Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 33 Teknillisen korkeakoulun tersrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 31 Espoo 2007 TKK-TER-33

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS TO EUROCODE


Worked Examples
F. Wald

AB

TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU TEKNISKA HGSKOLAN HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITT HELSINKI UNIVERSITE DE TECHNOLOGIE DHELSINKI

List of Contents

page 1...Welded connection of tension member ........................................................................... 2...Welds of a fin plate connection ........................................................................................ 3...Welded truss connection ................................................................................................. 4...Welded connection of T cantilever ................................................................................... 5...Bolted connection of tension member ............................................................................. 6...Bolted truss connection .................................................................................................... 7...Bolted slip resistant connection ....................................................................................... 8...Bolted long connection ..................................................................................................... 9...Bolted connection with packing ....................................................................................... 10..Single lap connection with one bolt ................................................................................. 11..Bolted beam splices ......................................................................................................... 12..Beam-to-column welded joint .......................................................................................... 13..Pin connection ................................................................................................................. 14..Simple column base ......................................................................................................... 15..Fixed column base ........................................................................................................... 16..Fin plate connection ......................................................................................................... 17..Header plate connection .................................................................................................. 18..Bolted extended end plate connestion ............................................................................. 19..Extended end plate semirigid joint ................................................................................... 3 4 6 8 10 11 13 14 15 17 18 18 21 25 27 30 32 34 34

1 Welded Connection of Tension Member


Check the resistance of the connection of the flat section, shown in Fig. 1.1, loaded in tension by the factored force FSd = 330 kN. The steel is Grade S460N. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,10 and M 2 = 1,25 .
10 6 3 3 80 3 330 kN

170

Fig. 1.1 Drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The structural welds should be (i) longer than 40 mm, and (ii) longer than 6 aw = 6 3 = 18 mm. Both of these are satisfied. The full length of the weld can be taken into account in the strength calculation, because 150 aw = 50 3 = 450 mm > 170 mm . Longitudinal welds In the longitudinal welds is = = 0 . Based on the fillet welds resistance fu f 2 2 2 + 3 + // and u

aw

_ I

II _ I

w M 2

M2

is the shear strain

1,4 aw

Fig. 1.2 fu .
II
FSd

II .Rd =

3 w M 2

The design resistance is FII .w .Rd = II .Rd awII 2 LwII = .


Front weld The equation for the resistance may be at the front weld

550 3 1,0 1,25

II

3 2 170 = 259,1 103 N

LwII

awII

Fig. 1.3

( II .Rd = 0 and = =

w
2
2

) rewritten:
Lw aw

FSd

w w fu . + 3 w M2 2 2

Fig. 1.4

The front weld design strain is

w .Rd =

fu

w M 2 2

The design resistance of the front weld is

F.w .Rd = w .Rd aw Lw =

550 1,0 1,25 2

3 80 = 74,7 103 N

Connection resistance The connection resistance is


Fw .Rd = FII .w .Rd + F.w .Rd = 259,1 + 74,7 = 333,8 kN > FSd = 330 kN .

The connection resistance is satisfactory.


P 6 - 300 x 800 80 x 10 - 1 500 3 3 3 170 Steel S460N J2 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 1.5 Design drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Note: 1) The weld resistance may conservatively be checked independent of the loading direction as follows: Fw .Rd = fu aw Lw = 550 3 ( 2 170 + 80 ) 1,0 1,25 3 = 320,0 10 3 N < FSd = 330 kN . The welds are not satisfactory uder this model. 2) The tension resistance of a member is Nu .Rd = A fy = 80 10 460 = 334,5 103 N > 330 kN . 1,10 The tension resistance is satisfactory.

w M 2

M0

2 Welds of a Fin Plate Connection


VSd = 250 kN

Check the resistance of the fillet-welded connection of the fin plate, shown in Fig. 5.2.1. The connection is subject to the vertical factored force VSd = 250 kN, acting at an eccentricity e = 60 mm. The steel is Grade S235, and the material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 and M 2 = 1,50 .

4 L = 300 e = 60 tp =15

Fig. 2.1 Drawing of the connection The structural welds should be (i) longer than 40 mm, and (ii) longer than 6 au = 6 4 = 24 mm. Both of these are satisfied. The full length of the weld can be taken into account in the strength calculation, because 150 aw = 50 4 = 600 mm > 300 mm . The shear stress perpendicular to the weld cross-section is

II =

VSd 250 103 = = 104,2 MPa . aw 2 L 4 2 300

The maximum normal stress parallel to the weld cross-section, based on an elastic distribution of bending stresses is

w =

VSd e M 250 103 60 = = = 125,0 MPa , Wel .w 2 aw L2 2 4 300 2 6 6

which may be decomposed (see Fig. 5.2.2) into the shear across the critical plane (the weld throat) and the normal stress perpendicular to this plane:

= =
w

w
2

125 2

= 88,4 MPa .
V Sd 104,2 88,4 88,4

II

II

_
I

_ I

Fig. 2.2
Check of the weld design resistance:

2 2 2 + 3 + // = 88,4 2 + 3 88,4 2 + 104,2 2 = 252,6 MPa <

w Mw

fu

360 = 300,0 MPa , 0,8 1,5

and

= 88,4 MPa <

fu

M2

360 = 240 MPa . 1,50

The weld strength is satisfactory.

P 15 - 90 x 300

Steel S235 J2

Scale: 1 :10 Fig. 2.3. Design drawing of the connection


Note: 1) The weld resistance may conservatively be checked independent of the loading direction as follows: fu 360 2 2 w + II = 125,0 2 + 104,2 2 = 162,7 MPa < = = 173,2 MPa . w Mw 3 0,8 1,5 3 2) The plates resistance in shear is Av f y 15 300 235 Vpl .Rd = = = 531 10 3 N > VSd = 250 kN . M0 3 1,15 3

and in bending:
Mc .Rd = Wel fy / M 0 = 15 300 2 235 / 1,15 6

= 46,0 10 6 Nmm > M Sd = 250 10 3 60 = 15 10 6 Nmm . The interaction of bending and shear need not be checked, because the shear resistance is more than double the shear force acting: 53110 3 / 2 = 266 10 3 N > 250 kN .

3) The elastic distribution of stresses in the welds is used because the above is an elastic check of the fin-plate connection. A plastic check of the welds may be performed, based on the expression VSd e M w = = . W pl .w 2 aw L2
4

3 Welded Truss Connection


Connect the tension member of the double equal-leg angle section 2 L 50x5 to the plate P 10 by welds, shown in Fig. 3.1. The steel is Grade S275, and the material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,10 , M 2 = 1,25 .
3 FSd 3 100 P10 - 100 2 L 50 x 5

Fig. 3.1 Drawing of the connection


______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The tension member resistance (area of a angle A = 480 mm2) is N pl .Rd = A fy = 2 480 275 = 240,0 103 N . 1,10

M0

Weld at connected leg At the connected flange of the angle may be provided as a fillet weld thicker than 3 mm, and thinner than 3 2 = 4 ,2 < 5 mm . The the force in the weld by the connected leg is

Fw .b =

N pl .Rd e . 2 b

The weld shear resistance is limited by

w .b =

Fw .b fu aw .b Lb w M 2

Fig. 3.2

which can be rewritten as


N pl .Rd e w M 2 3 240 10 3 14,0 0 ,85 1,25 3 Lb = = = 47,9 mm 2 b fu aw .b 2 50 430 3
1,41 aw.b

Provide Lb = 50 mm.

ab

Fig. 3.3

Weld at free leg The force in the weld by the free leg

. . //.a
a

Fw .a =

N pl .Rd ( b e ) 240 ( 50 14 ) = = 86,4 kN . 2 2 50 b

the length may be estimated as L y 2 ,5 Lb a b / a a 150 mm . The shear stress in the weld

II .a

F 86,4 103 = w .a = = 192,0 MPa , 3 150 aw .a La

//.b
Fig. 3.4

The bending moment due to the eccentricity of weld is


M w .a = FSd / 2 b 240 0,05 = = 1,5 kNm . 2 2 8

The bending stress is

.a = .a =

M w .a

2 2 aw .a La 6

1,5 10 6 6 2 3 1502

= 94,3 MPa .

The check of stresses:


2 2 2 94,3 2 + 3 94,3 2 + 192,0 2 = .a + 3 .a + II .a =

= 382,3 MPa < fu 420 = 336 MPa . 1,25

fu

w M 2

430 = 404 MPa 0,85 1,25

= 67,7MPa <

M2

The weld strength is satisfactory. The welds are acceptable from the structural point of view: longer than 40 mm and than 6 a = 63 = 18 mm, shorter than 150a = 150 3 = 450mm . (No reduction due to the long weld is needed).

P10 - 100 x 200 3 150

50 25 2 L 50 x 5 - 1 500

150

Steel S 275 J2 Scale: 1 :10

Fig. 3.5 Design drawing of the connection _________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The gusset plate in tension is N t .Rd = A fy = 100 10 275 = 250 10 3 N > N pl .Rd = 229 ,6 kN , 1,10 which is satisfactory.

M0

4 Welded connection of T cantilever


Check the resistance of the welded connection of the cantilever of the T section, shown in Fig. 4.1. The plate is P 10. The column is IPE 300. The connection is subject to the factored force FSd = 25 kN. The steel is Grade S275. The weld is designed 3 mm. The partial safety factor is Mw = 1,50 .

FSd = 25 kN 3 5 P 10 - 350 x 110 300 IPE 300


Fig. 4.1 Drawing of the connection

P 10 - 350 x 120

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The effective area of the column flange is calculated based on the effective width:
tw + 2r + 7t f 7 ,1 + 2 15 + 7 10 ,7 112 2 2 = beff = min f t f yf 10 ,7 275 = 117 = 112 mm . tw + 2r + 7 7 ,1 + 2 15 + 7 t p f yp 10 275 The effective width is shorter compare to the width of the column flange, see Fig. 5.16.2

beff = 112 < 150 = bc ,

tfc =10,7 150 t wc=7,1 r =15 beff

but longer than 0,7 times the width of the column flange beff = 112 > 0 ,7 150 = 105 mm . Hence the column need not to be stiffen in tension and compression.

Fig. 4.2

The cross-section of the filled weld:


Aeff .we = 5 112 + 5 (112 10 ) = 1070 mm 2 , Av .we = 5 105 2 = 1050 mm ,
105
2

112

II
5 A 5 A
eff.we

_ _ I I

23,3 e we = 84,2

38,3 31,7

v.we

10

23,8

144,9

ewe

Fig. 4.3 112 5 120 + (112 10 ) 5 110 + 105 5 2 105 / 2 = = 84 ,2 mm , 1070 + 1050

I we = 2 110 3 5 / 12 + 2 31,7 2 105 5 + 23 ,3 2 (112 10 ) 5 + 38 ,3 2 112 5 = 2998 10 3 mm 4 , W we = 2998 10 3 / 84 ,2 = 35 ,6 10 3 mm 3 .

The shear and normal stress:

II = FSd / Av .w = 25000 / 1050 = 23 ,8 MPa ,

= =

M Sd Ww 2

7 ,5 10 6 35 ,6 10 3 2

= 149 ,0 MPa .

The resistance of the filled weld is


2 2 2 + 3 + II = 149 ,0 2 + 3 149 ,0 2 + 23 ,8 2 = 300 ,8 MPa <

fu

w Mw

430 = 337 ,3 MPa . 0 ,85 1,5

The welded connection is satisfactory.

250 3 5 300 3 P 10 - 350 x 120 P 10 - 350 x 110 2 P 8 - 110 x 50 Steel S 275 J2

IPE 300 - 3300

Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 4.4 Design drawing of the connection _________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The resistance of the web-to-flange filled welds may be checked as: The section moment of the area of the connected part (flange) is
S = beff tfb z = 112 10 29,7 = 33,3 103 mm3 .

112

The shear stress is

z = 29,7 110 85,3 10

10 3

II .Sd =

VSd S 25 10 3 33 ,3 10 3 = = 44 ,7 MPa . I 2 aw 3107 10 3 2 3

The shear resistance of the web-to-flange welds ( = = 0 ): fu 2 2 2 + 3 + II , w Mw fu 430 II .Rd = = = 194 ,7 MPa > II .Sd = 44 ,7 MPa . 3 w Mw 0 ,85 1,50 3 The weld strength is satisfactory.

10

5 Bolted connection of tension member


Check the resistance of the bolted connection of a tie, shown in Fig. 5.1, loaded in tension by the factored force FSd =130 kN. The steel is Grade S355. The bolts M16, Grade 5.6, are the not preloaded. The shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolts. The material partial safety factors are M 2 = 1,30 and Mb = 1,45 .
5 8 e2 p2 e2 27,5 55 27,5 27,5 e1 40 p1 e 1 27,5 130 000 N

Fig. 5.1 Drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The bolt spacing is satisfying the design rules


1,5 d 0 = 1,5 17 = 25 ,5 e 2 3 ,0 d 0 = 3 ,0 17 = 51,0 p 2 .

The force per bolt is

Fv .Sd =

130 000 = 32 500 N . 4

The shear resistance per a bolt M 16 (at one shear plane) is


0 ,6 500

162
4 = 41,6 103 N > 32 500 N .

Fv ,Rd =

0 ,6 fub A

Mb

1,45

Fig. 5.2 The factor of the bearing resistance is


e1 27 ,5 = = 0 ,539 (limit), 3 d0 3 17 p1 1 50 1 = = 0 ,73 , 3 d 0 4 3 17 4
e1

= = =

d0 d p1

fub 500 = = 0 ,98 , fu 510 = 1,0 .

Fig. 5.3

The bearing resistance per bolt in the plate 5 mm is


Fb ,Rd = 2 ,5 fu d t = 2 ,5 0 ,539 510 16 5 = 37 ,9 10 3 N > Fv .Sd = 32 ,5 kN . 1,45

Mb

The resistance of the member net section is


N u .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f u = 0 ,9 5 (110 2 17 ) 510 = 134 ,2 10 3 N > 130 kN . 1,30

M2

The connection resistance is satisfactory.

11

4 M 16 27,5 55 27,5 27,5 40 27,5 150 x 8 - 3 200 6 17 P 5 - 320 x 600 6 17

Steel S 355 J2 Bolts 5.6 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 5.4 The design drawing of the connection

6 Bolted Truss Connection


Check the bolted connection of the tension member of two equal-leg angles, shown in Fig. 6.1. The connection is subject to the factored force FSd = 135 kN. Plate is P 15. The steel Grade S275. The fully threaded bolts M 20, Grade 8.8, are in holes 22 mm. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 , M 2 = 1,30 and Mb = 1,45 .

110 2 L 90 x 6 10 50 70 40 F Sd = 135 kN 15

Fig. 6.1 Drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Shear resistance The design shear resistance per two bolts with two shear plane, if the shear is not passing through threaded part of the bolt, is
Fv ,Rd = 2 n 0 ,6 f ub As = 2 2 0 ,6 800 245 = 324 ,4 10 3 N > 135 kN . 1,45

Mb

Fig. 6.2
Bearing resistance The bolt bearing resistance of the plate: e 40 = 1 = = 0 ,61 (limit) 3 d0 3 22
p 1 70 1 = 1 = = 0 ,81 3 d 0 4 3 22 4 f ub 800 = = 1,86 fu 430 = 1,0

d0

p1 70

e1 40

Fig. 6.3

12

Fb.Rd =

2 ,5 fu d t

Mb

2 ,5 0 ,61 430 20 15 = 135,7 103 N > Fv .Sd = 135 kN . 1,45 The bolts shear resistance is satisfactory.

The bolt bearing resistance of the angles: e 50 = 1 = = 0 ,76 (limit) 3 d0 3 22

d e1 50 p1 70

d0

= =

p1 1 70 1 = = 0 ,81 3 d 0 4 3 22 4

f ub 800 = = 1,86 Fig. 6.4 fu 430 = 1,0 2 ,5 fu d t 2 ,5 0 ,76 430 20 2 6 Fb.Rd = = = 135 ,2 10 3 N > Fv .Sd = 135 kN . 1,45 Mb

The bolts resistance is satisfactory.


Section resistance The reduction factors for the angles connected by one leg (linear transition) is

2 = 0 ,4 +

0 ,7 0 ,4 0 ,3 (p1 2 ,5 d 0 ) = 0 ,4 + (70 2 ,5 22 ) = 0 ,482 . 5 d 0 2 ,5 d 0 5 22 2 ,5 22

The resistance at the net section with two bolts in the force direction is
N u .Rd =

2 Anet f u 0 ,482 (1050 22 6 ) 430 = = 146 ,4 10 3 N > 135 / 2 kN . 1,30 M2

The member resistance in tension is


N pl .Rd = A fy = 2 1050 275 = 502 ,2 10 3 N > Fv .Sd = 135 kN . 1,15

M0

The net area of the connection plate is


N pl .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f y = 0 ,9 15 (120 22 ) 275 = 280 ,0 10 3 N > 135 kN . 1,30

M2

The section resistance in connection is satisfactory.


P15 -120 - 220 2 L 90 x 6 - 1200 2 22

10 50 70 40

2 M 20

Steel S 275 J2 Bolts 8.8 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 6.5 The design drawing of the connection

13

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Note: 1) The eccentricity of the fasteners at the end connections and the effects of the spacing and edge distances of the bolts may be taken into account by analyss. The design resistance of the net section is in this case checked directly. 2) The bolt end distances are in the connections often the same (e.g. 50 + 70 + 50). In this case the bearing resistance is checked for both sides of the connection together, e.g. just for the sum of the thinner plates acting in one direction.

7 Bolted Slip Resistant Connection


Evaluate resistance of the bolted connection of a tie, shown in Fig. 7.1, with the slip on the ultimate limit state. The steel is Grade S235. The bolts M 20, Grade 10.9, are preloaded (the bolt net area As = 245 mm2) in holes 22. The material partial safety factors are Ms .ult = 1,30 , M 2 = 1,30 and Mb = 1,45 .
8 16 FRd e2 55 p2 70 e2 55 50 70 50 50 70 50 e1 p1 e1 FRd

P 16 - 180 x 1200 2 P 8 - 180 x 340 8 x M 20 -10.9

Fig. 7.1 Drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Slip resistance The design preloading force (net section of the bolt As = 245 mm2) is
Fp.Cd = 0 ,7 fub As = 0 ,7 1 000 245 = 171,5 10 3 N .

F p.Cd F s.Rd

The slip factor is for surface blasted with shot = 0,5 (Class A surface). There are two slip surfaces, as shown in Fig. 5.6.2. The design slip resistance of one bolt under the ultimate limit state (Connection Category C): ks n 1,0 2 0 ,50 Fs .Rd = Fp ,Cd = 171,5 = 131,9 kN . Ms .ult 1,30
Bearing resistance The bearing resistance is derived for the plate 16 mm:

Fig. 7.2

= = =

e1 50 = = 0 ,758 (limit 3 d0 3 22 p1 1 70 1 = = 0 ,811 , 3 d 0 4 3 22 4

bearing Fb.Sd

fub 1 000 = = 2 ,778 , fu 360 = 0 ,508 , 2 ,5 fu d t 2 ,5 0 ,758 360 20 16 Fb.Rd = = = 150,6 10 3 N . 1,45 Mb

Fig. 7.3

14

Net section The design resistance of net cross section is


N net .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f u = 0 ,9 16 (180 2 22 ) 360 = 542 ,3 10 3 N . 1,30

M2

The connection resistance is 4 131,9 = 527,6 kN .


8 x M 20 55 70 55 50 70 50 50 70 50 P 16 - 180 x 1000 4 22 2 P 8 - 180 x 340 8 22 P 16 - 180 x 1200 4 22 Bolts 10.9 Contact surfaces blasted with shot, no painting Steel S 235 J2 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 7.3 Design drawing of the connection

8 Bolted Long Connection


Evaluate the design resistance of the bolted connection, shown in Fig. 8.1. The steel is Grade S235. The non-preloaded bolts M16 are Grade 5.6 in holes 17 mm. The shear passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolts. Material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,10 , M 2 = 1,25 , Mb = 1,25 .
12 20

FRd

55 180 70 55 50 e1 4 x 70 50

FRd

Fig. 8.1
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The reduction factor of a long connection:

Lf = 1
,

L j 15 d 200 d

=1

280 15 16 = 0 ,9875 200 16

p 1,0 ; p 0 ,75 .

e1 50

Lj 280

e1

Fig. 8.2 The shear resistance of a long connection with ten bolts is

15

Fv .Rd = 10 Lf

0 ,6 fub Ab

0 ,6 500 = 10 0 ,9875 1,25

16 2
4 = 476 ,5 10 3 N .

Mb

Design bearing resistance is calculated for connection factor:

=
for ten bolts is

e1 50 p 1 70 1 f 500 = = 0 ,98 ; = 1 = = 1,12 ; = bu = = 1,39 ; = 1,0 3 d0 3 17 3 d0 4 3 17 4 fu 360 2 ,5 fu d t = 10 2 ,5 0 ,980 360 16 12 = 1354 ,8 10 3 N . 1,25

Fb.Rd = 10

Mb

The net section resistance is


N u .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f u = 0 ,9 (180 2 17 ) 12 360 = 454 ,1 10 3 N . 1,25

M2

The connection resistance is 454,1 kN.


10 M 16 55 70 55 50 4 x 70 50 180 x 12 -1 200 10 17 P 20 - 300 x 600 10 17

Bolts 5.6 Steel S 235 J2 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 8.2 Design drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Notes: 1) The reduction of the resistance starts at the connection length 15 d, see Fig. 8.3 .

Lt

1 0,8 0,75 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 15d 65d

Lj

Lj

Fig. 8.3

2) The design plastic resistance of section is A f y 180 12 235 N pl .Rd = = = 461,5 10 3 N . M0 1,10

9 Bolted Connection with Packing


Evaluate the resistance of the bolted connection with a packing, shown in Fig. 9.1. The steel is Grade S355. The non-preloaded bolts M 16 are Grade 8.8 in holes 17 mm. The shear passes through untreated portion of the bolt. Material partial safety factors are M 2 = 1,25 and Mb = 1,25 .

16

P10 -170 x 2000 e2 50 p2 70 e2 50

4 M 16 - 8.8 P10 -170x170

P5 -170 x 2000

50 70 50 e1 p1 e1

t tp 5 10 10

Fig. 9.1 Drawing of the connection


___________________________________________________________________________________________________

The reduction factor of the packing is 9d 9 16 = p = = 0 ,911 , p 1,0 8 d + 3 tp 8 16 + 3 10 The shear resistance of four bolt M 16 (each acting in two shear planes) is
0 ,6 800 = 4 2 0 ,911 1,25

16 2
4 = 562 ,7 10 3 N .

Fv .Rd = 4 2 p

0 ,6 f ub A

Mb

The bearing resistance per four bolt in plate 10 mm:

f e1 p1 50 1 70 1 500 = = 0 ,98 ; = = = 1,12 ; = ub = = 0 ,980 ; = 1,0 , 3 d0 3 17 3 d 0 4 3 17 4 fu 510 Fb ,Rd = 4 2 ,5 f u d t =4 2 ,5 0 ,980 510 16 10 = 639 ,7 10 3 N . 1,25

Mb

The net section resistance is


N u .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f u = 0 ,9 (170 2 17 ) 10 510 = 499 ,4 10 3 N . 1,25

M2

The connection resistance is 499,4 kN.


____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Notes:
1) The reduction of the bolt shear resistance is for packing tp d / 3 shown in Fig. 9.2.

1,0

0,5

0,3 d

1,0 d

1,5 d

Fig. 9.2

17

2) The additional bolt row may be optionally placed in an extension of the packing. see Fig. 9.3.

Fig. 9.3

10 Single Lap Connection with One Bolt


Check the resistance of the single lap connection. The connection is subject to the factored force FSd = 40 kN, shown in Fig. 10.1. The steel is Grade S355. The no-preloaded bolt M16 is Grade 5.6 in hole 17 mm. The shear passes through the untreated portion of the bolt. The material partial safety factors are M 2 = 1,30 , Mb = 1,45 . M 16 - 5.6 P5 - 60 x 840
FSd 30 30 8 5

Fig. 10.1 Drawing of the connection


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

The design shear resistance of one bolt M 16 of one shear plane is


0 ,6 500 =

16 2
4 = 41,6 10 3 N > 40 kN .

Fv ,Rd =

0 ,6 f ub A

Mb

1,45

The design bearing resistance of one bolt for plate 5 mm is calculated for the smallest

=
as

f e1 30 500 = = 0 ,588 (limit); = bu = = 0 ,980 ; = 1,0 3 d0 3 17 fu 510 2 ,5 fu d t = 2 ,5 0 ,588 510 16 5 = 41,4 10 3 N > 40 kN . 1,45

Fb ,Rd =

Mb

The bearing resistance of single lap joint with one bolt is


Fb.Rd 1,5 fu d t = 1,5 510 16 5 = 42 ,2 10 3 N > 40 kN . 1,45

Mb

The net section resistance is


N u .Rd = 0 ,9 Anet f u = 0 ,9 ( 5 60 5 17 ) 510 = 75 ,9 10 3 N > 40 kN . 1,30 The connection is satisfactory.

M2

18

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Note: The connections with single bolt are used for structural purposes in special cases only, e.g. for the transmission electric towers and less important structures. In this type of connection is the washer positioned under the bolt nut as well as bolt head due to the shear and bending of the bolt.

11 Bolted Beam Splices


Check the resistance of the beam splices joint, shown in Fig. 11.1. The joint is subject to the factored moment MSd = 180 kNm and the factored shear force VSd = 280 kN. Beams are IPE 450. The steel is Grade S235. The bolts M 20, Grade 8.8, are designed in the holes 22 mm. Material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 , M 2 = 1,30 , and Mb = 1,45 .
40 MSd V
Sd

70 80 70

40 VSd MSd P 15 - 190 x 300 2P8 - 160 x 350 M 20 - 8.8 8 14,6 15 21

190

40 3 x 90 IPE 450 40 40 80 40

378,8 8 9,4 450

P 15 - 190 x 300

Fig. 11.1 Drawing of the connection

The internal forces in the connection has to follow the material distribution in the connecting elements. Hence the splices on the beam flanges are designed of the area of the beam flanges and the beam splices on the beam web of the area of the beam web. The splices on the beam flanges from both sides bring the most smooth transfer, see Notes below. The splices for the hot rolled beams till 500 mm are designed with the splices on one side only to economise the solution in the building design. The distribution of internal forces in joint may follow elastic, elastic-plastic or plastic distribution based on the global analysis of the whole structure, of the connected elements and on economy of design. flange web The splices at the flanges carry the forces based on the bending moment (the plastic internal force distribution in the Fw.Sd Nf.Sd V connection) Sd Fw.Sd M Sd 180 Fw.Sd N f .Sd = = = 413 ,4 kN . 0 ,45 0 ,0146 0 ,45 0 ,0146 Fw.Sd Nf.Sd Fig. 11.2
Splices The tension splice cross-section area is affected by holes 22 mm:
Anet = 15 190 2 15 22 = 2 190 mm2 , 0 ,9 Anet fu / M 2 = 0 ,9 2 190 360 / 1,30 = 545 ,8 10 3 N > Nf .Sd = 413 ,4 kN .

The resistance of the compressed splice, may be taken without holes,

19

A fy / M 0 = 15 190 235 / 1,15 = 582 ,4 10 3 N > Nf .Sd = 413 ,4 kN .

The shear resistance of the beam web splices is calculated for the whole splice area:
Anet = 2 8 350 = 5 600 mm2 , Av .net = 2 8 ( 350 4 22 ) = 4 192 mm ,
2

175

135 45

Av .net = 4192 mm 2 >


Av f y

fy fu

Av =

235 5600 = 3656 mm 2 , 360

Fig. 11.3
Vw .pl .Rd =

M0

5600 235 1,15 3

= 660 ,7 10 3 N . > VSd = 280 kN

The splices are satisfactory.


Bolts at flange The design shear resistance (four bolts M 20, each one shear plane) is
0 ,6 800 = 4 1

20 2
4 = 416 ,0 10 3 N > N f .Sd = 413 ,4 kN .

Fv .Rd = 4 n

0 ,6 f ub A

Mb

1,45

The design bearing resistance per four bolts (the beam flange of thickness tf = 14,6 mm) is
f e1 p 40 1 70 1 800 = = 0 ,61 (limit); = 1 = = 0 ,81 ; = ub = = 2 ,22 ; = 1,0 , 3d 0 3 22 3 d 0 4 3 22 4 fu 360 2 ,5 fu d t =4 2 ,5 0 ,61 360 20 14 ,6 = 442 ,2 10 3 N > N f .Sd = 413 ,4 kN . 1,45 The resistance of the bolts at the flanges is satisfactory.

Fb.Rd = 4

Mb

Bolts at web The bearing resistance of four bolt at the web splices: e 40 = 1 = = 0 ,61 (limit); 3d 0 3 22

= =

p1 1 90 1 = = 1,11 ; 3 d0 4 3 22 4 fub 800 = = 2 ,22 ; = 1,0 , fu 360 2 ,5 fu d t =4 2 ,5 0 ,61 360 20 2 8


e1.w = 90

p1 = 90 e1 = 40

Fig. 11.4
= 484 ,6 10 3 N > VSd = 280 kN .

1,45 Mb The bearing resistance of the beam web is calculated based on the pitch distance p1 only ( = 1,0): 2 ,5 f u d t 2 ,5 1,0 360 20 9 ,4 Fw .b.Rd = 4 =4 = 466 ,8 10 3 N > VSd = 280 kN . 1,45 Mb The design shear resistance (four bolts M 20, each two shear planes) is

Fp.b.Rd = 4

20

Fv .Rd = 4 n

0 ,6 f ub A

0 ,6 800 = 4 2

20 2

Mb

4 = 832 ,0 10 3 N > VSd = 280 kN . 1,45 The resistance of the bolts at the web is satisfactory

Beam net section The holes at the beam web are not taken into account Av = A 2 b t f + ( t w + 2 r ) t f = 9 880 2 190 14 ,6 + ( 9 ,4 + 2 21 ) 14 ,6 = 5 082 ,4 mm 2 ,
Av .net = Av 4 22 t w = 5 082,4 2 22 9,4 = 4 668,8 mm 2 ,

because
fu The shear resistance of the I section is Av f y 5082 ,4 235 Vf .pl .Rd = = = 599 ,6 10 3 N > VSd = 280 kN . 1,15 3 M0 3 The shear resistance is satisfactory. Av .net = 4 668 ,8 mm 2 > Av fy = 5 082 ,4 235 = 3 317 ,7 mm 2 . 360

The bending resistance is not reduced by the shear force, because V pl .Rd / 2 = 599 ,6 / 2 = 299,3 kN > VSd = 280 kN . The holes in beam flanges and web shall be taken into account: fy M2 A 0 ,9 f .net < , Af fu M 0
190 2 22 235 1,30 = 0 ,69 < = 0 ,74 . 190 360 1,15 The reduced second moment of area (IPE 450, Iy = 337,4106 mm4), the holes are taken into account at the beam web as well as at the both flanges: 4 4 I net = 337 ,4 10 6 22 14 ,6 3 9 ,6 22 3 12 12 450 14 ,6 2 4 ( ) 22 14 ,6 2 135 2 9 ,4 22 2 45 2 9 ,4 22 = 268 ,1 10 6 mm 4 . 2 The bending resistance of the net cross-section is I net f y 268 ,1 10 6 235 M el .Rd = = = 243 ,5 10 6 Nmm > M Sd = 180 kNm . h 450 1,15 M0 2 2 The bending resistance is satisfactory. The joint is satisfactory. 0 ,9
40 70 80 70 40 P 15 - 190 x 300 8 22 M 20

40 3 x 90 40 40 80 2P8 - 160 x 350 8 22 24 M 20 40 P 15 - 190 x 300 8 22

M 20 M 20

IPE 450 - 2 200 12 22

IPE 450 - 4 650 12 22

100 45 45

Steel S 235 J2 Bolts 8.8 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 11.5 Design drawing of the joint ________________________________________________________________________________ Notes:

21

1/ The distribution of the internal forces in joint may be based on elastic, elastic-plastic or plastic distribution. The plastic distribution is presented. For the elastic distribution is the bending moment transferred by the flange cover plate as well as by the web cover plates. The bolts forces in the flanges are taken the part of the bending moment. This bending moment may be estimated by reducing the bending moments by the second moment of inertia of the flages
1 190 14 ,6 3 + 190 14 ,6 217 ,7 2 ) 2 = 263 ,0 10 6 mm 4 12 divided by the second moment of inertia of the I cross-section I M f .Sd = M Sd f . Iy If = (
14,6 457,4 217,7 420,8 217,7 14,6

The force in flanges is M N f .Sd = f ./Sd . h The cover plates and the bolts on the beam web are transferring the rest of the bending moment M w .Sd = M Sd M f .Sd and the shear force VSd. 2/ The splices on the beam flanges from both sides bring the most smooth transfer but the solution is expensive compare to a single side splices.
50 M
Sd

Fig. 11.6

100 70 70

50 VSd MSd P 8 - 190 x 340 2P8 - 160 x 350 M 20 - 5.6 6

190

Sd

50 3 x 90 IPE 450 50 50 100 50

378,8 6 9,4 450 8 14,6 8

P 8 - 190 x 340

Fig. 11.7 Double side splices on the beam flange

12 Beam-to-Column Welded Joint


Design the beam-to-column welded joint, shown in Fig. 12.1. The joint is subject to the factored internal forces M Sd = 30 kNm ; V Sd = 150 kN evaluated by the plastic global analysis. The steel is Grade S235. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 and Mw = 1, 50 .
af r b =12 h b=220 twb= 5,9 aw af b fb = 110 t fc =15 10 r c =18 200 10 HE 200 B z IPE 220 V Sd M Sd t fb = 9,2

twc = 9,0

Fig. 12.1 Drawing of the connection _________________________________________________________________________________ _

22

Beam web The beam shear resistance is calculated based on the shear effective area:
Avb = Ab 2 b b t fb + (t wb + 2 r b ) t fb = 3 ,34 10 3 2 110 9 ,2 + (5 ,9 + 2 12 ) 8 ,5 = 1 570 mm 2 ,

Fv .wc .Rd =V pl .Rd =

Av .b f y .wb 3 M0

1570 235 3 1,15

= 187 ,7 10 3 N > VSd = 150 kN .

The beam web weld can be calculated based on the beam shear resistance is
aw = FSd w Mw 3 187 ,7 10 3 0 ,80 1,50 3 = = 2 ,7 mm . 2 ( hb 2 t fb ) f u 2 (220 2 9 ,2 ) 360

The overloading of the welds due to the strain hardening of the steel of the section is taken into account by strengthening of the welds in case of the plastic global analysis:
1,7 2,7 = 4,59 mm aw = 5 mm .

Beam flange The beam flange compression resistance is


Fc .fb.Rd = W pl f y /[ M 0 ( hb t fb )] = 285 ,4 10 3 235 = 277 10 3 N . 1,15 (220 9 ,2 )

The weld throat width at the beam flange is based on the full beam flange resistance:
af = Fc .fb.Rd w Mw 2 bfb fu 2 = 277 0 ,8 1,5 2 = 5 ,9 mm . 2 110 360

The possible overloading of the welds is taken into account for the plastic global analysis:
1,7 5 ,9 = 10,0 mm .

Column web The joint design resistance is limited (In case of the column with web stiffened in tension and in compression) by the shear resistance of the column web (which is not important for the hot rolled H shapes) and by the resistance of the beam flange:
M Rd = Fc.fb.Rd z = 277 10 3 (220 9 ,2 ) = 58 ,4 10 6 Nmm > VSd = 30 kNm .

The welded joint resistance is satisfactory.

23

13* Pin Connection


Design a pin, shown in Fig. 13.1. subject to the factored tensile force Fv.Sd = 110 kN. The steel of the plates is Grade S275, pin Grade S355. The material partial safety factors M 0 = 1,15 , M 2 = 1,30 .

d = 30 F Sd d3 = 20 t 1 = 10 c =1 t 1 = 10 c =1 t2 = 18

Fig. 13.1 Drawing of the connection _________________________________________________________________________________ _ The pin diameter is chosen d = 30 mm .
Shear resistance The shear resistance for two shear planes 0 ,6 A fup 0 ,6 30 2 510 Fv .Rd = 2 = 2 = 332 ,8 kN > 110 kN = FSd 4 1,30 M2 The pin shear resistance is satisfactory. Bearing resistance The bearing resistance for the minimal yeld strength f y = min (275 ; 355 ) = 275 MPa and for the minimal thickness
t = min (2 t1 ; t 2 ) = min (2 10 ; 18 ) = 18 mm may be checked

Fb.Rd =

1,5 d t fy

M0

1,5 30 18 275 = 193 ,7 kN > 110 kN = FSd 1,15 The pin bearing resistance is satisfactory.

Bending resistance The bending moment resistance 0 ,8 Wel fyp 0 ,8 d 3 fyp 0 ,8 30 3 355 MRd = = = = 654 612 Nmm M0 32 M 0 32 1,15 is higher compare to acting moment F 110 000 (2 10 + 18 + 4 1) MSd = Sd (2 t1 + t 2 + 4 c ) = 8 8 = 577 500 Nmm < 654 612 Nmm = M Rd The pin bending resistance is satisfactory.

t1 c

t2

t1 c

M Sd

Fig. 13.2

The bending moment and shear interaction


MSd FSd 577 500 110 000 + = + = 0 ,89 < 1 . 654 612 332 800 M Rd Fv .Rd
2 2 2 2

is satisfactory. The pin resistance is satisfactory.

24

Plate geometry

The plate minimal area


Amin = FSd M 0 110 000 1,15 = = 460 mm 2 fy 275

Influences the distance d3, see Fig.


d3 Amin 460 = = 25 ,6 mm is taken as d 3 = 30 mm . t2 18

The end distances of plates


Amin 460 = = 25 ,6 mm as d 3 = 30 mm t2 18 A 460 d 2 min = = 25 ,6 mm as d 3 = 30 mm , t2 18 d1

30 19

70 30

should be kept in angle 45 from the axis.


Amin 460 = 0 ,67 = 17 ,1 mm is choosen d4 = 19 mm , t2 18

Fig. 13.3

d4 0 ,67

to be the total with b = 2 d 4 + d 0 = 2 19 + 32 = 70 mm . _________________________________________________________________________________ _ Note: If the pin is intended to be replaceable, the contact bearing stress should satisfy the check at the Serviceability Limit State

h ,Ed = 0 ,591
where
d0 FSd,ser

E FSd ,ser (d 0 d ) d
2

f h ,Ed =

2 ,5 f y

M 6 ,ser

M6,ser

is the pin hole diameter, the design force at serviceability and the partial safety factor for serviceability,

and the bearing of the plate and the pin Fb,Rd ,ser = 0 ,6 d t fy / M 6 ,ser Fb,Sd ,ser , as well as the check in bending M Rd ,ser = 0 ,8 W el fup / M 0 M Sd ,ser .

25

14 Simple Column Base


Calculate the design resistance of the column base shown in Fig. 14.1. The column cross-section is HE200B, the base plate thickness is 30 mm, and the concrete foundation block dimensions are 850 x 850 x 900 mm. The steel is Grade S235 and the concrete is Grade C20/25. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 and c = 1,50 .
HE 200 B t = 30 30 h = 900 FRd 3xP10-40x40 a 1 = 850 a= 340

ar = 255 b r = 255 b= 340

b1 = 850

Fig. 14.1 Drawing of the connection

For the effective cross section of the foundation block:


a + 2 a r = 340 + 2 255 = 850 5 a = 5 340 = 1700 a1 = min = 850 mm , a h 340 900 1240 + = + = 5 b 5 850 4250 = = 1

and, from symmetry b1 = a1. The stress concentration factor is


kj = a1 b1 850 850 = = 2,5 . a b 340 340

The bearing strength of the concrete under the base-plate is


fj = 0,67 k j f ck = 0,67 2,5 20,0 = 22,3 MPa 1,50

.
c b c = 200 c tw= 9 c

A rigid plate of effective width c, surrounding the column H-section, replaces the flexible base-plate:
c =t fy 3 f j M0
= 30

t f = 15 c

235 = 52 ,4 mm . 3 22 ,3 1,15

h c =200 c

The effective area (see Fig. 5.11.2) is Fig. 14.2


Aeff = ( 200 + 2 52 ,4 ) ( 200 + 2 52 ,4 ) ( 200 + 2 52 ,4 9 2 52 ,4 ) ( 200 2 15 2 52 ,4 )

= 80 449 mm 2 .
The design resistance of the column base is
N Rd = Aeff f j = 80 449 22 ,3 = 1 794 10 3 N .

26

70 HE 200 B P10 - 40 x 40 25 5 60 30 40 170 340 170 P30 - 340 x 340 2 22 170 3 x P10 - 40 x 240 170 340 170 50

340 200

70

70 170 200 340 70 240 50

550

20 - 950 M20

Concrete C20/25 Steel S235 J2


120 120 240

Scale: 1:10

Fig. 14.3 Design drawing of the column base. The anchor bolts are designed for structural integrity.

Notes: 1) The design resistance of the column is lower than the resistance of the column base: N pl .Rd = A f y / M 0 = 7 808 235 / 1,15 = 1 596 10 3 N < N R d = 1 794 kN , where A is the column cross-sectional area. 2) The joint coefficient is taken as 2/3 provided that the characteristic strength of the grout is not less than 0,2 times the characteristic strength of the concrete foundation, and the grout thickness is less than 0,2 min (a; b) = 0,2 340 = 68 mm. 3) Packing plates (see Fig. 14.3) are used to level the base plate during erection.

27

15* Fixed Column Base


Calculate the design moment resistance MRd of the fixed column base shown in Fig. 15.1. The column base is subject to the factored force FSd = 500 kN. The column cross-section is HE200B. The base plate thickness is 30 mm. The concrete foundation blosk dimensions are 1600 x 1600 x 1000 mm. The steel is Grade S235. The concrete is Grade C12/15. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 and c = 1,50 .
F Sd HE 200 B m = 60 t = 30 30 h = 1000 M Rd db= 160 M 24 1600 340 630

630 b= 340 1600

Fig. 15.1 Drawing of the connection ________________________________________________________________________________ _


Tension part The tension resistance of two anchor bolts M 24 (net section As = 353 mm) is

F2 s .Rd = 2 Fs .Rd = 2 f yb As / Mb = 2 235 353 / 1,45 = 114 10 3 N .


The resistance of the base plate in bending loaded by the force is
Fp.Rd = W el f y m M0
=

b t 2 fy 6 m M0

340 30 2 235 = 137 ,7 10 3 N > F2 s .Rd . 6 60 1,15

Compressed part
1 600 a= 340 ar = 630 b r = 630

b 1 = 1 340

b= 340

1 600

a 1 = 1 340

Fig. 15.2 For the effective cross section of the foundation block, see Fig. 15.2, is

28

a + 2 a r = 340 + 2 * 630 = 1 600 5 a = 5 340 = 1 700 a1 = min = 1 340 mm , a + h = 340 + 1 000 = 1 340 5 b1 = 5 1600 = 8 000

and from symmetry a1 = b1. The the stress concentration factor is


kj = a1 b1 13 40 1 340 = = 3,94 . a b 340 340

The bearing strength of the concrete under the base plate is


fj = 0,67 k j f ck = 0,67 3 ,94 12,0 = 21,1 MPa 1,50

The effective area of the concrete in compression is calculated based on the force equilibrium:

FSd = Aeff f j F2 s.Rd ,


Aeff = FSd + F2.Rd 500 10 3 + 114 10 3 = = 29 100 mm 2 . fj 21,1

The rigid plate of effective width c, see Fig. 5.19.3 surrounding the column section, replaces the flexible plate c = 56, 4
c =t fy 3 f j M0
= 30

235 = 56 ,4 mm . 3 21,1 1,05

Fig. 15.3
56,4

The width of effective area is


beff = 29 100 = 93 ,0 mm 200 + 2 56 ,4

200

56,4 beff

Fig. 15.4

The concrete lever arm is


d c = hc / 2 + c beff 93 ,0 = 100 + 56 ,4 = 109 ,9 mm . 2 2

F Sd db dc

F2s.Rd
The base plate bending resistance is

Aeff f j

Fig. 15.5

29

M Rd = F2 s .Rd d b + Aeff f j d c =
= 114 10 3 140 + 29 100 21,1 109 ,9 = 83 ,4 10 6 Nmm = 83 ,4 kNm .

The column base transfer under axial force 500 kN the bending moment 83,4 kNm.

________________________________________________________________________________ _ Notes: 1) The column normal force resistance is


N pl .Rd = A f y / M 0 = 14 910 235 / 1,15 = 3 047 10 3 N .

The column bending resistance is


M pl .Rd = W pl f y / M 0 = 1 869 10 3 235 / 1,15 = 382 10 6 Nmm .

The interaction of the normal force and bending moment:

M Sd / M pl .Rd + N Sd / N pl .Rd = 85 ,7 / 131,3 + 500 / 1 596 = 0 ,97 < 1,00


The column cross-section resistance is higher compare to the column base resistance. 2) The column base resistance is compared to the column resistance for the different base plate thickness in Fig. 15.6. For plate P 30 are shown the major points of the diagram, e.g. the pure compression, the highest bending resistance (the point of the coincidence of the neutral axis and the axis of symmetry of the cross section), the pure bending, and the pure tension.
NSd HE 200 B t= 40 M pl.Rd 1 596 1 000 30 25 20 15 Npl.Rd 1 600 340 630 Column resistance 630 0 100 131,3 Moment, kNm 1 600 340 t 30 h = 1 000 M 24

Normal force, kN

Sd

Fig. 15.6 The column base resistance for the different base plate thickness

30

16 Fin Plate Connection


The AccessSteel check is summarised below. Shear resistance of fin plate connection Mode of failure Bolts in shear* VRd,1 Fin plate in bearing* VRd,2 Fin plate in shear (gross section) VRd,3 Fin plate in shear (net section) VRd,4 Fin plate in shear (block shear) VRd,5 Fin plate in bending VRd,6 Fin plate in buckling (LTB) VRd,7 Beam web in bearing* VRd,8 Beam web in shear (gross section) VRd,9 Beam web in shear (net section) VRd,10 Beam web in shear (block shear) VRd,11 Supporting element (punching shear) VRd,12 The shear resistance of the joint is the minimum of the above values.
Tying resistance of fin plate connection Mode of failure Bolts in shear* NRd,u,1 Fin plate in bearing* NRd,u,2 Fin plate in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,3 Fin plate in tension (net section) NRd,u,4 Beam web in bearing* NRd,u,5 Beam web in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,6 Beam web in tension (net section) NRd,u,7 Supporting member in bending NRd,u,8 The tying resistance of the joint is the minimum of the above values.
1 3 1 3 1

For weld

For bolt group

For weld

For bolt group

For weld For bolt group

For bolt group

Assumed lines of shear transfer Key. 1. Fin plate; 2. Supported beam;

Assumed lines of shear transfer 3. Supporting column;

Assumed lines of shear transfer 4. Supporting beam

31

Check the beam-to-beam fin plate connection, shown in Fig. 16.1. The connection is subject to the vertical factored force VSd = 110 kN. The steel is Grade S275. The bolts M 20 are Grade 8.8 in holes 21 mm with the thread in the shear plane. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,10 , M 2 = 1,30 , Mb = 1,25 , and Mw = 1,25 .
R 10 30 e1 40 p 1 60 e1 40 tw 5,6 tp 10 L 140 20 IPE 200 P 10 - 140 x 100 M 20 - 5.6 4 4 VSd = 110 kN

10

50 10

Fig. 16.1 Drawing of the connection


________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Bolts The design shear resistance of two threaded bolts (each with one shear plane) is
Fvs .Rd =2 n 0 ,6 f ub As 0 ,6 800 245 = 2 1 = 188 ,2 10 3 N . 1,25
e = 60 e 1= 40 p = 60
1

Mb

e1 = 40

The bearing resistance of the fin plate in the vertical direction is calculated for t minimum factor:

Fig. 15.2

=
for two bolts

f e1 40 p 1 60 1 800 = = 0 ,635 ; = 1 = = 0 ,702 ; = ub = = 1,86 , = 1,0 , 3 d0 3 21 3 d0 4 3 21 4 fu 430

Fb.Rd = 2

2 ,5 fu d t

Mb

=2

2 ,5 0 ,635 430 20 12 = 262 ,1 10 3 N . 1,25

The bearing resistance of the beam web is evaluated for minimum :


f e1 p 40 + 10 1 60 1 800 = = 0 ,794 ; = 1 = = 0 ,702 ; = ub = = 1,86 , = 1,0 , 3d 0 3 21 3 d 0 4 3 21 4 fu 430 for two bolts 2 ,5 f u d t 2 ,5 0 ,794 430 20 5 ,6 Fb.Rd = 2 =2 = 152 ,9 10 3 N . 1,25 Mb The bolts are satisfactory.

Fillet weld The fillet weld resistance is calculated based on normal stress:

80 10 3 60 M Sd VSd e = = = 146 ,9 MPa . Wwe t p L2 10 140 2 6 6

32

The shear and normal stresses in the weld thread:


tp 2 awe 2 10 122 ,4 2 4 2

VSd

= =

= 129 ,8 MPa

II II
awe
tp

L
e

II =

VSd 80 10 3 = = 71,4 MPa . 2 awe L 2 4 140


awe

The stresses in the throat of the weld:

Fig. 16.3
2 2 2 + 3 + II = 129 ,8 2 + 3 129 ,8 2 + 71,4 2 = 287 ,6 MPa <

fu

w Mw

430 = 404 ,7 MPa , 1,25 0 ,85

= 129 ,8 MPa <

fu

Mw

430 = 344 MPa . 1,25

The weld strength is satisfactory.


Block tearing of beam web

Tensile failure occurs along the horizontal limit of the block, and shear plastic yielding occurs along the left vertical limit of the block. For beam end with a shear force acting eccentric relative to the bolt group the design value for block tearing Veff,2,Rd should be determined from
Veff .2.Rd = 0 ,5 fu Ant / M 2 + (1 / 3 ) fy Anv / M 0 = .

50 60 70 50

Fig. 16.4
3 ) 275 5 ,6 ( 50 + 60 2 ,5 21 ) / 1,15 =

= 0 ,5 430 5 ,6 ( 50 0 ,5 21 ) / 1,30 + (1 /

81,0 10 3 N > VSd = 80 kN The block tearing of the beam web is satisfactory.

The shear resistance of the fin plate is


V pl .Rd = Av f y

M0

10 140 275 1,10 3

= 202 ,1 10 3 N > VSd = 80 kN .


140

The net section, see Fig. 5.15.5, of the fin plate is not necessary to be taken into account, because

Av .net / Av > fy / fu ,
10 (140 2 21 ) 275 = 0 ,84 > = 0 ,64 . 10 140 430

Fig. 16.5 Connection is satisfactory.

33

R 10 M 20 30 40 60 40 P 12 - 140 x 100 2 21 2 21

20

10

50 10

4 4

IPE 200 - 2 100 Bolt 8.8 Steel S 275 J2

Scale: 1 : 10

Figure16.5 Design drawing of the connection

16 Header Plate Connection


The AccessSteel check is summarised below. Shear resistance of end plate connection Mode of failure Bolts in shear VRd,1 End plate in bearing VRd,2 Supporting member in bearing VRd,3 End plate in shear (gross section) VRd,4 End plate in shear (net section) VRd,5 End plate in shear (block shear) VRd,6 End plate in bending VRd,7 Beam web in shear VRd,8 The shear resistance of joint is the minimum of the above values.
Tying resistance of end plate connection Mode of failure Bolts in tension NRd,u,1 End plate in bending* NRd,u,2 Supporting member in bending NRd,u,3 Beam web in tension NRd,u,4 The tying resistance of joint is the minimum of the above values.
1 1 1

4 2 2 2

Assumed line of shear transfer (face of column) Key: 1. End plate;

Assumed line of shear transfer (face of web) 3. Column;

Assumed line of shear transfer (face of web) 4. Supporting beam

2. Supported beam;

34

Derive the resistance of the simple beam-to-beam connection, shown in Fig. 17.1. The steel is Grade S355. The bolt M 20, Grade 5.6, is full threaded bolts in holes 21 mm. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,10 , Mb = 1,25 , and Mw = 1,25 .

45 35 70 140 35 6,2

IPE 240

VSd
4 x M 20 - 4.6 P 10 - 140 x 200

40

2 x 60 200

40

10

10

Fig. 17.1 Drawing of the connection


Shear resistance of the beam web The shear resistance of a part of a beam web (in the height of the end plate and the welds) is

Vb.pl .Rd =

Av f y 3 M0

6 ,2 (140 + 2 4 2 ) 355 3 1,10

= 174 ,8 10 3 N .
140 + 2 x 4 x 2

Fig. 17.2 Bolts resistance The shear resistance in the threaded part of the bolts, four bolts, one shear plane per bolt,
Fv .Rd = 4 n 0 ,6 f ub As
= 4 1

Mb

0 ,6 500 245 = 235 ,2 10 3 N . 1,25

The bearing resistance of four bolts at the end plate, which has lower resistance compare to the beam web of the same thickness, may be calculated for

f e1 35 p 1 70 1 500 = = 0 ,556 (limit); = 1 = = 0 ,861 ; = ub = = 0 ,980 ; = 1,0 , 3 d0 3 21 3 d0 4 3 21 4 fu 510 Fb ,Rd = 4 2 ,5 fu d t


=4

as

Mb

2 ,5 0 ,556 355 20 10 = 315 ,8 10 3 N . 1,25

Weld resistance The resistance of filled welds is


Fw ,Rd = f u awe Lwe

w Mw

510 4 2 140 0 ,9 1,25 3

= 293 ,1 10 3 N .

140

Fig. 17.3
Shear resistance of the end plate The net area is taken into account for calculation the shear resistance of the end plate because

35

Av ,net / Av > f y / f u
10 (140 2 21 ) 355 = 0 ,700 > = 0 ,696 . 10 140 510
140

The shear resistance


V p.pl .Rd = Av f y = 2 10 140 510 1,10 3 = 749 ,5 10 3 N .

M0

Fig. 17.4

The connection resistance VSd = min (174,8 kN; 235,2 kN; 315,8 kN; 293,1 kN; 749,5 kN) = Vb.pl.Rd = 174,8 kN. is driven by the shear resistance of the beam web.

R 10 30 4 21 45 35 70 35 4 4 x M 20 P 10 - 140 x 200 40 2 x 60 40 P 10 - 500 x 2200 10 IPE 240 - 2 600

Steel S 355 J2 Bolts 5.6 Scale: 1 : 10

Fig. 17.5 Design drawing of the connection

36

18 Bolted Extended End Plate Connestion


Joint resistance of eaves moment connection in symbols according to AccessSteel materials. Resistance Potential resistance of bolt rows in the tension zone Compression resistance Shear resistance of the column web panel Moment resistance Shear resistance for vertical forces

Ft,Rd Fc,Rd Vwp,Rd M j,Rd


VRd

Check the resistance of the extended end plate beam-to-column joint, shown in Fig. 18.1. The joint is subject to the factored bending moment Msd = 110 kNm and to the factored shear force VSd = 100 kN. The steel is Grade S235. The bolts M 20 Grade 5.6, are not preloaded. The elastic global analysis was applied. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 , Mb = 1,45 , and Mw = 1,50 .
t wc e 40 1 e hp
560 35 35 12 425 2 105 14,5

M 20 - 5.6 P 12 - 60 x 60 tpc ds

V M P 30 - 200 x 520 Sd Sd

e 340 3

t wb 9,4
12 120 w1

e 75 4 u
20 w a 40 40 wa

t pc dp
30

IPE 450 t fb 14,6 Point of contact in connection

P 12 - 116 x 65 t fc
28

bp = 200 b cf = 300

HE 500B

Fig. 18.1 Drawing of the connection __________________________________________________________________________


Bending resistance of bolted part It is expected that the plate rotates as a rigid body round the centre of the compressed flange of the beam, see Fig. 5.10.2. The bending moment equilibrium:
M Sd = 2

r
i

Fi.Sd = 2(0,0477 F3.Sd + 0,3877 F2.Sd + 0,4927 F1.Sd ) .

The forces depends on the distance to the centre of rotation (the elastic internal force distribution):
r 3 F1.Sd 0,0477 F1.Sd = , r1 0,4927 r 2 F1.Sd 0,3877 F1.Sd = . r1 0,4927

F3.Sd =

F2.Sd =

The force in the top bolt row:

37

M Sd = 2 (

0,0477 2 0,3877 2 F1.Sd + F1.Sd + 0,4927 F1.Sd ) 0,4927 0,4927 0,0477 2 0,3877 2 + + 0,4927 ) 0,4927 0,4927 110 0,4927 = 137,1 kN .

492,7

2F 1

387,7 2 F2 47,7

110 = 2 F1.Sd (

2F 3

2 F1.Sd =

0,0477 + 0,3877 2 + 0,4927 2

Fig. 18.2

The bolt tension resistance is


2 Bt = 2 Ft .Rd = 2 0 ,9 fub As
=2

Mb

0 ,9 500 245 = 2 76 ,0 10 3 N = 152 ,0 kN > 137 ,1 kN . 1,45

The design resistance of the top bolt row is calculated based on effective T stub resistance of the column flange, which is thinner compare to the end plate. The T stub geometry is shown in Fig. 5.10.3:
w t 120 14 ,5 m = 1 wc = = 52 ,8 mm , 2 2 m 2 = 35 mm .
e m 40 m2 35 w1 120 t wc 14,5

For

m1 52 ,8 1 = = = 0 ,51 m1 + e 52 ,8 + 50

and

2 =

m2 35 = = 0 ,41 , m1 + e 52 ,8 + 50

point of contact

The effective length of the stiffened T stub is calculated based on the factor = 5,7, see the graph [8]. The effective length of the T stub at the top bolt row
2 52 ,8 331,6 2 m = min = min = 301,0 mm . = min 5 ,7 52 ,8 301,0 m

Fig. 18.3

Leff

The column flange resistance in bending is


M pl .Rd = 0 ,25 Leff t f2 f y / M 0 = 0 ,25 301,0 28 2 235 / 1,15 = 12 ,05 10 6 Nmm .

The resistance of the top bolt row in case of i) the failure of the column flange is

Fcf .Rd =

4 M pl .Rd m

4 12 ,05 10 6 = 913 ,2 10 3 N , 52 ,8

ii) the failure of the column flange and bolts is (The size of end plate limits the width of the T stub by n = min (e ; 1,25 m) = (40; 1,25 52,8) = 40 mm)

38

2 M pl .Rd + 2 n Fcf .Rd =

0 ,9 f ub As

Mb
=

m+n

2 12 ,05 10 6 + 2 40 76 ,0 = 325 ,3 10 3 N , 52 ,8 + 40

iii) the failure of the bolts is

Fcf .Rd = 2 Bt = 2 76 ,0 10 3 = 152 ,0 10 3 N .

The bolt rupture shows the minimum resistance. The bolt resistance is satisfactory in bending.
Shear resistance of bolted part It is expected, that each bolt row carries the same shear force under the elastic distribution of the internal force. The shear resistance per a bolt in treated part for one shear plane
Fv .Rd = 0 ,6 fub As
=

Mb

0 ,6 500 245 = 50 ,7 10 3 N . 1,45

6 50,7 = 304,1 kN > 100 kN.

The bolts subject to the combined shear and tension:


Fv .Sd Ft .Sd + 1 , Fv .Rd 1,4 Ft .Rd
100 / 6 137 ,1 / 2 + = 0 ,97 1 . 50 ,7 1,4 152 ,0 / 2

The bolt bearing resistance:

f e1 40 p 1 105 1 500 = = 0 ,635 ; = 1 = = 1,417 ; = ub = = 1,39 ; = 1,0 . 3 d0 3 21 3 d0 4 3 21 4 fu 360


=

Fb.Rd =

2 ,5 fu d t

Mb

2 ,5 0 ,635 360 20 30 = 236 ,5 10 3 N > VSd / 6 = 100 / 6 = 16 ,7 kN . 1,45

The bolt resistance is satisfactory in shear.


Welds Provide the weld 4 mm based on the structural point of view. z1 The shear force at the beam web fillet welds is z 2 VSd 100 10 3 II .2 = = = 29 ,7 MPa . aw ( hb 2 t fb ) 2 4 ( 450 2 14 ,6 )
4 14,6 450 9,4 14,6 190 4

1 2

Fig. 18.4

39

The stresses perpendicular to weld cross-section is calculated based on the second moment of area of filled weld cross-section:
Iwe = 1 1 (190 + 2 4 )( 450 + 2 4 )3 (190 + 2 4 9 ,4 2 4 )( 450 2 14 ,6 2 4 )3 12 12 9 ,4 2 ( 450 2 14 ,6 )3 190 14 ,6 3 2 190 14 ,6 (( 450 14 ,6 ) / 2 )2 = 205 ,1 10 6 mm4 , 12 12

based on the elastic stress distribution:

.2 = .2 = w .2 / 2 =

M Sd z 2 I we 2

110 10 6 ( 450 2 14 ,6 ) / 2 205 ,1 10 6 2

= 79 ,8 MPa .

The stress check in the throat section:


2 2 2 2 2 7 2 = 167 ,7 MPa < .2 + 3 .2 + II .2 = 79 ,8 + 3 79 ,8 + 29 ,

fu

w Mw

360 = 300 ,0 MPa , 0 ,8 1,5

.2 = 79 ,8 MPa <

fu

Mw

360 = 240 MPa . 1,50

The welds at the web flange are loaded by shear only:

.1 = .1 = w .1 / 2 =

M Sd z1 I we 2

110 10 6 ( 450 + 2 4 ) / 2 205 ,1 10 6 2

= 86 ,8 MPa .

The stress check in the throat section is


2 2 2 2 = 173 ,6 MPa < .1 + 3 .1 = 86 ,8 + 3 86 ,8

fu

w Mw

360 = 300 ,0 MPa , 0 ,8 1,5

.1 = 86 ,8 MPa <

fu

Mw

360 = 240 MPa . 1,50

The weld strength is satisfactory. The joint resistance is satisfactory.

40

19 Extended end plate semirigid joint


Calculate the design bending M j .Rd and shear VRd resistance of the extended end plate semirigid joint shown Fig. 19.1. Steel S 235, nonpreloaded bolts M 16 class 8.8 The shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolts. Calculate the length, for which the point may be claasified as rigid in a brace frame. The material partial safety factors are M 0 = 1,15 , Mb = 1,45 , and Mw = 1,50 .
t wc= 7 e1 =40 a1 = 35 e2 = 70 h p= 305 e = 140
3

M 16 - 8.8 af = 5 a w= 5

MSd VSd t wb = 5,9 a w= 4 af = 5

P 12 - 140 x 305 P 12 - 116 x 65

VSd MSd

IPE 220 t fb= 9,2

IPE 220

e4 = 55 u = 10 wa = 30 w1 = 80 w a b p= 140 a w= 5 t fc= 12 HE 140B t p= 12

Fig. 19.1 Drawing of the connection

a) The design resistance of the column web in compression Fc .wc .Rd and in tension Ft .wc .Rd are not influenced the resistance, if the stiffeners have at least same the resistance as the beam flanges. The beam flange is in symmetrical joints symmetrically loaded not loaded activated and need not be checked Vwp.Rd .

F cf1.Rd Ft.wc.Rd Fcf2.Rd

Fb1.Rd Fb2.Rd

Fp1.Rd Fbf.Rd Fp2.Rd

V wp.Rd Fc.wc.Rd

Fb3.Rd

Fig. 19.2 Internal forces in the joint b) The resistance of a bolt row in the column flange may be calculated for the effective T stub for the distances m1 a m2 according to Fig. 19.3
80 7 2 0,8 12 = 26,9 mm 2 70 12 2 0,8 * 2 * 5 m2 = = 23,3 mm 2 m1 =
e m1 0,8 r

m2 0,8* 2*a w 7 80 12 70

Fig. 19.3

41

Factor may be evaluated for 1 and 2

1 = 2 =

m1 26,9 = = 0,47 m1 + e 26,9 + 30 m2 23,3 = = 0,41 m1 + e 26,9 + 30

e m1

0,8 r

= 6,1
For the calculation of the resistance of the effective T stub is necessary to evaluate the length of the effective T stub, which is for the top bolt row

tfc

Leff

Leff .cp = 2m = 2 * * 26,9 = 169,0mm


Leff .op = m = 6,1* 26,9 = 166,8mm

Leff
and the resulting effective length are
Leff .1 = min (Leff .cp ; Leff .op ) = min (169,0; 166,8 ) = 166,8 mm

Leff .2 = Leff .op = 166,8 mm he resistance of the flange mc .pl .Rd of the unite length is
m c .pl .Rd =
2 t fc fy

4 M0

12,0 2 * 235 = 7356,5 Nmm / mm 4 * 1,15

Fig. 19.3 Column stiffened flange

The resistance of one bolt in tension is


Bt .Rd =

0,9 As f ub

Mb

0,9 * 800 * 157 = 78,0 * 10 3 N = 78,0 kN 1,45

n = min (e ; 1,25m1 ) = min (30; 1,25 * 26,9 ) = 30mm


Fcf 1.Rd = 4 Leff .1 m c .pl .Rd m = 4 * 166,8 * 7356,5 26,9

Failure mode 1

= 182,4 * 10 3 N = 182,4 kN
Fcf 1.Rd = 2 Leff .2 m c .pl .Rd + 2 n Bt .Rd

Failure mode 2

m+n 2 * 166,8 * 7356,5 + 2 * 30 * 78,0 * 10 3 = 26,9 + 30

= 125,4 * 10 3 N = 125,4 kN

Failure mode 3

Fcf 1.Rd = 2 Bt .Rd = 2 * 78,0 = 156,0 * 10 3 N = 156,0 kN

The effective length for the second bolt row, under the stiffener, may be calculated as Leff .cp = 2m = 2 * * 26,9 = 169,0 mm Leff .cp = m + p = * 26,9 + 140 = 224,5 mm
Leff .op = m = 6,2 * 26,9 = 166,8 mm

42

Leff .op = m + 0,5 p (2m + 0,625e )

= 6,2 * 26,9 + 0,5 * 140 (2 * 26,9 + 0,625 * 30)

= 164,2 mm The resulting effective lengths and resistances are

Leff .1 = min (Leff .cp ; Leff .op ) = min (169,0; 224,5; 166,8; 164,2) = 164,2 mm Leff .2 = min (Leff .op ) = min (166,8; 164,2) = 164,2 mm
Fcf 2.Rd = 4 Leff .1 m c .pl .Rd m =

Failure mode 1

4 * 164,2 * 7356,5 26,9

= 179,6 * 10 3 N = 179,6 kN Fcf 2.Rd = 2 Leff .2 m c .pl .Rd + 2 n Bt .Rd

Failure mode 2

m+n 2 * 164,2 * 7356,5 + 2 * 30 * 78,0 * 10 3 = 26,9 + 30 = 124,7 * 10 3 N = 124,7 kN

Failure mode 3

Fcf 2.Rd = 2 Bt .Rd = 2 * 78,0 = 156,0 * 10 3 N = 156,0 kN

c) The resistance of the end plate in tension may be evaluated as for flange based on the T stub model. The model for extended part of the end plate is taking into account the bending round the beam upper flange e e w e x = 40mm L eff ex mx m x = a1 0,8 2 a f = 35 0,8 * 2 * 5 = 29,3 mm n = min (e x ; 1,25m x ) = min (40; 1,25 * 29,3 ) = 36,6 mm 0,8 2 a f The length of effective T stub in the unstiffened end plate for the top bolt row is

tp bp

Fig. 19.4
2 m x 2 * 29,3 184,1 = min m x + w = min 29,3 + 80 = min 172,0 = 152,0 mm 152,0 m + 2e 29,3 + 2 30 x
4m x + 1,25e x 167,2 4 29,3 + 1,25 40 113,6 30 + 2 29,3 + 0,625 40 + + e m , e 2 0 625 x x = min min min = = , b 0 5 , , 70 , 0 0 5 140 0 p 0,5w + 2m + 0,625e , , , 123 , 6 0 5 80 2 29 3 0 625 40 + + x x = 70,0 mm

L eff .cp

Leff .op

The resulting effective lengths are


Leff .1 = min (L eff .cp ; L eff .op ) = min (152,0; 70,0) = 70,0 mm

Leff .2 = Leff .op = 70,0 mm

43

The design resistance of the plate in bending for unite length m p .pl .Rd may be calculated as
m p .pl .Rd =
2 tp fy

4 M0

12,0 2 * 235 = 7356,5 Nmm / mm 4 * 1,15


4 Leff .1 m p .pl .Rd m = 4 * 70 * 7356,5 29,3

Failure mode 1

Fp1.Rd =

= 70,3 * 10 3 N = 70,3kN Fp1.Rd = 2 Leff .2 m p .pl .Rd + 2 n Bt .Rd

Failure mode 2

m+n 2 * 70 * 7356,5 + 2 * 36,6 * 78,0 * 10 3 = 29,3 + 36,6 = 102,3 * 10 3 N = 102,3kN

Failure mode 3

Fp1.Rd = 2 Bt .Rd = 2 * 78,0 = 156,0 * 10 3 N = 156,0 kN

d) The design resistance of the second bolt row of the end plate in tension may be evaluated form the values 80 5,9 2 0,8 * 2 * 4 m1 = = 32,5 mm 2 m 2 = 70 35 9,2 0,8 * 2 * 5 = 20,1 mm
m1 32,5 1 = = = 0,52 m1 + e 32,5 + 30 m2 20,1 2 = = = 0,32 m1 + e 32,5 + 30 = 6,0 n = min (e ; 1,25m ) = min (30; 1,25 * 32,5 ) = 30 mm

Leff e m1

m2 p

e m1

0,8 2 a w

The length of the effective T stub is for the second bolt row L eff .cp = 2 m = 2 32,5 = 204,2 mm ,
Leff .cp = m + p = 32,5 + 140 = 242,1 mm

Leff .op = m = 6,0 32,5 = 195,0 mm


Leff .op = m + 0,5 p (2m + 0,625e ) = 6,0 32,5 + 0,5 * 140 (2 * 32,5 + 0,625 * 30) = 181,3 mm

tp
Fig. 19.5 End plate

For the bolt row are governing the lengths Leff 1 = min (Leff .cp ; Leff .op ) = min (204,2; 242,1; 195,0; 181,3 ) = 181,3 mm ,
L 2.eff 2 = min (Leff .op ) = min (195,0; 181,3 ) = 181,3 mm ,

The minimal resistance is for basic failure modes


Fp 2.Rd = 4 Leff .1 m p .pl .Rd m = 4 * 181,3 * 7356,5 32,5

Failure mode 1

= 164,2 * 10 3 N = 164,2 kN

44

F p 2.Rd =

2 Leff .2 m p . pl .Rd + 2 n Bt .Rd m+n

Failure mode 2

2 * 181,3 * 7356 ,5 + 2 * 30 * 78 ,0 * 10 3 = 32 ,5 + 30 = 117 ,6 * 10 3 N = 117 ,6 kN

Failure mode 3

Fp 2.Rd = 2 Bt .Rd = 2 * 78,0 = 156,0 * 10 3 N = 156,0 kN

e) The resistance of the beam flange in compression may be calculated as


Ffb .Rd = M pl .Rd hb t fb =

M 0 (hb t fb )

W pl f y

285,4 10 3 235 = 276,7 10 3 N = 276,7 kN . 1,15 (220 9,2)

f) The design resistance of each bolt row may be calculated as a minimal resistance of bolt row. For top row Ft 1.Rd = min (Fcf 1.Rd ; Fp1.Rd ) = min (125,4; 70,3) = 70,3 kN For middle row Ft 2.Rd = min (Fcf 2.Rd ; Fp 2.Rd ) = min (124,7; 117,6 ) = 117,6 kN The tensile resistance of the third bolt row is not taken into account third row.

F cf1.Rd 125,4 kN F cf2.Rd 124,7 kN

70,3 kN Fp1.Rd

F bf.Rd 276,7 kN

70,3 kN Ft1.Rd

Fp2.Rd 117,6 kN

Ft2.Rd

z1=250,4mm

117,6 kN z =180,4 mm 2

Summary of resistances:

Column

End plate

Result

Fig. 19.6 Tension forces The lever arms of the bolt rows to the centum of compressions are
z1 = 220 + 35 9,2 9,2 = 250,4 mm , z 2 = 220 35 = 180,4 mm . 2 2

The design bending resistance may be calculated as


M j .Rd = Ft 1.Rd z1 + Ft 2.Rd z 2 = 70,3 0,2504 + 117,6 0,1804 = 38,8 kNm . The plastic force distribution is expected. For the welds on flanges is taken into account the bending moment only

Fwfb.Rd =

fu af (2 bfb twb )

w Mw

360 5 (2 140 5,9 ) 0,80 1,50 3

= 237,4 103 N = 237,4 kN

The design bending resistance of the weld connecting the end plate is M wfb.Rd = Fwfb.Rd (hb t fb ) = 237,4 * 10 3 (220 9,2)
= 50,0 * 10 6 Nmm = 50,0 kNm > 38,8 kNm = M j .rd

45

The design bending resistance of the welds is higher compare to the joint resistance.

bfb af F wfb.Rd tfb


Fig. 19.7

g) The connection shear resistance may be calculated from the third bolr row shear resistance from the M 16 bolt in shear
Fv .Rd = 0,6f ub Ab = 0,6 800 201 = 66,5 10 3 N = 66,5 kN 1,45

twb

Mb

The bolt bearing resistance for plate 12 mm will be lower for pitch p1 1 1 140 3d 4 3 17 4 0 2,50 f ub 800 = min min min = = 2,22 = 1,00 f 360 1,00 u 1,00 1,00
2,5 f u d t 2,5 1,0 360 16 12 = = 119,2 10 3 N = 119,2 kN 1,45

F p1.Rd

F p2.Rd Fb3.Rd
Fig. 19.8

Fb .Rd =

Mb

For the plastic distribution of internal forces may be expected the welds on web carrying the shear force only. The weld resistance is
Fwbw .Rd = awe Lwe fu = 4 2 (220 2 9,2) 360 0,80 1,50 3

F wbw.Rd Lwe

w Mw 3

= 279,3 10 3 N = 279,3 kN

Fig. 19.9 The connection design shear resistance may be calculated as the minimum of bolts and shear resistance 2Fv .Rd 2 66,6 Fb 3.Rd = min 2Fb .Rd = min 2 119,2 = 2 66,6 = 133,2 kN . F 279,3 wbw .Rd h) The initial stiffness of the connection may be calculated based on the deformation stiffness of the deformable components, the column web, bolts and end plate, see Fig. 19.10. The stiffness of the components in the first bolt row may be calculated from the stiffness coefficient of the component beam flange in bending
1 k4 =

0,85 Leff t fc m
3

0,85 166,8 12 3 26,9


3

= 12,586 mm .

k4 z

k10

k5

c d e

The deformation stiffness coefficient of the bolt row is A 157 k 10 = 1,6 s = 1,6 = 6,978 mm . Lb 12 + 12 + 2 6 The stiffness coefficient of the end plate is
k =
1 5

0,85 Leff t p m3

0,85 70 12 3 = 4,088 mm . 29,3 3

Lb
Fig. 19.10

46

The resulting stiffness is 1 1 k eff 1 = = = 2,140 mm 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + 1 + + 1 k 10 k 5 12,586 6,978 4,088 k4 For the second bolt row it is for column flange
2 k4 =

0,85 Leff t fc m3

0,85 164,2 12 3 26,9 3

= 12,390 mm ,

End plate
2 k5 =

0,85 Leff t p m3

0,85 181,3 12 3 = 7,757 mm . 32,5 3

The second bolt row


k eff 2 = 1 1 = = 2,833 mm . 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + 2 2 k 10 k 5 12,390 6,978 7,757 k4

The lever arm may be estimated in the centre of the bolt rows z = 220 9,2 = 210,8mm or more accurate from equation 2 k eff .i z i 2,140 250,4 2 + 2,833 180,4 2 i z= = = 216,2 mm . 2,140 250,4 + 2,833 180,4 k eff .i z i

The stiffness of the part of the connection in tension is


k eq =

i eff .i

zi

2,140 250,4 + 2,833 180,4 = 4,842 mm . 216,2

The connection initial stiffness may be predicted as E z 2 210 000 216,2 2 S j .ini = = = 47,529 10 9 Nmm / rad = 47 529 kNm / rad 1 1 k 4,842

i) The joint stiffness at ultimate level state may be reduced as


Sd = = 1,5 * 38,8 1,5 M Rd

38,8

2 ,7

= 2,988

47,529 10 9 = 15,907 10 9 Nmm / rad = 15 907 kNm / rad . 2,988 The moment rotation diagram of the joint is shown at Fig. 19.11 Sj = S j .ini =

47

Sj.ini=47 529 kNm/rad M Mpl.Rd =58,3 kNm Mj.Rd =38,8 kNm

Sjoint=15 907 kNm/rad

Fig. 19.11 The connected beam plastic resistance is W pl f y 285,4 10 3 235 = = 58,3 10 6 Nmm = 58,3 kNm . M pl .Rd = M0 1,15 j) For given beam span may be the connection classified. The length, at which is the joint still rigid may be calculated as
Lb = 8 E Ib 8 210 000 27,7 10 6 = = 979 mm . S j .ini 47,529 10 9 M/M pl.Rd
1,00 Ib 0,66 Lb Rigid for beam longer than 0,979 m 0 E I b / (Lb Mpl,Rd . ) Fig. 19.12 Connection classification Lb

Notes: 1) 2) 3) The software may calculate with the bolt rows interaction, which is for hand calculation too long. The welds are designed for elastic frame global analyses. This joint is rigid for braced frames for beam longer than 0,98 m. The stiffness may be neglected.

48