAMSAY A.
T. S. (ed.), Oceanic Micropal., I, p. 301-731. Academic Press, London.
MAURY C. J. (1937) - 0 Cretaceo de Sergipe. Serv. Geol. Miner. Brasil, Monogr., 11, p. 1-283.
OJEDA H. A. O. (1982) - Structural framework, stratigraphy and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins. Bull.
Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol., 66, 6, p. 732-749.
OJEDA H.A. O. & FUGrrAA. M. (1976) - BaciaSergipe/Alagoas : Geologiaregional e perspectivas petroliferas.
Anais XXVIII Congr. (Brasil. Geol.) [porto Alegre, RS], I, p. 137-158.
PARRISH J. T. & CURTIS R. L. (1982) - Atmospheric circulation, upwelling, and organic-rich rocks in the
Mesozoic and Cenowic Eras. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 40,1-3: p. 31-66..
PETRI S. (1962) - Foraminiferos cretaceos de Sergipe. Bol. Fac. Filos., Cienc. Letras, Univ. Sa.o Paulo, 265
(Geologia, 20), p. 1-140.
PONTE F. C. & ASMUS H. E. (1976) - The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge. In ALMEIDA
F. F. M. DE (ed.), Continental margins ofAtlantic type. AnaisAcad. Brasil. Cienc., 48, Suplem.,p. 215-
239.
261
CARON M. (1985) - Cretaceous planktic foraminifera. In BoLU H. M., SAUNDERS J. B. & PERCH-NIELSEN K.
(eds), Plankton Stratigraphy, p. 17-86. Cambridge University Press, London.
CHANG H. K., KOWSMANN R. O. & FIGUEIREDO A. M. F. DE (1988) - Newconcepts on the development of east
Brazilian marginal basins. Episodes, 11,3, p. 194-202.
FEu6 F. J. (1980) - Estudo dos carbonatos Muribeca e Riachuelo no Alto de Aracaju - Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas
- nordeste do Brasil. Anais XXXI Congr. Brasil. Geol. (Camboriu. SC). 1, p. 320-332.
FRErrAS L. C. S. (1984) - Nanof6sseis calc8rios e sua (Aptiano-Mioceno) na Bacia Sergipe/
Alagoas. Unpublished M. Sc. dissertation. Departamento de Geociencias da Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
HANCOCK J. M. (1991) - Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous System. Cret. Res., 12,3, p. 259-291.
HEDBERG H. D. (1976) - International Stratigraphic Guide: a guide to Stratigraphic Classification, Termino-
logy and Procedure. 200 pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
HESSEL M. H. R. (1988) - Lower Turonian inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: systematics, stratigraphy and
palaeoecology. Fossils and Strata, 22, p. 1-49.
KAUFFMANE. G: & BENGTSON P. (1985) - Mid-Cretaceous inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: a progress report.
Cret. Res., 6, 3, p. 311-315.
KENNEDY W. J. & COBBAN W. A. (1991) - Stratigraphy and interregional correlation of the Cenomanian-
Turonian transition in the Western Interior of the United States near Pueblo, Colorado, a potential
boundary stratotype for the base of the Turonian Stage. Newsl. Strat., 24, 1/2, p. 1-33.
KoursoUKOS E. A. M. (1989) - Mid- to late Cretaceous microbiostratigraphy, palaeo-ecology and palaeogeo-
graphy of the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. 2 vols, 886 pp., Council
for National Academic Awards/polytechnic South West, Plymouth.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Late Aptian to Maastrichtian foraminiferal biogeography andpalaeoceanogra-
phy of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 92, p. 295-324.
KOursoUKOS E. A. M., DESTRO N., AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE & SPADINI A. R. (in press) - Upper Aptian-lower
Coniacian carbonate sequences in the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. In T. SIMO, B. W. SCOTT &
J.-P. MASSE (eds), Cretaceous Carbonate Platforms. Mem. Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. & HART M. B. (1990) - Cretaceous foraminiferal morphogroup distribution patterns,
palaeocommunities and trophic structures: a case study from the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Trans. R. Soc.
Edinburgh, Earth Sci., 81, p. 221-246.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R., AzAMBUJAFILHON. C. DE, HARTM. B. & MAxWELLJ. R. (1991a) - The
upper Aptian-Albian succession of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil : an integrated paleoenvironmental
assessment Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 75, 3, p. 479-498.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R. & AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE (1991b) - Micropalaeontological and geo-
chemical evidence of mid-Cretaceous hypoxic-anoxic environments in the Sergipe Basin, northeas-
tern Brazil.lnR. V. TYSON & T. H. PEARSON (eds), Modern and ancient continental shelfanoxia. Geol.
Soc. Spec. Publ., 58, p. 427-447.
LANA M. C. (1990) - Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas: uma hip6tese de tectono-sedirnentar.ln G. P. R.
GABAGLIA & E. J. M!LANr (eds), Origem e de bacias sedimentares, p. 311-332. Ed. Gavea:
R. Redisch Prog. Visual Prod. Graf. e : Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro.
MASTERS B. A. (1977) - Mesowic planktonic Foraminifera: a world-wide review and analysis. In RAMSAY A.
T. S. (ed.), Oceanic Micropal., I, p. 301-731. Academic Press, London.
MAURY C. J. (1937) - 0 Cretaceo de Sergipe. Servo Geol. Miner. Brasil, Monogr., 11, p. 1-283.
OJEDA H. A. O. (1982) - Structural framework, stratigraphy and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins. Bull.
Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol., 66, 6, p. 732-749.
OJEDA H..A. O. & FUGrrAA. M. (1976) - BaciaSergipe/Alagoas : Geologiaregional e perspectivas petroliferas.
Anais XXVIII Congr. (Brasil. Geol.) [porto Alegre, RS], I, p. 137-158.
PARRISH J. T. & CURTIS R. L. (1982) - Atmospheric circulation, upwelling, and organic-rich rocks in the
Mesozoic and Cenowic Eras. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 40,1-3: p. 31-66..
PETRI S. (1962) - Foraminiferos cretaceos de Sergipe. Bol. Fac. Filos., Cienc. Letras, Univ. Sa.o Paulo, 265
(Geologia, 20), p. 1-140.
PONTE F. C. & ASMUS H. E. (1976) - The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge. In ALMEIDA
F. F. M. DE (ed.), Continental margins ofAtlantic type. AnaisAcad. Brasil. Cienc., 48, Suplem.,p. 215-
239.
261
CARON M. (1985) - Cretaceous planktic foraminifera.ln BoLU H. M., SAUNDERS J. B. & PERcH-NIELSEN K.
(eds), Plankton Stratigraphy, p. 17-86. Cambridge University Press, London.
CHANG H. K., KOWSMANN R. O. & FIGUEIREDO A. M. F. DE (1988) - Newconcepts on the development of east
Brazilian marginal basins. Episodes, 11,3, p. 194-202.
FEu6 F. J. (1980) - Estudo dos carbonatos Muribeca e Riachuelo no Alto de Aracaju - Bacia Sergipe/Alagoas
- nordeste do Brasil. Anais XXXI Congr. Brasil. Geol. (Camboriu. SC). 1, p. 320-332.
FRErrAS L. C. S. (1984) - Nanof6sseis calc8rios e sua (Aptiano-Mioceno) na Bacia Sergipe/
Alagoas. Unpublished M. Sc. dissertation. Departarnento de Geociencias da Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
HANCOCK J. M. (1991) - Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous System. Cret. Res., 12,3, p. 259-291.
HEDBERG H. D. (1976) - International Stratigraphic Guide: a guide to Stratigraphic Classification, Termino-
logy and Procedure. 200 pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
HESSEL M. H. R. (1988) - Lower Turonian inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: systematics, stratigraphy and
palaeoecology. Fossils and Strata, 22, p. 1-49.
KAUFFMANE. G: & BENGTSON P. (1985) - Mid-Cretaceous inoceramids from Sergipe, Brazil: a progress report.
Cret. Res., 6, 3, p. 311-315.
KENNEDY W. J. & COBBAN W. A. (1991) - Stratigraphy and interregional correlation of the Cenomanian-
Turonian transition in the Western Interior of the United States near Pueblo, Colorado, a potential
boundary stratotype for the base of the Turonian Stage. Newsl. Strat., 24, 1/2, p. 1-33.
KoursoUKOS E. A. M. (1989) - Mid- to late Cretaceous microbiostratigraphy, palaeo-ecology and palaeogeo-
graphy of the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. 2 vols, 886 pp., Council
for National Academic Awards/polytechnic South West, Plymouth.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. (1992) - Late Aptian to Maastrichtian foraminiferal biogeography andpalaeoceanogra-
phy of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 92, p. 295-324.
KOursoUKOS E. A. M., DESTRO N., AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE & SPADINI A. R. (in press) - Upper Aptian-Iower
Coniacian carbonate sequences in the Sergipe Basin, northeastern Brazil. In T. SIMO, B. W. SCOIT &
J.-P. MASSE (eds), Cretaceous Carbonate Platforms. Mem. Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M. & HART M. B. (1990) - Cretaceous foraminiferal morphogroup distribution patterns,
palaeocommunities and trophic structures: a case study from the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Trans. R. Soc.
Edinburgh, Earth Sci., 81, p. 221-246.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R., AzAMBUJAFILHON. C. DE, HARTM. B. & MAxWELLJ. R. (1991a) - The
upper Aptian-Albian succession of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil : an integrated paleoenvironmental
assessment Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 75, 3, p. 479-498.
KOurSOUKOS E. A. M., MELLO M. R. & AzAMBUJA FILHO N. C. DE (1991b) - Micropalaeontological and geo-
chemical evidence of mid-Cretaceous hypoxic-anoxic environments in the Sergipe Basin, northeas-
tern Brazil. I n R. V. TYSON & T. H. PEARSON (eds), Modern and ancient continental shelfanoxia. Geol.
Soc. Spec. Publ., 58, p. 427-447.
LANA M. C. (1990) - Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas: uma hip6tese de tectono-sedirnentar.ln G. P. R.
GABAGLIA & E. J. M!LANr (eds), Origem e de bacias sedimentares, p. 311-332. Ed. Gavea:
R. Redisch Prog. Visual Prod. Graf. e : Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro.
MASTERS B. A. (1977) - Mesowic planktonic Foraminifera: a world-wide review and analysis. In RAMSAY A.
T. S. (ed.), Oceanic Micropal., I, p. 301-731. Academic Press, London.
MAURY C. J. (1937) - 0 Cretaceo de Sergipe. Serv. Geol. Miner. Brasil, Monogr., 11, p. 1-283.
OJEDA H. A. O. (1982) - Structural framework, stratigraphy and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins. Bull.
Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol., 66, 6, p. 732-749.
OJEDA H.A. O. & FUGrrAA. M. (1976) - BaciaSergipe/Alagoas : Geologiaregional e perspectivas petroliferas.
Anais XXVIII Congr. (Brasil. Geol.) [porto Alegre, RS], I, p. 137-158.
PARRISH J. T. & CURTIS R. L. (1982) - Atmospheric circulation, upwelling, and organic-rich rocks in the
Mesozoic and Cenowic Eras. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 40,1-3: p. 31-66..
PETRI S. (1962) - Foraminiferos cretaceos de Sergipe. Bol. Fac. Filos., Cienc. Letras, Univ. Sa.o Paulo, 265
(Geologia, 20), p. 1-140.
PONTE F. C. & ASMUS H. E. (1976) - The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge. In ALMEIDA
F. F. M. DE (ed.), Continental margins ofAtlantic type. AnaisAcad. Brasil. Cienc., 48, Suplem.,p. 215-
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Unpublished internal report, Petrobnis, Rio de Janeiro.
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north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31, p. 15-64.
SMl1lI A. B. & BENGfSON P. (1991) - Cretaceous echinoids from north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31,
p.1-88.
VAN HINTEJ. E. (1976) - ACretaceous time scale. Amer.Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 60,4, p. 498-516.
262
RAsPLUS L. et al. (1987) - Stratigraphie integree du Sillon Citrabetique (Sierra de Fontealent, Province
d' Alicante, Espagne). Geobios, 20, 3, p. 337-387.
REYMENT R. A. & TAITE. A. (1972) - Biostratigraphical datingof the early history ofthe South Atlantic Ocean.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B. Bioi. Sci., 264, 858, p. 55-95.
REYMENTR. A., BENGfsONP. & TAITE. A. (1976) - Cretaceous transgressions in Nigeriaand Sergipe-Alagoas
(Brazil). In ALMEIDA F.P. M.DE (ed.), Continental margins ofAtlantic type. AnaisAcad. Brasil. Cienc.,
48, Suplem., p. 253-264.
ROBASZ\'NSKI F. & CARON M. (eds) (1979) - Atlas de Foraminiferes planctoniques du Cretace moyen (Mer
boreaIe et Tethys), Premiere partie. Cah. Micropal., 1979, 1, p. 1-185 ; Deuxieme partie. Cah.
Micropal., 1979,2, p. 1-181.
ROBASZ\'NSKIF., CARON M., GoNZALES DoNOSoJ. M. & WONDERS A. A. H. (1984) - Atlas of Late Cretaceous
Globotruncanids. Rev. Micropal., 26, 3-4, p. 1-305.
SCHAlLER H. (ed.) (1970) -RevisAoestratigrMica da Baciade Sergipe/Alagoas. Bol. Tee. Petrobrds, 12, 1[for
1969], p. 21-86.
SCHAlLER H., DEllA FAVERA J. C. & TIBANA P. (1980) - Roteiro Geol6gico da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas.
Unpublished internal report, Petrobnis, Rio de Janeiro.
SMl1lI A. B. (1991) - Taxonomic descriptions. In A. B. SMl1lI & P. BENGfSON, Cretaceous echinoids from
north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31, p. 15-64.
SMl1lI A. B. & BENGfSON P. (1991) - Cretaceous echinoids from north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31,
p.1-88.
VAN HINTEJ. E. (1976) - ACretaceous time scale. Amer.Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 60,4, p. 498-516.
262
RAsPLUS L. et al. (1987) - Stratigraphie integree du Sillon Citrabetique (Sierra de Fontealent, Province
d' Alicante, Espagne). Geobios, 20, 3, p. 337-387.
REYMENT R. A. & TAIT E. A. (1972) - Biostratigraphical datingof the early history ofthe South Atlantic Ocean.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B. Bioi. Sci., 264, 858, p. 55-95.
REYMENTR. A., BENGfSONP. & TAIT E. A. (1976) - Cretaceous transgressions in Nigeriaand Sergipe-Alagoas
(Brazil). In ALMEIDA F.P. M.DE (ed.), Continental margins ofAtlantic type. AnaisAcad. Brasil. Cienc.,
48, Suplem., p. 253-264.
ROBASZ\'NSKI F. & CARON M. (eds) (1979) - Atlas de Foraminiteres planctoniques du Cretaee moyen (Mer
boreaIe et Tethys), Premiere partie. Cah. Micropal., 1979, 1, p. 1-185 ; Deuxieme partie. Cah.
Micropal., 1979,2, p. 1-181.
ROBASZ\'NSKIF., CARON M., GoNZALEs DoNOSOJ. M. & WONDERS A. A. H. (1984) - Atlas ofLateCretaeeous
Globotruncanids. Rev. Micropal., 26, 3-4, p. 1-305.
SCHAILER H. (ed.) (1970) -RevisAoestratigrMica da Baciade Sergipe/Alagoas. Bol. Tee. Petrobrds, 12, 1[for
1969], p. 21-86.
SCHAILER H., DEllA FAVERA J. C. & TIBANA P. (1980) - Roteiro Geol6gico da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas.
Unpublished internal report, Petrobnis, Rio de Janeiro.
SMl1lI A. B. (1991) - Taxonomic descriptions. In A. B. SMl1lI & P. BENGfSON, Cretaceous echinoids from
north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31, p. 15-64.
SMl1lI A. B. & BENGfSON P. (1991) - Cretaceous echinoids from north-eastern Brazil. Fossils and Strata, 31,
p.1-88.
VAN HINTEJ. E. (1976) - ACretaceous time scale. Amer.Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 60,4, p. 498-516.
262