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1.

PROJECT PLANNING

Before starting every project its planning is to be done. Planning is very important task and should be taken with great care, as the efficiency of the whole project largely depends upon its planning while planning a project each and every details should be worked out in anticipation and should carefully is considered with all the relating provisions in advance. Project planning consists of the following steps.

PROJECT CAPACITY The capacity of the project must be decided considering the amount of money which can be invested and availability of material and machines.

DRAWINGS Drawing been decided for the project to be manufacture. Its detailed drawing specification for raw material and finished products should be decided carefully along with the specification of the machines required for their manufacture.

MATERIAL EQUIPMENT The list of materials required for manufacture is prepared from the drawings. The list of is known as BILL OF MATERIALS. This passes to the store keeper and the required materials taken from the store under permission of store keeper operation, the necessity of operation, the person to do the job, machine to be used to do the job are considered while planning the operation. After considering tea above questions a best method is developed and the best method is applied to the operation.

MACHINE LODING While planning proper care should be taken to find the machining time for each operation as correct as possible. So that the arrangement for full utilization of machine can be made machine loading programmed is also known.

PURCHASE CONSIDERATION It is different to manufacture all the component needed for the equipment in the workshop it self. The decision about a particular item whether to purchase or to manufacture is taken by planning after making through study of relative merits demerits.

EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATION Result obtained from PROCESS PLANNING and MACHINE LODING helps in calculating the equipment requirement specification of the equipment should be laid down by considering the drawing. Drawing will also help in deciding and necessary requirement of tools, accessories.

COST CALCULATION

The cost of the project can be calculated by adding following. 1. Material Cost 2. Machining Cost 3. Overhead Expenses.

COMPARION The various items in the finished project are compared to the standards for the further correction.

REPORT At the end of the project work report is prepared for future references. The report consists of all the items done the project work.

2. INTROUCTION OF COUPLINGS

Mild steel or wrought iron shafts are available in length varying 6 to 10 meters ,so as to make them handy and easy to transport. Lengthier shaft cannot be manufactured in a correct form to be used for power transmission. In engineering practice shaft of large lengths are required to transmit the torque which can be obtained by joining two or more shafts in order to obtain the required length . the joining of shafts is dome by a device called as coupling. In other words coupling is a device to join two or more shafts. 2.1 IMPORTANCE OFCOUPLINGS The elements which join two shafts are known as Couplings are used to connect one shaft to another, when the shafts of two independent unit, such as e motor and centrifugal pump are to be connected A coupling also serves some other useful Functions as follows: 1. It follows easy disconnection of shafts for repair arid maintenance. 2. It is used to connect two shafts in order to get long shafts. 3. To provide misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility. 4. To introduce protection against overload. 5. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another.

2.2CLASSIFICATION OF COUPLING

Coupling may be classified as follows: 1. Rigid coupling 2. Flexible coupling 3. Box of Clamp Muff coupling 4. Flange Bushed coupling pin type Coupling 5. Universal Oldham coupling

3. RIGID COUPLING

Rigid couplings arc used only in low-speed applications where good axial alignment between the connecting shafts can be achieved. Both the shafts that are to be connected to be perfectly aligned laterally and angularity. Misaligned shafts, when connected with a rigid coupling, can lead to bearing or fatigue failure. A flexible coupling is used to connect two shafts which have lateral or angular misalignments. It is also used to reduce the effect of shock and impact load. 3.1BOX OR MUFF OR SLEEVE COUPLING This is a simple coupling which is used to connect two shafts rigidly Muff coupling is a hollow cylindrical piece which is fitted over both shaft ends connected by means of either keys, taper pins or set Screws as shown in fig. 4.3.1. The torque is transmitted from one shaft to the sleeve and then to the other shaft. As it has no projecting parts, its interior is perfectly smooth which is good from safety point of view. From design point of view, the depth of keyway in each of the shafts to be connected should be exactly the same and the diameters should also be the same. 3.2FLANGE COUPLING Flange coupling is a standard from of coupling widely used in work shops to join two shafts by means of two flanges. It is a rigid and permanent ype of coupling used for joining co-axial shafts. It consists of cast ion flanges keyed to the end of the shafts to be joined and fastened together by means of number of tight fitting bolts. The diameter and number of bolts depend upon the size of the shaft for which the flange is designed. The two shafts should be in a straight line . The flange coupling is used in transmit heavy torque and hence is used on large shafting

There are three types of flange coupling 1. Un protected type flange coupling 2. Protected type coupling 3. Marine type flange coupling 3.3FLANGE COUPLING

4. FLEXIBLE COUPLING: Flexible coupling is very important type of coupling to join two shafts which are slightly out of line or which are requires slight relative angular movements Compressible or flexible element such as spring rubber etc are used in this coupling to join the shafts which absorb shocks and vibration due to power transmission. 1. Bushed pin coupling 2. Universal coupling 3. Oldham coupling` 4. Highly flexible tyre coupling

HIGHLY FLEXIBLE TYRE COUPLING : It is used to couple two shafts whose axes are parallel but not in alignment. It consists of two cast iron flanges and two centre disc. The two flanges are keyed to the ends of the twp shafts .The hard rubber is used over the flanges. There is no rigid connection between the two flanges but the drive take place through rubber.

4.1CHARACTRISTICS OF TYRE COPLING 1. Parallel misalignment up to 4.3 mm 2. Maximum end float up to 5.5 mm 3. Maximum misalignment up to40 4. No vibrant 5. Easy installation 4.2 MATERIAL OF RUBBER They are made out natural rubber and reinforced with rayon cord can be used 15 to 500 c Coupling hubs are cast iron.

5. APPLICATION OF HIGHLY FLEXIBLY TYRE COUPLING Type of driven machine TYPE OF DRIVEN UNIT ELECTIC MOTORS IC ENGINES, STEAM STEAM ENGINES, TURBINES WATERURBINES Operational hours Per day <10 Centrifugal compressors and pumps, Agitators brewing machinery, Belt conveyors, Dynamometers, Fans 0.8 upto 7.5 KW, line shafts, Blowers and Exhausters (except positive displacement) Generators. Rubber extruders, Rotary screens, Textile machinery, Marine propellers and fans over 7.5 KW, Clay working machinery, General 1.3 >10>16 <10 16 >1016 >16

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1.42

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Machine tools, Paper mill beaters and winders. Gyratory crushers, Reciprocating conveys, Mills (ball, Pebble and rod). Rubber machinery (Banbury mixers and mills) and vibratory screens.

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2.8

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Paper mill calenders, Pulverisers and positive displacement blowers, Metal presses, Bucket 1.8 elevators, Cooling tower fans, Piston compressors and pumps Foundry machinery.

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2.5

6.FACTORS TO BE CNSIDERED IN MACHINE DESIGN


There are many factors to be considered while attacking a design problem. In many cases these are a common sense approach to solving a problem. Some of these factors are as follows: (a) What device or mechanism to be used? This would decide the relative arrangement of the constituent elements. (b) Material (c) Forces on the elements (d) Size, shape and space requirements. The final weight of the product is also a major concern. (e) The method of manufacturing the components and their assembly. (f) How will it operate? (g) Reliability and safety aspects. (h) Inspectibility

7.SHAFT
Shaft is a common and important machine element. It is a rotating member, in general, has a circular cross-section and is used to transmit power. The shaft may be hollow or solid. The shaft is supported on bearings and it rotates a set of gears or pulleys for the purpose of power transmission. The shaft is generally acted upon by bending moment, torsion and axial force. Design of shaft primarily involves in determining stresses at critical point in the shaft that is arising due to aforementioned loading. Other two similar forms of a shaft are axle and spindle. Axle is a non-rotating member used for supporting rotating wheels etc. and do not transmit any torque. Spindle is simply defined as a short shaft. However, design method remains the same for axle and spindle as that for a shaft. Standard sizes of Shafts Typical sizes of solid shaft that are available in the market are, Up to 25 mm 0.5 mm increments 25 to 50 mm 1.0 mm increments 50 to 100 mm 2.0 mm increments 100 to 200 mm 5.0 mm increments 8.1.3 Material for Shafts The ferrous, non-ferrous materials and non metals are used as shaft material depending on the application. Some of the common ferrous materials used for shaft are discussed below. Hot-rolled plain carbon steel

These materials are least expensive. Since it is hot rolled, scaling is always present on the surface and machining is required to make the surface smooth. 8.KEYS Steel keys are widely used in securing machine parts such as gears and pulleys. There is a large variety of machine keys and they may be classified under four broad headings: Sunk keys, flat keys, saddle keys and pins or round keys (a)(b)Split pin Sunk keys may be further classified into the following categories: (a) Rectangular sunk keys (b) Gib head sunk keys (c) Feather keys (d) Woodruff keys Rectangular sunk . They are the simplest form of machine keys and may be either straight or slightly tapered on one side. The parallel side is usually fitted into the shaft. Steel keys are widely used in securing machine parts such as gears and pulleys. There is a large variety of machine keys and they may be classified under four broad headings: Sunk keys, flat keys, saddle keys and pins or round keys fitted into the shaft. GIB HEAD KEY The gib head keys are ordinary sunk keys tapered on top with a raised head on one side so that its removal is easy.

FEATHER KEY A feather key is used when one component slides over another. The key may be fastened either to the hub or the shaft and the keyway usually has a sliding fit. WOOD RUFF KEY A woodruff key is a form of sunk key where the key shape is that of a truncated disc, as It is usually used for shafts less than about 60 mm diameter and the keyway is cut in the shaft using a milling cutter. It is widely used in machine tools and automobiles due to the extra advantage derived from the extra depth.

8.1OPERATIONS INVOLVED:

Turning (facing, plain turning, step turning , threading etc) Facing (flat surface) Drilling Tapping Thread cutting Heat treatment

TURNING:

Turning is the operation of reducing a cylindrical surface by removing material from the outside diameter of a work piece. It is done by rotating the work piece about the lathe axis and feeding the tool parallel to the lathe axis. Due to this operation screw rod and head are done by the turning operation to get the required shape. FACING:

Machining the end of the work piece to produce flat surface is called facing. Due to this, the plate can get flat surface have done by the facing operation.

DRILLING: Drilling is the operation of producing cylindrical hole in work piece. It is done by rotating the cutting edge of the cutter known as drill bit. In this process of bar clamp the drilling process made on the body of the bed to inserting the bolts. TAPPING: Tapping is the operation of forming internal thread of small diameter by using a multipoint tool called tap. This process in bar clamp to done on the holes of the rod to insert the screw rod. THREAD CUTTING: Thread cutting is the operation of forming external thread of required diameter of rod by using a multipoint tool is called thread. This process is used in screw clamp to done on the rod which is used for the movement of the movable plate.

HEAT TREATMENT:
Heat treatment may be defined as an operation or combination of operations involving heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in solid state to obtain desirable properties. In other words, heat treatment is a process in which metal/alloy is heated beyond the critical temperature and cooled at controlled rates to get different microstructures and desired mechanical properties.

TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES Annealing Normalising Hardening Tempering Austempering Martempering Case hardening