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Question 1:

Describe the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) that suits the above
specifications. Also, evaluate the systems requirement. [10 Marks]

Answer:
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE (SDLC):

From the inception of an idea for software system, until it is implemented and
delivered to the customer and even after that the system undergoes the several
changes. The software is said to have a lifecycle known as Software Lifecycle
composed of several phases. Each of these phases results in the development of
either a part of the system or something associated with the system, such as a
test plan or user manual.

In the traditional and most common lifecycle model called WATERFALL


MODEL, each phase has well defined starting and ending points with clearly
identifiable inputs to the very next phase attached to it. In practice basically very
simple and meaningful to visualize and understand clearly as depicted in the
figure: = = = = = =

REQUIREMENT
ANALYSIS &
SPECIFICATION

DESIGN &
SPECIFICATION

CODING & MODULE


TESTING

INTEGRATION & SYSTEM


TESTING

INTEGRATION & SYSTEM


TESTING

DELIVERY & MAINTENANCE

Fig: WATER FALL MODEL


A simple waterfall Lifecycle Model comprises the following phases:

Requirements Analysis & specification

Requirements Analysis is usually the very first phase of large-scale software


development project. It is undertaken after a feasibility study has been performed
to define the precised cost and benefits of the software system. The purpose of
this particular phase is to identify and obtained the exact requirements of the
system.

The customer, the developer, a marketing organization or any combination


of over three may perform such study. In cases, where the requirements are not
clear e.g. a system which has never been done before, much interaction is
required between the user and the developer.

The requirements at this stage are hence in end user terms. Various
software engineering methodologies advocate that this phase must also produce
user manuals and system test plans.

Design & Specification


Once the requirements for the system have been documented, software
engineers design a software system to meet them. This phase is sometimes split
into two sub-heads such as architectural or high level design and detailed design.
The high level design deals with the overall module structure and origin rather
than the details of the module. tHe high level design is defined by designing each
module in detail known as detailed design. Separating the requirements analysis
phase from the design phase is an instance of a fundamental what/how dichotomy
that we encounter quite often in computer science.
The general principle involves making a clear distinction between what the
problem is and how to solve the problem. The purpose of the design phase is to
specify the particular system, which will meet the stated requirements.

Coding & Module Testing


This is the phase, which will be delivered to the customer as the running
system. Th other phase of the lifecycle may also develop code such as prototypes,
tests and test drivers but these are for the use of the developers. Individual
modules develop in this particular phase are also being tested known as module
testing before being delivered to the next phase.

Integration & System Testing

This is the next phase in the traditional Waterfall Model. IN this phase all the
modules that have been developed before and tested are basically linked and put
together that is been integrated as a whole in the capacity of a complete software
system and then the whole system is being tested known as system testing.

Delivery & maintenance

Once the system posses all the test and its subsequent activities then after
that only it is delivered to the outside world to its destination that is the customer
known as delivery stage. After the successful completion fo the delivery
stage it enters into the maintenance field. As a result of this any
modifications made to the system after initial delivery is usually attributed to this
particular phase. The above-mentioned figure gives the graphical representation
and view of the software development lifecycle, which provides a usual
explanation of the term Waterfall being used to denote. Here each phase yields
certain results that flow into the next phase and the proceeds in an orderly and
linear fashion.

Question 2)
Perform and evaluate feasibility studies like cost-benefit analysis,
technical feasibility, time feasibility and operational feasibility for the
project. Project Scheduling should be made using both GANTT and PERT
charts.

Ans:2

Feasibility study is carried out t decide whether the proposed system is feasible
for the company. The feasibility study is to serve as a decision document it must
answer three key questions:
1. Is there a new and better way to do the job that will benefit the user?
2. What are the cost and the savings of the alternative(s)?
3. What is recommended?

Technical feasibility:

Technical feasibility centers on the existing computer system i.e. Hardware,


Software etc. Travel Agency requires SQL database management that are all easily
available with extensive development support through manuals and blogs. So
development of Travel Agency is technically feasible.

Economical feasibility:

Economical Feasibility is the most frequently used method for evaluating the
effectiveness of a candidate system. More commonly know as Cost/ Benefit
analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected
from the candidate system and compare them with costs. If th benefits outweigh
costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system.

Operation feasibility:

With Travel Agency, administrator will get rid of editing configuration files to
manage the same. This makes travel agency operationally feasible.
PERT CHART

Computing Platform Installation Testing


Implementation Implementation Follow-up
10 12 9 15 7
Begin 2 4 5 6
6
1 12 Prepare Site 35

3 1
0
Follow up
 Node

 Activity

GANTT Chart:-
Time in months

Question 3:

Question 3:

Design and draw the data flow diagrams (DFD’s) up to the required levels, entity-
relationship (ER) diagram and also produce a data dictionary. [20 marks]
ER-diagram

Off_id Name Addres


s Ph-no

BOOKING OFFICER
Pswd

Salary

D
D
OES
OES
AmtPaid

Date-res
RESERVATION AmtToPa
y CANCELLATION
-id
Date-cancl
Travel
Cancel-id
By By
Passenger-id

Travel_means

PASSENGERS
Ph-no.

Age
Passenger-id

Addres
Name

DFDS

Level-0
Reservatoin orders
Travel
Booking officer Management Passengers
System tickets
Info

DATABASE

Level-1

Reservatio
n
Give orders

Passengers
Cancellation

Tickets

Administration Staff members

DATABASE Debit
Search
report

Question 4:

Create System flow chart and state transition diagrams. [10 Marks]
Flow Chart

Start

Asking questions

Getting
difference ratings

Storing result in
Database

Product need
Some Yes
Modification

No

Result is produced Change come


Features modify

Result to be generated

End