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# 2.7..

Being Aware of
The Need for Safety
Features in Vehicles
&
2.11.. Appreciating
The Importance of
Maximising The
Effiency of Devices

## Name: Noorhaida Binti Mohd

Jusrin
Class: 4 Rajin
Teacher Name: Miss Shim Geek
Ling
aYda RoXannne

## 2.7. Being Aware of The Need For Safety

Features in Vehicles.[ 1-3 ]

## 2.11. Appreciating The Importance of

Maximising The Effiency of Devices. [ 4-
6]

## 2.7. BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR

SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES
possible for vehicles nowadays to be built
with various safety features.

## 2) This can reduce the damage and injury

caused by high impulsive forces during
collision.

## 3) Figures 2.7.1. Shows the safety features in

a vehicles.

Figure 2.7.1
 The Safety Analysis From The Motion
1) A driver notices a boy crossing the
road suddenly. He quickly brakes the car.
As Shown in the Figure 2.7.2

Figures 2.7.2

## 2) Whether or not the car will hit the boy

depends on its distance, speed, thinking
distance and also braking distance.
3) It takes time for he driver to react before
he brakes the car. In this fraction of a second,
the car still travels a short distance at a
constant speed, v. his called the ‘thinking
distance’.
4) The car will still travel a short distance
after the brake is pressed. This is called
the ‘braking distance’. The car decelerates.
5) The total stopping distance = Thinking
distance + Braking distance

## 6) On a dry road. With good brakes and

normal reaction time, the stopping
distance will be the following patterns.

Figure : 2.7.4
7) The Braking distance the car covers
from the moment the driver is aware of
the need to stop to the point at which the
vehicles comes to a complete halt.
The Thinking Distances Increase The Braking Distance Increase
when when
1) The driver takes drugs and alcohol. 1) The car is heavier.

Table : 2.7.1

## 2.11. APPRECIATING THE

IMPORTANCE OF MAXIMISING THE
EFFICIENCY OF DEVICES
Figure 2.11.1 : The Various Energy Convertors

## 1) Figures 2.11.1 shows the 3 energy

converting devices that receive energy in
one from and transform in into another
useful form.
 The Process of Transforming The
Input Energy Into The Output Energy.

## 1) Some of the input energy is always

transform into unwanted forms of energy.
2) Therefore, the efficiency of energy
convertors is always less than 100%.
3) We often have to pay for the input
energy used by a device. For the
example, the driver of a car has to pay for
the petrol to be used by the car engine
while he cost of the electrical energy we
use every day is shown in the monthly
electricity bill.
4) Both the useful output energy and
unwanted energy are lost to the
surroundings.

## Figure 2.11.2 : Sankey Diagram For The Energy Conversions in The

Operation of a Car

## 5) Since the energy resources in his world

are limited, it is very importance that a
devicemakes the best possible use of the
input energy.