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HANDBOOK
COLLOQUIAL JAPANESE

BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN


IN THE EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF JAPANESE AND PHILOLOGY IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO
'

Third Edition

LONDON
TOKYO
:

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, &

Co., LD.

THE SHUYEISHA,

ICHIGAYA.

KELLY & WALSH,

LD.

YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG, SINGAPORE.

1898
[All rights reserved]

PREPACK
TO THE

THIRD EDITION.
THIS
practically
1889.

edition,

though revised with great


forerunners
of

care,

reproduces its small quantity of

1888 and
to the

new matter added

" Theoretical Part," or Grammar proper, for completeinto the old paragraphs ness' sake, has been absorbed Thus, references to without disturbing their order.
the

Colloquial Handbook author has writing which the


intelligible

in

a
in

manual of Japanese
view, will be equally

to students, whichever edition they

may
or

happen to possess. had Reader, one or two pieces that a new piece have been dropped, and

In

the

-Practical

Part,"

lost their interest

an extract from

substituted. the debates in the Imperial Diet has been to Thanks are due many correspondents some for correcto the author unknown of them personally will always criticism Similar tions and suggestions. of a be gratefully received in the future for in the case as difficult Japanese, the language so exceptionally
;

can utmost that any grammarian, however painstaking,


far short of the ideal,
in

falls hope to produce necessarily the saying holds good that and here, if anywhere,

multitude of counsellors there

is

safety.

11

PREFACE.

Such students as desire

to pass

beyond modern

colloquial practice into the field of philological research are recommended to peruse Mr. Aston's Grammar of
the Japanese Written

Language,

an admirably lucid

work embodying

all

the best results obtained

by the

native school of grammarians,

Essay in Aid of a Grammar Luchuan Language ("Trans. Asiat. Soc. of Japan," Vol. XXIII. Suppl.), wherein an attempt has been made to attack some of the problems of Japanese
philology from the outside.
Tokyo, December,

and the present writer's and Dictionary of the

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(THEORETICAL PART,
OR

GRAMMAR.)
CHAPTER
Method
of using
this
^f

I.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
I,

Handbook.^"
3,

2,

Necessity

for

much
Other

Learning

by
^[

Heart.

Relationship

of Japanese

to

Languages.
6.

4, Differences

between Ancient and


^f

nese, Introduction of Chinese.

5,

Modern JapaPronunciation of Chinese. ^[


Japanese Writing, the Kana

Preference for Chinese Words.

^[ 7,

Syllabaries.
^[ 10,

8,

Colloquial
into

Errors

Literature.^ 9, Parts of Speech. which European Speakers are Apt to

Fall

PAGE

n.

CHAPTER
II, Letters.

II.

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.


Vowels, Short and Long. 19, Vowel [ 14 Quiescent Vowels. ^[ 20 22, Diphthongs. \ 23 Final Letters. \ 27, 25, Consonants, Simple and Double. ^[ 26, Accent f 2832, Letter-Changes, the Nigori, Reduplication of

\ 1213,

Peculiarities,

Consonants.
34,

33,

Change

of e to a in certain

Compounds.

^[

Japanese Inability to Pronounce certain Combinations of Letters, Changes hence Resulting in Imported European Words. \ 35,

Euphonic Contractions

PA

E 12

26

IT

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
3644, Number and
Synthesis
of

III.

THE NOUN.
Tf

Gender.

^[

45

49,

Compound

Nouns,

Contradictories,

Difference
T[

between

Native

and
in sa
^[

Chinese

Compounds, Hyphens.
^f

50,

Word -build ing, Proper


^[

Names. and mi.

51, Honorifics in Word-building.

52,

Nouns

53

54,

Koto and Mono.


Islands,

^[

55,

Names

of Shops.
*[[

56,

Names
Hazrt,

of Trees,

Rivers,
58,

and Mountains.
^[

57, Aida,

Toki.
63,

^[

Tokoro, Dokoro.

59,
IF

Verbs used as Nouns.


64,

60

Nouns used

as Adjectives.

Nouns used as

Adverbs

PAGE

27

45.

CHAPTER
65

IV.

THE PRONOUN.
Tf

79,

\ 72, Reflective Pronouns. \ 73 Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs (^[ 74, Table of Pronouns and Adverbs). \ 80 86,
Relative Pronouns, Tokoro no

7 1, Personal Pronouns.

PAGE 46
V.

61.

CHAPTER
THE
1[

POSTPOSITION.

87,

Proper (including \ 88 90, De. ^[ 91 94, \ 95 98, Ka. \ 99 100, Kara. \ 101, Made. ^[ 102, Mo. f 103, Motte.\ 104109, M. f 110114, No.^ 115, Dcino.\ 116, SJd.\ 117121, To, Tote\ 122125, 126128, Difference between Wa and Ga.* 129132, Wo. f !33 Ya. \ 134, Ye. ^[ 135, Yori). 140, Postpositions *[ 136 Combined, No ni, Woba To iva. ^[ 141 145, Cjuasi-Postpositions PAGE 62 TOO.
Postpositions

Ga.

Wa\

CHAPTER
*]

VI.

THE NUMERAL.
146, Cardinal

Numbers

(including

147

151, Native

Numerals.
of

152,

Chinese Numerals.^"

153,

Letter-Changes

Chinese

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Numerals.
^f

V
of
[[

154-

156,

Sundry
Auxiliary
162,

Peculiarities

Numerals).
161,

^ 157160, Chinese Auxiliary Numerals.^

Numerals.

Native

Counting of Human Beings. 1 66, Ordinal and *[[ 165, Interrogative Numeral Words. ^[ 163 of Time. Fractional Numbers. 167 172, Counting ^[ 173 ^[ PAGE 101 119. 174, Miscellaneous Numeral Locutions

CHAPTER
I

VII.

THE ADJECTIVE.
176185, Primary
Inflections in ki t
s/ii,

kit

(i,

d,

it),

Stems, Table of Primary Inflections.^ Tense and Mood Inflections, Tables of ditto.
tive

186187, Secondary

Adjective or

Nai.

1"i89,

^[ 188, Negative AdjecNegative Conjugation of Adjectives. ^f 190, Ex-

amples of Tense and


tives.
Tf

Mood

Inflections. ^[ 191,

192, Beki.

*[[

193, Desiderative Adjective in Ted.

Compound Adjec\ 194,

Rashii, Reduplicated Stems. f 195, Garu and Tagaru, Verbs Derived from Adjectives. \ 196 210, Quasi-Adjectives (including

198, So na. \ 205 *[[ 197, No, Na, Na no, and Emphatic Nan. 209, Common Errors of ^[ 208 207, Verbs used as Adjectives.

Foreigners.

\
o,

210,

Honorifics
T[

go, etc.).

Diminutives in ko, Augmentatives in d, and 211 214, Comparison of Adjectives. ^f

215

219. Miscellaneous Items

PAGE 120
VIII.

148.

CHAPTER
220, Fundamental

THE VERB.
[

Differences

between Japanese

and European
224
225,

Verbs.
Base,
Bases.

^[

221

222, Analysis of Verbal


Suffix.
^[

Forms

into Root, Stem,


^[

and
^f

Agglutinated
226, Verbs

223,

Roots.

how Named.
228
230,

227, Introductory

Remarks

on the Paradigms.
Conjugations.
^[

*[[

231

233, Paradigms

Paradigms of the Three Regular of the Irregular Verbs

Kuru,

Sttrzt,

and Masu.
of
First

234, Verbs for Practice.

\
\

235

237,

Peculiarities
Peculiarities.

Conjugation

(with Table).

238,

Kyoto

ending in
of the

s, t t

Rationale of Phonetic Changes in Stems ^[ 239, or a Vowel. 267, Analysis of the Formation ^[ 240
Tenses.
^[

Moods and

268

272,

Irregular

Verbs,

viz.,

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Arn, Gozaru, IrassJiaru, Kudasaru, Nasaru, Osshani, Iktt, and Shinum. ^[ 273 291, Remarks on the Use of the Moods and
Tenses (including
Infinitive.
^[

273

276, Present, Past,

and Future.

^[

277,
^[

f 278
^[

279, Indefinite

Form and Negative Gerund.


of Adjectives.
^[

280

282, Gerund.

^[283,

Gerund
so.

284, Emphasis-

ed Gerund.
bability.

285, Desiderative Adjective

286,

Form

in

287,

and Adjective of ProConditional Mood, Old

Hypothetical Mood, Naraba, Elliptical Idioms Corresponding to English Would, Should, Could, etc. \ 288 289, Concessive Mood and Idioms. \ 290, Frequentative Form. \ 291, Imperative

Mood).
Built

292

302,

Auxiliary

up by means of Oru. ^[ 295, Kuru, A raraba. *[ 298, Oku.


^[

Auxiliaries.
Illative
^[

Verbs (including ^[ 292, Stems ^ 293, Aru. *[ 294, Iru and

Tenses.

\
^[

296,

Miru.
Sentence

[[

297,

299,

Shimau.

300,
the

Suru, Itasu.
Lifelike

301,

Yarn.

^[

302,

Auxiliaries

make

and Picturesque)

PAGE 149197.

CHAPTER
303,

IX.

THE VERB (CONCLUDED).


Passive
Voice.
its

\
^[

304,

Peculiarities of

Use.

305
^[

Passive
tial.

Constructions, Aru.
310,

of Passive Origin explains 308, Curious Examples, Wo in 309, Passive passes into Poten-

Dekiru.

*[[

311, Kaneru.

312,

Morau, Itadaku.

Passives expressed by Japanese Intransitives. ^[ 314, Aversion of the Japanese Language to the Use of the Pas313, English

sive.

316, Intransitives in eru. ^[ 317318, Difference T[ 315 between Intransitives in eru, Potentials in ctreru or rareru, and Passives in areru or rareru.
^[

319,

Second and Third Conjuof


Intransitives.

gations
^[

how
323,

Treated.

^[

320,

Examples
333,

321

Transitive and

Intransitive

Pairs of Verbs.

324,

Absence of Reflective

Verbs.

\ 334
the

340,
to

Compound
Be,"

\ 325 Verbs. \
^[

Causative
349,

Verbs.
of

341

Equivalents

Verb "

Aru, Gozaru, Da, Dcsu, Jru, Oru, Irassliaru,


350
to

ide nasartt, Ja, Narti, Surti.

Jirit).f
Other.
(^[

359361,
361,
as

Verbs

Liable

358, Surti (^ 353, Zunt, be Mistaken for Each


Irtt).
^[

Paradigm of Iru, Ireru, and


Other Paris of Speech
([[

362

365,

Verbs used

364,

Reduplication of

Present Tense)

PAGE

198

230.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VII

CHAPTER

X.

THE ADVERB, INTERJECTION, AND CONJUNCTION.


SPECIAL PHRASEOLOGY.
366, Absence of

True Adverbs.
Tf

^f

367,

used

Adverbially.

f f

371,

373,

368370, Nouns used Phonetic Decay. f 372, Gerunds used " Yes " and List of Adverbs. If 374376,
Phrases.
^f

Adjective Forms in ku as Adverbs.


as Adverbs. " No." f 377,

Adverbial
384,

378,

Interjections

(f

382,

Onomatopoetic Adverbs. Naruhodo. f 383,


Language.

^ 379~
385,

Ne\\

Bad
tions

Langage.

f
388,

386,

Baby

Language.
..

Court

Language.

f 387, Women's 389391, ConjuncPAGE 23 1 243.

CHAPTER
30,2

XI.

HONORIFICS.
393,

General
Replace
Go.

Considerations.

^f

394,

Honorifics

only

Partially

the Pronouns of other


-*[f

Languages.

\ 395
Acts.

396,

O and

397,

Sama

applied to

Things

or

398,

Honorifics

used

Objectively.
^f

399,

Saki.

400,

and

Honorific If 405406, Special \ 407410, Honorific Imperatives. " Please" arid "Thank You." 413, Special Honorific If 4*2 If 411, and Humble Nouns, Names of Relationship. ^f 414, Written

Meaningless Use of Honorifics. Honorific Periphrases for Verbs.

401,

On, Mi.

402

404,

Humble

Verbs.

Language
Forms.

Forms.
416,
Sir,

^f

415,

Scantiness
^f

of

Self-Depreciatory

Madam, Mr.
419,

Women's Names.

Use

417, Mrs, Miss. ^f 418, of the Word " Mr." ... PAGE 244259.

CHAPTER
SYNTAX.
[

XII.

420,

the

The Fundamental Rule is that Qualifying Words precede Words they Qualify. ^f 421, Postpositions only an Apparent

Vl'ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
^[

Correlation of Sentences. 423, Subject ^[ 424, Examples of Construction. 425 426, ^[ Examples of the Correlation of Clauses by the Indefinite Form and the Gerund. ^[ 427, General Subjectlessness of Sentences.

Exception. of Sentence.

422,

^[

f
^[

428, Order of the


429,
Ellipsis,
^[

Direct and Indirect Objects of the Verb.

Final

Verb

.often
1[

Omitted.
432,

*[[

430,

Syntax

of Postpositions.

431, Inversion.

Negatives mutually

Destructive
to the
^[

434, Peculiarity of Japanese Negatives owing ^[ 433 Absence of Negative Pronouns, Adverbs, and Conjunctions. 435 436, Quotation generally Direct. ^[ 437, How to Avoid

Quotations within
Interrogation.
tion.
^[ ^[

Quotations,

Peculiar Pleonastic Idiom.


^[

^[

438,

439, Passives.

440441, Absence of Personificaas

442

444,

Extreme Tendency to Synthesis

shown

in the

Integration of Sentences

PAGE 260

282.

(PRACTICAL PART,
OR

READER).

^[

445.

^[
^[

446.
447.

SHORT PHASES IN CONSTANT USE ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHKASES EASY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
PROVERBS

PAGE

285

299.

300306.
307
309.

1[
[[

448.

310
including: i, The 4, Engaging a Teacher ;
;

315.
2,

449.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION,
Exhibition
?
;

Post
5,

An
9,

Salary

6,

3, A Request Meal Hours 7, An Enquiry


;
;

What
;

8,

Another Enquiry

Talking to a Father ; n, The Telegraph ; 12, Speaking Japanese Well ; 13, No Thoroughfare ; 14, Compliments on Meeting a Friend ; 15, A Message 16, Feeling Unwell
Talking to a Child
;

10,

On Board Ship 18, A Way; 21, Compliments on


17,
;

Picnic
First

19,

A
;

Visitor

Meeting

Asking the 22, Taking Leave of a


;

20,

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Friend
;

IX

23,

Thanks

for Assistance
;

Received

24,

New
;

Year Con-

gratulations; 25,
for the Mail
;

Fire

31,

An Earthquake 26, Hiring a Jinrikisha 27, Letters 28, Nearing Yokohama 29, A Christian Church 30, The Theatre 32, Early to Bed 33, Difficulty of the
;
; ; ; ;

Japanese Language
British Legation
;

34,

36,

Asking the Way ; 35, The Way to the Toast 37, Keeping a Visitor Waiting 38,
; ;

Looking

in

on an Intimate Friend

39, Arriving at a

Tea-house
...

40,

A
^[

Meeting Dispersed 541, Shopping at Miyanoshita


including
:

PAGE 316
;

343.

4507. ANECDOTES,
Thankful K?chibei
;

f
;

450,

True Economy

452, If they Wait, their

f 451, Ages will Come


;

Right

*[[

453,

An

Illiterate
;

455, The Pursuit of Fashion the Top of the Head

Dog ^[ 454, A Dream of Liquor ^[ f 456, Radishes f 457, An Eye on PAGE 344 365.
;

f 4589. Two CHAPTERS


Encho
*y

from tho " BoTAN-D6R5," a Novel by

PAGE 366
AKTICLK, entitled
^[

403.

460.

A NEWSPAPER
2.
;

"WiiY?"

...

404413.
Investiga-

*[

461
tion

LECTURES including:
462,

461,

Talk

about

Point of Moral Culture

PAGE 414427.
428
434
433.
447.

^[

463.
464.

EXTRACT FROM A SERMON

^[

A SCENE
473.

IN

THE DIET
ABOUT POETRY
Vocabulary
of

^[

465
474.

A WORD

448
over
1,700
,

452.

^[

ANGLO-JAPANESE

Useful

Words
*[

453-473.

475.

VOCABULARY

of all

the Japanese

Work
^[

Words occurring in this PACE 474 557.


559
567.

476.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS

^[

477. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS

568569*

THEORETICAL
PART.

HANDBOOK
OF

COLLOQUIAL JAPANESE.
CHAPTER
I.

Introductory Remarks.

can I learn to speak Japanese ?" This question i. has been so often addressed to the present writer that he lias resolved to put his answer into a permanent shape.

"How

He is persuaded that no language was ever learnt solely least of all a language like Japanese, from a grammar, whose structure and idioms are so alien from all that we
are

accustomed

to

in

Europe.

The

student

is

therefore

recommended only
at
first,

in

through the Theoretical Part order to obtain a general idea of the territory he
to glance

has to conquer.

He

can pick up by the way such of the

examples as

strike him,

seeking opportunities for


his native teacher.

committing them to memory and using them to his servants and

cal Part,

the

He should then go on to the Practi" and attack the " Fragments of Conversation and "Anecdotes'" as soon as possible, however baffling it
to
all,

After

be confronted with such long sentences. Japanese consists chielly of long sentences, one cannot too early decide to face them. A little pracas
will

may seem

tice

rob

them of much of
Theoretical
Part

their

terror.

and

then the

should

Every now be consulted on

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
difficult
little
in nl

points.

It

should be read through carefully,


few

at a time,

after a

diligent study of the Practical Part

a committal of a

pages of the

shall

have

caused

the

student to

latter to memory make some way in the

mastery of the language.


[

2.

The

necessity for
It

insisted upon.

is

the sole

memorising cannot be too strongly means of escape from the

pernicious habit

sentence
therefore

literally

of thinking in English, translating every from a whispered English original, and

ending by speaking English It is not only Japanese Japanese. that the \vords and idioms of Japanese differ from our English words and idioms, but that the same set of circumstances does not always draw from Japanese speakers
beginning
instead

and

Japanese

of

remarks

similar

to

those

which

it

would

draw

from
in

Kuropean
quite the
instance.

speakers.

Japanese
as ours.

thoughts

do not run

same channels
If

To

take a very simple


to

an

Englishman
about the

wishes
latter's

make
faiher,

polite

remark

to a friend

sick

he

will

probably say,

"I hope your

father

is

better

to-day."

In

French, (jerman, Italian, etc., the phrase would be pretty nrarlv the same. In each of these languages the same
kimllv hope would be expressed.
In [apanese
it is

different.

The phrase must run


Olollsan
llfnnmi'(ili{c-j<if/tcr-)fi-.

thus

zva,
<iti-J'w,

do
Inn,"

de

gozaimasu ?
/.s
:'

or,
(i

more

politely,

shimpu

iva,

Ikaga

de

irasshaimasu

/"

The
does

idea of hoping or fearing, which to us

is

so familiar,

not

present
less

itself

with

the

same vividness

and

frequency to the

anxious, less high -strung Far-Eastern

KKLATIONSHIl' TO OTHER r.AXdl'AGES.

mind.

The

characteristic phrase here

is

rather

the

ever-

recurring fatalistic
******
-a
'

'e "There
(lone."
(

is

nothing to

"There

is

no help

for it."

The

student

should

endeavour

to place himself

from the

outset at the Japanese point of view.

by dint of much learning by heart. will be of infinite advantage to him, even

This he can do only The trouble thus taken


if his

ultimate aim
It

be the indoctrination of the Japanese with foreign ideas.


will

It is true that, put him in sympathy with his hearers. of late, English idioms have begun to penetrate into the But it is chiefly into the language of Japanese language.

the

lecture-hall

and the committee-room.


is

The

style

of

familiar

everv-day speech

not likely ever to be

much

affected
3.

by

this

new

influence.

It is still

nese, with

its

doubtful under what family of languages Japasister-tongue Luchuan, spoken in a little archi-

pelago to the south between Kyushu and Formosa, should There is no relationship between these and be classed.
Aino, the speech of the hairy aborigines whom the Japanese conquerors have gradually pushed eastwards and northwards.
In
structure,

vocabulary,

and

though not to any appreciable extent in Japanese closely resembles Korean and both it Korean may possibly be related to Mongol and to
;

Altaic group.
rally

Manchu, and may therefore claim to be included in the Be this as it may, Japanese is what is gene-

termed an agglutinative language, that is to say, it its words and grammatical forms by means of suffixes loosely soldered to the root or stem. It also shows
builds up
faint traces of the

"law

of vowel

harmony"

or "attraction,"

which characterises the Altaic languages.

This manifests

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
itself

in

tendency

to

uniformity

in

the

vowels

of

successive syllables,
a/0
losJii.

as oioloshi,

Similarly in several

"the year before last,'' for of the words recently adopted

from English, "


Goito,
4.

such as

nrishin,

"a

(sewing-) machine;''

(the Christian)

God

"
;

bukku,

"a (European)book. "

The

earliest

dates,

in its present form,

Japanese literature that has come down to us from the beginning of the eighth

The general structure of the language century after Christ. but the at that time was nearly the same as it is now that a so numerous of have been detail page of changes
;

eighth century Japanese

is

unintelligible to a

modern

native

of

Tokyo without special study. One of the chief factors in the alteration of the language has been the gradual infiltration
of Chinese words and phrases, which naturally accompanied
the borrowing of
arts

Buddhism, Confucianism, and the various Chinese established itself, so and sciences of China.
as

to

speak,

the

Latin
the

and Greek of Japan.


present
day,
sciences,

It

retains

this position

even at
the

supplying

names
ideas,

for

almost

all

new implements,

and

which are being introduced from Europe and America. In this manner, one very curious and quite unexpected
result of the

ing of the language with Chinese

Europeanisation of Japan has been the floodterms at a rate never

known

before.
lit.

Thus we have
" "

"

jti-Kf-sen,

steam-vapour-ship,
"

"a
' '

'"

steamer.
"

jo-kt-sha,
jnin-ken,

,,

steam-vapour-vehicle,

a railway train.

,,

"people-authority,"'

"democracy."
"photograph."
"
' '

sha-shin,

,,
,,

"copy-truth,"

ron-ri-gaku,
/e/si/-(fa,

" "
,,

"

argue-reason-science,
"

logic.
' '

iron-road,

a railway.

"

ban-koku ko
/n't,

, ,

"
myriad-countries public-law,"

'

'

international

law."

CHINESE WORDS.

|*fe
j

"t-y amend-

ytt-s/w rep/a/',

"
,,
(
/

superior-conquer
inferior-lose,"

" the

survival of the fittest."

5.

that

The Japanese do not pronounce Chinese in a manner would be intelligible to any Chinaman. They have two

standards of pronunciation, both of which are corruptions of


the Chinese pronunciation of over a thousand years ago.

One

of these

is

called

the Go-on, the other the Kan-on, from the

names of
that the

certain ancient Chinese


shall

same word

kingdoms. Usage decrees be pronounced according to the

Go-on
others.

in

some contexts, and according to the Kan-on in Thus the myo of dai-myo, "a feudal noble" (lit. "a
is

great name"),

the

same
"

as the mci of mci-bnisu,

''the chief

"a name-thing," i.e. " a famous is the Go-on, and mei the Kan-on, of which in China itself is prothe same Chinese character
production of a locality thing"). In this case myo
(lit.
,

nounced ming.
learn

The
rote,

practical

student

will

do best

to

words by
if

each term,
6.

without troubling himself as to whether Chinese, be in the Go-on or in the Kan-on.


of the steady influx of Chinese words during has been to discredit the native

The

effect

more than

a millennium

Japanese equivalents even when they exist. A foreigner who wishes to be considered an elegant speaker should, therefore, gradually accustom himself to employ Chinese words very
freely,

except

when addressing uneducated

persons.

He

should, for instance, prefer

CHINESE
' l

JAPANESE

jm-ryoku(suru}, "to endeavour," to chikara wo tsYikusu. " to-morrow morning, to astiita na qsq. myo-cho,

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
sak-koii,

iai-loku,

"yesterday and to-day," to " a to large tree,"

kint> lo

kyn
hi.

fa.

oM na

Wa-sci,

"Japanese make,-'

to Nihnn-deki.

thoughtful persons, both Japanese and foreign, regret the fashionable preference for Chinese words. But the
fashion exists,

Some

and

to
is it

follow

it is

considered

mark of
for

refinement

neither
set

possible, even
his

were

it

desirable,
different

an outsider to
that

up a standard of

own,

from

ness of the Chinese tongue,

The copiousacknowledged by the people themselves. and the marvellous terseness

ideas

which generally enables it to express in two or three syllables which would require five or six in Japanese and indeed

in almost any other language, form an argument in favour On the other of this species of Japanese Johnsonianism. hand, much confusion is caused by the fact that numbers of

Chinese words are pronounced


this
is

alike.

that

it is

often impossible to

The consequence of know what a term means,


characters

without reference to the


it

Chinese

with which

is

written.

In

any

case,

whether he speak simply or

learnedly, the student should at least avoid speaking vulgarly.

Japanese resembles English in being full of slang and But what should we say to a vulgarisms of every sort.

young Japanese, who, having been sent

to

London

to learn

our language, should return home with the haccent ^'Jghgalc and the diction of the street Arab ? Japanese has also many provincial dialects, some of which remain more faithful

in

certain

respects

to

the

traditions

of the Classical

But the dialect language than does the dialect of Tokyo. of Tokyo (itself a slightlyjnodified form of the Kyoto dialect, which was formerly considered the standard Colloquial) has
on
its

side an ever-increasing importance

as the general

medium

and preponderance, of polite intercourse throughout the

SYSTKM OK WRITIXC.
countrv.
Practical
it

students aic strongly advised to devote

If they speak it well, they will be as understood a man who speaks standard English as generally is generally understood in England, that is to say, they will

themselves to

alone.

be understood everywhere by all but the peasantry, and most provinces even by the peasantry.
7.

in

Japanese writing consists of the Chinese characters,

ideographs, as the}- are sometimes styled because representing sense not sound, whole words not individual letters,

mixed with a
generally,

the Kana. Speaking Chinese characters serve to figure all the principal words of the sentence, such as nouns, adjectives, and
syllabic writing called

the

verbs, while

the function of the

Kana

syllables interspersed
lesser

throughout the text is to transcribe phonetically such elements as particles and grammatical terminations.

We

cannot here

treat

any further of

this

important subject,

important because Japanese, like every language boasting


a long history

and extensive
its

literature,

may be

said to live

and move and have


desirous

of
"

being in its written system. pursuing it can avail themselves


in

Students
either of

our
' '

work

mentioned

the

preface,
in

or of one

of

the

Readers

instance,
at

compiled for use " Shin-lai the

Tokyo.

The

the primary schools, for Toku-hon," published by the Kinkodo characters may advantageously be attacked
say, as

very soon after the Colloquial,

soon as oral comhas

munication between the student and

his native teacher

become
8.

established in however lame a way.


is

peculiarly intricate system of writing

not the only

barrier that divides the Colloquial from the language of books.

The Japanese

still

remain

at the

stage in

which we were

They do not write as they speak, but use an antiquated and indeed partly artificial dialect

during the Middle Ages.

IO

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

whenever they put pen


''Written Language.'"
(

to

paper.

This

is

the

so-called
in

Of the few books published

the

'olloquial,

the best are the novels of a living author

named

Encho.

The

student

who

does not wish to trouble about

the characters, cannot do better than write out one of these

books from

his teacher's dictation.

It

should be added that

the}' contain not a few passages to which lady students would take just exception. This is the case with all Japanese

fiction.

It is

Zola-like, in vice.

not that the Japanese novelists love to wallow, On the contrary, their sentiments mostly
desired.

leave nothing to be
realistic

But they have a

startlingly
titles

way of

calling

a
:

spade a spade.

The

of

Encho's two best works are "

Botan-Dbro" the story of a last century vendetta. " Ezo-XisJiiki Kokyo no leziito" an adaptation to modern
social
"

Japanese

conditions

of

\Vilkie

Collins'

"New

Magdalen. There is a periodical entitled " Hyak-Kwa-en," which prints


Enshi's

and

other

popular

story-tellers'

pieces

verbatim.

Occasionally, too, the newspapers and the "Transactions" of the Educational, Geographical, and other learned Societies

reproduce a lecture exactly as taken down by the short-hand writer from the mouth of the lecturer, and the reports of the debates in the Imperial Diet are given verbatim in the
"Official Gazette" {Kwampo).

The more
up
in the

usual practice,

however,
it is

is

to dress even-thing
print.

Written Style before

allowed to appear in
as
to

^[9.

A word
or

the parts of speech in Japanese.

Strictly

speaking,
particles,

there are

but two, the verb and the noun.


suflixcs,

The

"postpositions" and

which take the

place of our prepositions, conjunctions,

terminations, were themselves originally fragments of

and conjugational nouns

COMMON MISTAKES.
and
verbs.

II

The pronoun and numeral

are simply nouns.


is

The
verb.

true adjective (including the adverb)

a sort of neuter

But
are

many words answering

to

our adjectives and

adverbs

nouns in Japanese. There is no article. our Altogether grammatical categories do not fit the Japanese language well. They have only been adhered to in this
\\ork in so far as they
10.

may

serve as familiar landmarks.

In conclusion, the following warnings concerning errors

into which

European speakers of Japanese are apt


:

to

fall,

may

be found useful

Do Do Do
Do

not confound long and short vowels. (See T 13.) not use personal pronouns too freely. (See ^f 71.) not insert the postposition no between a true adjective
to which it belongs. (See not apply honorifics to yourself.
^f

and the noun

208.

For

me

to ask

any

one, for instance, to shinjo something to myself, or to haiken

something belonging to myself, would be as if I should say Have the honour to give it to me," or " Have the honour to
: '
'

look at

this

thing belonging to me.

"

As explained
in

in

Chap.
while

XI, honorifics can only be applied to other people,


contrariwise

humble terms must be used

speaking of oneself.

I shinjo (lit. "respectfully lift up ") something to you ; but I ask you to kudasai (\\L "condescend") something to me.

/urth'n (\il

you; but

deign ") hear beggars in the street shouting after you to shinjo a copper
to them,

") something belonging to goran nasai (lit. "august-glance If you something belonging to me. (See ^f 405. )
I

"adoringly look at

ask

you

to

only because, having learnt from experience misuse the honorifics, they think to ingratiate themselves and to be more easily understood by doing likewise. Were they addressing a Japanese, they would
it

is

that foreigners constantly

never dream of saying anything so rude and so absurd.

CHAPTER
Pronunciation

II.

and

Letter- Changes.

PRONUNCIATION.
11.

Japanese,

when

written

phonetically with the

Roman

alphabet, according to the phonetic spelling sanctioned by Hepburn's and Brinkley's dictionaries, requires the same

The English, with the exception of /, q, v, and x. occurs only in the combination ch, which is sounded nearly like English ch in "church," but a little more softly,
letters as

letter c

as

c/ia,
A'. />.

" tea

;" chichi,

" milk."

recommended by
of hitherto

Dr. Hepburn's system, which practically coincides with that the Royal Geographical Society for the transcription

unromanised languages generally, has established itself in almost universal local use by reason ot its simplicity. Not a few authors have, it is true, deviated on minor points, either from inadvertence or
order to satisfy their individual notions of phonetic perfection. Probably no language admits of being written phonetically with absolute precision and the present writer, for one, gladly sacrifices some minute
in
;

personal preferences for the sake of what


a case,

is

far

more important

in

such

unity of usage.

12.

The vowels

are

sounded
unless

as in Spanish

and

Italian,

but

are

always short,

marked with

the

sign

of

long

It is impossible to express the values of the vowels in but, speaking apJapanese correctly English

quantity.

proximately,

we may say

that

LONG AND SHORT VOWELS.


a resembles the# in
c
t

13
shorter.

"

father,"

but

is

,, ,,

,,

6-

,,
,,

" men."

,,

"machine,"
"
"

but
'

is

shorter.

, ,

,,

for

'

(not

Ion

").

u
d

,,
,,

,,

,,

" bush."

,,

,,

"bone,"
" food.

but

is

a.

purer

o.

K
13.

oo

from

Very great care must betaken to distinguish the short for there are many words totally the lung vowels
;

distinct in

meaning, but

differing, so far as

pronunciation
:

is

concerned, merely " a mud


(tozd,

in the quantity

of their vowels, thus


dozo,
kdkd,

godown
;"

;"*

"please."

koko,
sato,

"here;'"

"
said,

"
filial

piety.

ioru,
tsuji,

" a village " to take

;"
;

tdru,
tsuji,

"sugar." " to

pass through."
"

" a cross-road

" an

interpreter.

zulsu, "[one, etc.] at a time ;"

znlsu,

"a

headache."

The only long vowels of common occurrence are o and u. Long a hardly occurs, excepting in the interjections a ! ma ! na ! and sa ! and in the words obasan, "an old lad}'," " " grandmamma, and okkasan (but also okkasan}, "mamma/''
c hardly occurs, excepting in the interjection nc. Long does not occur, its place being taken by double u, as in yoroshii, "good, '"as it is considered that careful speakers

Long
i

sound the two


14.

z"s

separately.

preceded by another vowel or by n, the vowels e, i, and o are pronounced^, yi, and wo respectively. Thus tie, " above ;" kon-in, "marriage;" and shio, "salt," are pronounced (and by some transliterators written) uye, konyin,
shrwo.
* "

When

Godown "

is

It

comes from the Malay word gado

Far-Eastern English for a store-house or warehouse. " a warehouse/' ;/;>-,

14

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.


15.

Tf

/and u

are often inaudible,

or nearly so in the
s,

mouths

of natives of

Tokyo

after/",

//,

k,

sh,

and

is,

as

fiilatsu,
hi/o,

"t\vo,"

pronounced
,,

"person/'
' '

hto.*
ivatakshi.

"
I,
, ,

watakushi,
lakusan,

"much," "many,"
'
'

,,

laxan.

gozaimasu,
' '

there

"
is,
, ,

gomimas.
sh/a
tski.
.

"

shila,
tsuki,
1

below,

, ,

" the moon,


u
is silent,

,,

6.

Initial

and the following

doubled

in the

pronunciation of the four words


urna,

"ahorse,"
"nice," " to be born," " a

pronounced mma.
,,
,, ,,

umai,

muiai.

umareiu,
ume,
17.

mmareru.
mine.

plum-tree,"

The

quiescent vowels are distinguished in this work by


Into,

the sign of short quantity, as


it

shila, iakusan,

tuna.

But

should be noted that the Japanese themselves are not conscious of failing to pronounce the i's and 's in question,

and

that these letters often recover their proper power for the sake of clearness or emphasis. They count in prosody, and are always sounded even in ordinary conversation by the natives of many provinces. That is why they are allowed
to

remain in the

transliteration,

most persons writing them

without any diacritical mark.


1

8.

The vowel
as i

//,

when

following sh or /,
:

is

often mis-

pronounced
leishi,

by the Tokyo people, thus " a for leishu, husband."


German
ch in

The h

here has the sound of

15

They
///',

arc also apt to mispronounce^/* as


ioryuAi,

i,

thus

" snow
to

;"

but

this is distinctly vulgar.


final

19.

lie

verv

careful

discriminate

from

final

/.

Englishmen arc often ing such words as


sake,
take,

unintelligible

owing

to their

confound-

"rice-beer,'

and
,,
,,

saki,
taki,

"front,"

"before."
"

" a bamboo

;"

"a

waterfall.

yumc,
20.

"a dream;"
ae,

yumi,
ao,
its

"a
d,

bow."
oi,

The diphthongs
Italian.

ai,

an,

ui,

call for

no

remark, each vowel retaining

own proper
'

sound, as in

Spanish or

of mispronouncing

Englishmen and Germans must beware " eiderdown or German in ei as


'

simply e+t, the second syllable kirei, "pretty," sounds nearly like the " " the German " Reh," not at all like word or English ray "rye." Be equally careful not to give to an (a-}- it) the peculiarly English sound of "awe;" but pronounce, for

" klein."

Japanese

ci being

of such a word as

instance, kau,
"
;

"to buy," very nearly like English "cow." In the case of verbs, however, ending in an, such as kau,
"to buy
morau, "to receixe;"
sfiitagau,

"to

follow,"
o.

it

is

optional to pronounce the letter au like a long

But

this is

more

characteristic of western Japanese than of

Tokyo
thus

usage.
21.

The

vulgar in

Tokyo
"

say ai for ae, and oi for oe


;"

mai, instead of mae,

" before

koi (which means

"love"),
this is as

instead of koe,

' '

voice.

They
"

also often contract ai into a


it

long

as 'narane for naranai,

won't do."

But

bad
22.

as the
It is

dropping of the letter h by cockneys.


"

usual to write iu (rather thanj/S) in the case of the


( '

verb meaning N. B. This


ittf, itta, etc.,

to say.

is

a concession to etymology, the other tenses^ being


initial
i.

with

6
It is

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.


usual to write ou rather than d in the case of verbs

like oniou,
.V.fi.

"to think
is

;"

sorou,

"

to

be in order."

This

done

in

order to show the original and theoretical

conformity of these verbs to the general rule whereby the present tense [must always end in it.
^[

23.

The consonants

are

pronounced approximately
:

as in

English, subject to the following remarks


/'is a true labial, not
it is

ihe English labio-dental thai is to means of the lips alone, not, as our/" is, foimed by say, the teeth on the lower lip. upper by placing
:

G
it is

never has the sound of/.


hard, like the

of a

pronounced word it has the sound of English ng


the

At the beginning of a word " in In the middle give."


in

"slangy."

Thus Kiga,

name

almost exactly with the ng does double duty,


in

of a place near MiyanoshTta, rhymes "singer." (Not with "finger," where


first

to render the

sound of ng, and


is

then the sound of g alone.

This double sound


ng,

represented

Japanese by the combination

as kin-gin,

"gold and

silver,"

Foreigners constantly err in pronounced kin-ghui). pronouncing such words as Kiga like Kinner or else Kigger,

instead of uttering the nasal

sound of "slangy," "singer,"


retains

"

Bingham,"
.V. fi.

etc.

In

western Japan,

its

hard pronunciation in

all

situations.

//is pronounced as in English, except before the vowel

i,

when it assumes nearly the sound of the German ch in ich. The syllable /// ha, '"moreover, a tendency to pass into ski
and even into simple
"

sh,

especially

in

the

mouths of the
the
as

vulgar of Tokyo,
hige,

\vho pronounce,
as
shige,

for instance,

word
shlo.

"beard,"

and

Kilo,

"person,"
(not

Careful Japanese
fully) to

speakers

attempt

always success-

avoid this error.

CONSONANTS.

final is pronounced half-way between a true ?i and the French nasal n. When (as happens chiefly in Chinese compounds) a syllable ending in n is followed by a or u in

the next syllable, the n sounds very nearly like English ng,

and a
ferent

distinct hiatus

is

made

before the vowel.

Thus gen-an

(almost geng an),

"a
o,

document," quite diffrom ge-nan, which may equally well be written genan, man-servant." When the vowel next to n final is e, t, or

"the

draft of a

a different

method
very
as
in

is

resorted to (see

^[ 14).

R
or

is

the

softest of

English

r's,

and

is

never rolled
speakers
especially

gargled

French and German.


if
it

Some
d,

pronounce

it

almost as
/.

were a dental

before the vowel


6* is

always sharp as in
in

"

past," never

assuming the

soft

or z

sound heard

"

misery."
exactly
as
in

24.

(pronounced

English)

shows

so

strong a tendency to

become

obsolete after k and g,

not

only in Tokyo, but in most parts of the country excepting


the ski
west,
that
it

is

optional

to

write,

for

instance,

kwa-

"cake;" Gwaimusho or Gaimusho, "the Even between two vowels, as in omoForeign Office." "I do not think;" kama(iv}anai, "it does not (w)andi,
or
kashi,

matter,"

many

natives of

Tokyo drop
all

it.

In

the

work
to

the

has been retained in

such cases,

in

present order

to the usage of the dictionaries. Frenchmen, and other Continentals are apt to sound a v instead of a w. This bad habit should be carefully guarded

conform

Germans,

against.
is always a consonant. Thus the syllable mya in myaku, "the pulse," is pronounced as one syllable, like mia in the English word "amiable.'' Care must be taken

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER- CHANGES.


not to confound the monosyllable mya with the dissyllable " a capital city." miya in such words as miyako (mi-ya-ko], Z, when preceding the vowel */, has the sound of dz,

and
as

is

accordingly
for mizu,

so

written

by many

transl iterators,
this

midzu,

"water."

We

write z in

work,

rather than dz,

somewhat against our personal


in

preference,

and merely
dictionaries.
If 25.

order

to

conform

to

the
p.

usage
21.)

of the

(Conf. second foot-note to

Double] consonants must, as distinguished from single ones, thus


ana,
ichi,

in Italian,
:

be sharply

"a

hole;" " one "


;

anna,
itchi (for ichi-chi],
otto,

"such." " union."

oto,

"a sound;"
Though
so.

"a husband."
as " boo&fceeping,"

N. B.
"

plenty of consonants arc written double in English,

few are pronounced

Such words, however,

uweighbourly," mij.rent, will serve to exemplify the peculiar insistance on the consonantal sound that is here spoken of.

Where,
natives

however,

no confusion
pronounce
:

is

liable to ensue,

the

of

Tokyo

often

as double a

consonant

which

is

properly single, thus


for
,,
,,

ammari,
minna,
tokkuri,

amari,

" too much."


"all."

mina,
tokuri,

"a
to

bottle."

This peculiarity,
desire for emphasis,

which seems
is

have originated in

slightly vulgar.
liable to reduplication
:

N. B.
ch(tch},
ft,

m,

Only the following consonants are n, p, y, s/i(ssh\ and ts (tts).

26.
-or

in

All Japanese words theoretically end either in a vowel the consonant n. But the fact of the occasional
i

quiescence of

and

produces the impression that there

are words ending in other consonants.

Thus, the^polite

ACCENT.

termination

masu

(e.g.

in

an'masu,
in

"there

is")

mostly

sounds

like mas,

excepting

the

careful or old-fashioned speakers.

mouths of unusually In no other case is the

clipping of final vowels to be

recommended.

ACCENT.

Generally speaking, the Japanese pronunciation both 27. of vowels and of consonants is less broad and heavy than
that current
in English.
ch, j, sh,

in

most European languages, and


is

especially
in

Particularly noticeable
is

the

manner

which

and

are

minced.

Tones, such as those of the

There is little or no tonic Chinese, are entirely absent. accent, and only a very slight rhetorical accent; that is to
say that all the syllables of a word and all the words of a" sentence are pronounced equally, or nearly so. Students

must beware of importing into Japanese the strong and constantly recurring stress by which, in English and in most European languages, one syllable in every polysyllabic word, and the chief words in every sentence, are singled
out for special notice.
familiar
to

Thus,

to

quote the names of places

every traveller in

Hakone,

(excepting

Miyanoshiia, the i of Miyanoshita,


Mi-ya-no-shta,

Japan, you must articulate Ashinoyu, with every syllable equal

which

quiesces),
all

thus

Ha-ko-ne,

A-shi-no-yn,

short

and

all

without

emphasis.

Europeans

excruciate

Japanese

ears

when they
occasionally,

say Hakone, Miyanoshta, and Ashinoyu.

Only

among

the lower classes, does the desire for

exceptional emphasis cause a word or syllable to be accented


in a

peculiarly declamatory manner, which


in

Europeans
entire

find

difficulty

imitating.

The

strength

of the

body

seems

to

be concentrated on the production, on the laboriin question.

ous squeezing out, of the word

2O
yV.

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.


B*

The statement made


instruction

the absence of accent in Japanese


practical

than

the above paragraph concerning intended rather for purposes of There is a slight of scientific accuracy.
in
is
it

But so extremely slight is it that never been marked in any dictionary whether native or foreign,
tonic accent in Japanese.

has has

it

from province to province, and inhabitants of the same province contradict, not only each other, but themselves in their usage and in the explanations which they give
it

no influence on prosody,

varies

concerning

it.

Most

of

the

Tokyo people
words
as

distinguish by

a faint

difference of stress such pairs of

dme,
hashi,

"rain;"
" "

ante,
;

"a kind

of sweetmeat.''

chopsticks

hash],
kakl,
koto,

" a bridge."

kdki

"an oyster;"
" a sort of harp ;" "a spider;"
" a

koto,
ki'tmo,

"a persimmon." "a thing."


" a cloud."

kwno,
take,

take,

mountain-peak ;"

"a bamboo."
not in kind,

The

difference between sucli

words may be compared

but in degree

with that

made by

"morning" and "mourning," the substantive "an advocate,"


"
jective

careful English speakers between or between the verb " to advocate" and

the verb "to elaborate"

and the ad-

" elaborate," or again between two such phrases as re-covering an old umbrella " and " recovering a stolen one." The interest of the

question

is

rather for the theoretical


of

than for the practical


all

student.

The tendency
Frenchmen,
is

Englishmen, and indeed of


to
better, at least
it

Europeans excepting

always

New-comers cannot do

accentuate Japanese for the


at all.

much
first

too

strongly.

few years, than

endeavour not to accentuate

LETTER-CHANGES.

28.

Nigori,

lit.

"muddling,"

is

the

name

given

by the

Japanese to the substitution of sonant consonants


N. B.
surd In contradistinction to the sonant letters
(/,

for surds.
z,

(d, g,

etc.),

the

letters

k, s,

etc.)

are said to be ntmi,

i.e.

"clear."

The two

categories together are termed sei-daku by


sei being the

the native grammarians,

Chinese word for "clear," and dakn for "muddled."

The consonants

affected

change as follows

THE
Surds.

NIGORt.

21

Sonants.
into

ch\ sh]

/.*

f\

(anciently

probably/)

,,

d.

The broad law governing


the initial surd (ch,
sh,
f,

the use of the nigori


k,
s,
is,

is

that
in-

h,

or

/)

of an

dependent word

especially of a
(j,
b,

noun
z,

changes

into the
the

corresponding sonant is used as the second


affects,

g,

or d]

when

word

The law of a compound. not native words only, but likewise those borrowed

member
:

from the

Cliine.sc.

Thus

From

ryori,

"cookery," and chaya,


ryori-jaya,

"a
is

tea-house,"

is

formed

"an

eating-house."
repeated,

From sh/wa, "an yam,

island,"

formed shima-

^ima, "various islands." " a From and


roof,"

fune,

" a vessel,"

is

formed

yane-Toune,

"a

house-boat."

* In western Japan, where the rules and analogies of the ancient language have been more faithfully preserve,! than in the present capital, the

nigori of ch

of sh like the softer

is pronounced like English /, and the nigori French j\ thus ///', "the wistaria" (hard), but

Fuji,

"Fusiyama"

(soft).

The Tokyo pronunciation

ignores" this

delicate distinction,
alike.

and has English / (but just a

trifle softer) for

both

f s
is

In the western provinces (following ancient usage), the nigori of while the nigori of Is is dz; thus mizit, "not seeing," but z,
"

midzu,

water."

In

Tokyo
dz.

these

two^sounds are confounded, both


end of
*

being alike pronounced as

(Jonf. the

24,

page

18.

22

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.

From
"

"
hi,

fire,"

and hachi, "

a pot,"

is

formed

hi-Taachi,

a brazier." the "indefinite forms" of the

From

verbs
is

kiru,

"to

wear," and "kaeru,

"

to

change,"

formed

fti-gae,

"a change of clothes." From kaku, "an angle," and


' '

sato,

"sugar,"

is

formed

"

kaku-zato,

loaf-sugar.
sue,

From

tstiki,

"moon," "month," and

"end,"

is

formed tsuki-zue, " the end of the month." From kwan, a Chinese word signifying a "jar" or "gallipot," but not used alone in Japanese,* and
is

"to pack," formed kwan-zume, "tinned (provisions)," "canned things."


the indefinite form of the verb teumeru,
orai,

From

"a

thoroughfare," and the indefinite form of

the

verb

fomeru,

"to stop"

(trans.),

is

formed

orat'dffme,
"

"no

thoroughfare."

A'. B. Nigori'zA. syllables are not limited to compounds. ICazc, wind ;" abura, " oil," and numerous others offer examples of the occurrence of the uigori in the middle of a simple word. The nigori

many simple \\oras in modern then almost always be traced to the action of " phonetic decay. Thus de, by," is from Classical nite ; dore ? " wlu'ch ?" is from Classical i&(z}ure ; and so on. Many other words with initial uigori come from the Chinese, such as doze, " a godown ;" " go, august ;" zasliiki, a room," etc.
is

also

found

at

the beginning of

Colloquial, but

it

may

'

Tf

29.

rider to the

above law

is

compounds sometimes change, not into


is

that/* and h in Chinese This d, but into/.

called the han-nigori,

or

"half-muddling."

Thus,

to

take
*

somewhat high-flown

instances,

Sir Ernest Satow suggests that this word fcvan, though fitted by Japanese ingenuity with a suitable Chinese ideograph (j|g), may, after " can all, Ix; nothing but the English word itself, whose meaning it
'

serves to convey.

THE NIGORL

2$
f?V,

From

/tin,

"to accord," and


" a
fair

"wind," we

have

/'ujH-p'N,

wind."
hcv/,

From
.V.

ten,

"heaven," and
" a sign
in the

"change," we have

tern-pen,
./?.
'1

heavens."

he monosyllables jun and/?? are scarcely ever used alone in

Japanese

in the senses here given.

For the change of n

to

in jun

and

ten, see ^[ 32.

30.

In

some words of native

origin, the

T6ky5

people,

led

by the same love of reduplication which makes them say minna for mina, "all;" lokkuri for tokuri, "a bottle," etc.
(see
^f

25),

turn

the

letter h,

which could not well be

doubled, into

what commends

itself to

them

as the nearest

approach

to hh, viz.

pp

thus

yappari, for yahari, "also."


yoppodo,
.\'.

,,

yohodo,
it

"a

lot,"

"very."

Perhaps might be more correct to view this phenomenon as a relic of the old pronunciation of // as p. Conf. ^[ 28, top of p. 21, small type in middle of column.
/>.

31.

The law

regulating the use of the nigori

is

by no means

an absolute

the varying one, euphony of whether the individuals in each case caprice deciding or shall shall not be Thus made. o, change "great," and
saka,

and sometimes

"a
in

hill,"

town

Central Japan,

compounded to form the name of a large may be pronounced either Osaka


Englishmen are apt
to say).

or Osaka (never Osdrkur, as

F
if

and
the

h,

however, always change either into b or into/, first member of the compound ends in a nasal

consonant.

Thus

it

would be inadmissable

to

It

is

considered harsh to have

many mgori'ed

letters in

one word.
the vigor-fed

For instance,
letter
z,
it

as

kaze,

will,

"wind," already has when combined with kami,

24

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.

"above," make kaza-kami, "windward/' not kcaLa-%ami, which would sound awkward and thick. Observe, too,
that
32.

no nigoriQ&

letter is

ever doubled.

*[f

As shown by the examples of/#m-/


to

and

leia\-pcn,

n
:

changes

before a labial.

To

give another instance

^tetOfmon-gdku"

"astrology/'

"astronomy;" from

/en,

"heaven;" mon, "markings


and
* '

or letters" (not used alone);

gaktij

"science."
"

or

m
as

is

sometimes
shamberi
' '

inserted
shaberi,
"

corruptly

by careless speakers,
yon-jii for

for

chattering;

yo-ju (better shi-ju),


it

forty.

They

make up

for this

by dropping w where

should be retained,

saying, for instance, daiko instead of daikon,


^f

" a

radish."
initial

33.

Less important than the nigori affecting

conin

sonants,
certain
syllables.

change which affects the native Japanese words of one


is

final

vowels

syllable

and two
changes
of a

In this class of
the

words, e
as

final
first

often

to a,

when

word
:

is

used

the

member
we

compound,* thus

From
From From

kazQ,

kaza.-kami,

"wind," and " windward."

kami,

"above,"

have

sake,

"rice-beer," and ya,

"a
to

house," we have

"
sako.-ya,
/e,

a grog-shop."

" the hand," and molsu,


' '

hold,"

we have

tdjnolsu,

to keep.

"

From

ue,

put on,"
*

"top," and the_indefinite form of kiru, "to " to wear/' we have uwa.-gi} "an over-coat."

Strictly speaking, it is a which is weakened Jin to c, a study of the older language showing that the formsjn'a'are almost certainly the

original ones.

We

state the rule as in the text

simply for the sake of

practical convenience.

MINOR LETTER-CHANGES.
A> an irregular

25
class

member
s/iiro,

of

the

same

may be

mentioned s/iira for " in such


while,"
shira.-giku,

the stem
as

of the adjective shiroi,


lt

compounds

"a

white chrysanthemum."
((9a here stands

(Kiku=
for
/C'c',

chry-

shirQi-ga,

santhemum/') " white hair."

" hair."

The language

offers

no other instance of so anoma-

lous a change.)
34.

All

the

Japanese consonants do not admit of being


all

sounded

before

the

five
u,

Japanese

vowels.

only

occurs before the vowel


instead.

the other four vowels taking h


i.

is

T
is

is

replaced by

replaced by sa, and z by/, before the vowel a ad d by j, before the vowel /'; ch,

replaced by Is, and d by z, before the vowel u. occurs only before the vowel a; y only before the vowels
o,

a,

and

u.

The

sole
in

exceptions,

according
those

to

the

orthography adopted
the postpositions

this
ye.

work,

are

offered
^[

by

wo ^nd

Compare, however,

14.

The phenomena mentioned in this paragraph seem to be of modern growth, though they can be traced back some three centuries. The archaic form of the language probably
N. B.
comparatively

possessed/ (or rather/),

s,

and

tt

but no

b, h, s/i,j, ch, is,

or

z.

To
verbs.

the

practical
in

interesting only

student the peculiarity above noted is so far as it affects the conjugation of

Chapter VIII, ^f 235 may, however, be worth while to instance in passing the strange alterations introduced into borrowed European words by this inability of the Japanese to
cl sty.

He

is

therefore referred to

It

pronounce
their

certain

consonants before certain


to

further

inability

sonants

or any final absence from their language of some of the commonest

vowels, by pronounce combinations of conconsonant except ;/, and by the

26

PRONUNCIATION AND LETTER-CHANGES.

European

sounds,

such

as
:

and

z>.

Hence such metafrom "


is

morphoses as the following


chifusu,

"
Castilla.

from

the

Gerof

kasuteira,

man
"

pronunciation

so called, because (Sponge-cake introduced by the Spaniards.)

typhus."

koppu,

from the
cup,"

Dutch
used

kopt
to

garasu, from "glass."


hoko,
Igirisu,
,,

"a

but
glass."

" fork."

signify

"a
,,

,,

kame,

,,

"English." " come here.

rampu, from "lamp."


5 '

ramune,
shabon,

"lemonade."

(Dogs of European race are so


styled, because their masters constantly call out

"soap," from Spanish


from "shirt."
,,

jabon.
shaisu,

"come here

!" to

them.)

kara, from "collar."

wanishi,

"varnish."

There are also some quite anomalous cases, such as " penki, from paint," where we should naturally have expected
peinlo.

to

N. B. Two or three of the above examples may serve incidentally show the lingering trace of early intercourse with the Dutch and Spaniards. At the present day, English is drawn on far more extensively
than 35all

other foreign tongues together.

Finally

certain

contractions

are

brought

about

by

euphony and
ip-pun
for

the desire for speedy

elocution.
jis-so,
is

Such are
for jii
so,

ichi

"ten

vessels."

fun, "one minute;" For these the student

referred

to

the

Chapter on Numerals, ^f 153, as it is in the case of the numerals that these contractions most frequently occur, and that it is most necessary to commit them to memory.

CHAPTER

III.

Noun.
NUMBER AND GENDER.
36.

The noun

is

indeclinable,
to

distinctions of

number and
and

gender being

left

be gathered from
as
in

the

context,

case relations being,

English,

indicated by separate
preposi-

words, which are,


tions.

however,

"

postpositions," not

Thus

Uma
lit.

horse

ni in

noru
ride

may
horse
in a res.

mean, according to circumstances, to ride on one or on several horses, on one mare or on several

lit.

Hilo kimasJnla ga person (nominative particle) has- come


either

may may

mean

that

one person has


Similarly

several

people

have

come.

the

come, or that word yama


mountains,
it

designate

one

mountain

or

many

being properly rather a kind of collective noun, German " das Gebirg."
37.

like the

In the extremely rare cases in


to

which

it

is

absolutely
this

indispensable be done by the use of the prefixes

mention the sex of an animal,


o,

can

"male," and me, the ''female," compound being sometimes resulting Thus slightly modified by euphony.
:

ushi,

"any

bovine animal."

o-ushi,

me-ushi,
lima,

" a bull," "an ox." " a cow."

"any equine animal."

28

THE NOUN.
omma,
' '

a horse.

"

memma,
tori,

ondori,

"a "a "a


(l

marc."
bird,"

"a

fowl."

cock."

mendori,

a hen."

The words otoko, "man," and osu, "male;" onna, "woman," and mesu, "female," subserve the same purpose, thus
ko,
:

" a child ;"

otoko no ko, man 's child

" a boy

"
:

onna no
's

ko,

"a

girl."

n-oinan

cliild

osu .i) inu, inu no osu,

mesu no
i"

.'

inu,

inu no mesu,

Such a phrase

as

Osu desu
Male
is

ka,
?

mesu
female
it

desu
/

kaP
?

"Is it a (female?"

male or a

may mean "Is


or a

a horse
it

or

mare?"

"

Is

it

gander

goose?"

"Is

he or a she-ass?"

etc., etc., ac-

The words osu and mesu are cording to circumstances. never applied to human beings, whereas the words otoko and onna are applied indifferently to human beings and
to other living creatures.

38.

Jn a very

few cases,

chiefly

the

names

of the degrees

of relationship,

the sexes are

distinguished by the use of


"

different words, thus:


chichi,
olollsan,
ojiisan,

"father

"
;

haha,
okkasan,
obasan,

' '

mother.

"papa;"
"grandpapa,"
old gentleman ;"

"mamma."
"grandmamma,"
old lady.'

"an
oji,

"an
oba,

"uncle;"'

"aunt."

CKXDER AND NUMBER.


am,
0/0/0,

2<)

" elder brother ;" " brother younger


call

ane,
"
;

"

elder sister.

"

imolo,

"

younger
is

sister."

39.

What we

the

indicated

by the use
hako

singular number of the word liilotsu

occasionally
ichi,

or

"one,"

thus

KtioisU)

"one box."
' '

ichi-ncn,

on e year.

"

40.

The

idea of plurality,

universality,

or variety
:

is

oc-

casionally indicated by doubling the word, thus


ho-bo,
iro-iro,

"everywhere;" from
"all sorts;'
colour").

ho,
iro,

"aside."
" a sort" (properly

from

"a

knni-gunt, "various countries;" from kunf,


fokorv-dokoro,

"a

country."

"many
in

places,"

"here and there:"

from

tokoro,

" a place."
these

As exemplified

words,

the second

member
when

of
it

such compounds almost always takes the nigori, begins with a consonant capable of so doing.
41.

Another method of expressing


viz.

plurality
tachi,

is

by agglu-

tinating certain particles,

gaia,

shu (often pro:

nounced
"

s/it), do??io,

and

ra,

to

the end of the word, thus

okusama-gata,

"ladies;"

from

okiisama,

"a
"an

lady,"

rny lady."

shikwan-iachi,

"officials;"

,,

shikwan,
onna, onna,
"

official."

onna-shu,

onna-domo,
kuruma-ya-ra,

"women;" "women;"
"

,,

,,

"a woman." "a woman."


"
kitruma-ya,

jinrikisha-men;

from

" a jinrikisha-man." The order in which the foregoing


are

particles

and examples

given
is,

is

that

of

a gradually decreasing politeness.


great difference

There

indeed,

no

between gata and

30
iy

THE NODN.
but both are certainly them.

more

polite

than the three

that follow

Onna-shu may be used in speaking of onna-domo is better in the female attendants of another
;

speaking of the female attendants in one's The suffix ra is decidedly familiar. hold.
42.

own housethe

Numerous
is

as

are

the

above

particles,

idea

of

plurality
their help.

not always very clearly expressed even by Thus, whereas ko may mean "children" as

well as

mean "child"

"child," the ostensibly plural form ko-domo may In this particular as well as "children."

instance, but scarcely in

get an undoubted plural,

any others, we may, in order to superadd one suffix to another,


t

and say ko-domo-ra or ko-dbtno-shu "children."


43-

^e

ma y
;

a ^ so

(chiefly

in

vocables borrowed from the


in

Chinese) prefix of plural thus


ban-koku,

certain
:

words

order

to

obtain a sort

''all

countries,"

"international;"
kokii,

from ban,

" ten thousand," and


sho-kun,

"a country."
s/io,

"gentlemen;"

from

"all,"

and kun,
nen,

"prince,"
su-nen,

"Mr."
years;" from
su,

"many

"number," and

the Chinese words here given ban, kokn, sho, can be used alone, but occur only in compounds. Observe the shortening of sit to su, not obligatory, but usual.
etc.,

" a year." N. 13. None of

44.

thus various, they are


all

But though the ways of indicating sex and number are it cannot be sufficiently borne in mind that

more or

less

exceptional,

and are scarcely found


usage
has
are

except in a limited number of cases which sanctioned. Distinctions of sex and even of

number

not dwelt on

at

every

moment by

the Japanese, as they are

by the European, mind.

COMPOUND NOUNS.
COMPOUND NOUNS.
1[

3!

45.

Compound nouns
at will.

are

very

numerous,

and can be

formed

They

generally consist either of two nouns,


or

or of a

noun preceded
*([

adjective (conf.
T[

183), or

followed by the stem of an by the "indefinite form" (see

221 and ^[241) of a verb.

As

the indefinite forms of

verbs are themselves constantly used as nouns,

two such

forms

may combine
:

to constitute a

compound noun.

The

following are specimens of the various sorts of

compound

nouns

fttro-ba,

"a bath-room,"
"gloves;" from

from furo,

"a

bath," and ba

(used only in composition),


te-bukuro,
'

"a

place."

le,

"the hand/' and fiikuro,

'

a bag."

tctsudo-basha,

"a

street-car;" from telsudo,


"

"a

and basha, " a


kuro-megane,

railway,"

carriage.

"black goggles;" from kuroi, "black,"' "spectacles." (Megane is itself a " compound of me, eye," and kane, "metal")

and

megane,

io-megane,

"a

telescope;" from

toi,

"far, "and megane,

"spectacles."
mc-kura,

"a blind person," lit. "eye-dark;" me, "the eye/' and kurai, "dark."
"a

from

purchase," "shopping;" from kau, "to buy," and mono, "a thing." " " a " to kakc-mono, hanging scroll," from kakeru, hang and "a mono, (trans.), thing." " from yakeru, " to burn" (intrans.), yake-do, "a burn
kai-mono,
;

and
ki-chigai,

to (for tokoro),

"a

place."
ki,

"a

lunatic;" from

" to

differ,"

" to be wrong."

"spirit,"

and chigau,

32
mono-oki,
'

THE NOUN.

"an
'

out-house;" from mono,


"

"a

thing/'

and

okti,

to put.

Ic-nugui,

"a

towel;" from

le,

"the hand," and nuguu,

"

to

wipe."

haki-dame,

"a

dust

heap;" from haku,

"to

sweep,"

and tameru, "


Jnki-dashi,

to collect together" (trans.).

"a

drawer;" from hiku,

"to

pull,"

and dasu,

" to take out."

makc-oshimi,

"
(e.

unwillingness
g.

to

acknowledge
fable,

oneself
said that

beaten

"

the

fox

in

the

who

defeated,"
N. B.

"the grapes were sour'"'); from makeru, and oshimu, "to regret."
IT

"to be

Observe the tendency of the second member of the com28^.

pound
^[

to take the nigori (Conf.

46.

dicating

The forms number


to
^f

indicating gender and


are
really
*j[

some
as

of those in-

reference

37 and
o,

formed

by prefixing

seen by So are the augmentatives the root of okii, "big," and the

compounds,
43.

may be

diminutives formed by prefixing ko,


o,

"child" (very

rarely

"small"), thus
baka,
ishi,

" a

fool

"
;

o-baka,
"
ko-ishi,

"a

great fool."
"
;

"
nczitmi,

"a

a stone ; "
rat
;

"a

o-nezumi,

pebble." " a large rat

Ico-nezitmi,
JV.

"a

small rat,"

"a mouse."
means
by using
it

B.

The names

of the
it

young

of animals arc formed by

of ko, either by prefixing

as a particle, or

as a separate

word, thus

inn

no

ko

or

ho-iint,

\
'

,,

l-rlop
..

\
,

cWW

"- young

,,

cenUpede.'

CO-ORDINATED COMPOUNDS.
Usage evinces
certain

33
Thus, though

preferences in

this

matter.

inn no ko and ko-inu are indifferently employed to signify " puppy," one cannot call the young of the centipede ko-mukade. It is obligatory
to say

mnkadc no
all

ko.

47.

In

the examples of

compounds
the

hitherto quoted,

one
co-

of the two

members
the

is

subordinated to the other.

Sometimes,
are

however,

two
:

members of

compound

ordinated, thus
tsuki-hi,

"months (and)

days."

so-moku, "herbs (and) trees." (This is a Chinese comthe pound, component parts of which are not used
alone.
)

But though they are closely joined in pronunciation, there would be no harm in considering these as separate
words,

and

in

so writing
:

them,

especially

if

they

are

native Japanese terms, thus

ani

0/0/0,

"elder brother (and) younger brother,"


"elder
sister

i.e.,

"brothers."

ane

imolo,

(and)

younger

sister,"

i.e.,

"

sisters."

tsuhi hi hoshi,

umi kawa, "(the) sea (and the) rivers." "(the) moon, sun, (and)

stars."

Co-ordinated compounds are sometimes obtained abbreviation, after the manner of the following
:

by

Ei-Bei,

England and America," from Ei-koku, England," and Bei-koku, "America," by dropping the second half of each.
"

"

sak-kon,

and from saku-jilsu, "yesterday to-day," "yesterday," and kon-nichi, "to-day." This occurs only in words taken from the Chinese

language, which esteems nothing so

much

as brevity.

34
yV.

THE XOUN.
B.

Tne

order of such compounds cannot be reversed. Bei-Ei or

kon-sakn would not be understood.


+

Such co-ordination form, which has been


48.

sometimes
aptly

assumes

peculiar

named
two

"the
terms

synthesis

of

contradictories,"

because
a

from

of

opposite

signification there results

third abstract term giving the

mean

of the two, thus

en-kin,

"far-near,"

i.e., i.e.,

"distance."

kan-dan,
nan-nyo,

"cold-heat,"
f '

"temperature."
" sex.

man-woman,

"

i.e.,"
i.e.
,

"
sei-sui,

prosperity-decline,"

"the ups and downs,"


kingdom, &c.

"the fortunes," of a

family,

The above

are Chinese vocables.

As pure Japanese examples,


the
ex-

though not nouns, we may take


aru-nashi,
"is-isn't," i.e.,

"(the question

of)

istence of a thing."
yoshi-ashi,

"good-bad,"

i.e.,

"degree

of

excellence,"

"quality."

The

rowed from Chinese grammar,


sons of education.
49.

use of these convenient expressions, which is boris chiefly confined to per-

The

student should note the difference in construction

genuine native compounds and those derived from the Chinese, when one member of the compound is

between

a verb governing the other.

In>

genuine Japanese
:

com-

pounds the verb comes


hara-kiri,
lit.

last,

as in English, thus

"belly-cutting," the old form of legalised

suicide.

kami-hasami,
scissors/'

"hair-cutting."
is

(Jiasamu" to
in general.)

cut

with

whereas kiru

"to cut"

COMPOSITION IN WORD-BUILDING.

35

first.

In Chinese compounds, on the contrary, the verb comes Take, for instance, the elegant Chinese synonyms
hara-kiri

for

and kami-hasami,
viz.

which are

preferred

by

cultured speakers,

sep-puku, from setsu, "to cut,"


,

and

ffiku, "belly."
hatsu,

Ziin,

"to

cut/'

"hair."

N. B. Hyphens need not be used so freely as we, for etymological purposes, have here done. hyphen is, however, indispensable between the two members of such compounds as gen-an, " the draft of a

p. 16,

document," where a final n is followed by an under the heading of A


7

initial

vowel.

(Conf.

^f

23,

".)

Quite a number of compounds are hybrid, that


native, partly Chinese, as omote-mon,
bashi,

is,
;

partly

"a

front gate

Nihon-

"Japan bridge" (the name of a bridge in Tokyo), where mon and Nikon are Chinese, the other half of each

Japanese.

COMPOSITION A GREAT FACTOR IN WORD-BUILDING.

50.

The

student interested
that

discover

almost

all

in etymology will gradually long Japanese words and many

short ones are really


origin

has

often

compounds, though their composite been forgotten even by the Japanese


michi,

themselves.
prefix,

Thus
chi,

"a

road,"

is

from?;//,

an honorific
Mikado,

and

the original

word

for

"road."

"the Imperial Court," hence "the Emperor," is from the same ?ni, and kado, "a gate" (compare the "Sublime
Porte" of Turkey).*
*

Kagami,

"a

mirror,"

is

from kage,

Sir Ernest

Satow

prefers to derive

mikado from the archaic mika,

"

great,"

and

io (nigori'Qd. to do}, " place."

36

THE NOUN.

"shadow," "reflection," and mini, "to see."* Placenames are almost always compounds which can be easily
resolved
into
their

constituent

elements,

as

Yoko-hama,

"cross strand;" E-do (Yedo),

"inlet door;" Ara-kawa,


island;
Fuji-san,

"rough river;" 0-shima,

"big

"Fuji

mountain," "Fusiyama" (the etymology of Fuji'vz obscure, but probably the name is of Aino origin); Miyd-ncP-sh'tta*

"below 3
l

of 2

Shinto-shrine

/''

i.e.

"beneath the shrine;"


Similarly in the case

E -no*-shima*,
who
"
first

"island

oP

inlet ."

of surnames, most of which are of geographical origin, being borrowed from the names of the localities where the persons

assumed them
P-7io -uc\
2
1

resided,

forest;"

"above 3

of 2

thus Ko-bayashi, "small well 1 ; Ta>-nakd\ (the)

among

(the) rice-fields ;"

Yama-da,

" mountain

rice-field,"

Men's personal names, answering to our Christian names, are also nearly always compounds. Unfortunately few of these personal names can be translated, founded, as
etc.

they are, on allusions to texts in the Chinese Classics, to feudal functions now obsolete, to cyclical signs, and to
other recondite matters.
*

Such names as Ta-ro, " big male,"


word
for "

In previous editions the word yane, " roof," was cited in this context

as having been derived fromjj/tf, the original " a mansion we also find in

house

"

(which

" a shoemaker's kutsu-ya, |shop," " and the ridge of a roof." This etc.), mtme, breast," hence etymology, borrowed from the Japanese grammarians, seems disproved by the form of the parallel term in Luchuan, ya mi wi, which corres" ponds, letter for letter, to Japanese ya no tie, lit. top of house," whence

yashiki, " the

;"

we may suppose yane

to

may
.

serve to

show how uncertain

have resulted by contraction. This instance is the basis on which JapaneseNative philologists
ot

derivations often rest, in the absence of a tribe of related tongues to serve

as a sufficiently broad standard of comparison.

even such great men as Motoori and Hirata too often " inner consciousness " permittel themselves to be guided by their alone, like our own Western philologists of former centuries.
the old school

ABSTRACT NOUNS.
i.e.,

37
next) son
"
;

" eldest son

"
;

Ji-ro>

"second

(lit.

Saburo

(for Sctn-ro),

"third son,"

etc., are sufficiently clear.


^[

N. B.

For women's personal names, see

418.

All Chinese words of

pounds, e.g. " a bowl " wan, ; master of a junk,"


(nigorizd.
to
do),

more than one character are com"a chawan, tea-cup," from cha "tea," and
)

sendo,

"a
sen,

boatman/'
"chief;"

properly

" the
to
to,

from

"junk," "vessel," and


Tokyo

"head,"'

from

"east,"
51.

and

kyd, "capital city," etc., etc.

As shown
Mikado,
into

in the foregoing

examples of

michi,

and
enter

"Emperor,"
actual
felt

honorific

prefixes

"road," sometimes
Generally, and are

the

formation
to

of words.
entities,

however, they are

be

distinct

therefore written separately, as


o cha,
lit.
lit.

" honourable
"

tea,"

i.e.,

"tea."

go moltomo,
o

augustly right,"

i.e.,

"you
feet,"

are

quite right."

mi
' '

ashi,

lit.

"honourable

august

i.e.,

"

your

feet.

For more detailed information concerning the


Japanese speech, see Chapter XI.
VARIOUS KINDS OF NOUNS.

honorifics,

which form so important and all-pervading an element of

Abstract nouns, expressing degree as well as quality, often derived from adjective stems by agglutinating the syllable sa, thus
52
-

are

atsusa,

"heat,"

"the
"

sa?nusa,

"
cold,"

" the

omoshirosa, fun," "the "interest," degree of fun."

degree of heat. "

degree of cold."

"
shirosa,

whiteness,

" the

degree of whiteness."

38

THE NOUN.

tinge or soupcon of a quality,


itself,

actual
quality,

hence sometimes the and the even quality object possessing the may be denoted by the termination mi agglutinat:

ed to an adjective stem, thus


akami,
07/ioshiromi,
(f

a tinge of red.

"

shiromi,

"a
'

"(a certain amount of) fun." tinge of white," "the white of an egg."
usu\
"
I
'

Amami ga (n m }
ozri?nasn
i*.

Tt isn

quite Sweet enou S h

"
-

^[ 53.

These nouns

in sa

the periphrasis formed by

and mi must be distinguished from means of an adjective or verb


abstract) thing,"

and the word


act,"

koto,

"(an

"a

fact,"

"an

"a state," as

atsui koto,

"

heat,"

" " the fact of being hot.

kitanai kotot "dirtiness,"


dirty."

"the

fact

that

something
something

is

shir oi koto t

"whiteness," "the

fact

that

is

white."
machigatta
lit.

koto,

("a mistake," "the


(one has "
f

mistook

ming

made
"
"

fact that a mistake."

some

shimpo
lit.

sum

koto,

progress

(the

noun)

also " to

progress mates tiling \ progress

(the verb).
i

on
lit.

wo

shiranai koto, \
ignores thing
)

n p- rat itude

"

JitntlHcsa (accus. particle)

In speaking of the blade of a fine sword, one might say Sono kissaki no surudoi kotol
Its

point

's

sJiurp

state,

So sharp is its point, fine its edge, that annealing's beautiful state, so hito-me mite mo sugu samusa 'the merest glance at it " onc-eijc seeing even, at-once coldness gives you a shiver. wo oloeru kurai da.
sono
its

yaki

no

umwashii

"

koto,

(a ecus.)

feel

amount

is.

KOTO AND MONO.

39
used exclamatorily,
"

These periphrases
thus
:

in

koto

are often

Alsui koto

! !

"Oh how
!

hot

it is

Kusai koto
54.

" Oh
the

what a horrid smell

"
!

Parallel
in

to

abstract
koto

nouns

in

koto,

are

concrete

nouns

mono.

"a

fact,"

"an

thing of the mind," act," mono almost always denotes a tangible >

While

denotes

"a

material thing or person, thus


deki-mono, coming-out thing
\

ht.

a bad place>

< <

an abscess.

"

kusaimono,
shir oi mono,
shojiki-mono,

"a smelly

thing."

"a. white tiling."

"an

honest fellow."
koto,

This distinction between


mono,
if

"an

abstract thing,"

and

"a

material thing," must be clearly kept in mind,

the

student

would

avoid

constant

misapprehension.
identisort

Thus
cal

onoji mono means "the same thing," "the article," whereas onoji koto means "the same

of

thing,"

the quality, pattern, etc., being the same, but the

actual article a different one.

For mono wo

at the

end of a

sentence, see

^f

287.
to

Mono
whose

no,

or
is

origin

wa iu mono no, has a very curious use, unknown, but which may most easily be
no
to

parsed by assuming

stand for nagara,

"while/"

"whereas

:"

ko iu motio Rikutsu de iva Theory by indeed, tJnis say tltiny


no,

wa yohodo in jissai theory, but it is very ivhercas, practice as-for, hard in practice/' muzukashii.
difficult (is).

"That

is

all

very fine

mighty

40

THE NOUN.

Baka da

to

wa

iu

mono\
\

Fool as he is, he is Fool is that indeed say thing sukoshi no zlcapable of making himno, yd useful in >s minor business little ii-hiic, ui[self matters." ma ni aimasu. wa
indeed, space to conforms.
)

"

55.

The names
:

of shops are denoted by the termination

ya, "house/' as
hon-ya,

" a book-store
' '

;"
;"

from
from
"

/ion,

"a book."
"flesh."
' '

" a butcher's shop niku-ya,


pan-ya,
a bakery,
"

niku,

from pan,

bread.

"

Kame-ya, lit. "tortoise house (or, as we might say, " At the Sign of the Tortoise"), the name of a grocery in Tokyo well-known to foreign residents.

Owing
only the

to

the general Japanese habit of naming persons

after places,

such words as the above come to denote, not

"book-store," the "butcher's shop," and the "bakery," but by extension the "bookseller," the "butSometimes indeed cher," and the "baker" themselves.
the
as
:

person

only,

and not the


' '

place,

is

thus designated,
"

kuruma-ya,
shimbun-ya,

a jinriki'sha-man

"a newspaper man."


plants
often
:

56.

Names

of trees
its

and

terminate

in

ki,

"

tree," or in

nigon'ed form

gi, thus

hagi,

"the lespedeza.
"wheat,

susuki,

"the eulalia"
tall grass).

(a

mugi,

"bar-

kind of
tsubaki,

"the

camellia-

ley."
' '

tree."

sugi,

the

crypto-

yanagi,
tree."
in

"the

willow-

mena/

Names

of rivers

end

kawa (generally mgori'ed

to

gaiua), "river;"

names of

stretches of sea in

nada\ those

AIDA,

HAZU, TOKI.
to jima)
;

of islands

in
in

mountains Okawa,
lit.

yama

shima (often nigori'e.^ or san (za/i), thus


:

those

of

Sumida-gawa, Sumida."

"Great River." "the River

to

several

islands

off

the Japanese coast.

Ogasawara-jim a,

"the
"
;

Bungo-nada, the stretch of


sea near the province of

Bonin Islands
after

named

their

discoverer,

Bungo,
islands

separating

the

Ogasawara.

of

Kyushu and
"Small
Is-

ShTkoku.
Kojima,
lit.

Asama-yama, " Asama.


Bandai-san,

" Mount

"Mount
"

land," a
57.
ioki,

name common
aida,

Bandai.

"

The nouns
functions
to

"interval;"

hazu,

necessity;"

"time; and

tokoro,

"place," often assume


to

matical

perplexing

the

beginner.

gramAida

" while," hazu to correspond to our conjunction our verbs "ought" or "should," toki to our conjunction

comes

"when," thus
So
Ho

suru
do
interval.

" While
hazu
ing so." " He

we were
to

do-

Mo
Areba,

kuru

da.
is.

ought

be here

Already conies necessity

by

this time."

If-tJicre-ivere,

kikti jiki ni immediately hear

hazu

da

ga,

mada

so

iti

necessity is althowjli, still koto ivo kikimasen.


fact (acats.) (J)Jiear not.

such

If anything of that kind had I happened, should have heard of it.

"

implies.

Observe the suppressed negative which hazu almost always Observe, too, that hazu is often strengthened by a preceding kiku-beki haztt da ga, beki, "should," "ought," thus Areba, jiki
.A7.
:

B.

etc.

(Conf.

178 and

192.)

42

THE NOUN.
Nochi
;//,

yd

no nat

toki,

\
f j

j
t

w jn
"

te n

you a b O ut
J

s,

Imslness's is-not t Ime,

j at;er j

ien

hanashimasho.

leisure

Toki nitf. the beginning of a sentence is a sort of expletive corresponding more or less to our "by the way."
58.

More

difficult

than any of the above are the uses of

tokoro, which,

" from the original concrete sense of place," has come to be used in various abstract meanings. Sometimes, like koto, it assumes the signification of "a

thing of the mind," "a matter," as in the following example


:

"a

subject,"

"a

quality,"

Kyukm
Wage
jit-en

r -_

no tokoro
s

wa,

nuttier as-far,

tsuh month

\
I

in,

tsukawasMmasho.

ten-doU<ti>s(7}wil1-2>rol>al>ly-ffive.

'^Vif & lve y U ten dollars /a month."


f
.

"Coming ^mav
T 1
111

now

to

mattei o f wages, ~ T nv t v, at :ij sa >

good instance
end of
the
^f

of tokoro,

as

equivalent to our suffix


substantives,

"....ness"
at the

used to form
280.

abstract

occurs

In

middle
is

of a sentence,
apt
to

tokoro,

especially

when
"just

followed by ye,

assume the force of some such

conjunction as
as," thus
:

"while,"

"whereupon," "when,"

Chodo

dcru

tokoro ye,

visitQr
^as

Ka
(no,n.) appeared.

on the

o gO n g out.
:

Tokoro ga implies opposition, thus


Ima-jibun irasshlta tokoro ga, Note-time tleiyncd-to-ao even-if. rusu deshd.
JiOnotirabJy

Even
j
\

if

you do go

now you
lQ find

are not likely

TOKORO.
Similarly at the beginning of a sentence, iokoro de

43

"thereupon" or
that."
it

"and

so," while iokoro

means ga means "never-

theless," "still," "all the

same," sometimes "it occurs to me Another grammatical use of Iokoro is that in which
as explained in ^f 86.

corresponds to some extent to the relative pronouns of

European languages,
Tokoro
is

often,

in

familiar

talk,

nigori'ed

to

dokoro,

and

expresses an almost scornfully strong degree of For instance, a male visitor hazards the affirmation.

then

remark that
along
the

his
floor.

hostess's

baby

is

old

enough
:

to

creep

The fond mother,

indignant at

having

her offspring's powers rated so low, retorts

Hau
Creep

dokoro
place

ja

nai;
isn't;

yoku\
well
r

arukimasu.
(lie) Hfijjfs.

V
'

"It is no case of creeping, I can assure he walks Why you. "


!

beautifully.

Similarly

Yomeru

dokoro ka P koshaku\
?
lecture
/

"Able
d d
,

to
,

Able-to-reaa place

wfa

read h

'

in-

even forthcomes.

livers lectures."

59-

Many nouns

are simply the indefinite forms of verbs


like our English nouns in "the beginning," which is properly a Here are a few examples begin."
:

used

substantively,
.ing," such as

somewhat

"...

" to part of the verb


akinai,

"trade;"

from akinau,
,,
,,

horit
latami,
tsttre,

"a canal;" "a mat;"


"companions;"
"laughter;"
"

horu,

"to " to

trade."

excavate.

"

tatamu,

,,

lsurentt
wara^t,

ivarai,

,,
,,

yorokobi,

"joy

yorokobu,

"to pile up." "to take with one." "to laugh." " " to
rejoice.

44

THE NOUN.
NOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES.

60.

The Japanese
"|f

parts of speech

with ours (see

9),

and nouns
the

are

do not exactly coincide much more extensively

used in

this

language than

in English.

We

shall see in

the next chapter that

nouns.
ly

pronouns are really True adjectives also are scarce, and are frequentso-called

" a replaced by nouns, just as in English we say gold chain/' "a sugar-plum," "the Pan's fashions/' "a thing The chief ways in which a noun may do of beauty."

duty for an adjective are


^f 61.
I.

As

first

member

Amerika-jin,
doro-ashi,

lit.

compound, thus "America person/' i.e., "an American."


of a
:

"mud
"

feet,"

"muddy

feet."

Nihon-go,

Japan words,"

" the Japanese lan-

guage."
If

Followed by the postposition no, "of," the order of the words, it should be noted, being the reverse of that
62. II.

followed in English, thus


1

3 atari no keishoku,* lit. "scenery of 2 neighbourhood 1 "the surrounding scenery."

i.e.,

kinjo no
i.e.,

tobutsu-ya,

lit,

''Chinese-thing-shop of vicinity,"

"a neighbouring
Kito,
5

general shop."
lit.

mukashi no
ancients.''
If

"people of antiquity,"

i.e.,

"the

63.

III.

Followed by the word na


na? yatsu*,
kikai,
1

(see ^f 197), thus

baka*

choho na
heia

na na

e-kaki, e-kaki,

"a foolish (being 2 ) fellow 3 ." "a convenient machine." "an unskilful painter."
"a
skilful painter."

jozu

kirei na musume, odayaka na nami,

"a pretty "a calm

girl."

sea"

(lit.

"calm waves").

NOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

45
so

Some

of these words

fa'rei,

for

instance,

are

con-

stantly used as adjectives,

that their proper sense as

nouns

In the cases where it tends to pass out of remembrance. is preserved, the word takes no after it when it is used as
a noun, and na
heta
1

no
1

used as an adjective, thus 3 " the 4 3 of speech nagcf-dang?, long


it is
:

when

an

that bad proverb signifying speakers are apt to say more than the occasion requires.

unskilful

(speaker),"

heia

na 2
i.e.

isha* samcf,

Mr

/'

"an

"unskilful 1 being 2 physician unskilful doctor." (Jozu Ji^- corresponds


lit.

almost

literally to the

English

"a good hand

at,"

and heta

T^-

to

"

bad hand at")


cilso
IT

N. B.

Conf.

197.

NOUNS USED AS ADVERBS.

When followed by the postposition ni, "in," or de, "by," nouns such as those above instanced often cor64.

respond to European adverbs, thus


baka
ni,

"foolishly."

gwaikoku

ni

or

de,
i.e.,

"abroad."

(gwaikoku

" outer

countries,"

"foreign countries.")

jozu m,

"skilfully."
adverbially,
:

Sometimes they are taken


postposition be suffixed, thus
konnichi,

even

though

no

"this day,"
"antiquity,"

or "to-day."
,,

mukashi,

"anciently," "formerly."

For nouns used

as postpositions, see ^[ 141 et seq.

CHAPTER

IV.

The Pronoun.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
*f[

65.

The Japanese words corresponding

to

the

personal

pronouns of European languages are simply nouns whose original significations are quite clear, and which are indeed
still

often

used

with those significations.


it

for the

sake of convenience to foreign students,


discuss

Except would
in

not be necessary to
general.

them apart from nouns

They belong to the category of such descriptive expressions as "your humble servant," "your ladyship,"

"His

Majesty."

Self-depreciatory
(ist.

terms

are

naturally

preferred in speaking of oneself

person), and compli-

mentary terms in speaking to other people (2nd. person), also sometimes in speaking Bother people (3rd. person).
If

66.

The most
ivashi.

usual equivalent for

"1"

is

watakfishi,
it

lit.

"selfishness."

The

vulgar

often

contract

to

watashi

and

Other nouns

now
is

current in the

same sense
by young "the
for

are boku,

"servant,"
familiarly

which

much
each

affected

men

in

addressing
shosei,

other;

sessha,

awkward person;"
corruption of ware, " I " in the

"junior."
is

Ore

is

a very vulgar

which

the

commonest word

Written Language. Ora, which may often be heard from the mouths of coolies, stands for ore wa.

67.

The
use

following equivalents for


:

"you"
retained

are

all

in

comas

mon

anata,

a contraction
is

of ano kata,
in

" that side,"


poetry,

"beyond" (which meaning

still

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

47

kumo no

Anala is a polite anata, "beyond the clouds"). expression; with the addition of sama, "Mr.," "Mrs.,"

"Miss," "Lord,"
lit.

"

Lady,"

"

honourably

in /rout,"

it is supremely polite. Omae, was formerly polite, but is now

only used in addressing inferiors, such as coolies, one's own Omae san (san is short servants, one's own children, etc.
for

ness.

sama} stands half-way between anata and omae in polite" It is much used by women. Scnsei, senior," is used chiefly in addressing men or women of learning.
san,
his
is

Danna
"

"Mr.
chiefly

Master,"

is

used

by

servant

in

addressing
prince,"

master, and by

inferiors generally.

Kimi,

other

familiarly.
lit.

Besides

used by young men in addressing each the above may be mentioned

Heika,
N".

" beneath the steps of the throne,"

B.

the throne

Reverence naturally restrains loyal ^subjects from addressing itself they raise their eyes no higher than the ground below
:

the steps leading


i.e.

up

to

it.
'

" Your Majesty;


i.e.

Kakka " beneath the council-chamho,

ber,"

"Your
for

Excellency;" sono

"that side," the

equivalent
officers
;

inferior

by legal an insulting term used in addressing an with whom one is angry.


kisama,
;"

"you" employed

in the law-courts

" JV. B. Etymologically ki-sama means exalted Sir other words, it has fallen from its former high estate.

but, like

many

" before the temae, lit. hand," is remarkable ; for be used either a humble and therefore polite as may very an for or as "I," equivalent insulting equivalent for "you."

The word

it

In

the

sense

of

"you,"
use of

it it

formerly had the honorific n

prefixed.

The rude
Danna

came

in

through the dropping

of the honorific.
68.
for

Scnsei,

san, Heika,

the third person

("he"

or

and Kakka " she

are as appropriate

"),'

when speaking

THE PRONOUN.
politely, as for the

second.

Anata may
in

also occasionally also


for

be

heard in that sense.

Much

use

"he" and

" " she " are ano Kilo, " that honourable lit.
onna,

that person,"

more

politely ano o kata,

side;" ano oloko,

" that

woman
the

;"

ano

ojiisan,
;" etc.

ano obasan, "that old lady


side,"
i.e.,

"that man;" ano "that old gentleman ;" " the Muko, lit. opposite

other

party,"

not infrequently represents

"he," "she," or "they." Are, "that," is also sometimes " used for " he or " she," but it is not at all polite, and more
"it." The vague it means i.e., "one," which corresponds to French " on " and German "man," has no equivalent in Japanese. " to Thus, clap one's hands" is simply te wo lalaku, lit.
often
refers

to

things,

English

"you"

or

"hands

(accus.) clap."

"You
is

can't tell"

has no means of knowing ") " might equally well stand for
N. B.

(meaning "one simply shiremasen, which

can't tell."

as an equivalent of it is not really so, as it always retains the French impersonal " " " other its proper sense of person," people." people," especially htlo has been " on." But

The word

adduced by some

69.

Like other nouns

nouns
suffixes

indeed more frequently than other the so-called personal pronouns may take the plural

mentioned on page
:

29.

The

following forms are

sanctioned by usage

watakushi-domo
boku-ra

anaia-gala

omae- [sajtomae- \san^\ tachi


we.
sensei-gala

scssha-domo
sessha-ra
oira (for orc-ra, very

danna-sliu

you.

vulgar)

danna-gala
kimi-tachi
' '

ano
ano

liilo-tachi

o kala-gata

"

they.

Kisama-lachi
temae-t(a}chi-ra

are-ra (rude)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
N. B.
Observe, however, that ivalakushi-domo
it

49
is

often

used for

the singular,

being slightly humbler than ivatakushi. Oira, too, may be heard in the singular, the line between singular and plural, as already
^[

noticed in

44, being less sharply

drawn

in

Japanese than in European

Note, moreover, that the Japanese never use their words for " " we," as we sometimes do ours, to signify you and I." They only use them to signify " other people and I," or rather " I and my fellows." " " We," in the sense of you and I," may be expressed by such a phrase

languages.

as anatn to

rendered
for

to ; but more often the meaning is approximately some other idiomatic way by employing an honorific. Siv, instance, ^j 445, No. 115, and ^[ 449, No. 16.

wataknshi

in

70.

Like other nouns, the so-called personal pronouns


Thus, just as we say
h
,,

may

he followed hy postpositions.

ano
that

ko
child

no
of

oya, parent,

}
\

((

fa

so also do

we say

watakushi no oya,

}" the
'

parent of me,"
"

of parent,
oya,

i.e.,

'my
tiito

parent.
i.e.,

omae no
(in

"the parent of you,"


inferior)
;

"your parent"
" the parent of

addressing an
i.e.

ano

no oya,
;" etc.

that person,"

"

his (or her) parent

Just as

we say
ko
\
{
,

Sono
Tiutt

ivo hidoi me ni child (accus.) juwsh c^cs io

awasemashita,
ca used-lo- in cct,

He treated that i. e. child very badly,"

"

so also

may we

say

There

is.

therefore,

no such thing

as a

declension of pro-

nouns or any special


71
-

set of possessive

pronouns.
connection with the
is

The

chief thing to

remember

in

Japanese nouns answering to our personal pronouns

the

50

THE PRONOUN,
Except in cases extremely rare use that is made of them. the information or of special emphasis concerning antithesis,

means persons which is in European languages conveyed by Thus of pronouns, is left to be gathered from the context.
the single or

word kaerimasMa

"he, she or they


drift

mean " I have come back," have come back," according to the
will

previous

of the conversation.

Kore kara furo


Tliis

wo tsukaimashoA
(accus.)

i.e.,

"Will

now
almost

frotn,

ItntJi

will-use,

f take a bath."

naturally

means " 1

will

now
in

take

my

bath

;" for it is

a matter of course

that,

individual can speak only for

such personal things, each I can only eat my himself.

own

dinner, probably love only my own country, and work To be, thereonly to support my own wife and children. fore, forever reiterating and harping on the words "I,"

"me," "my," "you," "he, "etc., seems to Japanese ears A Japanese will often disabsurd and tedious tautology. course for half-an-hour without using a single personal
The perpetual recurrence of watakushi and anata pronoun. is one of the surest signs of a clumsy foreign speaker, who
translates his

own idiom into Japanese, instead of thinking These remarks will lead impersonally as the Japanese do. the intelligent student to observe that most of the examples
scattered throughout

the present

work

are susceptible of

being variously
it

we have Where, " correct to insert be would often he," equally put "I," " " The use of "you," that is she," or they," in its stead.
rendered.
for instance,

of the second person, in English generally necessitates

some

Japanese phrase, especially if an equal or This point will be elucidated in the superior be addressed. Chapter on Honorifics, \ 392 et seq., a chapter which

change

in the

the student would do well to read through in connection

REFLECTIVE, DEMONSTRATIVE, ETC., PRONOUNS.

51

with what has here been said on the subject of persona

pronouns.

REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.

The word "self" may be expressed by jibun (less often loyjishiri), commonly followed by the postposition de, thus
72.
:

watakushi jibun.

'

..

"myself."

waiakustnjishin,

omaejibun (not honorific), v '


../

go jibun (honorific), N. B. The above occur only when


emphasised.
(Conf.
^[

"yourself."
the idea of "self" has to
1x3

71, also

324.)
is

Another word

for

"self"

onore,

which

is

also

used

as an insulting equivalent for

"you." Waga, a Classical form whose proper meaning is "my," " may still sometimes be heard in the sense of my own,"
" our " own," one's own," thus
:

waga
patrie."

kuni,

"my
its

country,"
is

"one's
confined

country,"
to
set

"/
"we,"

But

use
is

chiefly

speeches

and

lectures.
lit.

So

that of the

phrase

waga

hai,

more

"my

fellows."

DEMONSTRATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, AND INDEFINITE

PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS.


73.

The

demonstrative,

interrogative,

and

indefinite

pro-

nouns, being marked by certain correspondences of sound and formation, may be best studied by means of the table

which we give on the next page.


the

The adverbs

derived from

same roots are also given there, so that the learner may embrace all the kindred forms in one glance. He
should
nearer
'

note that
'

that

"

Japanese, (sore, Latin

like
'

Latin,

distinguishes
'

a
"

'

isle")

from a further

'

that

THE PRONOUN,

~~

Page 52, second line top right-hand column. For dmnn ? read dono ?

(arc, Latin "ille

'),

the tormer being used of things not very

distant
to,

and of things connected with the person spoken while the latter is applied to things which are distant
of.

or have relation to the person spoken

He must

note

furthermore
substantive
e.g.

French, distinguishes Japanese, forms of these pronouns from adjective forms, " kore, celui-ci," but kono, "ce."

that

like

75.

forms
(far)

Here are a few examples of the use of the substantive kore, "this;" sore, "that" (near); are, "that"
;

do> e

t>

"which?" dare
"

f*

or

more

politely donata

/>

"who?"; nani? what ?" Kore wa omoshiroi. (i.e., " As


m.i
as-fot;

for this, it

is

amusing,"
is

amusinff.

| or
(

more

briefly,
is

"This

fun."
in

Sore wa, nan desu ?


tts-f<ur,

" What

that (which

you have
that

Are wa,

wimtHs(i)9 (your hand, etc.) ?" dare no uchi desu /> j " Whose
of house
is(it)?

is

house

Truit as-fw, wJio

(over 1(0

there) ?"
?

Dore ni shimashb P\
WliicU to
tiliall-da?
)

Which

shall x take

wo
y f*.l (accus
. \

-9/' ,/<> tro


.

/>

j
f
-

" What are you doing


(Said to an inferior.
I

?"
po!

The

,_ 1 .i.i i^_

Ar,,^,

,-

...

o\

Dare
Who
76.

"

ga

kimashita
1l(ts .

j>

j
1

Who

has

come

?"
re " iaShita '

(-,)
are

come

wou

jr Serf Wmef
" that"
iu
:

Here
?"

"

some examples
" that
"

of the adjective forms kono,


;

this ;" sono,

(near)
in

ano,

" which

(far)

dono

r>

and of the forms


nedan. nedan.

na and

Kono Konna
Sono

" This price." " Tliis sort of

price."

mama.
koto. koto.

" That way

;"

"as

it

is."

Sonna
So
in

"That

sort of thing."

Ano

takai yam a.

("That
|

high mountain (over there)."

54

THE PRONOUN.

Anna

tohbmonai

kake-ne.

f" Such

an extravagant price

That-Uka outrageous

overcharge. | as that."

In addressing the shopkeeper who was (Said in speaking to a third party. guilty of the overcharge, one would say sonna, not anna, because sonna corresponds to the second person, anna to the third.)

Dono
What

tsumori
intention

de

f> I

<

With what

intent i on ?"

by ?

Do iu tsumori de f>\ Hotv say intention Inj ?


'

With what kind of nten tion


i

?"

77.

What we

have here,

for

convenience' sake,

termed

adjective forms, are not adjectives properly so called.

Kono

was originally two words,


no,

viz. ko,

"this" (substantive), and

"of," so that kono meant "of this." Similarly in the and dono /", which meant respectively " of that" (nearer) or "of him," " of that" (further) or "of
case tf sono, ano,

him," and

"of which?"

They

still
:

preserve

this

their

ancient sense in certain contexts, as

sono lame, " (for the) sake of that." sono oya, his (or her) parent."
' '

Similarly, kono ncdan,

translated above

by "this price,"

may

also

mean on an occasion "

the price of this."

" this Konna, "such," is a contraction of kono yd na, lit. manner being," i.e., "being in this way," "being thus." Similarly sonna is from sono yd na, anna from ano yd na, and donna P from dono yd na ? Ko iu, "such," means literally "thus (they) say," i.e. "people call it thus." So iu, a iu, and do iu P have a similar etymology.
78.

Before words of Chinese origin, the adjective- pronouns


"

"

this

and "that" are often expressed by the

syllable id
in

(^),

a Chinese vocable properly signifying


:

"the one

question," "the actual one," as


td-nin,

" the person

in question,"

"

"

this (or that) person.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
no
this-manth
of
sue,

55

of the monlh<

Some
will

of the adverbs given in the paradigm on page 52 be found exemplified in Chapter X, ^[ 368.

indefinite pronouns are formed from the interpronouns by the addition of the interrogative particle ka, of the postpositions mo and de mo, "even," and of the emphatic particle zo. Thus dare de 2 mo 3 " any
79.

The

rogative

body/'

"every body,"
are
:

is

literally

"even 8 by 2
use
of the

whom?

"

Here

a few

examples of the

indefinite

pronouns

Omochaya nani ka.

"

Toys or something."
ka,

(The words nani

meaningless application that often lias in Colloquial English.)

here have the same vague "or something


1

'

Mala donata ka
Again
sonicbotli/

miemashlta.
. .

(Polite.)

(familiar.)
h<ts-ai>i)<>ai-c<l

Somebody else )" has come, nas or N< Other guests have
f ( '

arrived."

Nan
iijui

de ka

mo

yoroshii kara,
(is)f/ood

te-garui
kudasai.
cotutcsceiut.

mono
thing

wo

"Anything will do. Just give us something or other which it will take no trouble
to get ready.
"
(Said, for instance, by a hungry traveller arriving late at a hotel.)

.sonict7iii)f/-oi--othcr east/

(acctis.

dashiie

Dochira g
Which (nom.) uood

gozaimasho ?

...

("Which \ ..
,

vf

>

the (of ., .,
?"

will

be best
(sore

Sore wa, dochira de mo yoroshii.


That as-foi;
either
(is}f/ood.

"
(

Oh

wd) either
Well."

[will

do quite

Donaia

ka

ide ni

^m
nailc

onmasu ka r
in
''

THE PRONOUN.
Je,

donala

mo

o ide ni natte\
j

"No,
arrived."
.

no
"

one

has

orimascn.

(More lit. Everybody has unarrived" Conf. H 433.)

Nan

no

sewcf de*
lit.

mo

shite

}
-

kuremasu\

cwW ctoW
u??iasu\

He
"

T,

Wl11
,,

hel P

>'

ou

m
3

y way.

Dare mo 2
1

so

Everybody

1'2

says so

."

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
80.

The Japanese language


relative

has neither relative pronouns

nor

words of any

made good by
is

Their absence is generally the use of a construction in which the verb


sort.

prefixed to the
be.

noun
the

attributively,

just as

an adjective

Japanese not only say "a good " a bad but they say "a comes man," man," etc. man," " the went "a " man," instead of a man who goes man," " the man who went." who "a man This comes," goes,"

might

Thus

is

illustrated in the following

examples
"

Kuru
Kita

kilo.

" The person who comes."


(Or

Comes person.
Mto.
person.

The people who come.

')

" The person who came."


(Or "The people who came.")
\

Kino

Ma

}ato.

"The

person (or persons)

who came

Yesterday eatne person.

yesterday."

Ano yama
Tliat.

no

zdchi

ni

mountain's sntntn.it na iru old haeie


is

on, yroiviny

large

The large pine-tree which grows on the top of that mountain "
over there.

maisu.
pittc.

Shinakucha
As-for-not-iloinf/,

naran
is-tiot

koto desu.
t/tiiif/ (it)is.

(Conf.

\ 348

" It is a thing which it won't do not" to do, i.e., "It is a thing which must be done."

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
8
1.

57
the

As shown

in

the

foregoing

examples,

English

and verb are represented in Japanese by a verb alone which is used parlicipially, or, as it is more usual to
relative

say in Japanese grammar, attributively prefixed to the noun. In English this construction is allowable only in the case
^

of participles, as "the shipwrecked sailors," ''the shrieking women and children." In Japanese it is the actual tense-

forms of the
speaking,
all

verb

that

are

thus

employed.

Properly
are capable

the tenses of the indicative

mood

of being thus used attributively in relative constructions. In the Book Language they are all constantly so used.

But the Colloquial exhibits a strong tendency to limit this way of speaking to the "certain past" and the "certain " present or future," the merely probable" tenses (e.g. koyb,
kitarb}
in a

being rarely if ever now heard in such contexts, few special idioms, such as
:

save

Narb
Will-probaMy-be

koto
fact

nara.

j.Tf n0 ooihW

ffnnf >l "'

^
1

ij(-if)-is. \

SW

3/iJM

Arb
(Thc're-]tviU-probaUij-be

hazu

wa

nai.

" There ought


not to be."

necessity as-for, is-not. j

Observe that as the Japanese language, generally speaking, abhors the use of the passive, the verbs employed in relative sentences are almost always neuter or active ones, thus
:

Nanseti
Sliipa-reck

ui aimasfiila~suifu-ra.
to,

"The

shipwrecked

met

sailors.

[sailors.
(

Haruka

oki ni

mieru fune.
vessel.

"The
be Seen

vessel that

is

to

Afar, offing in, appears

far

"

away

at Sea.

Hepburn sensei no
Hepburn senior
/'tedictionary.
'.

koshiraela
(he)preptired

<

"The
was

dictionary written by
i.e.,

which
Dr.

/Hepburn," \

"Dr.
"

Hepburn's dictionary.

58
Otokichito
Lit.

THE PRONOUN.
iuannaino mono.
whom
people
\

"The
kichi,"

"the guide (annai no mono,


(iu)

i.e. >

Or

guide called Oto" Otokichl the

person of guidance), of

say

that

(to)

he

is

Otokichi."

Arashi
Lit.

to

iu

mono.

}
(

"the thing (mono} of which r people say (/) that (to) it is a I typhoon (aras/ii.)"

.. " What
,.,
.

,,

is

l-

simply,

called a typhoon, \ a typhoon.

,,

Amenka
.V.
/>'.

to

m hum.
.

nca,

" The call Amecountry people r J ,, ,\ A z.tf. simply, "America.


. .

Tins impersonal but active construction with


verbs, corresponding
to

to in

and other

synonymous

the

English

passive,

must be

thoroughly mastered, as it is constantly in the mouths of the people. It is often used for making general assertions, such as

Dogs are faithful creatures," or The dog is a faithful creature."


Lit.
is

Inu

to iu

mono

iva,

chugi no ant

mono

desu.

a dog (inu),

As-for (wo.) the thing {mono} of which people say (iif) that (to} it it is (desu) a thing (mono} which is (ant) of (no} faithful-

ness (cJwgi}.

Here our

the five words inu to in

single word mono ma.

"

"

dog

" or " dogs

is

rendered by

82.

This use of the active where a European would expect


shiranailnto
"

the passive sometimes causes an

Thus
not

may

signify either

appearance of ambiguity. "a person who does

who is not known (to me)," i.e. But as a rule the person whom I do not know." context sufficiently indicates which way the phrase should For instance, yonde 1 shimatla 2 /ion 3 cannot be taken.

know

or " a person

"a

possibly

mean "the book which

has finished reading," as


It

such a collocation of words would have no sense.


only

can

mean "the book 3 which


1

(I,

they,

etc.)

have finished 2
2

reading
1
1

."

Sumat?
It

tochi^

cannot mean " the


2

locality

which

resides ."

must mean " the

locality

in

which (so-and-so)
:

resides ."

The

following are similar instances

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

59
(I,

Tochaku
Arrival

shiia toki.

"The
)

time when

they,

did

time.

j CtC.

arrived."
I

Wakaranai

koto.

"Something which
understand."

don't

Understand-not thing.

Te

"That which ni motleru mono. j in is-hoidin</ thina. in his hand.


just given of

he

is

holding

83.

The example

sumau

tochi,

"
signifying

the

which so and so resides," exemplifies a remarkable Japanese idiom according to which the preposition that frequently accompanies an English relative pronoun is
locality in

always omitted, thus


,,.
..

Jy,
iftndinff

no/uruu
of

"
7 (

old

nalla has-vecome

bindin
I

book ofivhich the h become

ooolt.

"Is 10
in

that1 the hotel

which

you

staid

'

7'8

last

year ?"

le

ivatakushi
tne
,

wa
ns-fot-

tomarimasen
stay-not

No;

ga

saku-nen

lomodachi

ga
to

whereas

iomarimashile,
having-stald,

friend last-year (iiom.} ni of ki taisb ni


rjreatli/

No, / did not stay is the ; but (ga) it .hotel in which a friend
there

"

spirit

mine staid last year, and with which he was

irimasJnta yadoya desu.


entered
hotel
is.

much
kono

pleased."

Dono
Which hen
no suishb
f

yama
mountain no
's

kara

this from, meibulsu

"From
these

which of mountains come

neiyhltourhood

famous-production the
issue
?

wa
as-for.

demasu ka P

crystals, for which this locality is noted ?"

s cri/slals

60
Walakushi

THE PRONOUN. ga
(nom.)

Yokohama
Yokohama

I
ni-jii

no\
's

"He
ivhom
I

is

servant

ban

got by applying

ye

tanomimashitara,

twenty utnnber to u-Jien-Jiad-applied, uke-alle kara achira

Mere from, yokoshimashita boy desu.


oo,
is.

to the Grand Hotel at and for Yokohama, whose good behaviour yuaranteebw
,
, ,

guarantee.

has been largely adopted by the boy " Europeanised Japanese in the sense of servant." We have even heard onna no boy ( !) used to signify a " maid-servant."
7
.

B.

The English word

"

"

Closely similar are such cases as warui rikutsu, signifying not "a bad reason," but "the reason why (so-and-so) is

bad."
84.

The

terseness of the Japanese expression

as

compared

with ours should not occasion any insuperable difficulty to the careful student. After all, we use a somewhat similar

idiom

in

English when
' '

we speak

of

"a

shaving-brush,"

a brush with which a man helps himself to shave ;" meaning of " a smoking-room," meaning "a room in which people smoke ;" of " a stepping-stone," meaning " a stone on which one may step," &c. &c. " Several "who's" or " which's are often attached in
,

85.

In such cases the Japanese English to the same noun. language uses the gerund (in set speeches the indefinite form) for the verbs of every clause, excepting that im-

and

mediately preceding the noun qualified (see *^ 27% et seq. f 422 et seq.). An instance of this construction is

given in the example on the foregoing page, where tomarimashtle is a gerund and irimashita a past tense, both

But this idiom the referring qualifying the \\ordyadoya. of several relative clauses to a single noun is not a favourite one
in Colloquial Japanese.
in

The example

at the top of this

page shows,

the case of the word tanomimashilara,

the

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
avoidance of such a construction.
of relative phrases
other way.

Indeed a great number


are turned in

even single phrases


:

some

For instance
no 2 waruku*
feel
6

Mune

nan?
to

hanashi*,

"A
lit.

story which

it

makes one
4

sick

listen

to;"

"chest1

V
',

bad 3

becoming story ." Afusume 1 ga z Mori*


has one daughter whose
3

alle\

O
is

ffaru*

to

mbshimasi?
lit.

"He
1

name
b

O
7

Haru,"
1

"

Daughter
5

one-person being/ (people) say

that* (she is)

Haru

."

Kesa no 2
1

yosu* dc*
11
,

wa furu*
,

ka

/o

omottara*, sukkari

haremas/iita
this

i.e.

"The

weather,

which looked like rain


;"

morning, has cleared up beautifully


3
2
1
,
'

more

lit.
9

"By
that

appearance of this-morning 6 7 10 " rain ?


Will-(it)
," quite

when-(I) had-thought
has-cleared ."
11

(it)

86.

The words

lokoro

no,

lit.

"of

place," are sometimes

used by the educated classes in relative phrases as a sort of


substitute for the relative

" that."

" " who," which," and pronouns But these words really add nothing to the sense,
Chinese idiom.
for
,

and only encumber the construction.


to the slavish imitation of a

They owe their Thus


:

origin

Kuru
Kind

iokoro no htto,
kiia lokoro

Kuru
Kino

Kilo.

no

Kilo,

kila

Jiito.

Shinakucha naran iokoro


no koto desu,

,,

Shinikucha naran
koto desu.
t*q

r
.

B.

The

student

is

recommended

to

compare the Japanese and

English texts of any of the longer pieces given in Part II of this work. Such comparison, carefully carried out, will teach him better than

anything else the manner in which Japanese thought moves under circumstances which, in our European idiom, demand the employment
of relative
to

enough

pronouns or other relative words. The subject is important reward any amount of trouble taken on its behalf.

CHAPTER
The

V.

Postposition.

THE POSTPOSITION PROPER.


87.

Japanese postpositions correspond


serving like

for the

most

part to

English prepositions,
relations of

them

to

indicate those

words which Latin, German, and other Aryan


of the

languages
inflections.

older type

denote by the use of case-

There are two kinds of postpositions,


proper and quasi-postpositions
(^[

viz.

postpositions

141

et seq.).

The

postpositions proper, with their most usual significa:

tions, are as follows

DE.
88.

De

has two widely different uses.

sense of " by,"


often "in."

whence
its

also

"with,"

One is to render the "by means of," less


offers
first

This

first

acceptation
at

no

difficulty.

In

its

second acceptation, de seems


all,

sight to

mean
is

nothing at
desirous

and thus puzzles the foreign student who


its

of accounting for

De
is

etymologically a of an obsolete substantive verb. gerund


is

here

presence in the sentence. corruption of nite, itself the


Its

proper sense

this de has "being." sunk so completely to the level of a mere grammatical It is a moot particle as not to need translating into English.

therefore

But

in

most contexts

point whether what was originally one word has branched out into these two significations, or whether two words

DE.
distinct

63
particle.

originally

have coalesced into a single

Here

are a

few examples of de meaning "by," "with,"

"in:"
Nazva 1 de3
l

shibaru*.
kiru*.

Hasa?ni de*

" To tie 3 2 1 by means of a rope ." " To cut 8 with 2 scissors1 ."
de\
by,
(

(accus.\ tstmaide okc /

Inu Dog

wo

kusari
chain

"Chain up

the dog !" (Said to a coolie.)

fastening jnit!

Kore de gaman nasai!


This
ivitli,

"Please be contented with

patience deign!
de,

|this."
\

Kono kawa
This
ricvt-

ai

ga

in,ti'out(nom).(

Isuremasu ka ?
'-'

Are there any trout to be C caught in this stream ?"


" What
Japanese
(More
,

"

Kono
T,u,

mono
tJn,.,,

zva.
S -fo,:

1S

thlS

Called

Nihon-go

de

na?i

to

?"
lit.

"

I<t)xtn-langitagfi by,

irhat that

As

for this thing, in

moshimasu ka ?
It will
first

what do people say

that

be gathered from these examples that de has

its

signification

("by,"

"with,"

"in")
it
:

chiefly

when
means

construed with transitive verbs.

De
"

has

its

second

signification,

i.e.,

properly

being,"

in

such cases as the following

Ima no Now '#


dajaku
iniloli-itt

kuruma-ya
.jinriltislia-nian

zva,
as-for,

man

"My
is

present

jinrikisha-

no good,

he

is

so

de
iM'litg,

yaku
-usefulness

ni indolent."
to

latanai.
stttnits-not.

" The (More lit. present jinrikisha-man, being indolent, is of

no use.")
beppin
efttti-qmiliti/

Yoppodo
Very

de

" She
(More

is

"

an uncommonly
"She
is

briny [ pretty girl.


lit.
j

am.
is.

(Said, e.g., of a singing-girl.)

being a

'

very extra quality.")

64
San-ji
TJircc-Jiows

THE
han
Jialf

POSTPOSITION.

de
being

gozaimasu.
is.

"

It

is

"

(being)

half-

\ past three.

The

first

of these

phrases illustrates a construction with

what are called

"
quasi-adjectives/'

which
|[

will

be touched

on again and 10).

in ^[ 200,

and exemplified in - 201 (examples 9 The second and third phrases are much more

important, showing, as they do, the most usual manner of expressing our verb "to be," viz, by means of de aru, dc

De aru is arimasu, de gozaimasu (see also T 341 ct seq. ). commonly contracted to da, de gozaimasu to desu, less often
and somewhat
gasu
de
If^f
;

vulgarly
in

to

de gozansu,
lenses,
for

de gcsu,

or de

similarly
dcshita

the other

instance datta for

atta,

for

de goz.umasJiita, and so on (see also

233, 270,

343,

and

would
han

therefore generally

The foregoing examples 344). become Yoppodo beppin da, San-ji


is

desu.

The
:

following

a very

common

phrase

illustrat-

ing this

idiom

Sayodegozamtasu.
.So desu.

(Polite.))
j

..

Tha(

js

,.

yes

(Familiar.)

^[

de, in both its accepstrengthened by means of the postposition wa, especially in phrases expressing interrogation, negation, or

89.

It

happens not infrequently that


is

tations,

DC wa, something disagreeable. be contracted intoy'^. Thus


:

in

familiar talk,

is

apt to

Yoppodo
>,.

beppin

de

>

Isn

she

iva

vxtra^wlUy betefflsQ nai ka ?


}
'."

very
beppin

Yoppodo
;}

preUy ? ja nai

i*-tit

KonTI.IS

dc
I,,,

wa,

komarnnasu,

j,

nice*

dkim\ " I a m greatly bothered awn, L his/J ^Q Kore ja oki


\komanmasu.}

by
ni

DE AND GA.
90.

65

When

the substantive verb has a qualifying


it

phrase along with

after de, the

word or noun followed by de often

not that de has corresponds to an English nominative, nominative force so called, but because the any properly

word which we

treat as a

nominative

is

conceived of by the

Japanese as the means whereby, or the place in which, the action or state denoted by the verb occurs, for instance,
'

Cold water
(i.e.,

will

do

perfectly

well."

"You

need not

trouble

to

{' well.")
N. B.
"
it

bring hot water as

The Japanese

is,"
^|

stuck on to the end of


is

sentence should, properly speaking, have desYty it but, as will be further illustrated
;

in

429, the final verb

often omitted

when no ambiguity

is

likely

to ensue.

Htlotsu de yoroshiL
o-nv

"One

will

be

(More

politely, ffttotsit

im is-good. de yoroshiti gozaimasu.)


,

(enough
}

"

de o Scifu Government Jionoitrable In/, hri-age ni narimashlta.


pnrciMtse to
Juts-become.

"The Government
bought it," or been purchased " Government.
"It

\
}

has has
the

by

GA.
91.

The

original sense of

in certain

ga names of places and


"
;

is

"of,"

now
"

only preserved

in

a few locutions, such as


(the

Hoshi-ga-oka,

The Mound

of the Stars

name

of a part
. .

of/' Kamakura) ga snki, ga kiraf, "not fond of," "disliking;" " desirous of."

of

" fond

"
liking ;".
.

ga

hoshii,

Waiakushi

wa,
<is-fai;

tabako
tobacco

Me
dai-suki
great-fond

ga
of,

am

very

fond of

(desu).
(am).

smoking."

66

THE POSTPOSITION.
Sake

ga
of

kirai
ftdtiitf/

<lesu.
i

"I am
sake."

not

fond

of

in.

Mizu ga
Water
of,

hoshm
desirous

gozaimasu.
tun.

want some water."

92.

Ga

is

used as a sign of the nominative case, as


nai.
\

Kane ga

Money (nom.) isn't.

" There is no money ;" \hencc "I have no money."


{
)

Ame ga
Itm'n

futle kimashita.

(t

jt

(twin.} fffUinf/ Juts-come.

ms

corne on

o ra j n

"

Kono
Tills

kuruina

ga, furukute

jinriMsJui (MM.) ix'tny-oid

ikemasen.
is-no-ffo.

do

" This jinrikisha won't it is too old." ;

Isha

ni

mile
seeinf/

morau

ga

" You had


sult the
(More
get
(it)

Physician by,

to-rcceive (nom.~)

better condoctor about it."

yokaro.

" It lit. may be well to seen by the doctor.")

Sensci ga

nricmastiita.

j
(

"The
peared,"

i.e.,

teacher has has come.

ap-

Observe that the nominative use

has developed

out of

For instance, the etymological signification the genitive. " The of Kane ga nai is not-being of money ;" that of Sensei

ga miemashita is "The having-appeared of the teacher." Originally none of these sentences with ga were predicative. Modern usage alone has made them so, just as to borrow
an apt illustration from Mr. Aston the incomplete sentences of an English telegram or advertisement convey a predicative
sense to the

mind

of the reader.

Observe

too,

from the

example Isha ni mite morau ga yokaro,

that postpositions

may be

suffixed to

verbs as readily as to substantives,


phrases,

and

that verbs,

and indeed whole

may form

the subject

or object of other verbs.

GA.

67

93.

When

found
of

at

the end of a clause,

ga has an adverthe

sative

force,

which

"whereas"
is

is

most

literal

English

equivalent, but which

generally best rendered


to the
is

in practice

clause.
to a

by prefixing "yet" or "but" Sometimes the adversative force

following

softened

down

mere intimation of discontinuity between two successive states or actions, and then ga must be translated by "and " so or " and."
N. B. The
final

which reason we write masu

u of masu revives pretty distinctly before ga, for in all such examples.

Shina
Article

wa
as-for,

yoroshin
f /ood

gozaimasu\
is

"The
IS

article is a

ga,
whereas,
;.v.

nedan
price

ga
(nom.)

osoroshii
frigJitful

feelgood
7</ff7*

one,

but

the

gozaimasu.
N. B.
to

[price " I high.


)

frightfully

For such expressions

as osoroshii takai, see the second

N.

g~

181.

de hi Yama-michi wa " It got dark while Mountain-road in, day as-for, we were on the kuremashita tsure ga, ga darkened whereas, companions (twm.) mountain side ; but, as we were several datta ozei kara, ki-jblu were crowd of us together, we Iwcausc,
deshita.
felt

no alarm."

kon-do de, Fuji "This is the third time In/, F-uftii/anut time I have made ye to-san wa san-do-me dcsu ga, the ascent of Fusiis ascent to whereas,^ j fa as-f^thinl-tune to Hsu mo shi-awase

Watakushi

wa

Me

as-for, this

tuwttys teettttter-ovrCHimstancea

^^
.

ga

yd

'

^ozaimasu.
arc.

enou S h
'

(nom.) (,ood

? weather.

been ]u > have fine

in two 94. Sometimes ga with adversative force is repeated " either. .or :" consecutive clauses, after the manner of
. .

68
5

THE POSTPOSIT
Bankoku-koho

ga

arb

cither,

uotnetlihtf/

(iwm?)

tntti/-exist

gii t
oi' f

mada
still

mada
fttm

dori
right koto action

bakan
only

de
by,

wa

kalsu conquer
.

ga
(nom.}

dekimasen.
forthcoines-not

KA.

69
\
j
< t

Do

iu

wake
rca.tou

de
by,

konna
such
/* t>

wu,, do A^ you w
,,~,,
,

(] o such d

Wlial-soi-t-oj-'

baka 'taka na
foolish

koto
things

wo

sum

(ctcais.')

do ?

silly things as dns?" io an inferior. ) \

/'<s expresses a merely rhetorical or ironical sometimes nothing beyond a mere shade of doubt. question, In the latter case it corresponds to such English words as " " " perhaps :" might," may,"

96.

Sometimes

Aru mono
7:.,/.s/.s

ka ?
'.'

\ j

thim.i

in his senses would ever believe that such a thing exists ?"

"Who

J\fala

yuki

ga
(noi/i.)

furimasho
trill-pi-ohaUi/-fhU

Ayaln.
ID

snow mnoimasu.
think.

t
(

"I
snow

think
"

it

will

again.

tlmt

Mala
A,,<nn

yuki
.snow

ga
(nom.)

furimasho

"\mindined\n
snow again."

ka
'/

to

omawarcmasn.
can-think.
to

that

Suzuki

iu

Jiilo.

-A
(

man

called Suzuki."

SuznJti tJiat(they) call person.

>

Suzuki
Stt&ati

to

ka
? (they}

iu

hito.

"A

man

called,

if I

that

call person.

mistake not, Suzuki."


either

97.

Ka .......... ka means " or," " " whether ........ or :"


li

.......... or,"

ka
:

warui
bad

ka,
?,

shirimasen.
is-nnJ<now<iblc.

"I
it is

can't

tell

whether

Good

good
Is

Or bad."

"

Muku
rwnoyed
Tko
"simii-f/o

<tesu ka,
i.
'

mckki desu Pttfd to

^-p

it all

gold or only

jgiit?"

"Is it all (Or, (silver or only plated?")

ka, ?

do

shiyo

ka

to

\
I

how siuiii-do?"

ti,t

^m
whether
to

considering

omotte

imasu.

go or not."

yO
^f 98.

THE

POSTPOSITION.

Ka

verbs,

helps to form certain indefinite pronouns and ad" such as " somebody," something," "somewhere".

See the paradigm on page 52.

KARA.
^[99.

Kara means "from," "since," "because," "after:"

kara logo made wa, \ HOW far may it be Here indeed, tfc om here IQ the from, pass to top of anmasho r mo dono kurai ^ ie p ass ?" what, amount still proba&ly-iaf

Koko

Ni-san-ncn-zeii
Two-three- i/eur-bcfore

kara
.since,

hilo

" For the


three

last

people

ga
(no//i.)

fu-keiki
vinprosperity

da
is

to
tliat

ga,

honlb desu ka P
true
'

iimasu been saying that the times say Is this really are bad. the case ?"

years

people

two or have

whereas,

-itt

KutabiremasJnla
llace-f/ot-tired

kara,
because,

chotto
a-little

\
[

"I am

tired;

(so) let

yasumimasho.

ws rest a minute."

" to

N. B. Some speakers say kara shite (shllc is the gerund of sum, do ") for kara others say kara ni. The phrase mono dcsn kara or
;

tnon' desu kara,

lit.

" because

(it) is

thing,"

is

another favourite circum-

locution having the meaning of" because." The noun yzte, lit. " cause," or yue ni, almost lit, " because," is also in use, though perhaps sounding
just a
trifle

old-fashioned and

stiff.

100.

Kara has

the sense of

the gerund in
ilte

/e,

and

in a

"after" only when suffixed to few special locutions, as


:

kara,

"
" "
"

after

going,"

" "

after after

having gone."

mimasKUe kara,
korc kara,

after seeing," after this,"


after that,"

sure kara,

having seen." " henceforward." " and " next."


then,"

KARA AND

MADfe.

Jl

B. The past itt<t kara means " because he has gone ;" mimasJiila, kara means " because I have seen." Be very careful not to confuse
these two locutions, which differ only by the use of the

gerund

in e

when "after"
is

is

meant, and of the past tense in a when

"

because

"

meant.

N. B.

when

" at "

The Japanese often use " from " (kara, sometimes yori\ would come more naturally to English lips, as
:

Myonichi To-morrow
kara

no
's

cnzetsu

wa,

nan-ji

lecture as-for, hajimariinasu ? Gogo

ii-/iat-7iour\

"At

what

o'clock

from
kara

bey Ins
desn.
(it} is.

:'

(does the lecture begin iii-ji At two Xoon-after two-hours (to-morrow ?


I

o'clock in the afternoon."

from

}
is

The
last

idea

that the lecture, Ixjginning as


to

it

does at two o'clock, will

from two

some other hour not named.

Observe how
of

the
the

Japanese idiom retains

the verb "it is" (dcsu) at the end


it.

sentence, while English dispenses with

similar instance of this

occurs in the second example given just below under made.

MADE.
101.

Made means

"till,"

"

as far as,"
far,"

"

down

to,"

"to:"

Korc made.
Tetsudo
Ktnfwa,/

"Thus
doko
wliere
to

"hitherto," "till now."

wa,
as-for

made made

dckile\

How
ailway
fa

done
desu.
is?

L|

onmasu
ls"f

far is the finished?

/>

Milajin
Jlittijiri

As

/as

Mitaiiri."

as-f(tr-(ts

Watakushi no
-lie

hum
come

made,
till.

matte
traitiny

of

(.1

"Please " come.


(More
lit.

wait
"till

till

He
liif/

kudasai.
j

my
'

condescend.

coming.")

list*

made 2 mo\

" Ever
\
( (Lit.

lon -"
till 2

" forever/

even 3

when. 1 )

n / i made 72 DuK(r mo
^V.

<A | tance.

"Ever
,;

so far,"
(Lit.
iV.

"for any
till*

dis'

even^

where.

B.

for made ni in the sense " by," see

B. at end of

136.

72

THE

POSTPOSITION.

102.

Mo

repeated,
lisu

means "even," "also," "and," "too." mo ...... mo means " both ...... and :"
(

When

lit.

made mo.

" Even

till

when,"

i.

e.,

{"forever."
Walakushi mo mairimasu.

"
\
(

I will

go too."
mustn't forget

Kore mo
'Phis
iso,

wasurecha
as-for-foryettiwj,

"And you
tnis

either;" or
forget this."
It is a

"Nor must

ikemasen.
}

you
"

ta-no-go.

Ka
MvHWtUoes

mo
also,

nomi
fleas

mo
also,

\
(

place where there

m
tnunerous

lokoro

desu.
J
is.

are p ] ent y both of mOSquitOCS and of fleas."

plww

Nat

kolo
ftet,

mo gosaimasw.
common
a
idiom.)

"It cannot be
are

J therc

nonCj

said that or simpl

laa

('I'his is

a very

Construed negative " neither ...... nor," thus


with
:

verb,

mo ...... mo

means

Yoku mo ivaruku mo
Good
also,

nai.

"

It

is

neither

bad

also is-not.

| bad.

"

good nor

Mo
"
of
in
its

is

sometimes placed
"
(see
"[[

after ka,

when
in

the latter

means

perhaps

Japanese something " even," but can hardly be represented proper force of
96).
:

It

retains

the English translation, thus

Mala kuru ka rai-nen Again coming-year come ?


mo
even

\
(_

"Perhaps

may

Come

shiremasen.
cannot-ltnotv.

again next year/'


to the con-

N. B.
cessive

For mo serving to form expressions analogous


see

mood,

289.

*.Not to be confounded with the adverb mo, for which sec

373.

MOTTE.

73

MOTTE.
103.

hold,"

Mode, properly the gerund of the verb motsu, "to " is in Written Japanese the usual word for by,"
In the Colloquial
it

"thereby."

survives only as a sort


little

of emphatic particle,

which

is

moreover

used except

Thus hanahada moite is the by old-fashioned speakers. same as hanahada, " very," but emphasised ima motte may be rendered by "even now," or by the help of some such
;

word

as

"

very," thus

Mukashi
.ln<-icnt-tiine

kara

from, ai-kaivarazu

ima now

motte ^

"

It is

a shop which has

ni iiln4il(f/-(Jtii{/iii{j-not

carried on a good trade well from old times down to


this very

went
\.
/>.

mise

dcsu.
/.*.

day."

sells (intrans.} sfiop

prefixed

to

Ai, the equivalent of our word "mutually," is often thus verbs by pedantic speakers. It is a relic of the Book

Language, and has little or no meaning now. This sentence is a good example of the apparent ambiguity of relative constructions in Japanese, which was pointed out in ^[ 82. The speaker of course means to say
that the things in the shop sell well ; but he seems to say that
it is

the

shop

itself

which

sells well.

When
is

de

is

" used in the sense of " by or " with," motle


it

often suffixed to

by

all

classes of speakers, thus


[
>

Hocho
Knife

de
&>/

(motte)

kiru.
to-ctit.

To

Cl]t

wkh
\Y

a knife/

>

Nawa
Kazc
aotte

de

shibaru. (motte) '


to-tic.

{
)

<Tr H^ JULIO
"The
ming

-i'-h 1 1 1
1

-,

ct

" ror^ O L) c

de (motte)

to

ga

masu.
is.

slammiiw

^,,
NAN,
see
^f

on

door keeps slamaccount of the

For

NA

and

197

74

THE

POSTPOSITION.

m
([

104.

The

original sense of ni

is

"
\

in,"

"

into,"

" to " there


in

Kono

hen

ni
in,

kiji

Are
nheasantS

no
^his

Tills neif/JibourJiood

pheasants

{_

wa
tts-f'oi',

imasen ka t
arc-not
?
this
j

neighbourhood
fifth

?"

N. B.

Compare

example with the


is.

on
is

p. 63,

and note that

de serves to indicate the place where something

done, ni the place

where something merely

Kono
TJvis

kamo
wild-duck

wo
(acctes.),

ryori-nin
coolwif-pcriton

)
(

MJ

Please
j
i

hand
.

this
i

ni
to,

watasMte
lutnd.in*/

kudasai.
contlescend.

C
"'J'his

cook
is

"

the

first

time
to

Hajimeie
Huvittg-begtiti)

o
lioiioui'dble

me have had
eyes

the

honour
it is

meet

ni kakarimashila.
in
(/) Jiuve-Jtimy
.

you."
(A phrase which
polite to use

when introduced

considered to a

new
105.

acquaintance.)

Ni

has

many

other

idiomatic

uses,

of which

the

following are the chief, viz. With a passive verb, ni corresponds to " by," thus

Osoroshtku domo

ka

<.

Oh

have

been
the

m
by

really

mottoes

sasaremasJnta.
htivv-been-8tuit</.

frig htfully

Stung mosquitoes."

by

Ame

ni furi-komerarcmastiita.
u-cre-Jicpt-in.

Itain by

" We were ( kept in by [the rain."

A kindred idiom is found in the ni corresponding to our " by "or " with," in such phrases as
:

Me
Itcui*

ni miru

mono,

mimi\
f

What
s

one

sees

with

things.

[ one sears.

NI.

75

06.

With a causative

verb, ni denotes the person


:

who

is

caused to perform the action, thus

Boy
107.

ni

( <
,

"I
.

will

make

the

boy look

sagasasemasno.
the
:

Suffixed to

indefinite

form of a verb, ni means

"

(in order) to," thus

Ueno
Ueno
nee
to

no
>s

sakura ctorw-Uoroiiu

wo
(accus.)

\ f

I want to go to see lhe che rry-bloSSOmS at

Ueno."

ivant-to-yo.
It is

N. B.

meaning. When, as often happens, an infinitive, it preserves its original

only with the indefinite form of the verb that ni has this it follows the present tense used as
force, thus
:

Michi
hone

ga

narume,
orcmasu.

ito<nls (turn.) iteltiv-bad,

arnku w,ib

ni\
in,
(

bad

it

is

fea rfully

hard

ga

bones (noin.) break (intrans). iva Mada nerti ni Mill to-slccp to ns-for
1

\walking."
hayai.
(it is)
\

" It

is

still

too early to

early,

go

to ted."

08.

Ni

suffixed

to

nouns

serves

to
:

form

expressions

corresponding to European adverbs, as


daiji,

heia,

ima,

care "importance," " a bad hand (at) ;" " the

'

'

"
;

daiji ni,

"carefully."

heta

"
ni,

unskilfully."

present

moment," ima
(at) ;"

"
ni,

presently."

" now
j'ozu,

;"

"a good hand


"splendour;"

jozu

"
ni,
ni,

skilfully."

rippa,

rippa

"splendidly."
]f

(See also
109.

64.)

When

several

things are enumerated, ni often


:"

means
be8
i.

" and " besides the foregoing,"


Biint ni 2
teppo-mizif mashb*.
,

Lit.

Besides 2
\vine
7 3
,

beer 1
6
,

budo-shi?
moiie
1

ni

4
,

sides

we-will-go
e.

wo*

iki-

carrying

"We

gun-water
take

will

beer,

claret,

and soda-water."

76

THE
Hana>
hito*
2

POSTPOSITION.

"
zva

sakura

.,

J flowerSj

The

cherry

is

we? bushi \
As-for
2

(A proverb.)
flowers
1
,

and the warrior ( kjn kjng of men>


is)
4 6

the king of the

Lit.

(the best

the cherry-blossom
,

3
;

and-to-the-foregoing-it-may-be-added-that 7 5 beings (the best are) warriors


,
.

as-foi

human-

NO.
no. No means "
of/' or
-

denotes the possessive case


( 3 " The president

AmerM
.,
-.

no'

.,-

_o

of

the

DaOoryf.
j

United

Neko

no 2

lsu?ne*.

"

A
,,

cat'V claw^V

the

mdefinite

.'
to be.
>*

r,the form of
)

"
V
.

"Way

of being,"
>

verb aru,

"

Justasit i s/

KaUalakanno
BauffM only

shina.
rtidc.

Something K oughte (More


(

"

I liave
<

only just
article

lit.

An

of quite reC ent buying. ")

We
native

have already noticed,


in

when

treating

of the post-

position ga, the genitive origin of

expressions Japanese. exemplified by no, though less frequently in the Colloquial than in the Written Language, thus
:

many apparently nomiThe same tendency is

Kisha
Train

no
's

tsuko

sum

"
tokit

senro
the

It is

dangerous
line
is

to

passage does

time, 'line

cross
,

the
lit.

when

wo
(acctts.)

yokogitcha
as-for-crosshif/,
(is)

abunai.

train

dangerous. (It would be more polite to say abuno gozaimasu.}

(More
of the

passing." time passing of the

"

at the

train.")

in. No

is

used

in

attributive phrases
it

either in lieu

of,

or

suffixed to, the other postpostions,

being a rule that

none

of the postpositions excepting

110

can connect two nouns in

such phrases.

An example

or two will

make

this clearer

NO.

77
j
(

(1)

Kono ura
77//.V

ni ike
in,

ga gozaimasu.
V*.

tint*

pond (nom.)
ike.

at the

" There is a pond back of this.


''

(2)

Kono ura no
gozaimasu.

wa, asd

" The pond


of this
,v,
is

at the
"

back

\
,

shallow.
(

(3)

kimashita. CoHHtrv from, telegram (nom.) has-come.

Kimi

Tr

kara

"I
.

have
t
,

re-

dempo

ga

C1

} ^ (from home.

(4)

Kuni kara no dempo.

"

telegram from home."


first

In the above predicative phrases (the

and the

third),

each English preposition

is

rendered by the Japanese postit.

position properly corresponding to

But turn the phrase

attributively (the second and fourth), and no either supplants,

or is suffixed to, that postposition (no for ni in the second, kara no for kara in the fourth).

In this

manner
;

no,

"of," comes to express almost every


all

idea of relation

or rather

the various

ideas of relation

come

to

be

summed up by
:

the Japanese

mind under

the

one idea of " of ;" thus

Aiami no

onsen.

(<

The

hot springs at Atami."


Fuji."

Fuji no yuki.

" The snow on


no

" Nichi-Nichi'"
shasetsu.

Oya no mo. Waloku no dampan.


Korera-byo no yobo.

in the leading article " " Daily News/ \ " The mournings/or a parent." " Deliberations about peace."

("A

" Precautions against cholera."


finds
its

Even the idea of apposition


heading,
for instance
:

place

under

this

Keraino Tosuke.
Indeed apposition
a similar idiom with
is

" His retainer Tosuke."


often expressed in
of," as

English

itself

"

by

when we

say
kuni.

"

The province

of Yamato."

Yamato no

78
^f

THE POSTPOSITION.
112.

No

is

used

English \void

substantively with the meaning of the ''one" or " ones" (see also ^ 137), thus " A bad one." Warui no.
:

Jobu na
N. B.

no.

"A
*[

solid one."
197.
}
j

For the na vijobu na, see

Kore
lliis

wa

no
one

da.
is.

" This
one.
"

is

good

s-for, ffood

Iku
How-mat))/

tah

mo

times even,

It is a thing I have . _y mita no desu. J seen any number of smv one is.

Under

this

heading,
:

note the following specimens of a

curious idiom
2

1 Jnshi no furui* no* 1

as

lit.

as possible,

"old 3

ones* of 2

stamps

,"

i.e.

"stamps

that

are

old," hence

"some

old

stamps."

Kwashi no y
1

shinki* m'^yaita no
5

e
,

as
1
,

lit.

as possible,

"in 4

newness have-burnt
been

one of

cake

i.e.,

freshly baked," or more simply, cake."

"a cake that has "a freshly baked

There
intention

is

just

the

between these circumlocutions

shadow of a shade of difference in and the simpler


" Old stamps." A freshly baked cake."
the

expressions

Fund inshi.
Shinki ni yaita KwasJii.

"

The circumlocutory form

with

two

no's

seems to

contain a tacit reference to stamps that are not old and cakes that are not freshly baked, a sort of emphatic dwelling on
the ideas of oldness
If

and of freshness
to

respectively.

113.
to

No

often

serves

form

expressions
no,

corresponding
i.e.,

English

adjectives,

as

Nikon
If

"of Japan,"

"Japanese"

(see

"jf

62,

and

197

ft seq.}.

Sometimes, in

NO.

79
final particle

quite familiar talk,

it

occurs as a

with a certain

emphatic
think
the
in

force,

corresponding to

that

of the

Colloquial

English phrase
of that

"and

so there!" or

"and what do you

end of
the

good example of this occurs towards " Handbook, in Chap. II of the JBotan-doro" conversation between O Yone and Shijo, where
this
is

T A

attention
114.

drawn

to

it

in a foot-note.

no

is a very favourite idiom, of equivalent for the word koto meaning "act," "fact." This construction is specially apt to occur in conjunction with the substantive verb da or desu,

At other times,
as

and

this

is

employed

a kind

and " it
he

English by the phrase For instance, a man has made an appointment, but a note comes from him about the time
is
is

generally best rendered in

that," or

"is

it

that ?"

is

expected to
says
:

arrive.

One

of the bystanders, observing

this,

Konai

no

daro.

Will-not-cotne fact

jrrobMy-is. | isn't
is

"I suppose COm ing. "

it

is

that he

A
all,

7
.

B.

Though

the sense

properly that of koto,

may

not no, after

be here derived from the word mono by apocope of the first syllable? For notwithstanding what has been said in ^[ 54 concerning the distinction to be drawn between koto and mono, a certain amount of
confusion in the use of the two words can scarcely IDC denied ; and as a matter of fact, one not infrequently hears such expressions as Itonai
inon\o\ daro.

In such contexts, the word no


conversation
generally
is,

may
Thus

be,
its

and

in

familialit

clipped of
'.

vowel, so that

sinks into the single letter

might equally well be Konai n daro,


n'

example or more politely Konai

the above

deshb (conf.

^f

343-5).

Nani

wo
((icdis.)

sum
do

n
fact

desu
is?

f>\
j

" What
doing ?"'

is

it

that

you are

So

THE

POSTPOSITION.

Massugu

m
1

iku
ff

n
net,

desu
is

^^J O n?"
( |

"Am
IQ

more

stwtffM-if,

am

go straight "Is it that go slraight Qn ?


lit.

to

Ant
is

nor

"
(

Is there ?"
is

"Do

you mean

to say

fact?

| that there
is

?"
its

A7

".

B.

As shown

this

vowel when standing

at the

last example, no cannot be clipped of very end of a sentence.

The
be

exact force of no preceding the verb da or desu

may

practically

exemplified
are
that

by comparing,
?" with

shimasu ?
desu
/"

"What
is it

you doing

Nani wo Nani wo sum ri


say,

" What

you are doing?"

115.

to

The verb da, "is," and the postposition no combine form the word dano, which serves for purposes of enuafter
:

meration.

Dano must, like the Latin que, be repeated each of the items enumerated, thus
zo]
\

Shishi dano, fora dano, dano, rakuda dano.

"Lions, tigers, elephants, and camels."

There

is

difference between

used enumeratively.
sake

Ni

is

dano and ni (see "| 109) simply copulative, dano conveys

the idea of a multiplicity of objects.

says
to

dano,
his

sakana

dano,

Thus, when a Japanese kwashi dano, he means

convey to

hearers the idea of a variously assorted


possibly

feast,

including
fish,

liquor,

other good things besides the and cakes enumerated. But when he says
ni,

sake

ni,

sakana

kwashi,

and no more.
is

Observe,

moreover,
polite

he speaks of just those three that the word dano


equivalent
is

somewhat
but
this

vulgar.
is

The
after

de gazaimasu
serves

no,

less

often

used.

No sometimes

as an

enumerative

other than the substantive verbs.

Thus:

SHI.

Si

Kimi ivarukatta no, ga ''Talk of feeling Mental -feel inns (ttent). were-bad and, and so forth, frightened no osoroshii me ni nan to, a rough I have had
it'/Hif

ami

that,

fearful

eyes

to

alle

time

of

kite.

it,

can

tell

Jun-iny-niet (/) Jut re-conic.

(Famil.)

you."

N. B. No, in its proper sense of " of," is sometimes replaced in the higher style by the Chinese word tcki, $3. Sometimes the two are used " a revolutogether, as seiji-teki kakumei, or seiji-tcki no kakwnci, lit.
tion of politics,"
i.e.,

" a political revolution."

SHI.
1 1 6.

Shi, a postposition \vhich

is

not capable of translation

into English, has a sort of enumerative force, a kind of pause, thus


:

and serves

as

Kono
mieru
ni
ii
sJii,

nikai

This second-storey as-for,


is-visiblc,

" From the second mo Fuji Fujiyama also storey here you can umi mo mieru shi ; makoto see Fujiyama and sea also is-risiblc truth you can see the sea,
iva,
:

kesJiiki desu.

truly

beautiful

in, f/ood

view

is.

view."

-SY^'is frequently appended to the verbal form in mat (the "improbable present or future"). Thus, when bandying words with a jinrikisha-man who should attempt to make

an overcharge, one might say


Hajimete
Foi'-the-flrst-thne

kuruma
shimai

wo

velilcle (acctts.)

tanomi
ff.v/.-

"You
you
I
?

don't
is

shi, as-for, (7) 2^'obabJy-do-not;

ya

imagine,
the
first

do
time

that this

taigai
for-tJie-inofit-part

soba
market-price
iru

that I don't
fare !"

have hired a jinrikisha, and know the proper

mo
also

shitie
'kiHHchif/

wa !
(cmph.')

am

is

Occasianally shi seems to terminate a sentence; but this only because tl e speaker, after finishing the first clause,

82
finds

THE
himself at
a
loss

POSTPOSITION.

concerning

the

second,

and

so

perforce leaves the sentence unfinished.

finite

N. B. form

Do
"

not confound the postposition ski with ski the " indeof the verb stim, " to do," which appears in such idioms as

mi mo

shi, kiki

mo sum,

" one both sees

it

and hears

it."

TO.
*[[

117.

To

pronoun "that:"
L so
!.<
7

originally had the sense of our demonstrative " but it now has the sense of our
that,"

conjunction

da
is

to

iiinasu.
sails. says.

\
J

He
<

thai

says that

it is

a lie."

Jfonlo da to omoimasu.
Ti'iitJi

\
'

think lhat
:

it is

is

that

ihinli.

N. B.
that."

" It is a lie. He says Originally therefore the sense was " It is truth. I think that." The conversion of the demon-

strative

pronoun

into the conjunction


its

came about gradually


" that."

in the case

of

to,

as in the case of

English equivalent

generally prefers to omit the

In the above, and in most similar phrases, English idiom word " that;" but to cannot so
in Japanese.

be omitted

The

following are instances of

to

meaning

"
literally

that," but not lending itself to expression


:

in idiomatic

English
no

"

Omae san
Tb

nan

to
f/iat

e name of ** " As for Mr. >s name as-for, \ ka/>(Saidtoetcom-}nlr> you, what [do people] mon person.} \ say that it is ?" say ?
(

na

wa,

What

is

your

name

?"

"
"

Tokyo Mar u" Tokyo Mam "


vessel.

to

"A
'"

vessel

that

Maru/
which
'

more

called "
lit.

the

'Tokyo
[of
it

vessel
is

mosufune.
win

Tokyo Maru.'

people] " say

that

the

(Conf. p. 58 for this important idiom.)

Similarly in
Jiallo,
is,

the case of such onomatopoetic adverbs as

Idllo, palallo, etc., where the to (strengthened into//") properly speaking, a separate word, thus
:

TO.

83
started/'
t

Ha>tto- omounashiia\

"I
f

more
:

lit.

"

u niiahf;l
v,
(
,
-j

u flt

r:.

Q1

/w

/"
2

,r

...

Nochihodfr-

.... ,

kitt<r

mainmasii*.

"I

will certainly
t

come*

Patcttttf ochimasliitc?

"
.

It fell"

flop ."

Under
the

this

end of a sentence

heading, too, comes the idiomatic use of to at for some verb must always be
;

mentally supplied after


colloquial phrase

it.
/>

Take,

for instance, the

common
to
itla

standing for
118.
to

Nan Nan to
"

to

" What did you


(polite),

(or he) say ?"

osshalta P
to

or

Nan

To

itte,

saying that ;"


(lit.

omotle,

kiite,

"asking

hearing)

whether,"
tote

"thinking that;" and similar


(vulgarly
tte)
:

gerundial phrases, are often contracted to

O
Me,

yu

ni
to,

iku
(7) go

uonouitMe hat-water
(saying) that, wcnt-out.

(
I

demashita.

" He went out saying that he was going to the bath."

Tote frequently has a sort of oppositive force, as in the

following examples, where


for to
itte

it

may be
that,"

best parsed as standing


i.e.,

mo,

"even saying

"even supposing

that."

(Conf. also

289.)
sHlta

Ikura
Jlow-iuiich
tote,

gakumon
study

okonai

'r<ii-sayiny-11mt,

zvarukercba,
if-is-lHtil,

"However much a man may study (more lit., saying conduct (iJOin.~) "that a man may study how nanni mo much), nothing will come of
Jmve-done

ga

(tilt/thing

narimasen.
vccontcs-not.

it if

he

is

badly behaved."

Zdhei-kyoku wa, Mint us-for, ilia kara


ifi-nt

muyami
tote,

ni

recklessly

"You
shown

can not get over the Mint

because
r< './

eeen-sa i/iii ff-thtit,

Jiaiken
fl<>i-iii!/-l<K>l;

dekimasen.
fot'tJicoitics-not.

simply by going there and asking to see it."

<is-fof,

84

THE

POSTPOSITION.
classes often
to iimaskita.

N, B. Women and the lower when they should say to iimasii or


*j[

end a sentence by

lie,

119.
it is,

To sometimes means " and."

When

it

has this sense,

like the Latin que, generally repeated after

each noun.
to the

word always belongs word not to the following it. immediately preceding it, the mistake of make often commencing a clause Europeans
repeated,
it

Even when not so

with

to,

in imitation

of the European idiom which introduces

clauses

by

the

conjunction
:

"and."

But
"

this

sounds

ludicrous in Japanese

Anata

lo,

walakushi
to,

' '

to.
lo.

Furansu

Doitsu

You and I. " France and Germany."


to

Certain idiomatic uses of


this head, thus
:

may

best be classed under

Musiiko
Soil

lo

futari.
tu'O-pcrsons.
j

"

and

Two
T

counting
.

my
-

son."

Ano
Okiru
Ittse

htto

to

ikimashlta.}
j

That person and (/) ,,/.


to

W6nt Wlth him


I

SUPU
iva

ni.

and

" As soon as
,

immediately.

got up.

Kore to TM* ana

as-f

chigaimasu.
,

, T Tt 1S different
. .

from

this.

(it}aiffers. \

Observe also such


"luckily."

adverbial

phrases

as

shi-awase

to,

120.

To sometimes comes
this

to

mean "if '"or "when."

It

has

sense only after the present tense of verbs adjectives, thus


:

and

So sum
So
do

to,
//;

shikararemasu.
yet-scolded.

"You
' '

will

get

scolded

if

y Oil do that."

Sugu
iiMnwiiuMu
ohiircmasu.

ikanai
f/o-not

to, \

if\

You will be too late don't go at once."

if

you

WA.

85
\

So
so

moshi/iiasu

to,

sugu ni
i,,,,.,,;!;,,*?,/

M ,id
^

When

I said

so,

n'jtCH ,

shikar aremaslnta.

[immediately gave "


jscoldin"-

me

he a

i2i.

Observe the use of to


it is

where

in such phrases as the following, not susceptible of any English rendering


:

Chiri

tsumotte,

yama

to\

mountain Icomes a mountain.


'

"Dust accumulating "

be-

(A proverb used to inculcate the importance of little things.)


'
'

Mizu

ga
to

dcte,
issuiiif/.

niiva
</<n-tl<'

Water (nom.}

The garden has become


sea
"

ga
(notu.)
stiila.

umi
sea

natte

shimaima-

perfect

through

the

overflowing

(of the neighbouring stream, etc. ).

Observe the strong affirmative force of to followed by mo) at the end of an assertion, thus
,

(generally

"Are

there

Arimasu ka f

A n'masu

to \ 1
'

mo!
To wa or
tote

"I course there are!" or, there think should just were !"

any?

Of

affirmative phrases.

sometimes replaces to mo in such strongly For to mo and to iva iedomo in con-

cessive phrases, see

288 and

^[

289.

WA.
122.

Wa was

originally a

noun

signifying "thing," hence


";

" that " which," he, she, or they who


as a separative or isolating particle,

but

it

is

now used
anti-

corresponding in some
or,

measure
thetically,

to to

the French quant a,


the

when repeated

Greek

jA.iv

and

de.

Perhaps the most

perfect idea of the character of a Japanese word or phrase isolated by means of wa is given by such French constructions as

"

Lui, qu'est ce qu'il en dit ?"

viennent d'arriver,

personne

n'en

sait

" Ces gens qui " where the rien,

86

THE
words "
it

POSTPOSITION.
d'arriver
"
are, as

"
lui

and " ces gens qui viennent

were, lifted out of the regular current of the sentence and " with " As set in a place apart. for," regard to," "so far
as

..........

is

concerned," are the most explicit English

equivalents of wa, which has accordingly been rendered by " as for" in most of the literal translations of the examples
scattered throughout the present work.
force
is

But

in

practice

its

generally

sufficiently

indicated

in

an

English

translation

by an emphasis on the equivalent


is

of the

word
at

to

which wa

suffixed,

or

by placing

that

word

the

A slight pause, which beginning of the sentence or clause. may sometimes be indicated by a comma, is usually made
after

wa

Budo-shu
Wine
liiru
leer

wo
(a cats.}

sukoshi
(i-littlc

wa
-**,

sono
><

atalametc,\ warminf/, a mama del


in
\

"Warm
\fa\Q
.

the

claret

'

j^t
ig

go

far

condition

yor oshii.

lhe beer d ' tht


.

CQn _ U do

asltls

.
-

Konnichi

wa,

yoi

To-day us-fw, yoodW.e. tenki do gozaimasu,


ti-eatlier
(it) is.
)
i

"To-day it is "Whatever
,

fine
it

weather."

may

have

[been

other days,
")

to-day at least

t i s fi ne<

Oki
arai

wa,

yohodo
desu
is

Offi n{/ us-for. plentifully,

nami ga wavea&omM
\

" Out

at sea the

waves
;

yd

'kara,

/^lseem
\

ronyJi mtpcurancc

because,

wa
Ima wa
Koko
ir-6
stiffi

demasumai.

pretty the vessel " [probably

rough
vessel

so
Will

not

sail.

Ic-siiki

de gozaimasTt.
ton.

A'ojr (is-fur, 7i(ui<l-cnipt>/

"Now "
leisure.

am

at

no
>

ido

mi,
< ts

" The water


\

in

this

well

comes

wen

-for

^o m
(

dcsu.

\
I

as

the aqueduct." " " 9 l The wel1 hef e " an Aqueduct (! ) the beginner might suppose, if he mis-

took iva for a sign of the nominative case.)

WA.

87

Korc dc
77//.S

it'a

komanmasu.

" This being so, I quandary." (The de


contracted
into

am
ja
;

in

wa may
see

bu

<iin-/,<tinpcrca.}be
(

1f8 9 .)

Tabako

wa

nomimasen.
at-tnh-not.

(
\
_

Tobacco as-for,

"I don't smoke." (More lit. As for tobaccOj T don t sm oke it.")
tt
'

Yoku
Well

wa
as-foi;

zonjimasen. (/) kaon-not.


wasei,

\
\

don't

know

well."

Korc

iva
as-for,

are

\
''

'

^apan-muke ;
(is}.

tJiat I

wa

hakurai (dc gozaimasu}.

that

is

This (is) of native make, an imported article."

as-for, Cinportatlon.

Fuji,

kila
>'

r' nortn Wcs s F'tfto"""' ~f wa Tsukuba dc gozannasu.


as-for, Tsiikuba
(it) is.

L"

To

Fujiyama,

the west stands to the north

\MountTstikuba."

123.

In
to

an interrogative sentence,

wa would sometimes
;

seem

but an ellipsis be the means of asking a question For instance, Inn wa ? promust always be supplied.

nounced
signifies

in

an

interrogative
is

tone of voice,

practically

" Where
is

the

dog?"

But

literally

it is,

" As

for

the dog, (where

Wa
a

he ?)" also sometimes occurs at the end of a sentence with


interjectional,
is

certain

exclamatory,
in

or

emphatic
talk,

force.

This idiom

heard

only

quite
;

familiar
:

and

especially from the lips of

women
ga

thus
ii

Watashi

zca,
(is-for,

kono ho
Hits

wa

Me
124.

side (n0m.}(is)goo<l indeed!

one,

"1 like I do.

this
'

The

peculiar
in

well-shown

power of wa to separate or limit ideas is some of the negative phrases given in the
in

Chapter on Syntax, ^f 433, and also idioms as the following


:

such favourite verbal

88

THE

POSTPOSITION.

Am
Is
Is.

ni

wa arimasu
is

ga,
where*!*,

sukuno\
scarce
)
|
I

in as-for,

gozaimasu, (or

Aru

kolo

wa

There are some, t but th


"

etc.

are scarce

Ame
Rain
iva

wa,

futte imasu ka
is

r*

Furu
Falls

ni
in

us-for, falling

fulte

imasu
is

ga,
ti'Jiercas,]

hidoi
intense

koto
fact

as-for, falling

wa

gozaimasen.
is-i tot.

"Is it raining? Yes, it is raining but it is not raining hard."


',

as-for,

Kotowatte
Refusing
Koioivalle

okimashila.
(7) put.

"I

refused."

wa
. . .

oki-

"I refused,
two phrases

but. ..." (the sentence

masJnta ga.

remaining unfinished.)
states

The former
refusal,

of these

the fact of the

and nothing more.


is

The

latter

the emphasis
say,

the emphasis of hesitation, as

emphasises it ; but if one should

"I

did indeed refuse, but

my

refusal

politeness," or

"I

left

myself a loophole

for

was tempered by taking back the


' '

refusal," etc., etc.

2'sukai

wa

kiia

ga,

ibnin

Oh

yes

Messenger as-for, came although, person- messenger Came, ki wa shinai. wa but the man him]

in-qucstion as-for, coining as-far, docs-not.

^self didn't/'

Very often we hear ki wa shinai (and similar constructions with other verbs), where simple konai, etc., would seem

But the clear according to European ideas. Japanese prefer the more emphatic form with wa, whenever any mental reservation or allusion implies the existence
sufficiently

somewhere or other of contradiction or opposition


idea which
is

to the

actually expressed,

as

illustrated in the

two

foregoing examples.
N. B.
indefinite

When

thus suffixed to the indefinite form of a verb (ki


kurit,

is

the

form of the irregular verb

"to come"),
shinai.

wa

is

often

pronounced ya

; thus ki ya shinai for ki

wa

WA.

89

A consideration of the foregoing examples, and 125. indeed of those which any page of Japanese affords, will convince the student that iva is not, as some European
writers
case.

The

have erroneously imagined, a sign of the nominative following example, which is the last we shall
let

quote, illustrates this fact almost to the point of absurdity.


It is

race-day,

us suppose.

You meet
dcsic
is

a friend walking
to

in the direction of the race-course,

and you say


ka ?
?

him

Anala
Ton
i.e.,
if

wa,

keiba

as-for, horse-r(ice

interpreted on the hypothesis of iva being a sign of the nominative case, Are you a horse-race ?" ( ) The
' '
!

proper meaning of course


(that

is

"As

for

you,

is

it

the races
to the

you are going


?"

to) ?"

or

more simply " Off


is

races, eh

The utmost
in

that can

be said with regard to the


that the

so-called nominative force of

wa

word followed
a

by wa

must, nominative in

not a few instances,

be rendered by a
never
properly

English,
the

though

it

is

nominative

in

Japanese

construction.

The

nearest

approach made by the Colloquial Japanese Language to the possession of a nominative particle is in the particle ga (see
p.

66).

But

even

this,

as
is

has
to

been
say,

there

explained,

originally

meant "of,"

that

was a sign of the

genitive, not of the nominative.

126.

say

wa

Europeans often or ga and it


;

find
is

it

hard to decide whether to

true that

two Japanese phrases,

one with wa, the other with ga, must often be rendered There is, however, a slight by the same English words.
difference of intention.

When
is

(if

we may

so phrase
it

it)

speaker has in his he uses ga he gives


it
;

mind

a predicate

and gives

a subject,

when

the subject

uppermost

in his

mind and

a predicate, he uses wa.

As a general empirical

90
rule,

THE

POSTPOSITION.

seemingly but not really contradicting the above enunciation of principle, the use of ga necessitates emphasis on the subject in the English translation, whereas the use of wa
necessitates

emphasis on the predicate.


-

The Japanese them-

selves, as stated in

f 27,

vocal emphasis.

They
:

given to the use of such prefer a change in the actual words.


are not
if

much

To

take an example

you are expecting your Japanese

teacher, the servant will probably inform

you of

his

by saying Sensei
(lit.

appeared).

The teacher has come wa miemashita, The etymological sense is, "As for the
' '

arrival "

teacher, he has

come."

That

is

to say, the teacher (subject)

was

in the servant's
is.

thoughts

as

a daily visitant,

and now

But should the same personage arrive in the middle of the night or at some other unusual hour, the " The teacher Sensei servant will miemashita
here he
say

ga

i.e.,

has

come,"

more

properly
"

and

etymologically,

"The

coming
at

of the teacher.

In the servant's mind his coming

instance,

such an hour (predicate) is the curious and important So too of an unexpected death one would say, for thing. " Mr. san is

Hayashi ga shinimashita, Hayashi But if he had long been known to be past recoverv, " Mr. the phrase would be Hayashi san wa shinimas/iila, (< ii This dead" Kore means is Similarly ga Hayashi is
dead."
;"

good

whereas Kore

wa

ii

means

' '

This

"
is

good.

The
two

distinction flows naturally from the original force of the


particles, Kore ga ii being properly " as this," while Kore iva u is properly

"the goodness of
for this,
it is

good."

The In comparative sentences the rule is quite simple. with while the the takes word denoting thing ga, subject
which the subject is compared is generally separated off by means of wa thus Kore yori w'a, arc ga ii, " That is
:
:

better than this"

\vo.

91

*~

127.

The student

\vho has followed this explanation with

due regard

to the original genitive force of ga, will perceive

that there is nothing specially emphatic about ga in the Japanese idiom, though an emphasis on the word preceding
it is its

wa

nearest equivalent in English. On the other hand, emphatic and separative in Japanese, though there will generally be no emphasis on the corresponding portion of the phrase in English, when the English noun is a
is

Wa, however, corresponds to an emphasised English whenever that word is not a nominative, as shown by several of the examples given above.
nominative.

word

in

what is the rule in the case of two ^[128. It may be asked nominatives in antithetical clauses ? The answer is that
:

ga may be used in both, or else iva may be used in Thus the fourth example on p. 87, Kore iva wasei, are wa hakurai, " This is of native make, that is an imported article,'' might be altered to Kore ga wasei, are ga hakurai. The effect would be to throw the emphasis more strongly
either

both.

on the two subjects than on the two predicates.

7
.

B.

Sometimes
if,"

ioa,
:

occurring after an adjective in

kit,

must be

rendered by "
Yoroskikii
Js-fjooil

thus

wa,
if,

de-kakcmashd.
u-ill-go-oiit.

" If

you are

all right, let

us
the

(start."
is

Elegant speakers sometimes prefer to say yorosliikiiba, which form employed in the Book Language.

WO.

129.

Wo

is

the nearest Japanese equivalent to a sign of the


:

accusative case, thus

Tamago

wo
(acetts.)

uderii.
tFboil.

-j

92

THE

POSTPOSITION.
receive a bride/'
is

Yome
Si-ldv

wo

" To
marrying

i..e,

to

marry."

(accits.) I
'

(Of course
as a bride.")

morau.
to-rcceirc.

said only of the man. generally called yomc ni iku,

lit.

" to go

girl's

Sonna
SucJt

kake-ne

wo

if

excessive-m'tce (accns.)\

konmrimasu. itcha, as-for-stnjiny, (Z)a>n-Jtfnnperc<L

or more s imply You should not ask Such an CXe , '

V,
.

" I don't know what to do exorbitant youask such an ., T


,,
.

~r

\orbitant price.

Hiio
Person matsu.
tO-lltl'Uit.

no
'*

kuru
comes

wo
(accu s.)

}
[

"

To

jsome

await the coming of one."

130.

Originally
as
it

wo was nothing more than an


were,
to to

interjection

serving,

interrupt the sentence

and draw

attention to the
therefore not be

word

which

it

was

suffixed.

We
many

must
cases

surprised at

its

absence in

where European languages could


accusative case.
in
It
is

not dispense with the not that the ivo has been dropped
it

such contexts, but that

never was there, thus


1

Baka
Folly

iu-na

(very rude).

Don
"

'

ta]k nonsense."

say-not.
ioki.

Meshi kuu
Rice
cat

(famil.)

time.

i.e.,

When eating rice," " " When dining.


is

Before the verb sum, " to do,"

wo

mostly absent, as

"**>-."
Saisoku sum.
131.

"

To do

urgency,"

"
i.e.,

to

urge on."

The

student will sometimes meet with, and probably


:

be puzzled by, sentences like the following


Daijin-gata

wo

hajime,

Ministers (accus)

sho-kwan-in

^^nincj^ans.^ made soroimasi


tilt

" All the officials were frQm the ministers

downward&

mere-complete.

YA AND YE.

93

Here

the

first

clause

literally

means
It
is

"

placing

the

ministers of state at the beginning."

therefore not

unnatural that the word daijm-gala, being what

we should

term an accusative, should take


132.
tively

ivo.

In the Written Language, at the end of a clause.

wo
ga

is

often
this

used ad versais

But

rare

in

the

Colloquial,

which prefers

to use

for

that purpose, as

already explained in

93, p. 67.

YA.
133.

Ya

is

constant

occurrence
it

an interrogative and exclamatory particle of in the Written In the Language.


is

Colloquial

less

used,
!"

excepting
said

in

such contexts as

Haru yn ! "
name.
forms
It

say,

Haru

when
the

calling a person

by
88.

also occurs
verbs,
it

corruptly

for iva after the indefinite

of

Sometimes
Next-door

as explained in has the sense of " and

N. B.

on
:

p.

"or "

or," thus

Tonari no
's

uchi de,
lionise

inu

at,

neko
cat

ga
of

siiki

to

fond
katlc
rcarnif/
.

that

takusan
(jiuttiti/

m
in

onmasu.
are.

^'<*l door
a
(

ya "They would seem to doy and be very fond of dogs and miete, cats in the house next
.

for they

kee p quite

number of t fiem
"
.
.

....yanamka.

[^&
YE*
o
'e ide

or something or

134.

Ye means "to," " towards," hence sometimes "at:"


desii
is

Gakko yc
School
1o,

ka ?
''

"

Do you go
In Classical

honourable

c.dt it

tO Si school ?" | to
1

Some good
the

authorities prefer the orthography E.


is

Jcipanese

word

spelt

(/<v).

We

follow

Hepburn's

and

Ijrinkley's dictionaries, as usual.

94
Sulensho ye
Station

THE

POSTPOSITION.

iki-gake

ni>

towards

dcnshin-kyoku
teleyraph-office

yolny-u-JiUc, choilo ye
at,

"

will just

look in at

Just

yorimasu.
ti'lU-stop.

the telegraph office way to the station.''

on

my

Koko
Here

yc
to

kudasai. oite oitc ( puttiny puttiny condescend. ^


oite is the

"Please

put

it

down
as the

here."
first,

A7

B.

The second

same verb

but has only

the force of an auxiliary (see

298).

YORT.
135.

Yori means "from/' "since," "than


(
-

:"

"From Kyoto"
neigbbourhood)i

Kamigaia yon.
Issakujdsuyon.

(or

its

"Since the day before


" Thanks
for

{yesterday."
o
t

Nani yori
shina

kekko na

for

your splen(3fore
lit.

-Inythiny than, splendid honourable] did

present."

wo,

arigato gozaimasu.

articic (accus.} tJianitfui

am.

your more-splendiduhan-anything present.)

POSTPOSITIONS COMBINED.
136.

Postpositions

may be combined
at,"

in

Japanese,

much

as in English

we

say "in

Some

instances have

" in by, "away from," etc. already occurred in the preceding

portions of this chapter.

Here

are a few

more

Go

shinipai

ni
to

wa

Attyutit nnx-lct y

oyobimascn.
reaches- not
.

Oshii
lii-i/r<-lt.alile

koto
fact

ni
ay

POSTPOSITIONS COMBINED.

95

Jil-ni-ji
Tn><-lrt>-l,H,n-*

yori
than

mo
eren,

osoku\
late

jt

WO n't
than

do

to

kg

later

twelve

naicha

ikemasen.
lilto

o'clock."
ffOA-'t
\

A nO
n.<,t

iO
,,-ith

201,

WHO,,
de

*->/.

*ery\

kon-i

oxarnasit.
I'M.

" He is very intimate with that man."

Ano
riifit

hen
in-i{/MMHii-/t<MHi

to

zva

yohodo
r<-i-i/

" That neighbourhood is much improved (fan, with what it ftiraAemasfnta.] compared
mo,

molo

origin] also

in'th ax-jbi;

in

IH-/I

h<ts-f>2>eiic<1-out.\usQd tO

be."

Isogazit

to

mo

"
yoroshii.
(zj) f/ood.

(Familiar.)

(
")

You
"

needn't

tlt(ri-f/i>i{/-i,nt <-cen,

huiTV.

Kuru
Kao
/

to

<'Ht,n'*th<tt

ka umashtta. ? saw.
o

"
(

If I

mistake not, he said

(he would come."


(

de

mo
is

arai nasaru ka ?
deiffu

"Will you wash

'<<

ei-cn,

Jionoin-nMi/ to-wash

your
"

face, Sir ?"


transla-

.V.

B.

De mo

often thus used in a

manner not needing

tion into English,

" though retaining the force of even

in Japanese.

Konnichi
To- (lay
till

no,
>*
(

will

do

the
(

accounts

wo
<-<-o,tnt>*
f

down

to

shimasho.
ii-M-do.
i

to . day

more UL

(accus.)

the till-to-day's accounts.)


j

Sore

made tm

no
-s

koto
ti,h,<j

m\
'

U Don't
I

wi}1
let

let it a i one /' or us think about it

tiashimasho.
(/),rill-,nttJt,:

J anymore

Kore made MI* till ga nakalta.


(twin.) iratt-not.

ni
i,

mi'la
ir

kolo^
act
(

ia d

never seen

it

till

now /'

'

(Made ni is stronger than ;;w^ alone would be.)


such

N.

I>.

Made

ni often

" " in by corresponds to our word

" " phrases as inydnichi made ni, by by to-rnorro\v ;'' hacJd-ji made ni, e. not later than) The Japanese mind does not clearly (i eight o'clock." " " apprehend the shade of difference which, with us, separates by from " till " in idioms of this class. Compare the N. B. to *[ 100 for a case
of a

somewhat

similar character.

96
Tf

THE
137.

POSTPOSITION.

No

substantive force of the English

followed by other postpositions generally has the word "one" or "ones,"


:

already exemplified on p. 78, thus

Motto More

ii

no

wa arimasen

ka ?
?

" Haven't you any


better ones ?"

</ood ones as-for, are-not


ii \ no ivo chitto u-nttic good ones (afcus.)

Mo
More
misete

" Please

show

me some

kudasai.
J

rather better ones."

snowing condescend.
Okii Bi{/

no
one

ga

hoshii.

j
1

of (am) desirous.

bj

Ko
kara,
because,

iu

no

mo

hayarimasu

This
fas hional)lc.

Such

ones also are-fasMonaUe nasai. goran


auf/iist~ff7ancc

at

t i,

env

"

k inc} too is So please look

condescend.
ll

blotto

yasni no ni

shiyo.

think I will take

More
*|f

cJteap one to irilI-i'oJ>ftoIf/-do. | a

cheaper One."
the last example,
it

138.

Though
in

the no of no ni may,

as in

be used

the sense of

"one"

or

"ones,"

more

fre-

quently signifies "whereas," "while," "when." It may be known to have this acceptation by observing that a verb
(or an adjective equivalent to

a verb) precedes

it,

as in the

following sentence

Moto no mama de yokatla


Oi'iyin
'*

manner
naze
irliif

"

In/,

ivas-yood

Why
it

have you changed

no

ni,

jun

wo

their order,

when

it

did quite

well as

was
,

naoskita

(Said, e.g

?" to a servant.)

Jmve-amended?

As here exemplified, no ni occurs


expressive of censure or regret.
details

chiefly
^f

in
for

phrases
further

Conf.

287

concerning

this

important idiom.
t

139. Observe lhat wo and wa when combined, change by euphony into wobn which is used to denote a specially
t

QUASI-POSTPOSITIONS.

97
is

emphatic accusative
into/cz, as

also

that de

wa

often contracted

has already been incidentally mentioned in *[f 89. Ja, owing perhaps to its being a modern corruption, sounds somewhat more familiar than de iva, but the two are always

interchangeable
Clothes
oil

Kimono ni abura woba kakemashita.


j

"I
|

on,

(accus.) have-placed.
)
\

my
is

have stained " clothes with Oil.

So de wa

nai.

Soja
(

nai.

f (fa mil.)

" That
J

not so

de iva gozaituasen.

"no.

ja
|

,,

(polite)

de

a
in,

>

Shubiki-gwai
koto
net

\ leppt

')

wo

utsu

"You
shoot

mayn't
outside

Red-liiie-beyoncl

yiin (acctis.} striJte

ga
(nom.)

dekimasen.
cannot-do.
ellipsis

treaty limits."

140.
is

Occasionally an

sometimes equivalent
:

to to iu

must be supplied. Thus Iowa mono iva, as in the following

sentence

Go
jy
,

-/d

/o

iva*

" As-for 4
(

(the-thing-of-which

people

lop
I

of? is meant by the i.e., term go-jo ?' (See Vocabulary.)


talk

T 7

,.

M "What

QUASI-POSTPOSITIONS.
141.

What may be termed


the
less

quasi-postpositions are
no,

really

nouns preceded by
in a sense

postposition

"of," and used

concrete than that originally belonging to


:

them.

Such

are, for instance

HJ hoka,

"
"
"

exterior of,"
of," of,"

i.e.,
,,
,, ,,

" besides

"

(metaph.

).

no kage, no kaivari,
no mukd,

"shade

"behind."
"instead of."
"opposite, "beyond."

change

opposite of,"

^8
no

THE
"
fiaka,
sKiia,
solo,

POSTPOSITION.
i.e.
,,

interior of,"
of,"

"

inside, in."

no

" lower part " sake


,

no

"exterior of,"
c
of,
,,

"below." "
(

,,

outside,"

"

beyond."

no fame,
no uchi, no
tie t

" because

of,"

in order to."

" interior of,"

,,

"inside, "in."

no ushiroi no waki,

"top of," "back of,"


"side
of,"

,,
,,

"on, "upon."
"behind."

,,

"beside" (by the

side).

We

thus get such phrases as

Ie no uchi,

"
" "

In(side) the house."

Hei no

soto,

Beyond

the fence."

Kura no Omoi no

naka,
hoka,

In(side) the
"

godown."
i.e.,

" Outside of thought,"


pectedly.

"unex"
in the

Hanashino

Isuide,

" Occasion of talking,"

i.e.,

course of conversation."

Anoyama

no kage,

" Behind those mountains."

^[142. When followed by a verb, the quasi-postpositions take ni after them, except in the case of the substantive verb "to be," which requires de, unless when signifying

"there is," etc. (De aru is generally contracted to da de gozaimasu to desu, and so on ; see p. 64). Thus:
To-dana
no
's

naka

m\
I

aboard
haiite

insiae in,

imasu.
\

entering

is.

It is in the cupboard." (One might equally well say Todana no na ka desu.)

Tsukuc
Table

no
>s

ue
top

ni

nolle

imasen\
/*'<
I

"

on, ridiny

Isn't
it

it Oil

the table

ka P
?

Tsukue no ue desu. TnMe >.? top (it) is.

Yes,

is."

QUASI -POSTPOSITIONS.

99

Kono hoka
iro-iro

ni,

mata\
I

" There

are various kinds besides


simi-

'Htis-of lesidcs,

again this One."


I

gozaimasu.
arc.

mriotts-Jfinda

'

larly for sono

" of (For/w/<? = this," see p. 54 immediately below.)


(

Kawa
nicer

no muko de gozaimasu.
's

'*

It

is

on

the
"

other

opposite

(if) is.

| side of the river.

Note also the idiom sono kawari ni, lit. " change of that/' used in the sense of " on the other hand."
143.

When

prefixed attributively to a noun,


no, in

this

class of

words changes the ni into


explained in
^[

accordance with the rule

in, thus
no naka

Tansu

no kimono, j
clothes
)

"

The

clothes in the
"

Cfiest-of-draivcrs 's

interior's

chest of drawers.

Kono

hoka

no shina-mono.
's

"The
' '

other

things

'flils-of exterior

articles.

besides these."

Mon
Gate

no ivaki no
>s

side

's

momiji maple

wa,
as-for,

The leaves of the maple-tree by the gate


have become beautifully "
red.

rippa

ni

koyo

shimashita.

\
!

splendidly

red-leaf Jias-done.

*[f

144.
its

When

member

of this class of words follows a verb,

force changes slightly, so as to correspond to that of


:

an

English adverb or conjunction, thus

Rare
TJiat

kdre
this

suru uchi

ni,

hi

ga

do knremashita.
darlicncd.

wJiile,

this,

da?/ (nom.)

" that (Note the idiom bare korc, and this," or, as we should say, " this, that, and the other.")

"While we were doing night came on."

all

So snru
So

ga ^^^

\ shikata hoka, "There do except, way-of-doing [ nai. (be done."


m._

is

nothing else to

isn't.

IOO

THE
Kind furimashita

POSTPOSITION.

kawari
change
o
1 '

Yesterday
ni,

rained

Whereas
(i.e.,

it

kyo

wa

rained yester-

ii

in, to-day as-for, good honourable tenki (de gozaimasu).

day
it is

after yesterday's rain),

beautiful weather to-day."

wcatJter

(is).

145. There are also quasi-postpositions formed by #2* and " to the gerunds of verbs, as ni alaite, "just at," from ataru,
strike ;" ni sKitagalle,

"according

to/'

from shiiagau,

"to

conform;" ni
thus
:

yotle,

"owing

to,"

from yoru,

"to rely;"
rude to say
that
tQ

" Kyaku
Guest

m
to

It is

laislnte,

shitsurci

desu.
is.

confronting,

rudeness

do)

Anata ni
You
is-not.
to

taishite,

confronting

moshi-wake ga \ excuse (nom)

excuge

k now no t how df tQ

gozaimasen.

\
I

Amari
ziwa
/

nyuhi

wo
(accus.*)

kake-sugimasJiite,
Jiaving-piit-exceeded, shite imasYi.

\
l

< <

Toc-mucJi expense
itatte

am sorry
for

kokwai

now

my

now

to reach in r/,

repentance doing

am.
'

(extravagance."

Shinnen
New-year
o

ga
(roin?)

kimasu
conies

ni
to

yoite^ >oite,
ou-ing,

kazari

wo

As

the

New

Year

is

decorations honourable (acc^ls.} itasankereba nan'masen.


if-n-c-ilon't-ntalte,
(if]isn't.

approaching, we must decorate (the gate)."

CHAPTER

VI.

The Numeral.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
146.

In

European grammars the numerals

are generally

disposed of in a few lines, as forming a mere subdivision of the adjective. In Japanese the numeral is rather a species
of noun, and a species of noun with marked peculiarities of its own, necessitating its treatment as a separate part of
speech.
f

147.

There are two

sets of

numerals, one of native and the

other of Chinese origin.

The

native set

is

now

obsolete
:

except for the

first

ten numbers,

which are

as follows

SUBSTANTIVE FORM. FORM USED IN COMPOUNDS. ENUMERATIVE FORM.


i

Jiilotsu

102

THE NUMERAL.

Ar

B.

It will assist the

memory

to notice that the even

numbers
same,

are formed from the odds of

which they are the doubles by a process


consonants
being
originally
:

of vowel-strengthening, the

the

though
I

slightly disfigured in

modern pronunciation, thus


6 7/m. 8
10
ya..

hito (anciently probably ^i/o,)

2 /u/a (anciently probably /u/a).

3 ml,

4 1',
5 i^ru (anciently i/u),

to.

IT

148.

The

substantive forms of the numerals

may

either

be

used quite alone, or they

may

follow the noun, or lastly they

take the postposition no, " of," and precede the noun. They very rarely precede a noun without the intervention

may

of no.

Thus

Ikutsu

gozaimasn
arc

ka
?

r>

How-many

Hitotsu. j One.
)

"How
,

many

are

(there?

One."

Tsu/sumi hilotsu, or HVotsu no tsutsumi.

^ "One
.

parcel
<l Three will no doubt be plenty." |

Mitsu de takusan (de gozaimasho).


Tlirce
l>y,

f/rcat-deal

^vitt-probably-ltc.

Yalsu de tarimasu
y, tvill-suffice

ba?
?

will eight be enough ?"

Tobakari
Ten about
Iki Goino
one
]

kudasal
condescend.
}

- Please give

me

about ten."

mo
also,

kaeri
rcturnint/

mo,\
aisoA
|

"Taking
there

Kilotsu michi.
road.

the same and back again."

road

149.

The form used


to

in

noun

w hich
r

it

refers,

compounds always precedes the " one month as fcilo-tsukt, ;"


" three nights."

futa-hako,
[

"two

boxfuls ;" mi-ban,

150.

The enumerative form

things, e.g. a

used in counting over is bundle of paper money, linen to be sent to

the wash, etc.

CHINESE NUMERALS.
151.

IQ^

If

are

Though the now obsolete

for

native Japanese numerals above "ten" ordinary purposes, note that haiachi,.
for

the old native

word

"

twenty,"

is still

used in the sense

of " twenty
yoroztt,
in

years of age,"

and

that chi,

"a thousand," and


still

"a

" ten thousand," are myriad," or

retained

proper names and in a few idioms, e.g. Chi-shima, "the Thousand Isles," i.e., " the Kurile Islands ;" Yorozu-ya, a
favourite shop-name,

many
If

sorts of articles

probably originating in the being exposed for sale.

fact

of

152.
1

The

set

of numerals borrowed from the Chinese


6 roku, rarely riku 7 shichi 8 Jiachi 9 ku,
l

is

ichi,
ni,

rarely itsu

rarely ji

3 san

4 shi
5
<>

rarely kyu

j'v

100 hyaku
N. B.
" Ichi also

1,000 sen 10,000 man or ban means "whole," " all," as ichi- nic/ii," one day,"

but also. all day long." The native Japanese numeral Jiito, "one," has come to have the same secondary sense in certain cases, as hit o -ban, " " one " The word ryd, properly " both," is often night or all night."
substituted for ni.

All the others are formed by


1 1

combining

these, thus

ju-ichi

IO4

THE NUMERAL.
300 sam-byaku
(for (for

200 ui-hyaku

san hyaku)

400 shi-hyaku 600 rop-pyaku


1,000 is-sen

500 go-hyaku roku hyaku) 700 shichi-hyaku


10,000 ichi-man

800 hap-pyaku([Q\hachihyalu) 900 ku-hyaku


(for ichi sen)

IQO,OOQ ju-man 1 08 ^tf/fo ^c^z'

1,000,000 hyaku-man

365 sam-lyaku roku-ju-go 1897 &-5/z hap-pyaku ku-ju shichi

43,000,000 shi-sen sam-byaku-man

There

is a term meaning ioo,coo, and a term c/^o meaning 1,000,000; but they are scarcely ever used, being

almost always replaced

by multiples of man,

as

in

the

examples just given.


Tf 153.

used indepena noun, customary with which they form of sort of compound, as z'c/n-nen, " one " one inch." year ;" is-sun (for ichi sun),
dently.
It
is

The Chinese numerals


to

are not often

make them precede

In

forming

such

combinations,

note the category


:

of

letter-changes of which the following are examples " ch it-chb for ichi cho one cho*
' '

hal-cho
jit- cho

,,

hachi chb
jil

"eighth"
" ten cho "
(t

,,
,,

chb

/"and h ip-pun
ip-pen

ichifun
ichi

one minute

"

,,

hen

"once"
"
three minutes
"

sam-pMt\
sam-ben
r op-pun

,,

sanfun

"

,,

san hen
rokufun
roku hen

,,

"thrice" " six minutes "six times"

rop-pen
* A.

,,

measure of distance equivalent to about 120 yards English,


into /, but into b
;

f Some words change /, not three scrolls," from san and ///.

thus sam-bnku,

LETTER-CHANGES.
'

105
ten minutes
ten times
"
"

jit-pun
'

a hundred minutes") a hundred times


"

a thousand minutes")
a thousand times "
"

one pound
three
six

'

"

pounds
" "

pounds

ten
[

pounds hundred pounds'"


"

a thousand

pounds
"

sam-mai

,,

san mat

li

three

(flat

things)
,,

a thousand

one (vessel)"
!

three (vessels)"

eight vessels
ten vessels"

"

a thousand vessels"

sh

is-shaku

,,

ichi

shaku

" one foot

" "

eight feet
ten feet")

one drop
ten drops

"
"

eight drops
"

N. B.

Though

the difficulty of

making

these letter-changes correctly

will strike the beginner chiefly in the case of

numeral combinations, the


:

same euphonic
tem-pd,
*

rules apply to all other Chinese compounds, thus " " final resolve." ket-chakit, from ketsu chaku, decision,"

ten ho,

(See Vocabulary.)

Not

in use.
in s

Some words

do not change the

s into z,

thus san-satsu, " three

volumes," not san-zatsit.

IO6

THE NUMERAL.
Nip-pon, from nitsu hon,
ak-kd,
,,

"

Japan."

am-ma,
mes-sd,
zas-shi,
bet-to,
,,

akuko, an ma,
metsu
so,

" bad language." " a

shampooer."

zatsu shi,
betsn
to,
is

,,

extravagant." " a " magazine," a review." " a

"

groom."

(In practice the

hyphen

generally omitted in such words.)

*|f

154.

The Japanese numerals,

as far as they go, are mostly

employed with Japanese nouns, and the Chinese numerals with Chinese nouns, But there are numerous exceptions to
this rule, for instance
it-toki
:

(but also

liiio-toki),

" one hour.

"

fuia-fufu,
mi-ban,

"two
"

married couples."

three nights."

yo-nen,
After

"four years."

"ten,"

beyond which the Japanese numerals no

longer run, the Chinese numerals are perforce employed with Japanese as well as with Chinese words, thus
:

' '

ju-ni hako,

twelve boxfuls.
sets.

"

hyaku kumi, a hundred


If

155.

the

Chinese

Thus Usage plays various freaks with the numerals. numeral shi, "four," which is considered
shi,

unlucky because homonymous with

"death,"

is

in

contexts replaced by the equivalent Japanese numeral for instance yo,

many

yo-nin,
ni-ju-yo-ban,

" four " a persons." (shi-nin means corpse.")

"No.

24."

Colloquialism sometimes goes a step further, corrupting the yo into yon. Thus people may say yon-jit, instead of shi-ju, " forty."

N. B.

Chinese
nana.

"
sKichi,
is

seven/'
for

is

sometimes replaced by Japanese


is

This

done

clearness' sake, as sliichi

easily

AUXILIARY NUMERALS.

IO7
will often

confounded with
But
If

ski,

"four."

Thus tradesmen
"

say nana-jis-sen, instead of


this is

stiichi-jis-sen,

seventy cents."

never either necessary or elegant.


establishes a shade of difference in the
first

156.

Usage likewise

sense of certain expressions which would at to be synonymous, thus


:

sight appear

Ktio-hakot
tiitO'isuki,

" one boxful " one month

;"

hako

hilotsu,

;" ichi-getsu,

" one box." " the first month,"


(For ka see
^f

i.e.,

January 159, middle of


Jiilo-ban,

"

;" ik-ka-gelsu,
p. IOQ.
)

"one month."
ichi-ban,

futa-ban,

" one night ;" " two nights ;"

ni-ban,

" number one." " number two. "


;

A\ B.

Both these ban's are of Chinese origin


different characters.

but they are different

words written with

AUXILIARY NUMERALS.

" two beers," 157. In English we do not say "one bread," " but "one loaf of bread," " two glasses of beer. Similarly

we say " ten sheds of paper," "a hundred head of "so many rubbers of whist." Compare also the
man,"
in

cattle/'

Pidjin-

English "piecey," " two

in

such

expressions as
etc.

piecey house,"

Words

piecey of this kind are,

"one

Japanese

"Auxiliaries
correct.

io

termed grammar, "auxiliary numerals." the numerals" would be more strictly


"classifier" has also been proposed;
is

The term

but "auxiliary numeral"


widest currency.

that

which has obtained the

auxiliary numerals constitute a highly important class of words. For whereas in English such expressions as those just mentioned are somewhat ex-

The

ceptional, they are the rule in Japanese.

158.
to the

In some cases, indeed, the numeral

is

prefixed directly
icht-nm,

noun,

e.g.,

ichi-nichi,

"one day;"

"one

IOS

THE NUMERAL.
ic/ii-ri,

person;"

"one

league."

But

usage
:

ordinarily

demands

the insertion of an auxiliary numeral, as

tera ik-ken,

"temple one eaves,"


"

i.e.,

"one Buddhist
i.e.,

temple.
fiiton

sam-mai,
quilts."

"quilt three flat-things,"

"three-

onna roku-nin, "


N. B.

woman

six person," i.e.,

" six

women."
etc.

One may

also say ik-ken

no

tera,

sam-mai no futon,

If

159.

The choice

each class of words

of the auxiliary numeral appropriate to is fixed by custom, a mistake in this

matter producing the same absurd effect as does a wrong The Japanese auxiliary gender in French or German. numerals are, however, easier to remember than the French

and German genders, since they are generally more or less founded on reason, as will be seen by the following list of

As the auxiliary numerals are always not employed, independently, but in combination with the numerals proper, we give them here preceded in each case
those most in use.

by

"
ichi,

one," and

ni,

"two."

The

student should care-

fully notice the

phonetic changes caused in many instances by the presence of ichi, and should refer to the table of The presence of ni causes no changes on pp. 104 105.

such changes. An auxiliary numeral may therefore always be seen in its original shape when following that word. The chief auxiliary numerals are
:

(ichi-lu, ni, etc.-) bu,

"a

class ;" for copies of a book.

as

" a handle ;" for things with handles, such (it-cho, ni-)cho, and muskets, jinrikishas, many kinds of tools.
(ichi-dai, ni-)dai,

" a stand
)

;" for

carriages

and

jinrikishas.

(ip-puku, ni-)fuku
tea, whirls

(various meanings

of ;) for scrolls, sips

of tobacco, and doses of medicine.

.UMI.IARY NUMERALS.

lOp

(ip pai, ni-)hai,

" a wine-cup
full."

;"

for

cupfuls

and

glassfuls

of any liquid

also for loaded junks or steamers.

AT

B.

" Ip-pai also means

(ip-piki ni-)Jiiki,

"a

fellow;" fop
;

most

living

creatures,

beings and birds excepting tities of cloth and sums of money.


(ip-pon, ni-)hon,

human

also for

certain

quan-

" a stem

;" for cylindrical things,

such as
to

sticks, trees, fans, pens, bottles, newspapers rolled

up

be

posted,

etc.

(ichi-jd, ni-)jo,

" a mat

;" for mats.


ko,

(ik-ka, ni-)ka,

sometimes
that

" the culm of the bamboo;"

for

a few things

appropriated co than in genuine Colloquial.


(ik-ken, ni-}keti,

have no other auxiliary numeral them, more, however, in the bookish style

" eaves

;" for

buildings generally.
5

(ichi-mai,

ni-)mai,

"a. shrub;'

for

flat

things,

such as

sheets of paper, coins, plates, coats, shirts, rugs, etc.


(ichi-mei ni-)mei,

word mei
Colloquial.

is

"a name;" somewhat bookish


''

for
;

human
is

beings.

This

nin

more genuinely
beings.

(ichi-nin, ni-)nin,

a person ;" for

human

(is-salsu, ni-)salsi<

"a volume
salsu

;" for

Do

not confound

with

bu t

volumes of a book. which latter refers to

complete copies of a work, irrespective of the number of volumes contained in it.


(is-shu, ni-}shu, a
(is-sd t ni-)so,

head ;" for poems. " a boa! ;" for \ rssels of every description.

(is-soku,

ni-)s>j/>u,

"afoot;"

for

pairs

of socks,

clogs,

boots, etc.
(it- to,

ni-}t(l,

" a head

for horses

and

cattle

but Juki

may

also be used.

HO
'

THE NUMERAL.
'

(tchi-wa,

ni-)wa,

feather ;"

for
:

birds.

This

word

suffers irregular

phonetic changes, thus


4 shi-iua 8 hachi-wa
5

3 sam-ba, 7 shichi-wa,

go-zva
i

6 rop-pa

9 ku-wa

o jip-pa

6O.

EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE AUXILIARY NUMERALS.


ichi-mai.
(

Hanshi

"One
common
"

sheet

of (a

certain

kind of } paper>

Via is-shu.

" One (Japanese) poem."


ni-cho.

Ko-galnna

Two

pen-knives."

Fude sam-bon.
Waraji
is-soku.
(

Hon

" Three pens." " One pair of straw sandals." " Five volumes." (ffoti

go-satsu.

book.")

Six-piecey-place.

-six places."

Gunkanjis-sb. a p r^^' Ushi hyaku-to.

"Ten
I
(
(

war-vessels."

^t

Suzume

sem-ba.
(
-

"A hundred head of cattle. " "A thousand sparrows " (in
"A
x

Sem-oa suzume.
Ichi-nim-biki no
Onc-iycrson-pull
's

thousand sparrows
jinnkisha
hiki, the

" (in

kuruma.
vcJticlc.

"A 1m an."
(

with

one
form
"

N. B.
numeral

This biki (the nigori'&&. form of


liiki in

" indefinite

of fithi, " to pull ")

is of course quite a different

word from the

auxiliary

ip-fiki, sam-biki, etc.

Ichi-nin-nori no kuruma.
One-pei'son-ride
's
vcJiicie.

"A jinrikisha capable | holding one person only."


\

of

Ni-nin-nori

no kuruma.
vehicle.

"A
"A

jinrikisha

capable
with

of

Tico-person-riile 's

| holding
\

two persons."
carriage

Ni-to biki
Tivo-1tc<ul-j>nll

no
*.s

basha.
cati'iftf/c.

two

AUXILIARY NUMERALS.
_

Mute

(
_ I

"The
.

three

houses

san-gen,

ryo-donan.

Opposite three-caves, both- next-door.

and the one on opposite f .j >,

Kochira
Here.

wa

hachi-jo, isugi
;

as-far, eigJit-inat

ne.ft

ma
s/Mtw.

iva
as-for,

jn-ni-jo.
ttvcli'c-indt.

" This room has eight Sono mats, t!ie next twelve.
of

no

That
ni,

Besides

these,

there

is

hokii,
besides,

ju-jo
1e,n-mat

ni,

and,

roku-jo six-mat

one of ten mats, one o and, six, and one of four and
a half."

yo-jo-han four- mat-half

mo
also

gozaimasu.
(there) are.

Go-go
Noon-after

no
of

san-ji three-hour

goro
about
till

ni\ at

deru

kara,

sore
that

made

ni
in,

localise, go-out no ni-nim-biki

" I am going out at about three o'clock. So


sha
please see that a jinrikiwith two men is ready for me by then."

jinriki

ichi-dai

tivo-person-pidl of jinrikisha one-stand sJiilaku sasele oite

preparation kudasai.
condescend.

causing -to-do

placing

Dogu-ya
kakemono

de

bydbu
screen

is-so

to,

Vtensil-Jioiise at,

one-pair and,
katte

"Please send a coolie


to fetch a pair of screens

ni-fuku

hanging-scroll two-border having-bought .and oita kozukai wo tori which kara,


coolie placed because, ni yaile kudasai. to sending condescend.

two
I

kakemonos,

have
at

(accus.)

fetch

purchased "
dealer's.

just the curio-

1.

It will

be noticed that

all

the examples hitherto given

of auxiliary numerals are Chinese.*

The

auxiliary numerals

of native Japanese origin are far less numerous. ones worth mentioning here are
:

The only

Wa

(p.

no) indeed

is

Japanese.

But we have classed


is

it

under the

Chinese auxiliary numerals, because it with the Chinese numerals ichi, ni, etc.

always used in conjunction

THE NUMERAL.
(7/r/0-)
,,

hashira,

"a post

;" for

Shint5

divinities.

"a kabu, stump


kumi,

;" for shrubs.

,,

"a company

;" for sets

of things or persons,

such as toys consisting of more than one part, tea-sets, nests of boxes that fit into each other, pairs of glo>ves, parties of
tourists, etc.
(hiio-)

ma, "space

;" for

rooms.
for

" the mtine, ,, ridge of a roof ;" under one of included buildings groups " a match for sets of
(kilo-) soroc,
;"

houses and any

roof.

things of like nature,

such as

suits of clothes.

(hito-) suji,
,,

"a

to?nai,

line ;" for towels and for rope-like things. " a hut thatched with matting ;" for godowns.

The

native auxiliary numerals take the Japanese numerals

before them

up

to

mu-lomai.

After
(conf.

inclusive, thus \fula-kumi, mi-ma, "fern" they perforce take the Chinese

"ten

"

numerals

^[154),

\h\*s:Ju-ni-ku?ni,

ni-ju-?na, shi-ju-

hachi-tomai.

No

euphonic changes take place.

N. B. Things having no special auxiliary numeral appropriated to them are counted by means of the native Japanese numerals hifotsu,
" " futalsv, etc. thus tamago Inlotsu, one egg;" momo to bakari, about ten peaches." Even things provided with a special auxiliary numeral
;

sometimes replace the latter by hltotsn, futatsu, etc., in slipshod talk. Purists, too, sometimes employ bookish auxiliary numerals now scarcely intelligible to the uneducated, as kagami ichi-men, "one mirror" (lit.
mirror one surface), isn ik-kyakit,

"one chair"

(lit.

chair one leg),

where ordinary speakers would simply say kagami


If

hltotsu, isu httotsu.

162.

In Classical Japanese,

human

beings are counted by

means of the
tari attached.

native numerals, with the unexplained suffix

Of these words
:

the Colloquial language has

retained only the following

INTERROGATIVE NUMERAL WORDS.


(for liito-lari),

113

"one
*'

person

;" ;"
;"

fidari (iQifuta-tan),
yoltari($Q\ yo-fan),

two persons

" four persons

which are used concurrently with, but oftener than,


Chinese synonyms
ichi-nin, ni-nin

their

andyo-nin.*

^[163. Questions respecting number and quantity are asked by means of the word iku, which is, however, not used alone, but always in combination, thus
:

"about how much?", ra being the particle of vagueness already mentioned on pp. 29 30 as helping to form certain plurals " how often ?" iku-tabi s
iku-ra
lit.
;
3

/how much?,

iku-tsu

/>

"how many ?"


\

iku-nin

/>

iku-tari?

"
\
,,
,,
,,

(said of people);

iku-mai ?
iku-hon P

(said of flat things)

,,

(said of cylindrical things)

and so on with

all

the auxiliary numerals,


latter.

no phonetic

changes taking place in the


If

nan

may be replaced by tiam, usually shortened to such contexts. Nam', though itself Japanese, is chiefly found before words of Chinese origin, thus
164. Iku
in
: ' '

nan-ji

j>

what o'clock

?"

nan-nen ?
nan-nin ?
nan-ri P

how many years ?" " how many persons ?" (< how many leagues ?"
"
/*

ll

Very

often the

word

hodo,

about,"

is

added, thus
r*

nan-nen hodo
*

nan-ri hodo

See

numerals, of Japanese yo for Chinese

155, p. 106, for the substitution, even before Chinese auxiliary " four." s/ii,

114

.THE NUMERAL.

"

How much ?"


/>

is

often rendered

or dono kurai
165.

all really

meaning

by ika-hodo s dore hodo f " about how much ?"

following are examples of the use of the Japanese auxiliary numerals and of the interrogative numeral words :

The

Sakazuki hiio-kumi.

' '

One

set of sake-cups.

"

Yofuku

hilo-soroe.

Kamifula-hashira.

" One suit of foreign clothes." " Two Shinto deities."


de

O
Honourable
iio

iku-lari

"

How many
?"

are

there

in

gozaimasu.
arc?
Yotlari desu.
' '

your party

There are four of us.


o'clock
f

"

Nan-ji desu r
Iku-tsu gozaimasu ?\
~

"What
"

is it ?"

How many
choice

are there ?" one or other o f these


see

Iku-mai (etc. )

,,

of the object referred to;

159.)

ORDINAL NUMBERS.
ORDINAL, FRACTIONAL, ETC., NUMBERS.
1

66.

What we term

ordinal

numbers

are sometimes

marked

by suffixing the word me ("eye") to the Japanese, or bamme (ban= t( number") to the Chinese cardinal numbers ;
or else the

added, or dai

word dai (" order ") may be prefixed and nothing may be prefixed and bamme added, to the
All such forms take the post:

Chinese cardinal numbers.


position no, "of,"

when preceding a noun, thus


futsuka-me,

" the
' '

se-

cond day."
fidatsu-me,
ni-do-me,

the se' '

ni-bamme,
dai ni-ban, dai ni-bamme,

the second."-

cond time."
nan-cho-me
f*

what

ward (of a

street) ?"

ni-chb-me,

''the se-

cond ward."

Dai
means

ni-ban,

" number

or simply ni-ban also dai ni-go constantly two;" similarly in the case of the

other numbers.

Nan-go
mutt-number
irasshaimasu.
dei{jn-to-be ?

no
's

shiisu

ni\
tit
I

room

"What
"

is

the

number of
?"

your room (or cabin)


|

Dai
Order

san-go
tJiree-number

m
in

orimasu. am.
\
j

I "

am

in

number
ward
from

| three.

lida-machi
ni-ju-banchi.

roku-cho-me
' <

(chi=

earth. ")

"No. 20 of the 6th " of lida street.


' '

Kado
N. B.

kara

san-gen-me.
third-house.

}
j

The

third house

Corner from,

the Comer."

Gen

is

the nigorVvft. form of Aen, the auxiliary numeral for

houses (see p. 109).


If

167.

Notwithstanding the existence of such forms as the

above, the Japanese

mind has

not, properly speaking, a very

Il6

THE NUMERAL.
between cardinal numbers and

clear idea of the distinction

ordinal numbers, for which reason the cardinals are often

used in an ordinal sense, thus " Meiji san-ju-ichi-nen (lit. Meiji 31 year"),
:

" the

thirty-

first

year of (the chronological period termed) Meiji," i.e., "A.D. 1898," according to the European reckoning. Similarly ni-gwatsu or ni-getsu (lit. "two month"), i.e.,
"

"February

ju-ichi-nichi

(lit.

"eleven day"),

i.e.,

"the

eleventh day of the month."


context generally shows whether the number should be Sometimes the cardinal numbers are distinguished by the insertion of an auxiliary numeral. Thus " two months " would be not ni-getsu, but ni-ka-getstt, or, in native Japanese

N. B.

The

taken as a cardinal or as an ordinal.

parlance and without any auxiliary numeral, futa-tsuki.

68. Years are usually counted by what are termed "year-names" (Jap. nengo), i.e., periods of irregular length with names arbitrarily chosen. The present period " Meiji "
1

began with the overthrow of the Shogunate and the


tion of the

restora-

of

late,

Occasionally years have been counted from the fictitious era of

Mikado

to absolute

power

in 1868.

the

mythical

Emperor Jimmu,
was the

who,
first

according

to

the

Japanese history books,


this empire,

and ascended the throne

human monarch of on the nth February,

B. C. 660.

169. January is called sho-gwatsu, lit. "the chief month;" sometimes also ichi-gelsu, lit. "one month." (Gwatsu is

Go-on, geisu the Kan-on pronunciation of the same Chinese character ft, " moon ;" see p. 7 for these technical
the
terms.)

The

other

months

are

formed by prefixing the

Chinese numerals to the word gwatsu or getsu. months run as follows


:

Thus

the

COUNTING OF MONTHS AND DAYS.


shu-givaisu,

ni'gwatsu,

"January." "

shichi-gwalsu,
"

"July."

February.

hachi-gwalsu,

"August."
"September." "October."

san-gwatsu,
shi-gwatsu,

"March."
"April."

ku-gwatsu,

ju-gwatsu,
ju-ichi-gwatsu,

go-gwatsu,

"May."

"November."
"December.''
is

roku-gwatsu, "June."
1

ju-ni-gwatsu,

70.

The counting

of the days of the

month

a medley of

native Japanese and imported Chinese parlance. the former in ordinary Roman, the latter in italic type
ichi-nichi,
}

We
:

give

the

is/

of the jfi-roku-nichi,
ju-shichi-mchi,
ju-hachi-nichi,
ju-ku-nichi,

the

i6/7;

tsuitachi,

[month.

futsuka,

19'*

hats iik a,

n i-ju-ich i- n ich i,
ni-ju-ni-nichi
ni-ju san-m'c/ii,
-

3/tt-yokka,
ni-ju-go-nichi,
ni-jii-roku-nichi,

ni-ju-sKichi-nichi,
ni-ju hachi-nichi,
ni-jii-ku-nichi,

san-ju-nichi,
san-ju-ichi-nichi,

misoka,

' '

the last day of the

month"

(whether the yoth or 3 is/). 6-misoka, "the last day of the year."

A7
171.

B.

The word misoka


forms,

is

tending to pass out of educated usage.

The above

likewise for such expressions as

which are really cardinals, serve " twelve " two


days,"
days/'

Il8

THE NUMERAL.
etc.

"twenty days,"
sense of

But

isuitachi

cannot be used in the

"one day," because it is derived from Isuki tachi, "the moon rising," i.e., "the first day of the moon."

"One day" is therefore always ichi-nichi. Neither can " " misoka be used in the sense of " thirty days or thirty-one
days,"
"
(ka)
is its

notwithstanding the fact that "thirty (miso) days etymological meaning in Archaic Japanese.
are counted by prefixing the Chinese numerals

^[172.

Hours

to the Chinese
ichi-ji,

word

"
ji,

time,"
' '

"

hour," thus
"

yo-jiju-go-fun,

6ne o'clock. " a quarter (lit.


past four."

fifteen

minutes)

ju-ichi-ji han,
ju'ichi-ji shi-ju-go-fun,
j

"
' <

ju-ni-jiju-go-fun mac,
han-ji-kan,
ichi-ji

eleven forty-five. " "a quarter to twelve.


' '

half-past eleven." "

half-an-hour.

"

(kan =

"

interval.")

han ban,
as
just

"an hour and


instanced,
is

a half."
or,

If

173.

"Half,"

han,

when used

substantively, hanibun
6

(lit.
is

"half part").
used idiomatically in such expressions partly) as an ornament," said, for
;

N. B.
kazari

The word hambun


hambun,
" half

as

(i.e.

instance, of the
in fun,"

" charm-bags worn by children omoshiro hambun, half where the ordinary rules of Japanese construction would lead

one

to expect to see hambun placed first instead of second. instances the stress lies on the word hambun.

In

all

such

as in the following examples,

Other fractional and multiplicative numbers are expressed, by means of the words In, " " " double :" part" (a corruption of bun, part "), and bat,
sam-lu no
sam-ln no
shi-bu no
ichi,

" one-third." " two-thirds."

ni,

ichi,

"a

quarter."

MISCELLANEOUS NUMERAL LOCUTIONS.


shi-bu no san,

II(>

ju-bu no san,
bat or ni-bai,

" three-quarters." " three tenths."

"
"

double,"
treble,"
lit.

sam-bai,

" twice as much." " three times as much."


parts,"

A
"

7
.

B.

Such expressions

as ni-bu,
(i.e.,

"

two

two

"

two hundredths

parts out of three" " "


(i.e.,

"two

thirds"), or
"), etc.

may mean either "two tenths," or

two per cent

174.
ni-do,

Note also the following miscellaneous locutions

CHAPTER
The

VII.

Adjective.

PRIMARY INFLECTIONS.
175.
tives

The
in

salient points of the

the

Tokyo
:

Colloquial

primary inflections of adjecmay be compendiously de-

scribed as follows
i.

Adjectives have a form in


predicative,

2,

which

is

both attributive

and

that

is

to

say,

prefixed to a noun,
the English verb

or else at

which may be used either the end of a sentence with

"to be" understood, thus:


high

Takai yama,

"A
"A

Yama ga
tain
is

takai,

"The moun"The wind

mountain."

high."

Samui

kaze,

cold

Kaze ga samui,
is

wind."

cold."

N. B. Ga must not be mistaken for the equivalent of the English It is a postposition serving approximately to denote word "is'."
the nominative case.
ii.

(See p. 66.)

Adjectives have a form in o or u, which is used instead of the form in i when gozaimasu, the polite verb
for

"to be/'

is

expressed.

Thus:
" The mountain
is

Yama ga
Kaze ga
in.

takb gozaimasu.

high."

samii gozaimashd.

"The wind
cold."

is

probably

verb

Adjectives have a form in ku, which is used when other than gozaimasu follows, and which often,

though not always,

corresponds to an English adverb in

"ly

;" thus

STANDARD CLASSICAL FORMS.

121

Yama
Mountain

ga takaku micmasu.
(110111.)

"The

mountain

looks

hif/Ji

Ioo7<s.

(high."
\

Hayaku
176.

kite kudasai. Quickly coming condescend.

- Please come quickly/'


to

But

in

order

to

attain

full

and

satisfactory

intelligence even

of these Colloquial forms, it is necessary to dig deeper, and to see how matters stand in the Classical language, from which the Colloquial forms are still in the
act

of being

evolved.

Observe

at

the

outset

that

the

inflections of

Japanese adjectives have no reference whatever

to

such

European
or the
distinguish

grammatical

categories

as

number,
is

gender,
partly to

degrees

of comparison.

Their object
the

the attributive from

predicative

relation, partly to distinguish the

end of a mere clause from

the

end of a complete sentence.

177.

The

Classical
is
hi.

termination

of adjectives

when used

Their termination when used predicaattributively a at the end of Hence this latter is sentence is shi. tively
technically called the

" conclusive form," thus

ATTRIBUTIVE.

CONCLUSIVE.
j
(

Takaki yama, mountain."

" A high

Yama
tain

lakashi,
is

" The moun-

high."

Samuki

lazj,

"A

cold

j
(

Kazc
is

satnushi,

" The .wind

wind.''

cold."
in /(-/and shi that

178.

It is

from these two Classical forms


i

the single Colloquial form in

has originated, by the dropof the k and sh. distinctive consonants ping

In
ers,

set

the

speeches and in the conversation of pedantic speak" attributive form " in ki may still not infrequently
It
is

be heard.
words

employed exclusively

in the case

of the

goloki>

"like/ "similar," and

beki,

a sort of verbal

122

THE ADJECT

VF.

" .. .ble," or adjective corresponding to our termination to our auxiliary verbs "ought" or "should," thus, :
,

shinzu-beki,
bcki,

"credible,"
(Conf.

"ought

to

be believed;" osoru-

"terrible."
.

9 2 -}

B. The corresponding conclusive form beshi is no longer employed by educated speakers ; but the bei perpetually heard at the end of sentences from the lips of the lowest classes in Eastern and Northern
7

Japan, and signifying "shall," "will," "must,"

is

a corruption of "

it.

For

instance,

So dam-bei, " That

is

probably so,"

No doubt you
is

are

right," represents an older

So de am-beshi, and standard Colloquial So de gozaimasho.


179.

equivalent to the

If

The "conclusive form"


nashi, "non-existent,"

in
is

shi

is

still

used in the

words

"

not," andyosfa',

"good,"
:

concurrently with the

commoner forms
.

nai andyoi, thus


1'2

Nani* mo 2 nashi?

(elegant)
(familiar)

"Everything *
existent
J
.

(is)

nonis

Nannimo

nai.

i.e.,

-There

(nothing.
Yoshi, yoshif
It is also still to

"All right!"
in
,
.

be heard

bamusa
Coldness

wa

samusni.

such emphatic locutions as " It was " It is cold," or, (


'

as-for, (it is)

coM.

C ld '"

r>
",

]t is

C ld with

(a vengeance.

Kurasa
*|f

iva

kurashi.

"

It ts

dark,"

etc.

termination of adjectives is ku. It corresponds to the indefinite form of verbs (conf. ^[ 278 and \ 425), and its original function is that of predicate
1

80.

The

third

Classical

at

the end of every clause of a sentence excepting the


shi.

last,
:

which alone takes the conclusive termination


'

Thus
(of

'

The

mountains
arc
cold,

Yama

takaim, kikn

samuim,

J
]

certain country) is the climate

hiyji,

and

jinka sukunashi.

the

human

dwellings there

are few."

AI)|KCTI\T.S

IN

CORKKLATKI) CLAUSKS.

I2 3

This construction
es,

is

now

rarely heard except in set speech-

genuine Colloquial usage preferring either to end each clause by the form in / (sometimes followed by the expletive shit as in the last example but two on p. 127), or,
oftener
still,

to turn the sentence


OKU,

some other way, thus


'

laiyo

wa

a Ism,

altar ui

124

THE ADJECTIVE.
Omoshiroku kikoemasu.

"It sounds amusing.

Osoku kaerimashila.

"I came home

late."

Yoku

dekita.

Okiku narimasKila koto!

"It is well done." " " How big he has become


!

N. B. For koto thus used, see top

of p. 39.
\

Naru-toke

hayaku

As....as2Wssible quickly, Jionourablcl ide nasai.


exit

"Please

COme

as

[quickly as possible."

deign.
,

B. Just as vulgar speakers often omit the termination " ly " of English adverbs, so also, in familiar Japanese style, and not from the

Ar

uneducated alone, do we hear such expressions as osoroshii warui, " dreadful(ly) bad," where osoroshtku wand would better accord with
the old traditions of the language.
^f

182. The verb "to be" is no exception to the rule whereby all verbs must be preceded by the adverbial or indefinite It is therefore correct to say, for instance form in ku.
:

Ano yama ga takaku gozaimasu. Kaze ga samuku gozaimashd.


But Colloquial usage
nation in such contexts.

"That mountain

is

high."

"The wind
be cold."

will

probably

prefers to

drop the k of the termiMoreover, after the k has been

dropped, a crasis of the remaining vowels of the termination


ensues.

By
)>

this series

of changes,

(Stems
(

in a) takaku passes

through takau
,,
,,
,,

to iako.
,,
,,

yoroslnku
o) shiroku

,, ,, ,,

yoroshiu
shirou

yoroshiu.
shiro.

(
(

,,

,, ,,

,,

u)

samuku

samuu

,,

samii.

e.

N. B. The genuine modern Colloquial possesses no stems ending in In earlier times, however, and in the semi-Colloquial of certain
series as

books we find such

shigeku,
beku,

shigcu,
beu,

shigyo.
byo.

ADJECTIVE STEMS.

125

Hence

it

is

usual to say

Ano ya ina ga takd gozaimasu Kazc git samu gozaimasho ; etc.


;

A B. The Kyoto dialect goes a step further even than that of Toky5, and prefers to make use of these abbreviated forms before all verbs whatsoever. The same usage is found in the more or less artir
.

ficial

Colloquial alluded to just above, as sometimes

making

its

way

Foreigners are apt to say Ano yama ga takai de gozaimasu, The use of such expressions, though not absolutely forbidden, etc. If addressing an inferior, say Ano yama ga takai. should be avoided.
into print.

If addressing

an equal or superior, say Ano yama ga takd gozaimasu.

183.

It

will

be noticed that

all

the inflections of adjectives


in

are

added

to a
is

stem which terminates


occasionally

one of the vowels.

employed as an independent Thus Aka, Kuro, Shiro, "Brownie," "Blackie," word. and "Whitie," serve as names for dogs. The phrase
This stem

naga no

ioshi tsuki

means "long months and years"


:

(lit.

But by far the commonest use of "years and months"). the stem is to form compound words, thus
aka-ganc,

"copper;"

from

akai,

"red,"

and

kane,

"metal."
hoso-nagai,
nagai,

"slender;"

from

hosoi,

"narrow,"

and

"long." " wildness caused by pain;" from ku~ kurushi-magire, " to be confused." " rushii, painful," and magireru,
shiro-kane,

"silver;" from " metal."

shiroi,

"white," and kane,

yasu-domari,

"a cheap lodging; from yasui, and tomaru, "to stay."


sugiru,

"cheap,"

yo-siigiru,

"to be too good;" from "to exceed."

yoi,

"good," and

126
N.
JJ.

THE ADJECTIVE.

There is a slight difference of signification, or at least of between such expressions as takaiyama, " a high mountain," and taka-yama, " a high-mountain," similar to that which we feel in " " and " the Highlands," or " a black English between high land " " bird and a blackbird." The compound form is more idiomatic,
intention,
it

tends
"

to

assume a
of
its

specific

meaning
parts
(e.
it

irrespective of the original


g. futa-go,

signification

constituent

"twins," from
in proper

futa, names.
called

two," and ko,

" child
are

"),

and

is

that preferred

Thus

there

several places called

Takayama, but none

Takai yama.

184.

From

construct
as

we may proceed to the foregoing remarks, a table of the primary inflections of adjectives,

used in ordinary conversation.


adjectives
lakai,

We
one

take as specimens

the

"high;" "white; and samui, "cold;"


a,
i,

yoroshii,
i.e.,

"good;"
for

shiroi,

each of the

four vowels

o, u,

with which Japanese adjective stems


:

almost invariably terminate


(t

KXAMPLKS OF PRIMARY INFLECTIONS.


hayo Honourably
early

127

gozaimasu.
(it)
is.

"Good

morning."

Yoi Good
(if)
is.

tenki
tveather

de\

honourable

"
)

It is fine

weather.

gozaimasit.

Zosa

ga

nai.

)
)

" There
shabetcha

is

no

difficulty."
polite than nai.)

Difficulty (now.) is-not.

(Gozaimasen would be more


\
I

Yakamashii !
(You) are-noisy!
ikenai.
it-is-no-ao.

as-for-chatterinfj,

"Don't

chatter

and
"

make such
I

a row

Yoku wakarimasen.
Well understand- not.

"I
"It
"

don't

quite un-

(derstand."
( \

Warm' no Had one


Tsui
ni

da.
is.

is

a bad one."
^f 1 1 2.)

(For no, see

naku
non-existent ivo

narimashita.
Jtas-become.

( (

He

is

dead

at last."

Finally

Kanjo
JBill

(acctis.)
).

hayaku wickly

dokai
3fr**>]

^ p lease
quick l y ."
to

brinR

the

(kudasai

(Said
\

a hotel-keeper^

(condescend).

Ano
T/iat

wakai
young

kirei

na

Kilo,

"That
"
)

handsome
It is

pretty
shi,

person,

{young

fellow."

Shina mo yoi
Article also

nedan moyasui.
price also(is)cheap.
to

both good

(is) fjood,

Jand cheap."
tl

Takai Dear

to

yasui

iva
as-for,

(
,

and

cheap and

lamochi-kata
durability

ga
(ftom.)

d
/>

oneg n " ot wear so wel1 as


dear ones.

chigau.
dfffers.
(

(the

Ai-niku
Meet-odious

no
of

ame.
rain,

"A
it

rainy
is

day

coming

just

{when

not wanted."
suffixed, here

N. B.
no

Observe the stem-form niku with no

used ex-

ceptionally for the attributive form niktti.

The nick-name Arigata


Part (f 451),
is

Kichibd, in one of the

stories in the Practical

similar case.

128

THE

ADJECTIVP:.

SECONDARY INFLECTIONS.
1

86.

Besides

the
there

primary inflections of adjectives,


is

as set

forth above,

a series of secondary inflections which

XKC. \TIVi: APJF.CTIVK NAI.

129

are

employed

to

indicate tense

and mood.

Most of

these

secondary inflections arc obtained by agglutinating parts ot the verb aru, "to be," to the adverbial or indefinite form
in
///,

euphony producing
first

certain slight changes, as will be

seen by comparing the table

on the opposite page with the

paradigm of the

The

conjugation, to which aru belongs. use of the various moods and tenses will be found

explained in ^[ 273 ct scq. such imperative forms as

We

have omitted from the table

yoroshikarc,

"be good!" and

warukare,
practice,

" be bad
save
in

because they rarely if ever occur in a few such idiomatic phrases as osokare
!

"

hayakarc, "sooner or later." 1 88. One of the most useful adjectives is what is called Its "the negative adjective nai" proper meaning is " non-existent but it the

;'* commonly replaces negative conjugation of the verb aru, "to be," and also sometimes Its inflections corresponds to our preposition "without."
:

are as follows

Attributive >>(
S
* ]

nai.

Conclusive

nai, rarely

^Adverbial

naku.

130
Certain Present

THE ADJECTIVE.
ov\yoroshiku
j

j
[
(

is

or will

not be

Future

nai,

good.

Improbable Presen t
or Future

yoroshiku
nakaro,

probably is not or will not be good


s

Certain Past

not good.

And
IV.

so on through the other

moods and tenses.

In polite parlance, this negative conjugation in nai is " mostly replaced by one with the verb gozaijnasen, not to be," thus

B.

Certain Present or ) yoroshiu gozai-

(is
\

or will
good.

riot

be

Future

masen,

Improbable Present \yoroshitlgozaior Future masumai,


(

(probably is not or will not be good.


tenses.

And Nai

so on through the other

moods and

itself is
is

There

no such expression
"
dirty,"

not susceptible of the negative conjugation. " not non-existent." as naku nai,
must not be
above

N. B.
kitanai,

Positive adjectives happening to end in nai, as, for example,

negative form.

The negative
in the

of kitanai

confounded with adjectives in the is kitanakn nai, following the


" dangerous;" Similarly with ctbiinai,

paradigm given
siikunai,

table.

"

scarce," etc.

190.

EXAMPLES OF THE TENSE AND MOOD


INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.

^_ Kosuru
TJms do

io
if,

"I
done
it

ought
in this

to

have
-

yokatta

ga..
.

u<<,s-goo<l altJtouffJi

way.

(Conf.

287.)

Aa

kowakatta!
rc(ts-afrnM.

"Oh!
J

what a
"
!

fright

Alt. !

have had

Are
"Tliat
io
tJiat

ga

yokaro

(nom.} will-ivi'ol)ttUi)-be-good"\

"I

think

that

that

omoimasu.
(/)

jone

will

probably do."

K SAMPLES

OF THE TENSE AND MOOD INFLECTIONS.


inu
dogs

Saku-ban,
Iifisl-niffht,

ga
(nom.)

hoctc,

barliiny,} night,

sozosKikuic
deing-noisy,

neraremasen
could- nol-sleejt

deshila.
(it}

was.

couldn't sleep last Oil aCCOlint of the noise the dogs made
I

"

[barking."
It
is

Kono
This

hen
nejgj.ho.n-hood

wa,
as-for,

7iat'\

flies\ {}}Q
-

number

quite tiresome, of lies jn


|

(nont.ybeing-many

this

neighbourhood."

Go

tsugd
convenience

ga
(iiom.)

honourably

tuarukerebci)
if-is-bad,

yoshi
cease

if

" Please don't do it, it is inconvenient to

honourably

nasaimasJii.
condescend.

you."

I\ni>
77* is

goro
ywrioil

no
's

tcnki

wa,
so

weather as-for,
zuartikattari

"The

weather

is

yokallari

bcing-soin ct iin cs-bad. being-soni etitn es-good ale ni narimasen. s/iih',

changeable just now, that one can't


rely

upon
not

it."

doing, reliance

to

becotnes-not.
It is
}
\

Tonto

mo

muznkasliiku nai.
difficult
ifs-not.

in the

least

Trifle e reit

difficult."

Muzukas/Mu
Difficult.

nakcrchi,
if-is-not,

yalte
sendi

"

If

it is

not

difficult,
at

w j|l

mimasho.
trill-sec.

(Conf.

try

my hand

296.)

Nakucha

naranai

mono.
thing.

"A

thing one cannot

As-for-non-bcinij, bccomcs-not

do without."

"The
7'cnka

greatest beauty

in the land."

ni
in,

nai
non-existent

bijin.
belle.

whom

(More

" Hi, is there

belle

with
to

none
[ka]

compare

beneath

the

[ten].")

COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.


191.

Compound

adjectives

are

numerous,

and

offer

no

difficulty.

frequently

They sometimes consist of two of a noun or verb followed by an

adjectives,

more
:

adjective, thus

132
usu-akai,

THE ADJECTIVE.
'Might red," "pink;" from " red." light-coloured," and akai,
usui,

"thin,"

"

nsu-gurai,

"

dusk,"

coloured," and
kokoro-yasui,
' '

kurai,

" almost dark;" from " dark."


from kokoro,

usui,

"light-

"intimate;"
"
easy.

"heart,"

and

yasui,

yondokoro-nai,
lokoro,

"unavoidable;" from yorn,

"to "to

rely,''

"

place," and nai, the negative adjective.

kiki-gurushii,

"ugly
"

(to

hear);" from

kiku,

hear,"

and and

kurushii, "painful."

mi-gurushh,

ugly (to look

at) ;"

from mini, " to see,"


Irom wakaru,

kurushii,

"

painful."
(to

ivakan-nikui,

"

difficult

understand)
nikui,

;"

ivakari-yasm,

easy (to understand) ;" rom wakaru, understand," and yasui, "easy."

"to understand," and "

"odious."

"to

^[

192. There arc various classes of derivative adjectives. these the chief are
:

Ol

i.

Those

in

beki,

corresponding to

our

phrases

with

"must"

or "should," or to our adjectives in


as being

"
.

...blc,"

and already noticed on pp. 121-2


attributive constructions.
in
It
is

now used
beh
is

only in

to verbs that

suffixed,

the

first

"should be," "necessary;"


bcki,

conjugation to the present tense, as aru-bcki, in the second and third con-

jugations to the indefinite form, as tabc-lcki,

"

eatable ;"

tlcki-

In the Written "possible;" not tabcru-lcki, dckiru-bcki. Language, bcki is suffixed to what is termed the "conclu-

sive

form" of the present tense of the second and


i.e.,

third
fol-

conjugations,
ru,

a short form ending in u without a

thus: iabu-bcki, (fylcku-beki ; and this use may lowing still sometimes be heard in the Colloquial. A like rule

COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.


obtains in the

13$

which always make ku-btki and


peculiar,

case of the irregular verbs kuru and siiru, The verb mini is su-bcki.
cither miru-bcki or mi-bcki.

making
kolo.

Su-bcki

"

A
A

thing to be dune."
"

S/iinzu-bcki
/>WtVtv-*
u.st

kolo.
thini/.

*'

credible thing.

Kono

hen

m
in,
''

k>

S(ju

should place* (no ill

<ti-e-not

neighbourhood?"

Omac
You
r/c'
/.

no
o)'

kamau-beki
incdMc-tshoHltl
t/iinf/

''It

is

llOlie

of

"
(familiar.)

}'uUl

business.

Is-not.

Kore

wa
acsu.

mutt ye

yaru-\
,

This
-,

is

thi

inusl
thiiuj
is.
J

be

sent

7
.

B.

Observe how our English passive idioms are replaced by

active idioms in Japanese, following a general tendency of the

language

commented on
*

in ^[f 81

82,

^[

427, and

439.

193.

ii.

l^lie

so-called

" desiderative

"

adjectives

in tai, as

tabclai,

"desirous of eating," "hungry;" ikilai, "desirous of going." These will be treated of when we come to
speak of the verb,
*|f

242 and

^f

285.
is

194.

in.

noticeable class of derivative adjectives

form-

ras/iii, which " ish " and " to the terminations corresponds Knglish ly, and occasionally to some such phrase as "said to be," or " I

ed by agglutinating to nouns the termination

'

think," thus

l<ika-rashii,

"foolish;"

from baka,

"a

fool."

kodomo-rashii,

"childish;"' from kodom o,

"children."

134

THE ADJECTIVE.
a

otoko-rashn,

j,

\
..^

^?,

from

"
jozu,

skilful.''

konnichi-rashii,

^ r

?
is

from konnichi, "to-day.

A much
arashii,
uioshii,
1[

smaller class

obtained by reduplicating an
:

adjective stem

and agglutinating the suffix shii, thus ara"rude and rough;" to-dbshii, "lengthy;" ulo"

" cold

(metaph.), "estranged."
well to
notice,
in

195.

It

may be

connection with these

classes of derivative adjectives,

two classes of verbs derived


is

from adjectives.

One of

these

obtained by suffixing to
'

the stem the suffix garu, a contraction of ge aru,


(4K.)

gc or ke

being an old word signifying "spirit," "air."


to

When
resulting

added

the desiderative adjective


suffix is

in

tai,

the

compound

tagaru

koivagaru,

"to think

fearful;"

i.e.,

"to be
from

frightened,"

from kowai, " fearful." " to think .strange;" mezurashigam,


"strange."
ikilagaru,

me&urashh,

"to want
itself

to

go;"

from

ikitai,

go,"

the desiderative adjective ofzX-w,

"wanting to "to go."

A. B. Observe that garu occasionally serves to verbalise nouns, thus: zannengaru, " to regret," from zannen, " regret;" iyagaru, "to
Also that the termination dislike," from iya, "nay!" "repugnance." " " " to be rather than "to want to apt to tagaru often means

Of

the

second
will give

class

of
:

adjective-verbs

the

following-

specimens

an idea

fnromcru,

"to spread"
),

(trans); hiroinani,

"to spread'
'

(intrans.

from

hiroi,

"wide."

maromeru,

" to

make

" round. round/' from marui,


are, like verbs
in general,

N. B. Both these classes of verbs


tible of the passive

suscep-

and causative forms

(conf.

Chap. IX), thus

QUASI- ADJECTIVES.

35

shigant,

" to be lionised." " to be eru, thought strange," " to be with envy," from urayainciregarded Urayantashigararcru, " "
to regard with

envy,

itself

derived

from urayamashii,

" enviable."

Ureshigarascru,

" to cause to

feel joyful,"
itself

i.e.,

"to make happy;"

from ureshigani,
niromesaseni,

" to (eel joyful,"

derived from ureshii, " joyful."

" to cause to spread."

QUASI-ADJECTIVES.

196.

There arc "

large

such as nama,
koraerarenai,

" raw

;" shizuka,

numbers of words "

in

common

use,

quiet ;" yasela,

"thin;"

unendurable," which at first sight appear to be adjectives, and which must be translated into English by adjectives, but which are not true adjectives in Japanese,

either as regards origin or

grammatical treatment.
verbs,

Some

of

them are nouns, some are

some

are phrases

formed

from various parts of speech. They may be best understood five headings under the classed following by being
:

^[197.

i.

America,"

Nouns followed by no; as Amerika " American." Such are


i.e.,
:

no,

"of

"

gwaikoku,
kin,

foreign countries:" gwaikoku no,

"foreign."

konaida,
ii.

kin no, "gold;" " a short while ago;" konaida

"golden."
no,

"recent."

Nouns followed by na,*


It

a corruption of the Classical


78) that the postposition no often
"

has been stated in

^f

112

(p.

or " ones," used assumes the signification of the English word " one Thus from the adjective nagai, " long," one can form substantively. the phrase nagai no, "a long one," and similarly from such quasiadjectives as shojiki

and

kirei one can

"an
the

honest

one;"

kirei

na no "a
t

pretty one," etc.


in

form the phrases shojiki na no, This idiom

must not be confounded with another nearly alike word nan, which it is difficult to explain

sound containing
English except

in

by the help of examples, and whose origin


sentences containing
it

is

obscure.

The

following
its

may

be taken as representative of

use

36

THE ADJECTIVE.
to
na,

verb

narn, "to be" (not "to become"); as shojiki " honest. Such are
' ' :

be confounded with
lit.

nani,
i.e.

"honesty being,"
na,

mcndo,

"a
"

bother;"

mcndo

muda

tiselessness ;"

muda

na,

"bothersome." " useless."


"disorderly."

ramboy

"disorderly

rambb na,
shizuka na,
nouns,

conduct;"

"
s/iizu/ca,

"

quiet
mostly

"

(subst.
follows

);

quiet"

(adj.).

N. B.

No

concrete

na

abstract

nouns.

no or na, according as it is viewed from the concrete or the abstract point of view. For instance, baka
will take
110

Indeed the same noun

hanasJd means " a

fool's

story,"

" the sort of story

a fool would

tell,"

whereas baka na hanashi means " a foolish story "

Very fmeyes; that

Korc, desho ka ?

Aa !

sort;

nan

dcsu.

"Is
is it."

this it?

Ah!

poi.

" He is a otoko i(ja, domo akip- ( very fickle fellow. Yes inSo sa! Mezurashii koto\ deed, because he is always hankering new and striking." ga suki nan da kara, [after something

Ano

Most people suppose it to be the Taiyo wa asa dele, maiban natural order of things for the sun hikkomu no ga atarimae da to to rise in the morning and to retire taitd wa omottc imasn ga,jitsu in the evening. But the truth is wa, asa taiyo ga dertt no de iva not that the sun rises in the mornakute, taiyo no dent no ga asa ning, but that the sun's rising is the nan desu.
morning."

Of the various

authorities, both

Japanese and foreign,

whom

the

present writer has consulted on the subject of this idiom, some pronounce it to be " relative," others " relative, elliptical, and reflective(!)." Some say that it is a corruption of naru, " to be." Others would trace " what?" used as a kind of it back to the word nani ? expletive indicat" " " or " what-d'ye-call-'em in vulgar ing vagueness, like thingummy

Others again assert that the phrase means nothing at all. We it a survival of the Classical particle nan, (Archaic na mo}, which served to emphasise the word to which it was sufiixed. Observe, however, that whereas Classical nan may occur
English.
ourselves incline to see in
before

any

verb, this Colloquial

nan survives only before the verb "

to

be," as in all three

examples given above.

QUASI-ADJECTIVES IN NA AND SO NA.

137

drawn
" lace "

distinctions arc

kao no Into means


l)eini>

sometimes produced in this way. Thus marni with a round face," the concrete idea of " a roundhere prominent.. ]5ut tuani-^io na Into means

"a man

faced man," the abstract quality of round-facedness lx.-ing uppermost in the speaker's mind. This particular phrase might be turned in yet

a third way,
idioms as

viz., /c<w

no vianti
with

Iiito,
*

"a man round


202. In

this last are dealt

in

na may
no
Jiilo

Ite

used almost indiscriminately.


luto equally well.

or

mugaku na
the

of face." Such some few cases no and Thus we may say mugaku But na is more common.

198.

To

class

formed

by

means

of na
so,

belongs
"

numerous body of words obtained by adding


form of verbs, thus
omoshiroi,
:

appear-

ance," to the stem of adjectives proper or to the indefinite

"amusing;"
"
to cat ;"

omoshiroSo na,

"likely

to

be

umai,
f'uni,

amusing," " nice


"

amusing-looking."

umaso na,
furisb na,

"
appetising."

to rain ;"

"

likely to rain."

kikocnt,

" lo be audible ;" kikoesona,

The "not

foimsyosasij na,
likely

"audible, one would suppose." "apparently good," and nasaso na,


are

to

exist,"

derived
nai,

irregularly

from

the

adjectives yoi,

"good," and
"worth
its

"
Si/.

non-existent/' by

the

insertion of an

epenthetic syllable

Compounds
or else

of nai,

such

as

tsumaranai,

nothing,"

"trifling,"

either follow nai in this

irregularity,

be

may made to
thus
:

conform

to the

rule

affecting adjectives in

general,

tsumaranasasd
nothing,"
199.

na

or

tsumaranaso

na,

"

looking

worth

"
trifling-looking."
classes

Sometimes words of the above two


with the
it

may be
of being

compounded
divided from
kar<i

following noun,
for instance
:

instead

by no or na,

na (or no) hako, or karabarko, " an empty box." " a kin no lokci, kindokci, ,, gold(en) watch.

'

138

THE ADJECTIVE.
Sometimes, again,
a

word may be

treated indifferently

either as a true adjective or as a quasi -adjective of class II,


for instance
:

chiisai,

or chiisa na,
,,
,,

"small."
"big."
na,

okh,

oki na,

yawarakai,
^[

yawaraka
I

"soft."

200.

The forms
II are

of classes

and

II

given above are the


I

attributive forms.

When

the

quasi-adjectives of classes

used predicatively at the end of a clause (conf. no or na is replaced by de, "being," which thus 1 \ 80), corresponds to the termination ku of adjectives proper. When they are used predicatively at the end of a sentence

and

(conf. ^f 177), no or

na

is

"to be," such


(very
polite).

as da (familiar),

replaced by any tense of the verb desu (polite), de gozaimasu


in

treated of at

The word de some length in ^f

such contexts has been


pp. 62
64,

88,

which the

student should carefully read over.


^[

201.

The

following examples will

show

the

use of these
I

various forms of the quasi-adjectives of classes


Tgirisu

and

II

no
's

haia.
side.

JionouraUe

An Eng ii sh
j

gentleman."
a
si
j

Gin

no

ga

hoshiii gozaimasu.

want

ver one<

Silver one

of desirous

am.

na
de gOZaimaSU.
(it~)

o
honourable

shina

article]
j

"

It is
>

a splendid thing."
thanking onefor a
gift.}

(^<<t

is.

FitsJiigi na sirantje

yume
ih'cam

wo
(accus.)

\
I

"

had a strange dream.

"

mimasKtla.

QUASI
/'//s ///'/
.,
( /if.

-A >JK<I

LIVES.

139

(familiar)
(polite)

"

rtfett.

"y

It is

strange.

<'!<<<

\
i-

"It

is

an intelligent dog."

<lo<j

is.

Kono
Tltis

inu

wa,

riko

dcsu.\
in.

dot/ aa-fot; clever

- This dog
"

is

intelligent."

Ann
That
de,
bclny,

Into

wa,
as-for,

shoji/d\
Jioncstl
|

]>crson

He

is

and he
JlOnCSt,

yoku halara/xmasu.
iccll

works hard."

Amari somaisu
Too

de, shilsurei riule coarse bvltvj,

I4O
bcnri no yoi,
'

THE ADJECTIVE.
'good of convenience,"
of convenience, to do,"
i.

e.

"convenient.
"inconvenient.

benri no warui,
sJii-kala

"bad

,,

no nai, "JIG

way

,,

"unavoidable."
corres-

Such quasi-adjectives

pond
or

to English adjectives with the prefix

in nai as that last instanced " "

with the suffix


nai,

"
less,"

as Isumi no nai,

un or "in/' " innocent ;''

kagirino
Tf

" unbounded."
are
all

204.

The above examples


quasi- adjectives

attributive in form.

When

the

of class

III
;

are
:

used predicatively,

the postposition no changes to

Mimi ga
Slii-kata

tbi.

ga

nai.

ga thus " He is hard of hearing." " There is no for it."


help

Ano

ko zua, wakari ga hayai.

" That
the
style

child

is

sharp."
inti-

These
mates.

examples
It
is

are

in

used between

always more polite to add the word gozaiOf course with masu, except when addressing an inferior. gozaimasu the i form of the adjective is exchanged for that
with the long final vowel (see pp. 120 and 124).
in

preceding examples would,

more

polite parlance,

Thus the become


:

Mimi ga
Ano
|f

to

gozaimasu.
is

Shi-kata ga gozaimasen (no gozaimasu


ko

not used).

wa wakari ga
t

hayo gozaimasu.
;

205.

iv.

Various tenses of verbs


:

also phrases

formed from

such verbs, as
micru,
fulolla,

**""'
,

"to appear;" " has become fat ;" " forthcomes not "
:

hence "visible."
,,
)

"fat."

yomcru,
shircla,

1-cannnot;" "reads;" (intrans. )


" was knowable
"
;

"
\
,,
,,

"

,,

-i

""Poss.ble.

"legible."
"

self-evident."

VERBS USF.D AS ADJECTIVES.


if-it-is-

14!

indispcnsablc,

tame ni naru
1

" becomes

to

sake
1

;"

beneficial."

/v'

ni2

iru'

3
,

ki /7

m
1

iranai,
kiila?,

" enters 3 to 2 " cnters-not

spirit ;"

,,

"agreeable."

to spirit ;"
1

"
,,

distasteful."

no*

" was -efficacious 3 of 2


spirit

;"

,,
,,
,,

"quick-witted.

Isumi 1
cnrytf-

jn>

(iru\
2
,

sum
9
,

"is 3 of 2 guilt " does 3 diffidence 1 ;"


1
;

"

"
guilty."

fai

shita

"did 2
2

"
;

great
3

,,
1

"diffident." " important."


"slight."

choihr stnta

gaten
206.

no 2

" did 2 "


J
I

"
;

slightly

,,

ikari*

goes-not of com-) 1 * prehension ;"


are

"

"
orms.

incomprehen"
sible.

The above
to

the attributive

Most of them

serve also
a sentence.

express the predicative relation at the end of

Observe,

lunvevcr,

that

no must then be re-

placed by ga, and the simple past tense in ta by the com.te iru thus pound present tense in (^[ 294),
.
.

Ano
That
fulolte
fat

nsan
oM-r/cnticm<m
iru.
is.

zua,

s-far,[

"That
''

old gentleman

is

fat.

Ano
TJiut

jochu maid
kiite

wa

fa

as-fw,
int.
is.

rit\ spirit

" Tliat

maid-servant

ga

fquick-witted."

being -efficacious

the

be replaced by almost always so repolite an inferior when in constructions, predicative except placed
the simple verb
in

Of course

may

in all cases
It
is

inflection

masu.

is

addressed.

Thus

the above examples


:

would become,

in

ordinary polite parlance

Ano ojiisan wa,futotte imasu (or orimasii). Ano jochu wa, ki ga kiilc imasu (or orimasii).

142

THE ADJECTIVE.

7
.

13.

choito s/nta,
If

Quasi-adjectives of Class IV ending in are never used predicatively.

s/rita,

as tai shlta,

207.

When employed

predicatively

at

the

end, not of a

sentence but of a clause, most of the words of this Class


turn into gerunds, thus
:

IV
But
;//

mieie,fullolc> dckimikuie, etc.


is

sometimes a periphrasis with dc


iranai de.

used instead, as

//

208. Foreigners speaking a

yoroshii no cha,
this
is

shiroi no

tea;" shiroi

mere "pidjin." " a while horse u??ia,

little Japanese constantly say But uma, okii no neko, etc. etc. It should \)Q yoroshii cha, "good

;"

okii

ncko or

bM na

neko,

"a, large cat."


tives,

(Yoroshii and shiroi are always true adjecwhereas we may either use okii as a true adjective, or

bki

na as a quasi-adjective.)

The mistake

arises partly

from

a contusion between no and na,

partly from the fact that

nouns followed by no

often correspond to the adjectives of

European languages,
ol
2
1

"
i.e.,

Japan,

2 " the 1 3 e.g. Nihon no koloba*, language 2 3 " the Japanese language ;" molo no sitmori
1 ,

" intention 3 of 2 lit. origin ," i.e., "the original intention." No is only used after adjectives in the sense of the indefinite " " " pronoun one or ones," as already explained in ^f 1 12
1
:

n Dochi ga n r-Kuroi m.
,.
.. ,
.

("Which

are the best

The

kaiic kimashlta. having-lMMght have-come,

"I have bought " [some big ones.


I

209.
kirei,

Do

not confound such Chinese quasi-adjectives as


real

tives,

"pretty;" mumei, "anonymous," with simply because they happen to end in i.

adjec-

One

can-

not say kirei onna, " a pretty woman ;" one must say " a sword without kirci na onna. Similarly mumei na katana,
the maker's

name

inscribed

on

it."

DIMINUTIVES,

AUGMENT ATI VES, AND


ko

IIONORIFICS.
o

143

^[210.

v.

The words
go,

forming diminutives and


with
the
ki,

forming
o,*
mi,

augrnentatives,

together

honorific

prefixes

" "

honourable;"

"august;''

"exalted;"
as
in

and

honourable," are
:

quasi-adjectives,

the

following

examples
ko-bin t

"a

small bottle."

"a (1-fa'n, large bottle." "an honourable Buddhist temple," i.e., simply o icra, "a Buddhist temple." " " the ifo /ion, august book," i.e., your book." " " ki-koku the exalted country, i.e., your country." mi ashi, lit. "august honourable feet, i.e., generally
3
7

"your
N. B.
which they arc
temple;"
"

feet."
the nigorting of the word to " " " small ko-dcra, big temple; prefixed, as d-dcra,

and ko frequently cause


ko-jiina,

"small island" (but d-shima, without the nigori,

Such compounds as these are extremely common in place-names, the whole Japanese coast being lined with Oshima's and Kojima's. To express the idea "a big island," "a small island,
big island"). the longer equivalents old

more

natural,

and

similarly in

im shima, chiisa na most other cases.

shinin,

would sound

The
1

honorifics o
z

and go are
3
,

also used adverbially, thus


1

yasumi
"
i.e.,

nasat

lit.

"honourably

deign

to

2"

rest,

good night." "


augustly quietly that,"
it

Goyiirurito,

i.e.,

" Don't

in-

jure yourself by overdoing

(in
fifth

walking, etc.)."
class of quasi-adjec-

noticeable peculiarity of this

tives is that they

only occur prefixed to other words.


at

They

cannot be used predicatively


sentence.
If,

the

end of a clause or

for

instance,

we want
it is

to predicate smallness

of a thing,
*

we cannot

say that
<?,

ko.

We

must use a

to-

Carefully distinguish long

-"large," from short o,

" honourable."

144
tally

THE ADJECTIVE.
distinct

word, such as
o,

chiisai.

(For further

details
^f

concerning the honorifics


cl scq. )

go, etc., see

Chap XI,

395

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
If

211.

Comparison

in

Japanese

is

more

often implicit than

Thus, when referring to the relative height of Fujiyama and Asa ma-yam a, a Japanese will not say as we should, "Fujiyama is the higher," but simply "Fujiyama
explicit.
"
is

high

(Fuji g a iakai, or Fuji no ho*

ga

takai), that

is,

it is

high as estimated from the standpoint of the other

mountain

mentioned.
Japanese " Which
tion,
in

Similarly,

will
is

not say "


'

when Which is

pricing

various
"
?

the cheapest

goods, a but simply

(Dochira ga yasui ?) i.e., by implicaIndeed, even cheap as compared with all the rest.

cheap
the

English
of
it is

so-called

positive

is

not infrequently
instance,

comparative by implication.
a

talk

lake

as

large,

When, for what do we

we
but
in

mean

that

larger
?

than most other lakes in the country or


say that

the world

When we
is

such and such a

man

is

old,

what interpretation can be put on our words, except that


the

man
is

in question

older than the majority of people


will

hardly occur to such as are familiar with European languages only ; but it may well engage our attention for a moment as a curious, though

This

a consideration which

simple, instance of the different channels in

which Eastern

and Western thought runs. The only disagreement between and English Japanese usage is that the Japanese employ
* lid

means

literally
is

"side," hence "one," "ones,"

as

Kono ho

ga

In phrases like that in the text, it has no English equivalent. Similarly in such contexts and they are of " the younger of the two." frequent recurrence as toshi no wakai ho,
katai,

" This one

hard."

o.MI'ARISOX OF ADJKCTIVKS.

[45

these

nine cases out of ten,


exceptional.
212.

"comparatives and superlatives by implication" in whereas with us they are somewhat

Comparison may,

using the postposition yon',

however, be rendered explicit by " " than," properly from/' as


:

Asama yori, Fuji ga


yori,

iakai,

or (more frequently)

Asama

Fuji no ho ga

lakai, i.e.,

"(Viewed) from (the stand-point


is

of)

Asama-yama, Fujiyama
dc
<it

high."

umioe
fic<i-sJiorc

soaatta
grew-iip

nilo

wa,
as-for,

people

rikugun yori

arm

i/

than,

kaigun nary

no
''a

heishi
troops

m
to

telnshimasu.
suit.

146
Fuji

THE ADJECTIVE.

wo

mini
see

ni

wa,

l<'u)l-ynm-a (cii'dis.}
"'

for,

"The

Otomc-toge " IMnhlcn


pass
f/ood
is.

ga
(n/ym.)

ichi-ban
one-tin mort

Otome-loge

yoroshiu gozaimasu.

pass is tlie best place to see Fuji from."

Ichi-ban kisha. Ono-mnnltcr train.

" The

first

train

in

the morning."

There are various

other

periphrases
is

same purpose.
iichi,

Specially noticeable

employed for the one with the word


equivalent

"inside,"

"in,"
conf.
^f

or 28)
;

its

Chinese
:

chu

(nigoricd to

ju

thus
\

Sono
na
Itclny

iichi

no
'*

yosaso

That inside

apparently-good]
[to

"Whichever may seem


be the best of the
lot."

mono.

Nihon-ju
tJapnn-insidc

no yushi.
's

"The

bravest

man

in

bruvo.

(Japan."

Tf

214.

After

all,

the chief thing the student should bear in


to

mind with regard


comparative and
them, but to accust'

the

Japanese
is

equivalents
to

for

our
to

superlative,

not

have

recourse

himself from the beginning to use the simple positive instead, which alone, in nine cases out
of ten,
is

idiomatic.
"

"
If

215.

Still

with the comparative


;

is

rendered by one of

the adverbs motto or nao

thus

Motto chojomade nolonmashn. More summit till ttntt-probaMy-ascend.

_-

\
J

m
i

"Let
fimh

us

go on
,,

the very top.

Kono
This
gozai??iasYt.
is.

ho
side

zvti,

nao
still

yoroshiii\
f/ood
|

as-for,

"This

IS

Still

better one."
'

LOCUTIONS.
is

147

2iCi.
j ,

M The
lit.

"

with the comparative repeated


:

rendered by

"

amount," thus
mini
tool.-

Mircba
As-t-look,

hodo, mnouiif

rippa

*pto*did\ at
I

it

longer I look ^ Q morc sp l en did appears."

"The
{

Takai tokoro
iiitfj.

i*c,-

atemasu.
tgapUfa.

MIM, wfc^ffffw.)

hodo,

haze

wo

"The
ilQation

higher
lh^

the n dicr

\-.

^[217. "Very" (comparatively little used) is expressed by Tlie such words as hanahada, Unite., f<u's (/), or lakusan. word /tf///<.7/ (;//) resembles the "awfully" of English
Colloquial parlance, and is in perpetual requisition. following are a few examples
:

The

iso

ni hirci.

Italic

muzukaxhii

mon(p)\
j

"Very pretty." " It is an


thing."
j
,

extremely

difficult

da.

(Or more

politely, /for//.)

liana hada
Very

o J.onouraUc hinodohu^ so*>ro'


\

Kama
,., Mr.

(ac pozannasin. v
/

(Mf)r(

sorrow
T

m r

am
tor

extremely sorry."
Jt js honourable Mr. J vou > )
i\/r
\

(is).

Taihcn
/v/

ni

omoshiro\
r
}

It

,. was awfully

..

lollv.

gozatmasmla.

^[218. Another favourite phrase answering to our Colloquial " awfully" is the gerund of the adjective or verb, followed by the words shi-yd ga nai or slii-hala ga nai, which signify
literally

" there
:

is

" there nothing to be done,"


"
(

is

n->

help

for it," thus

Atsuhnlc shi-yo ga

nai.

It is

awfully hot."

A wabirete

shi-yo

^a

"lam m

awfully tired,"

or

"I

)io do."

148

THE ADJECTIVE.
Taikidsu dc sJn-kata
N~.

ga

nai.

"

am

awfully bored."
it

B.

Observe dc
is

in this last instance,

where

replaces the

gerund

because taikutsu
a quasi-adjective.

not an adjective, but in reality a noun here used as

The

following

expressions
to

may

serve
"

lo

exemplify a
:"

kindred idiom answering


T,

our "so

or

" too
I

"
7-,
(

It is
is

so dark,

can't see

;"

| or

"It
"
It

too dark to see."


so
far.

lokute
desAtla
'

arukcmascn

was

we couldn't
v

(to walk."
Kilo

_ de,} person as-for, fool b*ff,\ it h tsukai-michi nai. ga

Ano mat

wa,

baka

cinploif-ii'(ii/

(nom.}

isn't.

He is such a fool lhal lo make any impossible impossib - ? use of him."


tt
.

is

excess," expressed by amari, or yokci (ni) "superfluity," with a negative verb, thus

219.

" Not very

"
is

"

"
:

too,"

Amari omo shir oku Amari omoshiroku


T^
7
. .

nai.

(familiar)
(polite)
'

"
|

It is

not very
''

gozaimascn.
'

amusing.
'

There are not very many, \or" There is not very much."
(

Yokei ni mckanmasen.
f/(tins-not.

j
|

"There
made."

is

not

much money

CHAPTER
The

VIII.

Verb.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.
nature and functions of the Japanese verb differ considerably from those of the verbs of European languages. Conformably with the absence of number in the noun and
220.

The

of true personal pronouns,


regards
all

the Japanese verb entirely dis-

considerations of person and of number.


art,"

"

" thou am/'

" he

is,"

" she
all

"
is,"

it

is,"

" we are,"

"

you

are,"

"

they are/' are

expressed by the same word


Similarly
all

da (familiar) or desu

(polite).

the persons of
are expressed

the past tense (" I was,"

"thou wast,"
;

etc.)

by the

same word

datia or deshtta

all

the persons of the

probable present or future ("I probably am, or probably

"thou probably art, or probably wilt be," etc.) The present and past by the same word darb or desho. indicative can be used as adjectives (see ^f 81 and ^f 205),
shall be,"

and even
different

as

nouns

(see

^[

45).

Many

of the

moods
etc.,

are

from anything that exists in Europe.


potential,

There are
etc.

negative,

and causative conjugations,

In
in

fact,

the

an alien

whole verbal conception has been worked out manner.


the Japanese verbal forms occurring in actual
viz.,

221.

Most of
inflection

practice consist of four elements,


the

the root, the stem,

or "base,"
for

suffixes.

Take,

and the agglutinated suffix or instance, the word komarimasKita, which

I5O
is

THE VERB.
so often heard in conversation, and which signifies "(1) " was at a " didn't know what to do." in trouble," loss,"
root
is

was

The

ko?n,

which we meet with

in the small

group
into,"

of related verbs komu,

"to

stuff into,"' 'to

crowd

"to inclose," "

to confine;" komeru,

synonymous

or nearly

so with komu; komorn, an intransitive verb signifying " to be in a state of confinement/' "to be shut up." From the root

kom

is

"to be."

formed the stem komar by the agglutination of ar(u), To this is added the unexplained suffix i, which
a sort of participle

" " of the verb, indefinite form gives the

or gerund (see ^[^[ 278 281 and *|1[ 422 426), which can also be used as a "base" or foundation form, Lo which
certain suffixes

are agglutinated.*

In this case the agglusignified

tinated

suffixes are
la,

mashi,

which originally

"to
be a

be," and
reference

the index of the past tense, the


Classical form of the
tc

itself

shown, by
to

to

language,

corruption of the gerundial suffix

and of ant, "to be."

The
"
to
*

single

word komar imashila

therefore contains the verb

be"

three times over.

It seems almost incredible that serious grammarians should ever have thought of applying the name of " root " to the indefinite form of the verb, which is as much an inflection of the stem (probably an

ultimate analysis would prove the inflection to be an agglutinated form obtained from the stem) as any other. There is no more reason for
calling

komar i a "root" than koniaru

or komare.

But the unfor-

tunate precedent set by Rodriguez, and followed by Hoffmann, has been constantly adhered to by writers who have not taken the trouble
to think out the subject for themselves. " roots " nrascrare

Hence we
(really

are treated to such

sesquipedalian
that such

as

the indefinite form of the

" to be "), potential of the causative conjugation of ant,


is

and we are

told

the other principal parts of the verb " " are derived ! It would e about us reasonable to call disregarding " " the root of the verb to disregard," and to say that disregardest," " are derived from

the form from which


1

all

disregarded,"

etc.,

it.

tHEORY OF THE VERK.


222. Again take samasanai, "(I)

15!
"

do not cool
in

(transitive).

The

root

is

sam

or

sab,

which we find

sameru,

" to

cool"
stem

"to fade," "to wake;" in samui, (intransitive), The in and or salishii, "lonesome." samushii "cold;"
is

samas,

formed from the root sain and the verb sum,


its

"to do," the second a apparently owing


"attraction" of the
first

existence to the
third a
is

(see

^f 3).

The
"

the in-

flection constituting the

"

negative base

samasa, to which

" is agglutinated the non-existent," in negative adjective nai, order to form the certain present tense of the negative conjugation.

In some cases

for instance in sameru,


is

"

to cool"

not a lengthened form of the (intransitive) In others again there is root, but simply the root itself. no agglutinated suffix, the base itself being used as an
the stem (sam)

independent word.
first

Of this the imperative of verbs of the conjugation offers a good example.

223. Japanese roots form an obscure subject, and one into which it is not necessary for the beginner to plunge, as it

For practical purposes any practical utility. (whether identical with the root, or a lengthened form of the root) may be accepted as an ultimate fact, not
has
scarcely

the stem

indeed as a complete word,


bases are attached.

but as the unit to which the


itself

The stem

should, theoretically

speaking, always remain absolutely invariable. shall see later on how phonetic decay has caused
of the
first

But we
all

verbs

conjugation to depart from this standard in the


speech.
7

modern Colloquial
224.

The "bases' are formed from the stem by the addition of one or more letters, whose origin is too obscure to The bases are four in number, and all the discuss here.
other
certain

conjugational forms suffixes to them.

are

obtained by agglutinating Their names are the Certain

152
Present,

THE VERB.
the
Indefinite

Form,

the Conditional

Base,

and

The Negative Base is never used as an independent word. The Conditional Base is, in the
the Negative Base.*
first

conjugation,

identical
it

with

the

imperative.

In

the

not used as an independent word. The bases are not always formed in the same manner, nor are the ^suffixes always attached to them in quite the same
other conjugations
is

manner.

conjugations.
four,

Hence Of

the

distribution

of verbs into

different

these there are in the Written

but in the Colloquial only three, as the third

Language and fourth

have coalesced.

225.

EXAMPLES OF THE BASES IN THE THREE

REGULAR CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS.


(The stem
1st.

is italicised^)

Conj.
to put

2nd. Conj.
to sleep

3rd. Conj.
to fall to see'

to sell

Present

uru
}

^ tt
ok\

weru
1IQ

to cut

eru t ocMtu miru


ochi ochi

Indefinite

uri

labs
/<rfe

m\
mi

Ne
B

^e

tive
}
'

un
urG
i

ote
^Q

Base

were

/rt^ere

ocAii'Q /wire

Observe how the letter r never enters into the formation of the bases of verbs of the ist. conjugation, but always enters into the formation of those of the 2nd. and 3rd. conOf course r may appear in the stein of any verb, jugations. as it does in that of z/ru, " to sell," ist. conj.

For the Certain Present, see


see

Form,
for the

273 and 240; for the Indefinite


f[

278 and 241

for the Conditional Base, see

252

and

Negative Base, see ^ 256. f The stem indeed the root


(ist. conj.).
i

is

really

<?/,

as in the active verb olosit,


t

"to drop"

But the consonant

changes euphonically to

ch before the vowel

(see p. 25).

THEORY OF THE VERB.


^|

153
of

226.

Before proceeding to the

more important matter


mention
is

verbal paradigms,

we may

just
it

in

passing that,

when naming Japanese


Latin,
sell;"
rticru,

verbs,

usual

to

mention the

present tense as in Greek, not the infinitive as in English,

and most other European languages. Thus uru, " to yorokolu, ''to be glad;" neru, "to sleep;" koshi-

"to prepare;" ochiru, But uru has not the infinitive


least
It
it

"to

fall;" kiru,

"to wear."
sell ;"

signification of

"to

at

has not generally


(or you,

or

properly

that

signification.

means "I
of
all

they,

etc.) sell."

Similarly in

the

case

other verbs.

The Japanese language

has no

The

form exactly answering in signification to our infinitive. usual makeshift for an infinitive will be found mentioned in
^[

277.

If

following paradigms of the three regular conjuand of the three most important irregular verbs, viz. gations kuru, "to come;" suru, "to do;" and masu, for which
227.

The

English

has

various Japanese
glutinating
assisted

no equivalent, moods and


to

will

serve
are

to

show- how the

tenses

formed

by agwill

suffixes

the

bases.

The memory

be

by noticing that almost all the tenses of the Positive Voice are obtained from the Indefinite Form and the
Conditional Base, while those of the Negative Voice are obtained from the Negative Base and the Certain Present.

Note

further that the only difference


is

between the second and


This
fact has

third conjugation

that while the vowel e characterises the

former, the vowel

characterises the

latter.

caused some European grammarians


as

to class

them together

single
in

classed

Mr.

conjugation (the second). They are thus Aston's Grammar, and in Messrs. Satow
little

and

Ishibashi's excellent
'

"

Dictionary of the Japanese

Spoken Language.

'54

THE VERB.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

156

THE VERB.

THIRD CONJUGATION.

157

158

THE

VERT,.

IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS.

'59

60
0,0 o o c -2 O C
tuO

THE VERB.

rt

IS
e

I! o
o a ^ o
>~.

D,rS

al
o

s.

e c go H >~^
js*
asaima
asaima

*-i

**

ilil .-,<~~
fc

-^

v 2 w

!
Futu

1
or
Improbabl
mperative

1-2 !
'0
h

o
o o

H^^H

w B 1 H U
tl

L
,

U
g

i? PH

SPECIMEN VERBS FOR PRACTICE.


234.
It

161

will

be found good practice to conjugate, accord-

ing to the

few of the verbs in


butsu,

paradigms of the three regular conjugations, a commonest use. Such are


;

l62
stem.

THE VERB.

The student
to

will

more

easily master this difficulty

by committing

memory

the following examples, than by


:

being furnished with a

set of abstract rules

PECULIARITIES OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION.


237.
It

163
letter-

will

be observed that most of the above

changes have ease of pronunciation for their sole efficient cause. Some, however, may appear strange for instance, that affecting the stems in g, where d and/ replace / and ch
;

in the terminations.

The

reason ot this
there
in

is

that

when

the

nigoricd
that the

g* dropped out, nigori should be marked

letter

remained a feeling
It

some other way.


syllable,

was therefore carried on to the next


plain
/

and ch into nigori'cd d and/

Had
a

this

converting not been

done,

many forms

of such pairs of verbs as tsugu and tsuku


disaster

would have become indistinguishable,

which

has actually overtaken verbs with stems ending in b and m, and also those ending in a vowel, in r, and in /. Thus it
is

only by the context that we can tell whether jwfcfe is to be understood as the gerund of yobu, "to call," orofyomu, " to " to read sew," ;" whether nutte is the gerund of nuu, or of nuru, to lacquer ;" whether utte is the gerund of " to strike." " to or of
'

'

uru,

sell,"

utsu,

238. The Kyoto people, together with the people of Central and Western Japan generally, say
shimote,
iiite,

shimola, etc., for shimalle,


iuta,
,,
,,

shimatta,
itla,

etc.
,,

,,
,,

itte,

onwte,
mile,

omota,
nuta,
in

omotte,
nutte,

omotta,
nutta,

, ,

,,

,,

,,

and the educated


especially

Tokyo sometimes
in public.

follow their example,


this

when speaking

But

sounds somefact that in

what pedantic.
former days,

The habit has arisen from the when the Court resided at Kyoto,

the dialect

of that place was naturally esteemed above the vernacular


*

See

28.

164
of Eastern Japan.
kariru,

THE VERB.

similar

case

is

offered

others,
to

borrow;" lariru, which the genuine usage of T5kyo inflects according the third conjugation, but which public speakers someto

"

"

to suffice,"

by the verbs and one or two

times

make

of the

first

conjugation (karu, iaru,

etc.),

in

imitation of the
^[

Kyoto

dialect

and

of old Classical rules.

239. In the case of stems ending in s, the change of s into sh in the indefinite form is caused by the inability of the

modern Japanese

to

sound an

s before

the vowel

i.

Ori-

ginally nashi was probably nasi,

and so

in other cases.
in a similar

The changes
modern
vowels
i

in the / series

have

their origin

inability

to
It

pronounce
is

that
that,

consonant before the

and

probable

some

centuries ago,

people consistently said


PRESENT. INDEF. FORM. CONDIT. BASE.
main,
mali,

NEG. BASE.
mata,

mate,

"to wait;"

and the conditional and negative bases still retain the pronunciation which theoretical unity postulates, while the
other two bases

malu and mati


All that

have

slid respectively into


for

matsu and machi.


is

we know

certain

on

this

point blished at the close of the sixteenth century,

that

the

modern pronunciation was already


works on the language
omo\va,
date.

esta-

from which

time the
insertion

first

Jesuit

The

of a

in

the negative base of verbs ending in


t

vowel stems (shima\\a

t\va,

nuwa) has

its

origin in

a curious phonetic change which took place

many

centuries
in

ago.

Originally the stem of


:

all

such verbs ended

an

thus

PRESENT.

INDEF. FORM.
shimcfii

CONDIT. BASE.

NEG. BASE.
shimata.

shimahi

shimate

FORMATION OF THE VARIOUS MOODS AND TENSES.


But according
before u,
to

165

rule

which

permeates

the

whole

vocabulary of the
i,

modern language, the/" has been dropped


and has been converted into a

and

e,

before a,

thus giving shimau, shimai, shimae, shimawa.

ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION OF THE VARIOUS MOODS

AND TENSES

IN

THE REGULAR VERBS.


(the
to ist. base) eru for the 2ii"d.,
:

240.

Certain Present or Future


add u
for the
ist.

the stem

conjugation,

and

iru for the

3rd.

The

origin of these terminations

is

unknown.
N. D.
iiru,

In the Written Language, both eru and iru are replaced by


lips of
:

a peculiarity to be heard also from the

some

speakers.

241.

Indefinite

Form

(the 2nd. base)

to the

stem add

for the ist.

and

3rd. conjugations,
is

and

e for the 2nd.

The

origin of these terminations

unknown.
:

to the indefinite form ^[242. Desiderative Adjective add tai. Tai is an adjective originally identical with iiai,

"painful," and
jectives,

is capable of conjugation like other adaccording to the paradigms on pp. 126, 128, and
:

130, thus

okitaku, okito

gozaimasu, okitakereba, okitaku nai,


:

etc.

7 T

243.

Adjective of Probability
so

to

the indefinite form

add
244.

na (see

p. 137).

Polite Certain Present or

Future

to

the

in-

form add masu, which can itself be conjugated okimasKila, through most of the moods and tenses, thus
definite
:

okimasho, etc. (see p. 160).


If

245.

Gerund

(by

some
le,

called the

indefinite

form add

Past Participle) to the rules of the observing phonetic


:

Te is supposed by the native grammarians to be a fragment of the verb


change
in the ist. conjugation (see p. 162).

66
haieru,
literally

THE VERB.
" to finish."
If this

view

is

correct,

oite,

for instance,

means "having

finished

putting,"
in

or

"finishing
all

putting."

The next

six

tenses

the

paradigm are
te

obtained by agglutinating other suffixes to the


*|[

of this one.

246.
cha,

Gerund Emphasised
observing the rules

to

the indefinite form

add

of phonetic change in the ist. Cha is a corruption of te zva, conjugation (see p. 162). which latter original form is still mostly preferred by cultured Wa is the postposition treated of in pp. 85 et seq. speakers.
247.

Certain Past

to the indefinite form

add

ia t

observ-

ing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. conjugation (see Ta is a corruption of the Classical past tari itself p. 162). " derived from te ari (art is the Classical " conclusive present " " to Oita therefore etymologically means am vtaru, be").
t

having finished putting."


Tf

248.

Probable Past

to

the

indefinite

form add

taro,

observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. conjugaTaro stands for te aro, lit. "probably tion (see p. 162).
shall
If

be having finished."

249.

Conditional Past

to the indefinite

form add taraba


ist.
lit.

or tara, observing the rules of phonetic change in the

conjugation (see

p.

162).

Taraba stands

for te araba,

"

if

am

having finished," araba being a Classical form

the

so-called " hypothetical


p.
If

mood"

ofaru,

"

to

be

"

(see ^f 287,

184).

250.

Concessive Past:

to

the

indefinite

form

add

taredomo or 1aredo t observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. conjugation (see p. 162). Taredomo stands for ie
aredomo,
lit.

"though am having

finished."

Aredomo, the

concessive present of artt, "to be," is itself compounded of the conditional base are and the postpositions to and mo.

FORMATION OF THE VARIOUS MOODS AND TENSES.

251. tan,

Frequentative Form:

to

the indefinite form

add

observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. Tari would seem to stand for conjugation (see p. 162).

tc art, in

which case

its

original

meaning

is

the

same

as that

of the past indicative tense.


If

252.

Conditional Base

(the 3rd. base)

to the

stem add
ire for the

e for the ist. conjugation,

ere for the 2nd.,

and

3rd.

name

The origin of these terminations is unknown. The " of " conditional base was given to this form by Mr.
its

Aston from one of

functions, that of serving


is

as

the basis

on which the present conditional tense it is also formed the concessive present.
If

built up.

From

253.

Imperative

in the
;

ist.

conjugation

it

is

identical

with the conditional base


it is

in the 2nd.

and

3rd. conjugations

formed by adding to the indefinite form the syllable ro, which seems to be a corruption of yo, an exclamation

resembling our word "oh !" N. JS. Some speakers drop the termination. A familiar imperative, often usrtl by members of the same household in addressing each other, is obtained by adding na to the indefinite form, as yobi-na ! " call !" shi-na ! " do !" It is uncertain whether this na be simply an " The former interjection, or a corruption of the word nasai, please." view is, however, the more probable.

254.
ba,
zva.

Conditional Present
is

to

the conditional base

add

which

an irregularly nigoried form of the postposition

If

255.

Concessive Present:
do.
is

to

the conditional base

add
to,

domo or

Do

is

the nigoried form of the postposition

and mo
If

also

one of the postpositions.


:

in the ist. con256. Negative Base (the 4th. base) jugation add a to the stem ; in the 2nd. and 3rd. conjugations the negative base is identical with the indefinite form.

68

THE VERB.

The name

of "negative base'' was given to this form by Mr. Aston with reference to one of its functions, that o

serving as the basis on which most of the tenses of the

negative voice are built up.

Note, however, that

it

likewise

helps to form the probable present or future of the positive


voice, together with
all

passives, potentials,

and

causatives.

The name

is,

though there is of the form itself be always borne


Tf

not a completely adequate one, no harm in retaining it, provided the nature
therefore,
in

mind.
:

257.
tion

Probable Present or Future


add u
to the

in the

ist.

conjugaa

negative base,
b.

and then contract the

diphthong au thus obtained into

The

termination u

is

The steps of the corruption of the unexplained Classical n. process therefore are okan (the Classical probable present or
oko. Rapid speakers sometimes go shortening the o, say oko (retaining an In the 2nd. and 3rd. conemphasis on the final syllable). the Classical also jugations simply adds n, thus language

future of
further

okti),

okau,

still,

and,

talen,

"

I shall

probably eat

"
;"

ochin,

I shall

"

probably

fall

(not to be confounded with the negative present tabenu and Some of the Colloquial dialects of the Western ochinii).

provinces vocalise this n into u exactly as in the ist. The Tokyo forms in conjugation, and say tabeu, ochiu. as are a false built on yd, analogy suggested tdbeyOy ochiyo, by the o sound of the future in the ist. conjugation.

^[258.

Negative Imperative:
na,

to

the present

indicative

add

which

is

probably a fragment of nakare, the Classical

" imperative of the negative adjective nai."


are*,

(Nakare =nakt?

be 2 not-being

.)

^"259.
ist.

Negative Probable Present or Future:

in the

conjugation add mat to the present indicative, in the

FORMATION OF THE VARIOUS MOODS AND TENSES.

169

is

2nd. and 3rd. conjugations add it to the negative base. Mai a corruption of ma/i, majiki, majiku, a Classical adjective

expressing doubt or prohibition. ceased to be conjugated.

In the Colloquial

it

has

260.

Negative Certain Present or Future


base

to

the
the

negative

add
is

n,

which

here

and

throughout

probably a corruption of the Classical The negative particle ani, which exists likewise in Korean. ji should properly be followed by short u, but this letter is
negative tenses

now

generally omitted in pronunciation.

261.

Negative Certain Past:


unknown

to the negative

base add

nanda, a termination of

origin.*
to the negative base

^[262.
of the

Negative Probable Past:


same

add

nandardy formed from the negative certain past on the model


tense of the positive voice.
to the negative

263.

Negative Frequentative Form:

add nandan, formed from the negative certain past on the model of the same tense of the positive voice.

264.

base add neba.

Negative Conditional Present: to the negative Ne is really a sort of negative conditional

base formed on the analogy of the conditional base of the positive voice, and ba is the postposition wa with the nigori.

265.

Negative Concessive Present:


or
nedo.

to

the negative

base add nedomo


paragraph.
^f

For ne

see

the

preceding

Do

(for to]

and mo are postpositions.


:

266. Negative Gerund to the negative base add zu, a termination of doubtful origin. The postposition nils often added to this form without affecting its signification, as tabezu ni for tabezu, "not eating," " without eating."
*

" See, however, the present writer's


^[

Essay

in

Aid of a Grammar of

Luchuan,"

124.

170
^[267.

THE VERB.

Second

Form

of the Negative Voice:

to
p.

the

t( negative base add the negative adjective nat" (see in one or other of its conjugational forms.

129)

N. B.

In order to avoid tedious repetition,

we

leave the student to

analyse for himself on the above model the conjugation of adjectives curious little item for him to notice is the occasional given on p. 128.

substitution of the Chinese negative prefix

fu

or bu for the negative

Japanese negative suffixes. The use of this idiom implies, not simple negation, but the additional idea of badness, dereliction of duty, etc. " " badly made ;" fu-iki-todoki, Thus,/;M-flkv7, negligent ;" bu-ashirai,
"

discourteous."

IRREGULAR VERBS.
^[

larities

268. Japanese has very few irregular verbs, even of these few are but slight.

and the

irregu-

We

have already
kuru,

given paradigms of the three chief ones,

viz.

" to

come"
1

(p.

158); suru,

"to do"

(p.

60),

which formerly meant "

to be," but

159); and masu (p. which is now used

only as a termination that may be added to the indefinite form of any verb. With its aid there is obtained an
honorific conjugation,

which sounds more courteous than

the ordinary conjugation


cularly frequent use.
strike the ear as curt,

and which

is

therefore in partiis

The plain

verb without masu

apt to

especially at the

end of a sentence.

Instead of giving masu alone, the paradigm shows it attached " ' ' to the verb nasaru, to deign to do (for nasaru see also

below,
If

270 and

^[

402).

peculiarities of the other slightly irregular verbs 269. are as follows Aru y " to be," when combined with the
:

The

postposition de, loses


daru.
It

its final

syllable,

making da
Its

instead of

lacks the
is

voice likewise

negative not used, being replaced by the " negative


adjective.

desiderative

IRREGULAR VERBS.
"

Jl

The improbable present or future arumai nai. adjective alone remains, used concurrently with nakaro.
270.

Gozaru,

"to be,"

in

the
its

speakers,
suffixed
If
;

drops the r of

thus gozaimasu for

most Tokyo when masu is gozarimasu (but see end of

mouths of
syllable

last

388).

The same
"to
These
go,"

is

the

case

with

the

polite

verbs

irassharu,

"to come;"
do
;"

cend

;"

nasaru,

"

to deign to

kudasaru, "to condes" to and


ossharu,

deign

to say."

latter verbs also

use the forms thus obtained,


as imperatives,
in lieu

viz. irasshai, kudasai,

and

nasai,

of
is

the older iraserarc,


rare,

kudasare,

and nasare.

But osshai

osshaimashi being preferred.


is

Another peculiarity of

these four verbs


to the
i st.

that,

though now conjugated according


iraserareru, kudasareru, nasareru,

conj.,

they are corruptions of verbs originally


viz.

belonging to the 2nd,

and

oserarent,

assumed an

forms which early properly potential honorific meaning (conf. *[[ 403). Kureru,
conj.,

"to

give,"

2nd.

follows their example,

having the

imperative kurei for kurero.


the gerund

and nasaru may and

Moreover, irassharu, kudasaru, drop the letter a of the termination aru in


in the six

following tenses,

thus

irashlte

for irasshaile, kudastiaro for kudasattaro> nasitara for nasatlara.

In familiar conversation gozaimasu is often shorn of all its middle letters, and pronounced gozasu, gasu, or gesu.
Similarly gozaimashtta
particle de precedes
letter
it,

becomes
gozaimasu
etc.

gashita,
is

etc.

When

the

as

well,

de

gozaimasu

apt to lose its initial being fused into desu, de

gozaimashita into deshita,


271. Iku,

"
t

to go," instead of the


etc.,
first

gerund ncha

verbs of the
p.

gerund iite the emphasised which would be required by the rule for conjugation with stem ending in k (see
%

162),

shows the following

irregular forms

172

THE VERB.

Gerund
Emphatic Gerund
Certain Past

"
itte,

having gone, going."


I

itcha,
itta,

"

"
iltaro,

having gone, going." went."

Probable Past
Condit. Past

"I
" "

probably went."

iitara(bd),

if I

had gone."

Concess. Past

ittaredo(ino),
illari,

Frequent.

Form

though I went." " sometimes going."

These irregular forms of iku coincide with the regular forms of the same tenses of the verb m, "to say." Otherwise the verb iku
is

conjugated regularly.

^[272. Shinuru, "to die," is conjugated regularly through most of the moods and tenses, as if it were shinu (stem shin},

and belonged
the

to

the

first
its

conjugation.

But the addition

of the syllable ru

makes

certain present shinuru,

and
It

also
has,

negative

imperative

shinuru-na,

irregular.

moreover, inherited from the Classical Language a conditional base shinure, which occasionally replaces the regular
shine.

Altogether

it

appears as a sort of hybrid between

the

first

conjugation and the third.*

REMARKS ON THE USE OF THE MOODS AND TENSES.


*[f

273.

Present, Future,

and Past.
distinguish

The Japanese

verb does

not, like ours, clearly

present from future time. It has one form serving to denote any certain action or state, whether present, future, or habitual, and another serving to

denote any merely probable action or


or future.
It is the

state, whether present question of certainty or uncertainty that

*Such does shinurn appear from the exclusively Colloquial stand-point. Proof has been supplied elsewhere (" Essay in Aid of a Grammar of " Luchuan," section entitled Excursus on the Origin of the Japanese
Conjugations," pp. 139 et seg.) of the thesis that all Japanese verbs
originally followed a system of

which shinuru

is

the sole surviving

relic.

PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES.

173

forms the criterion, not the question of time. Still, as future actions and events must, in the nature of things, be more
often uncertain

than present actions and events, the form

denoting certainty is applied in the majority of cases to present time, while the form denoting mere probability is

This it is applied in the majority of cases to future time. which has led most writers on Japanese grammar to term
the former the present tense,

and the

latter the future

tense.

But such a terminology is really incorrect, and it has been the cause of much misunderstanding between Europeans and natives.

Bara wa,
Doko
Where
ni
in

ii

hana

da.
is.

(
(

" '' The rose


ful flower.

is

a beauti-

Rose as-for, (food flower

"

sunde

irassharu haru ?

" Where are you

liv-

dwelling deign -to-be ? \ ing ?"


(certainty)

Kimasu ka ?

Will he come?''

Kimasho ka

r>

(mere probability) J

he "Is to likely come ?" " Do you think he will come ?"

"
Jiki kimasu.
(certainty)

He
.

come im
^ill

mediately.

"It
"It
snow."

snows;"
will

"it

is

snowing."
certainly

174

THE VERB.

Mybmchi
To-morrow

shuttalsu shimasu. do start

"I

(shall)

start

to-

mori'OW."
f

Myonichi shuttatsu shimasho.

Kaze
Wind

wo
(accus.}

hiita

kara,

have-drawn

because,}
1

yu
In
this

wo

yoshimasho.

"As have caught cold, I think 1 won't take any


in

hot-ivater (accus.) (/) rvill-probably-forbear.

\bath tO-day."
difference

last

case
I
;

there

is

little

English

between "I think


former
is less

won't," and plain "I won't."


that
is

The

abrupt Similarly where consequently the merely probable present or future tense sometimes comes in a roundabout way to correspond

all.

in Japanese,

exactly to our real future.


Jsoide
ikd.

Thus
j

Having -hastened,
(More
politely
,

iv'dl-probably-go. Isolde ikitnashd.)

"

"I
I

will

will

J-

"
O-Q.

make

go quickly," or haste and

But

it

would do equally

well
If

to

use the present, and to

say Isoide ikimasu.

See also

291.

273. A. The essence of the probable present or future in

Japanese being uncertainty with a strong tinge of probability, this tense is often used to express a guess, such as English

idiom generally conveys by means of the word " " must," thus
:

may"

or

So
So

onion

mono

mo
aiao

arb

\
I

think persons
. . .

maybe

''There

may

be

some

ga.

who
["folks
)

think so, but. ..."

4lltUOUC)ll ......

Sazo
Indeed

go
august
is.

\ fu-jiyii inconvenience [

" You must

find

it

very

de gozaimashb.
probably

[inconvenient."

PRESENT AND PAST TENSES.

175

N. B. Needless to say that this idiom cannot be used to express our " " denoting necessity. The "must" of necessity very different must is rendered by a double negative, thus :
Harawanakereba
t,

narimasen.
won't-bc.
little

"
\

If

won't do not to pay,

i.e.

You irf pay."


we
is

Englishmen knowing a
broadcast, even where

Japanese are apt to use this double


habitually scatter musl's

negative too freely, because in English

no

real necessity

implied, as,

when

rising to

take leave,

we say

"I

am

afraid I
lit.

say

Mo a

itoma itashiniasu,

must be going." A Japanese would " Already I will do honourable leave."

273.
in

B. Both the certain and the probable present must, many cases, be translated by our conditional mood,
:

thus

ne ! Mayoimasu Atn-in-quandary indeed!

"Indeed

shouldn't
"

know what

tO do.

Tokyo no
T5hi/d
to
>s

hiio

wa,

nan

"What

person as-for, u-hat] people say, iimashd j* \if told of


\living in
(

would Tokyo wonder ? (e.g. the dearness of


I

timt wiii-probaUy-suii v

America.)"
be
pei-

Kimo
Liver

wo

tsubushimasit.

"They would
astounded."

(acc2is.} (they}tvill-burst.

| fectly

N. B.
represent

" I wonder," in the second of these instances, is intended to the shade of uncertainty inherent in the Probable Present

iimashd. Japanese possesses no actual equivalent of our useful verb " to wonder."

274.

The

difference
is

between the

certain

past

and

the

probable past
certain

precisely analogous

to that

between the
present
or

present
:

or

future

and the

probable

Future

Kimo

tsubushimasfiita.

"

He

was astounded.
ust
,
'

"

Kimo

isubushimashitaro.

! \ asto stounded.
i

have

been

76

THE VERB.
Needless to dwell further on this point after the copious The student will preceding paragraph.

illustrations in the

past

be more perplexed by certain anomalous uses of the certain Thus this tense is sometimes used where English itself.
for

idiom would prefer the present,


(lit.

instance
said

Arimashita
finds

"has been"),

"Here

it

is!"
;

when one
"
I

something which had been

lost

Wakari??iashita,

have

ga

understood," i.e., understand;" Gozen ga dekimashita " dinner has forthcome (lit. "), "Dinner is ready;" Nodo " throat has dried " kawakimashita throat
(lit.

"I

"),

I am thirsty." Contrariwise the Japanese often dry," i.e., use the present especially the present of the negative

"

My

is

where

strict logic

demands
America

the past, thus


ni\
' '

Watakushi

wa
as-foi-,

Amerika

Me
oru
dwell
aida.
ivIiUe.

in

While America."

was

in

Narawanai

( I can't do it, because kara, dekimasen. Learn-not because, fortJicomes-not. | I haven't learnt how."
.

"

275.

may seem

In such an example as the following, the Japanese But the English illogical in using the past tense.

are equally illogical in

using the present,


:

seeing that the

time referred to
Shitaku

is

future
dekila

no

toki, \

Preparation >. Has-forthcome time,} everything is ready. shirasKtie o Jmn nasai. (oaia to an inferior.) ... T ^nfonn^nff honourably give deign. )
.

"T Let me know when


.

In the following example (and many similar ones might be quoted) the two languages play still more strangely at cross purposes, English using the past where Japanese has
the future, the past
:

and the present

infinitive

where Japanese has

1'KKSKM

AND
\

i'AST

TENSES.

77

Ko

sfnia snia

ga

TJnts have-done

side(nom.-)

U
j

Y ou
n thjs

had probably
Qr
it

better

do

j"

think

,, rill-probttbly-ltc-good.

ought to do

like this."

N. B.
"

ought,"

Observe the phrase... ho ga yoi equivalent to our " should," " had better," and compare the foot-note to p. 144.

Somewhat

similar are instances like the following,

where

the past tense (especially the past tense of adjectives) has the

sense of our conditional

Massugu
Straight
u>
Jo

ga
(nom.)
to
if,

chikakaiia. teas-near.

"It

j shorter to
(

would have been go Straight on."


been

suru
do
If

yokalla.
tvas-good.

"It

| better to

would have do that."

N. B.
shorter,"
to the

we

were

to use the

"

it

had been

better,"

we should

bookish English idiom " it had been obtain a close approximation


also last part of ^f 287.

Japanese expression.

Compare

276.

cases as those hitherto exemplified,

Notwithstanding the occasional appearance of such the use of the present


:

and past generally gives no trouble, thus


Tsune ni

kolo

Generally say tiling

"Is it a thing people desu ka ia P( ? is (generally say ?"


ki-yo

Ano
Tliat

htlo

iva
as-fot;

da

person

handy
does,

is]

He is so handy, can do anything."


means "
to-day-")

he

kara,

nan

de

mo shimasuA
(syllable,

because, anything-n-hatever

Uchi no wa, shafu House 's jinriktsha-inan as-for, ashi wo itamemashlta kara,
foot
(ncczts.')

has-hwt(trans .) because,

"As the man has


I

kawari
exchange

no
's

oloko

wo
(acctis.)
,

have

housejmri&s/tahurt his foot, called another

man
mairimasliita hare-come.

instead."
-

yonde

178

THE VERB.
Senkoku
kiki

ni
to

Former-hour
whereas,
still

hear

yatta* sent

mada
gozaimasen.
is-not.

,<j

gent

tQ
,,

irc

hcnji

ga
(nom.)

answer

Hule
.

whn
y et

but there

1S

no answer

sometimes 277. The certain present and certain past, followed by the word koto, "thing," "act," "fact," to some extent replace the infinitive, a mood for which the Thus oku koto, Japanese language lacks a special form.

"to put"
past
:

in

general;

oita

koto,

"to have put"

in the

Mabushikute, miru koto ga to-see Being -dazzling, (110111.} dekimasen.


forthcomes-not.

\
I

" The

light

IS

SO

daz-

jzling

that I can't see."

Mita koto To-hare-seen

ga
(iioni.)

na.
^s-not.

have neyer seen h/

>

^[278. Indefinite Form, Gerund, and Emphasised Gerund. The indefinite form of Japanese verbs is one to which there is nothing that exactly corresponds in our Western
tongues. It is by itself of no tense and mood, but may denote any tense or mood according to the context. The rule regarding its use in the Written Language is as follows
:

When

several clauses are correlated, that

is

to say,

follow

each other and express the same tense or mood, then only the verb or adjective of the last of such correlated clauses
takes the termination

which indicates the tense or mood


the verbs or adjectives of
all

intended by the speaker,

the

One foregoing clauses being put in the indefinite form. thus has to wait till the end of the last clause before one can
tell

whether the writer intends to


to the

refer to the past, present,

or future,

The

final

indicative, conditional, imperative, etc. verb or adjective, so to speak, focuses and clinches

IMH'FINI'I

I'.

FORM.

179
Hirata,

all

that

went before.

Thus

the Shinto theologian

when
says
:

insisting

on the inscrutableness of the divine nature,

no mi uc Gods of aitf/iist surface midari ni hakari-iu-beki


i'<tsJily

Kami

zva,
as-for.

>

mono

de

wa

calculate-say -should thing nai. Tada sono tattoki

is-not.

wo
(accus.)

Simply their venerableness zoo tattobi, kashikoki


aivfulness
(acciis.)

to-venerate,

kashikomi,
to-reverence,

osoru-beki
fearfulness nashi.

wo
(acais.)

osoreru hoka

l8o
*|[

THE VERB.
In the

280.

Book Language

the foregoing rule concerning


is

the use of the indefinite form


It
is

exemplified at every turn.


speeches, and

also followed pretty frequently in set

sometimes even

in the ordinary conversation of careful

and

cultured speakers. Foreign students should, therefore, not fail to make themselves acquainted with it. At the same
time,
it

must be admitted

that the familiar

and lower
it.

styles

of Colloquial almost completely disregard

Sometimes

it is replaced, as in European languages, by two or more But more frequently the indeclauses in the same tense.

finite

form gives way to the gerund, so


if

that, for instance,

the last example but one,

made genuinely
midari ni
rashly

conversational,

would run thus

Kami
Gods
dekimasen.
cannot.

no
of

koto

zva,

suiryo

wa

matters

as-for,
lattoi

speculation as-for,

Tada
Simply

sono
their

tokoro
place

wo
(accns.}

tattonde,
venerating,

venerable

sono
their

uya-nyashii
aice-inspiring

tokoro
place

wo

uyamatte,
reverencing,

sono
their

osoroshn
fearful

(accus.)

tokoro
place
.

wo
(acctis.~)

osoreru
to-fear

yori
than

hoka

wa

naL

besides as-for, is-not.

"place," used as a sort of suffix to the adjective tattoi, "venerable," to express the abstract quality of " venerableness," and similarly in connection with the adjectives of the

A7 B.

Notice the

word

tokoro,

other clauses.

281.

length
used.

Hardly a sentence especially a sentence of any can be uttered without the gerund being thus
Take,
for instance, the following
:

Haya-lsuke-gi

wo
(<>*.)
koi!
come.'

\
,

Hkewo*

(mre
I

-Having
me."

carried

/Hn-!n{/ -earned

matches, come!")

Kikashile
Cansin(/-to-Jicar

kudasai!
condescend
!

" Please

tell

181
4i

Uchi House
mite
looliiny-at

ni
in

ilc,

hon
books

de

mo

think

will

stay at

home and
"
probably books.")

read.''

beinff,

>:i; ,/

orimasho.
I

Staying at be

(More lit. home, I shall


looking
at

sJudl-prol>aWy-bc.

Kaeri-gake
Rettii-ning-ivhile

ni
in,

kwankoba
bazaar
kai-

"On my
looked
in

way home,

at

the bazaar,

ye
nt

yolle, stoppimjf

sYikoshi
a-little
sJiiie

mono
chascs
stitta.

purkima(
i )

and made a few purchases." "Having stop(More III. ped at the bazaar, and
having
again.")
chases, I have

Jiaviny-done,

Jutve-

made some purcome home

come.

Kind
Yesterday
tabete,

hiru-gozen

wo
(accns.)

midday-meal uchi
house.

wo
((UC2iS.)

Itaviny-caten,

demaslnle, Imviny-yonc-out,

sore
tJiut

kara
front,

went out yesterday luncheon, was present, at a wrestling match, and was away half the day."
I

' '

after

sumo
wfcstliity

wo
(accus.)

(More

'

'

lit.

Having eaten

mite,
ftavinff-seen,

han-nichi
half-day
masJiita.
have-conic.

asunde
ha viny-playcd

ki-

luncheon, having gone out, then having looked at wrestling, having played half the day, I have come.")
1

282.

Sometimes the gerund expresses instrumentality rather


:

than correlation, thus


Susugi-sentaku
Itinsc-wnsh iny
s/iite,

kurashi
livelihood

zvo
(accus.)
I

"She

gains

her

liveli-

doiny,
Isiikele

hood by washing

clothes."

orimasii.
is.

283.

The gerund
:

of adjectives

occurs most frequently in


for

phrases where English idiom employs the word "so,"


instance

182

THE VERB.
Kurakute
Hcing-darli,

miemasen.
cfinnot-scc.

"
}

It

is

so dark,

I can't

{"see."
(

"It
don't

is

so painful

llakule
Reing-painftd,

shiyb

ga
(now.)

nai.
f.

know
"

what ^

to

way-to-do

isn't.']

do," or
painful."

It is

awfully
218.)

(Conf.

gerund of verbs is employed in the same manner, to help to express the meaning conveyed by our word " so," thus
Occasionally the
:

As/it

ga
(twin.}

hiele

Feet

being-cold,

"My
cold,
I

feet

are

so

tamaranai.
(/
)

don't

know

cannot- endure.

what to do."
oicha,

284.

The Emphasised Gerunds


are

tabecha,

ochicha,

shicha,

somewhat
still

vulgar,

or at

least

familiar,

and

cultured speakers
tabete

prefer the uncontracted forms oile iva,

wa,

ochitc iva, etc.


inai.
isn't.
(

Nccha
As-for-sleeping-indecd,

"Oh! no;
"

he

is

{ not asleep."

Matcha
As-for-u-aiting-indeed,

orare?tiasen.
cannot-be.

cant wait."

Ilcha
As-for-ffoinff-i deed,
>i

do
1i 01 v

da P
is

(it)?

to our going there

" What do you say "


?

Si
So

shicha
doing-indeed,

komarimasu.
rvill

"Annoyance
^Caused
It
if

will

be

be-troubled.

you do

that."

won't do for you

So
So

("
shinakucha
not-doing,

to

that," or mustn't do that."

do

"You

Kb
Tliis

narimasen.
n-on't-become.

"It won't do not to " t ^ You o ^{ s mf fa^,,


<
<

^^

'

VKKHAI. ADJK.rriVKS.

183

Ki
ikemascn.
is-no-ffo.

wo
(a cats.)

olosliiclia
lcttlnf/-fall as-for

"

You

mustn't

let

your

spirits

droop."

in the

N. B. The last three examples illustrate what has already been said Note at top of p. 175 concerning the rendering of our word "must"
in Japanese, while also

by a double negative
is

" " must not showing that

rendered by a single negative. Observe, moreover, the general tendency to use the emphatic gerund chiefly in phrases expressing negation, interrogation, or something disagreeable.

^[285. Desidcralivc Adjective and Adjective of Probability. The use of these forms may be best understood from a few

examples
Milai

mono.
j

"Something
should like
to see."

Want-to-sec

//,/.
(

Sono
'Fliat

mono
tinny

ivu
(a cats.)

milai.
uvint-to-scc.

"I
na t
"
t

want

to

see

| t

Cholto

negaito
u'antinff-to-bcff

"I
you a
sli slight

an,.
(

favour.

"

Ariso

na

koto.
fact.

"Something which
likely to
"

Likely-to-be

j is

happen.

Ariso
zvteiy-to-be

mo
also

nai
isn't

koto.
fact.

"Something
"It looks as would clear
..

which
"

isn't likely to hapfien.


if

Ame
Rain
Oishiso

ga
(nom.)

agariso
iikeiy-to-risc

desiiA
is.
(

the

rain

off."
,

desu.
e
is

(f rom the adjec-

tive

"

oishii, ,

T ^ ^ks
.

good.
)

good

to eat.")

('
j

S- a c" ke

286. Besides this "adjective of probability" obtained by agglutinating so to the indefinite form, there is an idiom

formed by using so after the present or past tense. So, which is then best written as a separate word, has the " force of "it would seem that"
that,"

they say

84
ide

THE VERB.

CONDITIONAL MOOD.
Classical

,8 5

moods might perhaps


it

better be

thetical, as

has the sense of "if

termed the hypo" But \ve have

preferred the
to

name

of conditional as being

more

familiar

European ears, and as having been employed by other The only present tense writers on Japanese Grammar.

hypothetical forms that have remained in common use are " to hvaba, from in, say," which is employed in the sense of "so to say," and naraba, from naru, a Classical verb

meaning

naru which

"to be," and not to be confounded with the Naraba therefore promeans "to become."
"if
'

perly signifies
liary

it

be;

but when employed as an auxiit

attached to other verbs,

than "if."

Thus

iku

naraba
syllable,

is

comes " if I

to

mean no more
Naraba
:

go."

is

often clipped of

its last

and becomes

tiara

Dekitara(ba),
If-has-fortJicotne,
kite

I" Please
you
naraba,
if-is,
(

bring
ready."

it

kudasai.
condescend.
iriyb requisite

if it is

com tug

O
Honourably
o

" Please take


require
it."

it

if

you

mochi
taking

nasai.
j

honourably

deign.
kas?iite\
jt

Aile

iru
is

nara,
if,

if y OU
at
it

have no use
)

for

Open
kudasai. ondescend.

p resen t to me.
I

please lend

Areba,
Jf-tJicrc-is,

yd
good

gozaimasu
(it)

wish
{but

there

were

is

<tlthouyh ......

hardly think there are)]" hence "I fear there are none."
\

some

Kochira Here

de
in

zonjite

oreba,
if-be,

Knowing

"I would
(but

tell

}'OU

if I

moshi-agemasu
say-will-lift-up

ga
altJiougJt

(knew

I don't

know.)"

86

THE VERB.

(no) " You Tims if-do, COLlld do it forthcomes wJiercas.. or, with a stronger tinge of blame, in this way if you tried
.

Ko

sureba,

dekiru

ni.

Ko
Tims

sureba,
if-do,
. .

dekiru
forthcomes

mono

'(but

thing although

wo

you 'haven t tried, you OUght to have done so)."


important as

(acctis.)

These

last

three

examples
class

are

specially

illustrating a

whole

of elliptical idioms with

which

Colloquial Japanese abounds, and by which our "I would if I could," "I should, had I been able," etc., etc., are
expressed.
It
is

true that the qualifying particles (ga,

m,

no

ni,

mono

wo)
is

are

sometimes
the

absent

generally
After
all,

there,

and

sentence

but they are remains unfinished.


;

nothing to be astonished at in this. From the point of view of logic, a conditional sentence is For instance, when we say " I should always incomplete.
there
like
'

to

travel," the

implied

rider

is

"but

cannot," or

cannot yet," or some such clause. Compare also the words within parenthesis in the examples under discussion. Observe that ni final implies regret or reproach, while no ni
I

superadds to
a

the thing to be

command
to

showing that something concerning which had previously been given, or else that it is a
this

a further shade of meaning,


is

done

either

point of duty,

or that

it

refers to

some

other circumstance
is

known
phatic

both
It

speaker and doer.


lays
still

Mono wo

more emfailure

still.

greater stress

on the

to

perform the desired action, and often alludes to some accident or misfortune as the cause of such failure.

288.

these

and Past. The peculiar force of forms corresponds most nearly to that of our word "though," but is generally best rendered in practice by
Concessive Present

prefixing

"but"

to

the following

clause.

The orthodox

rONVKSStVK MOOD.

87

concessive forms given in the paradigms are not often heard in actual practice, being mostly replaced by the independent

word kercdo

(mo),

"though,"

itself

of verbal origin, construed


:

with the present or past indicative, thus

"
*

fya

<to

kralo

s/iiJab

..

"

disButefu
I

to

"mf
isn't, (familiar)

"""'"-""Le, bin
col f

"

can't help

my-

(now.)

li

keredo,

tie

ga
(is)

Good though, price (nom.)


Sagashiia
sowjiit

takai.\ high. |
shi\
I

The
O ne, but

article
it

is

good

is

too dear."

Keredumo,
though,

can-

"I

have looked
it."

for

it,

remasen.
not-Tvrww.

[but can't find

Sometimes, instead of kcrcdomo or kercdo,


longer periphrasis
that."
to

we hear

the

wa

iedo(mo),
oita

lit.

"

though one says

Thus

oitaredo(mo),

keredo(ino),

and

oila

to

wa

iedo(mo) are

all

synonymous and equally

correct.

^[289. A well-marked shade of meaning distinguishes the concessive mood proper from expressions closely resemThus attar edomo, bling it in..../e mo, de mo and to mo.
atta kercdo,

or atta

to

wa

iedo signifies

"though

there was,"

1 "though there has been," whereas atta to* ilte* mo* (lit. 2 4 "even saying^ that there was ) signifies "though there may (or might) have been," and aru to mo signifies "though
1

there be."
latter to

The former

set of
:

idioms serves to

state facts, the

hazard suppositions
iarimasu.
.
.

Karinakutc
.

mo ,, Karmai de mo
,

tanmasu.
suffices.

Boi*roirinff-not even,

"I have enough, without borrowing any '


,

Mim
Seeing

mo
even

iya

desu.
is.

"

'

can

bear even to see

disaffrceaMe

or

Miru no

mo

iya

desu.

88 Iku to mo, Go ivhet7ier,


30
nasai.
deign.

THE VERB.
yosu
abstain
to

mo,

n-hether,\

tsugo

shidai

'aaatt* convenience

acceding

thei

"

f
l

smt ^ be *
tO

tO

<o,f

Iwanakue
Saying-not

mo

shiiteru.

"
(

know
me.
'

it

without your

even, Jtnowing-ain. (telling

N. B.

Shitteru stands for sKltte irn.


/

See end of

^[

294.

yoroshii. TJiroiving-aivay even, (is) good. 1

Utchatie

mo

be no harm done, even if you throw it I.e. You may away." I throw it away."
will
\

"There

' (

Sonna
Thus
yoroshii. (is) good.

ni

yoku nakute

mo

\
'
'

good not-being even,

You need

not US6 Slich

good one."

N. B. These examples suggest the manner in which some of our " idioms with " may," " need," and " without arc to be rendered in
Japanese.

We have already noticed in unlike that of the concessive


postposition
tote.

^f

118

(p.

83)

the force, not

mood,

often

inherent in the
:

Here

is

another example
'

Seijin-tachi Sages

ga
(nom.}

donna
in-tvhat
tote,

nat

can

never

be

ni

i-ay

yotte kangaeta assembling reflected evcn-if, philosophers may heads together." shire shinai. ya
do-not.

known,

however much the


put their

able -to-Jtnotv as-for,

290. Frequentative Form.

Frequentatives are almost always

second member of the pair being generally followed by the verb sum, "to do." The fundamental force of this tense is either to show that the action denoted
used
in pairs, the

by the verb

is

occasional, or else to imply the alternation or

opposition of two different actions.

The English
:

translation

must vary according

to

circumstances

I-:NI

ATU

!:

ANI

I.MI-KK.VI

iv

189

Kitari

komkatUiri

-Sometimes
and

he

Sotnctiincs-cntninf/ soinetiinrs-tiof-cotninf/

fcomes

SOme-

shimas
does.

(times he doesn't."
waratlari,
desu.
|

Naifari
Sotnetimcs-crt/'uKj

"There

is

great

*oH>cthncs-j<mf/fnii(/,\

o-samtgi

scene going on, tears and laughter turn and


so un divide
.

(it)

is.

Uuinabout."
ga
warukute,
okitari
so)netinies-f/fitinf/-tip
(

Kagcn
jiodiiy-stt<

* feel

(nom.)

i>c;r/-j><td,\
j

well that

netari
soHieti)nes-lyin(/-((oirH

my

time between
tip

shite orimasii.
doinff

<un

getting lying gain."

and
a-

down

291.

such as lomare

The Imperative occurs " halt !" !

in military
!

2c&&yasume

words of command, " stand at ease !" But


it

in social intercourse, even with the lowest classes,

sounds

rude,

and

is

therefore

rarely

employed except
is

in the case

of a few honorific verbs, for instance asobase,


to do."

An

honorific periphrasis

when addressing an
It is

inferior, as will

"be pleased mostly preferred, even be explained in *[[ 409.

to

that paragraph that the student should devote his

attention.
-A B. Observe, however, the idiomatic use of the imperative in such phrases as Nani shiro! or ncwi itase ! " do what you may !" "act as one will !" Conf. also end of f 186.
.

A noteworthy idiom, by means of which the English first person plural of the imperative (" let us. .") may generally be rendered, is shown in the following examples
.

Kb
T/IHS

shiyb

ja nai ka
isn't

J
.

" Let us do

it

in this

way."

u>m-f1o

? ikb

| (familiar)

Hana-mi
Florver-seclny

ni
to
s>

ja\

Let
( cherrV(

us

,r/77- r/ o

go
etc
)

and

see

the
"

anmasen ka
is-not
?

blossoms.

(polite)'

gO

THE VERB.

Or

else the future alone (without

ja nai

ka, etc.)

may be

employed.

For instance,

Isolde ikb

"I
to

will

make

haste to be off,"

may signify, not orrly but "Let us make haste

be

off."

AUXILIARY VERBS.
292. Properly speaking, several of the suffixes helping to form the moods and tenses are auxiliary verbs which were once independent, some of which are indeed still independent
in

other

positions.

Thus,

when

common

phrase yoku nemasKita,


ta (for
<|f

we make use of "I have slept well,''


to

the

the

polite suffix mashi

termination

" originally meant " te am means


aru)
If

be," and the past


finished,'' as

having

explained in
resolved into

247 and

245.

The whole word

nemashita,

its

constituent parts, therefore signifies

"am

having finished being asleep." Many verbal stems, too, have been built up by means of the verbs aru, " to be/'

and

eru,

"

to get," as

atsumarn, "to collect"

(intr. );

atsumeru, "to collect" (trans.);

smvani,

"to squat;" "to set." sueru, N. B. Uneducated persons use such forms in aru unnecessarily when they say, for instance, narabartt, " to be in a row ;" akatte itnasJi, " it is open." The simpler forms narabu and aite imasu are the correct

ones.

293.

More

modern,

and

still

felt

to

be separate
:

and

independent words, are the following auxiliaries

" to Aru, be," which is often construed with the gerund of an active verb, to give a sense which we should render by
a passive idiom, thus
:

MuzuhasJuku
Difficultly

kaite

aru
is

"
read

writing

It is

kara,
because,
zva,
<t6-for.

ivatakushi-domo
tlic-likcs-of-me

ni a
to

hand
it."

for

written in too difficult me to be able to


lit.

(More

" It

is

in

such

yomemasen.
is-unreadttble.

difficult

writing that," etc.)

IMF.

.\rxiI.IAKlKS

ART,
\

IKl",

AND OKU.
It is

19!
in a
in

Furos/iiki
Cloth- H-i'itwiaritnasYi.
is

ni
in

tsutsunde

"

wrapped up
(More
lit.

havinff-icr*ppd[c\Q\h."
(state
'cloth.'
1

It is in

of wrapped- up-ness
)

a a

A'.

B.

The corresponding
in

active phrases "

is

"

writing,"

is

wrapping

up,"

etc.,

would be rendered by

kails irn or ortt, tsntsunde irn or oru,

as explained

Notice, moreover, that these quasi-passive ^[ 294. always denote something which is done already, not something which is being done, that is to say that they are never what " English grammarians term continuative tenses." They are also rather

idioms with

am

intransitive in intention than properly passive.

The most

frequent use of

am

as

an auxiliary

is

to

form

compound

equivalents for the probable present or future, and for several of the tenses of the negative voice, thus
:

Kuru de arb
Konai dc
come."

or kuru darb, for kayo,

"

will

atta

or

konaidatla,

for

konakalla,

probably come." " did not


"

Konai de

allaro or

konai daltaro,

for konakattarb,

has

probably not come."

For dard,
equivalents
p.

datta,

etc.,

may

be

substituted

their

polite

desho,
:

dcsMta,

etc.,

already
deshita,

mentioned

on

171,

thus

kuru dcsho, konai

konai deshitarb.

Notice that the

compound

future

expresses a

somewhat

stronger shade of doubt than the simple future.

Aru

is

also

replaced by the politer gozaru in such phrases ^naorimasTnie (( He has got well again." The gozaimas t for naorimashita,

lower

classes, too, when addressing their superiors, frequently use the periphrasis gozaimasen de gozaimasu in lieu of simple

gozaimasen,

" there

is

not."

^[294. Iru and oru, "to be,' construed with the gerund, form continuative tenses corresponding to such English " I am " I was " I shall as
expressions
reading,"
:

writing,"

be working,"

etc.,

thus

192

THE VERB.

Nani
What

wo
nete

shile

i?nasu
is ?

} j

what
" He "

is

(accus.) doinff

he doing
...
,

Mada
Still

orimasu.
is.

sleeping

\
j

is still

sleeping-.

Necha
Sleeping -us-for,

imasumai.
in'obably-is-not.

\
j

He

is

not likely to be
(emphatic gerund)

sleeping."

Kesa
Tliis-morning

kara
lnce,

kumolte
clouding

"It

has

been clouding
since

orimasMla
naite

ga,

fold

ame

ni over (or cloudy)


to

the
it

hud-been tvhereus, finally rain

Mmashita, ha I'iny-bccome has-com e.

morning, and now at has come on to rain."

last

Ei no ichi-ri to, Nikon England 's one-mile and, Japanese no ichi-ri to, dochira ga
's one-leaffue

' '

Which do you think

is

and,

tvJiicJi

(twin.')

nobite

imasho ?
orimasu.
is.

the longer, an English mile or a Japanese rii"

extending

Kite
iiarinff-come

"

(i.e.,
last,

He is having come." He has come."


' '

In such an instance as the


;

the simple past kimashila

would be less clear for it might only mean that the man had come and had gone away again, whereas kite orimasu can only mean that he has come and is still there. Sometimes we must translate such sentences by the
English passive, Japanese idiom almost invariably preferring the neuter, thus
:

Mada
Still

dekite

imascn
is-not

ka P
?

(
]

.. T " Isnt
,

it

forthcoming

finished yet?
its initial
i

Very often the word


the gerund,
"
(lit.

iru,

"to

be," loses

after

especially in

the present tense,


;"

and we hear

neteru for nete iru,


written

"

is

sleeping
"), etc.

kaiteru for kaite iru,

"

is

"

is

writing

This

is

good example of
independent

the tendency of the Japanese language to turn

THE AUXILIARIES KLK1 AND MIRU.


words into agglutinated
the particle zva,
suffixes.

193

In very vulgar parlance

used

with

an

exclamatory force,

often
!

coalesces with a preceding iru.


is

Thus
to

naile ira I

" oh

he

crying."

Such expressions are


is

be carefully avoided.
by irassharn.

N. B.

Observe, too, that iru

often politely replaced

295. Kunt, "to come," construed with the gerund, forms what grammarians of certain other eastern Asiatic languages " illative" because have termed "illative" tenses, they

superadd

to

the

main idea the subsidiary idea of motion


:

towards the speaker or the person addressed, thus

Kippu
Ticket

ivo
(accits.)

katte
Jiav ing

-bought].

"I

will

gO and buy a

kimasho.
MTlM-COWJC.

Yonde
Hnving-called

call

Omoshiroi

Amusing

funny

Ma.
h<ts-come.
IV.

B.

idiom, using

Observe how English sometimes exactly reverses the Japanese " " " to go where Japanese has to come." In other cases,

as in the last of the above examples, the

word " come" must simply be

omitted

in

English as superfluous.

to see," construed with the gerund, shows ^[296. Miru, that an action is to be attempted, but without any very that it is to be, as the slang phrase has it, just great effort,

"

taken a shot at

194
Nete
mite

THE VERB.

mo
even,

neraremasen
coidd-not-sleep

\
f

Sleeping trying deshtta.


(if)ivas.

"I

tried

to

take

(nap,
to

but couldn't."

2 97 Nara(ba) t "if it be/' serves conditional (see p. 185).

form

compound
indicates

^[289.
the

Oku,

"

to put,"

full

and complete

construed with the gerund, settling of a matter, thus


:

Kippu
okimashlta.
Jun-e-put.

wo

katte

Ticket (accm.)

jiavinfj-bougHtl
I

"I

all right.

have got "

my

ticket

Kangaete
Techo
Note-boon

oite

kudasai.

"Please think the matter


01)6)'."

Reflecting putting condescend,

[well
N
I

ni
in
-

tsukete
having-flxed

think
in

okimasho

down
as
to

be sure to

ivill-probably-put.

win put it note-book (SO " remember it).

Sore made no
That
till

koto ni
thinff to

sliite

>s

doing

oku
to-put
nai.
is-not.

"There
but
there.
to
let

is

hoka,
besides,

shi-kata

ga

nothing for
matter

it

the

rest

ivay-to-do (nom.)

"

Atsuraete

oita.
j

^
f
}

Ha ving-ordcred
(More

liave-put.

u c b nn

j have "\

ordered

it

(at a

politely okimashlta).

example shows that the speaker thinks that the order will be satisfactorily executed. Atsuraete kita would
oita in this last

N. B. The word
that one

mean

h&djust come from leaving the order with the shopman.

Oku
to

suffixed often causes e final of the preceding


alsuraete
oita, for

gerund

be clipped in hurried speech,


aisuraefoila.

instance,

becoming
^[299.

Shimau,

"to

finish,"

construed

with
:

the

gerund,

expresses the completion of an action, thus

THE AUXILIARIES SHIMAU AND SURU.

195

.,*&
llavltuj died

s/nmaUa.

(familiar)
j
}

-,

Juts-flushed.

,* gw,"

Isha
flnisician

sama

m
to

natle

He
doctor

has
(after

become

Mr. Shimaimasfnla.
Jias-flnisJtcd,

7.avi n f/ -become l

having had several other professions in view)

Molte
llai-iny -carried

shimaimasJiita.
has-finislied.

will

throw

it

Told
At-l,*t

hom-buri

ni
ff

natle

main-fcdlin

to

n^i^-^comeL.
L
j

lt
,

has
.

mded
ft

shimaimashita.
has-finished.

wet day. J

N. B. " Main-falling," in this last example, having been supposed " rain-falling," by some students of the first edition to be a misprint for " main antithetical it may be well to here out that is hon, (rain)," point to " occasional (rain)," or what we should call " a shower," ]i

196

THE VERB.

An wa
,4/7

shimasen.

(polite)

si*f.
koto

Th^i* * ,,V nnv

"

(familiar)
ii

Sonna
Such
j/<z

wa,
as-for,

\
I

thing

saying

"I

itashimasen.
(/) do-not-do.

[saying
itashimasen,
(he) will not-do.
(

sA0/</ never dream of such a thing."

as~for,

Mo

ki

ya
as-for,

"I am

sure he won't

Again coming

/come again."

When two
in both, thus

such clauses are co-ordinated, mo replaces


;

wa

Mi
Seeing

mo
even

shinai,
do-not,

kiki

mo

hearing crenl
|

"I

neither

Saw nor
"

sftmai. do-not, {familiar)

heard anything.

The

first

of two clauses thus co-ordinated

is

often put in

the conditional, strange as such a construction

may seem
Indeed

to

European
read thus
last
:

ideas.

Thus

the last example might equally well


kiki

Mi mo

shinakereba,

mo

shinai.

this

would be the most


the idea
;

strictly

grammatical

manner of

expressing

for

the two clauses

would then be

correlated syntactically,

according to the rule explained in

TfT 278 279 (pp. 178-9), sezu being the negative gerund of suru, " to do."
f

3 OI

Yaru,

'to

send,"
to
is

"to

give,"

construed
for

with

the

helps gerund, verb when that verb

often

form a periphrasis
a transitive one,

the

simple

the

peiiphrasis

" giving," as in always retaining something of the idea of


the following examples
DasJiite
:

yam, or

dasu.

"To

put outside."
give him a beat(Buchimasho would be
will beat

I will

{"

ing."

simply

"I

him.")

VARI

AND OTHER AUXILIARIES.


w
' '

197

am

toiie

yanmasu
am

going
his
]ib

to give
(b

(Inn

wo

" I tokimasii would be simply

going to untie the clog.")

Daiku
Carpenter

ni
by,

koshiraesaseic
cmisina-to-prepttre

"I
(

think

will let the

carpenter

make

one."

yarimashb.
a few more

Either in order to give him work, or in order to benefit

some poor person).

There are

auxiliary verbs

but as their force

is purely honorific, the student is referred to ^[ 402 el seq., where the subject of honorific verbs is discussed at length.

302.

The Japanese have

a great fondness for rounding off


for

their sentences

by one of the equivalents


or yaru.
is

"

to be," or

kuru, oku, shimauy

The

plain verb, without

by one

or other of these auxiliaries,

not

mean

to

say that the auxiliaries


it.

We do apt to sound bald. are meaningless exretain in

pletives.

Far from

They always

the

mind

of

But the Japanese speaker a portion of their original force. whereas English idiom for the most part simply states the
occurrence of

an

action,

Japanese
the
to

idiom

delights

in

describing more

particularly

manner

of the

action's

occurrence

with

reference
etc.,

the

subsidiary

ideas

of

"coming," "finishing,"

which the auxiliaries express.

For instance, an English maid-servant, speaking of a piece " I will have it of dirty linen, will say washed, Sir." Her " Having Japanese sister would say AraivasJiite okimasho, lit. caused (some one) to wash (it, I) will put (it)," that is to say, " I will have it and there it will be." The
washed,
simple
verb merely states a dry
fact.

The

addition of the auxiliary

makes

the action

seem
lifelike

to

pass vividly before you.

The

sentence becomes

and picturesque.

CHAPTER

IX.

The Verb (concluded).


PASSIVE
303.

AND POTENTIAL VERBS.


special conjugation for

The Japanese language has no

the passive voice.

All passive verbs belong to the second

(active) conjugation, the

paradigm of which has been given

on

p.

156.

They

are derived from the corresponding active


:

or neuter verbs according to the following rule

In verbs of the ist conjugation add reru,

in verbs

of the

2nd and 3rd conjugations add rareni,


thus
:

to the negative base,

"to be (more " "


to

lit.

to

get) waited for."

be put."
"

be laughed at. "to be called."


to

NATURE OF THE SO-CAU.KU


304.

I'ASSIVK.

199
will

glance at the origin of the Japanese passive


all

furnish the student with a key to

the difficulties con-

nected with

it.

not a passive at

all,

Properly speaking, the so-called passive is but an active in disguise. Such a form
is
2 1 9 etymologically uchi art ent 3 2
1
,

as utarcru, for instance,


literally as

as

"
possible

to gel

being beating

,"

i.e

"
,

to get

beating,"

"to
is

get

beaten,"

hence
/,

"to

be

beaten."

Similarly irareru
eru, i.e.,

"to

" to get shot." second conjugation along with the verb eru,

r, and art "to a shooting," get being shooting," get Hence the place of all passive verbs in the

from the stem

a euphonic

" to get."

Hence,
have
it

too, the fact that intransitive verbs are susceptible of

passive forms, such asfurarcrit,


rain,"

"

to get rained

homfuru, "to rain;"

" to upon," have "to shinareru,


by some
have

some one
305.

die."

This curious idiom

may be
:

better illustrated

complete sentences, thus

OloUsanm
^
j
'

okorareru

you will \."Oh make) "*


(
!

"
I

You

will

be got angry

\ \with by papa."

"A
Anna kyaku
perplexity
does.

man

doesn't

know

ni

korarccha,

Such guests by getting -come, meiivaku shimasu.

what to do, when he has such guests as those come to the house ;" more Hi. "when he is come to by such
^guests.

Or take from
the

the opening sentence of the second chapter of


"

"Botan Doro

in the Practical Part of this

work, the words

Go
August

shimpu
real-father
. . . .

sama
Mi:

ni
Inj

wa
us-for,

naku
non-existent

narare

getting-become

200
Parsed
literally,

THE VERB.
they signify

"Being died by

his father;"

but they simply mean "Having had his father die," or, as we should generally express it, "Having lost his father." " " of N. B. As shown in the above instances, the preposition by
English passive constructions is expressed further examples will be found in \ 105.

by the postposition

ni.

Some

306.

The following examples


:

are

of a

somewhat

different

nature

A no Kito wa, That person as-for,


Kono
This

dare ni
everybody

\
' '

He

is

praised by every

de mo homerarete imasu. is. by even, getling-praised


inu
iva,

body."
J

muyami

ni\
itself
is

hocru
barJts

dog as-for, recklessly "This dog gets z kara, because it }disliked, " by eyer people because, barking.
I

for

iyagararemasu.
gels-disliked.

Kubi Head

wo

hanerarea

"He
ff

got his *

,
.

head Ris h d

cut

(acctis.) got-struclt-off.

vcut on.

"
Ashi
Keg
(1
)

have

had

my

leg

wo
(accus^)

inn
dor/

bitten

" "

by a dog ;" less lit. have been bitten in the

kui-tsukaremashita.
have-got-bitten.

leg

by a dog
leg has

;" still less

lit.

My

been bitten by

a dog."
koto ni zva, yiikyo ni Regrettotltle fact as-for, pleasure by,

Oshii

kokoro
heart

wo
(acct/s.)

gyb
business

ga
(now.)

narimasJnia.
has-become.

"I am sorry to say that ubawaremashtte, he has become engrossed in Jiaving-got-stolen, his heart stolen (lit. has got orosoka ni and has become by) pleasure, remissness to remiss in his work."
this
last

N. B. The phraseology of understood by the lower classes.

example

would

hardly

be

PASSIVES AND POTENTIALS.

2OI
last

307.
is

The

presence of

wo

in

such examples as the

three

apt to puzzle the beginner.

But there

is

nothing really
actually

illogical
is in

about

it.

The word accompanied by wo

Japanese, as shown by the literal It is not in any way the subject translations \ve have given.
the accusative in

of the sentence.
translation

That

its

English

equivalent

in

free

may happen

to be the indirect object of 'he verb,

or even a nominative,

only shows

how

necessary

it

is

for

those

who would speak

idiomatically to get into the habit of

The real looking at ideas from the Japanese point of view. nominative here, as in sentences of every kind, is very
rarely expressed in Japanese.

(Conf.

^[

131, p. 92.)

308 It is important for the student, when occupied with Japanese passive constructions proper, to compare what has been said in ^[293 (p. 190) concerning an intransitive
idiom with aru, "to be," by which the English passive is To that paragraph he is accordingly frequently expressed.
referred.

309.

The

passive passes by a natural


If
I

transition
is

into the

potential sense.

such and such an action

by me, evidently

am

able

to

perform

it.

If

performed it is not

performed by me, a somewhat hasty logic will assume that I am not able to perform it. Hence okareru may mean either "to be put," or " to be able to put ;" korareru may

mean

either

corned"}, or

"to have some one else come "to be able to come."

to

one

"

("

to

be

N. B, The single form omowareru, from omou, " to think," is somewhat exceptional. When taken potentially, it does not mean
" to be able to " to venture to think," but think,"

"I am

inclined to

think."

N. B.
to

For the natural


^[

transition of these passive-potential

forms

an honorific sense, see

403

202

THE VERB.

Ano
TJiat

sake wa ( ni wa, liito " person by as-for, liquor as-for] sake.


1

"He

cannot
'''

drink

(More

lit.

Sake

nomarenai.
does-not-ffCt-drunJt.

does not get drunk by \him.")


' '

Gozen
Hice

ga
(nom.)

taberaremascn.
yets-not-cafen.

can't

taste

morsel.

Mairaremasu.
Ikareso
(or

" One can go."

mo
politely gozaimasif).

nai.

Jjikcly-to-be-able-to-f/o even

am-not.

more

" I am not likely to be able to go."


l

Mazukutc
Heing -nasty?

taberaremascn.
cannot-eat.
';,
J

It is eat.

too nasty to

Kyo
To-day

no
's

POTENTIAL AM)
particle gir,

I'ASSIVK

IDIOMS.

2C>3

and not with the accusative


fail

particle zuo,

a point

which foreigners often

to grasp.

311. Impossibility is sometimes expressed by means of the verb kaneru, "to be unable," "cannot," which is suffixed to
the indefinite form, thus
:

Sekkaku
Special-pain*

no
of

o honourable

sasoi
invitati

am
avail

SO rry

degozaimasu

ga-

konmchi

zm\

cannot
f

myself exceedingly

***>

Makoto
Trut7i

ni
in

moshi-kanemasHila
sny-could-not

ga,
altliaugli,

kasa
o

wo

ip-pon
onc-piccey

unibrella(a cats.)

kashi
lendiny

honourably

kudasaimastii. condescend.
is

"I hardly like to ask you for it, but would you kindly lend me an um" h n ?
the

This idiom,
guage,
312.
is

which

inherited from

Written Lan-

now heard

only from the

lips of the educated.

The

verb morau, " to receive" (more politely itadaku,


in allusion to the

"to put on the head,"


of
raising

Japanese custom

present

to

the forehead), construed with the

gerund, helps to form an idiom which closely resembles the so-called passive both in formation and meaning, thus
:

Shimbun

wo

yonde
reading

morau,
to-receive,

Newspajtei' (a ecus.}
i.e.,

or, as

"to receive [somebody else's] reading of the newspaper," we should generally say, " to have the newspaper read

aloud to one."

Monde
RulMng

morau.
to-receive.

"To

have

one-

\ self

shampooed."

2O4

THE VERB.

Asa
Morning

hayaku
early,

okostiile

"I
called

wish
early

to

be

rousing

in the

wish-to-recetve.

morning.

Doha
Please
itadakito

go

shusen
gozaimasu. am.

wo
(acczts.)

shite

august assistance

doing

tvishing-to-receive

PASSIVES REPLACED BY INTRANSITIVES.

205

^[314.

The

aversion of the Japanese language to the use of

In nine cases out passive constructions is strongly marked. of ten, the English passive must be replaced either by one of the intransitive verbs just mentioned, or by an active though
subjectless construction, thus
:

Risuke

to

in

otoko\

"A man
3

called
2

Risiike;"
Risiike1 ."
last year,"

lit.

"A

man

(of

whom
1

people) say
2

that

(he

is)

Kyo-nen
5

tateta

ucfii

3
,

"A. house built

lit.

"A
lit.

house' (which some one) built2 last-year. 1 Ate 1 m' 2 mirimasen 3 "It is not to be depended upon," 3 2 "(It) becomes-not to reliance ."
,

"

Yoshtta 1 ho 2 go? yokaro*, "It had better be given

up,"

lit.

"The

forbore 1 side 2 will-probably-be-good 4 ."


1 1

Kore wa 2 nani 3 m* tsukaimasif /> " What is this used for?" " " As-for 2 this 5 4 3 lit. (people) use (it) for what ?
,

Korc

zua

2
,

nan de*

delate*
1
,

orimasi?
3 4

" What

is

this

made

of ?"//'/.

" As-for 2

this
A
,

Konna^ tansu 2
where
4

wd

what by forthcoming is* ?" 6 5 " Where are such doko* de kaemasu .^
"
?
///.
' '

cabinets as this to be bought


at
5

As-for 3 such 1 cabinets 2

"

are-buyable*

and

These examples, together with those given on pp. 57 8 in ^f 439, besides others scattered throughout the volume,
serve
to

may

show

the student

how
first

passive

idioms are

avoided.

He

could hardly do better than forbid himself the


six

use of them altogether during the battle with the language.

months of

his

ON CERTAIN INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

3*5- Japanese has a large class of verbs which it is generally convenient to translate by English passive or potential

idioms, but which in Japanese itself are, properly speaking,


intransitive.

Even

in English

we

feel

a difference between

2O6

THE VERB.

two such assertions as "The gold is melting in the furnace," and " The gold is being melted in the furnace." In the first
case the melting appears as a spontaneous event;
in

the

second case it
agent.

is

explicitly declared to

be the work of some outer

The verb of the former corresponds to the Japanese " to melt " lokeru, (intransitive) ; that of the latter to tokareru,
"to get melted"
"to melt").
first

(passive derived from

the transitive toku,


intransitive verbs

There are thus numbers of

of the second conjugation, formed from transitives of the

conjugation by changing the termination u into eru


TRANSITIVE.
kaku,

INTRANSITIVE.
kakeru,
kireru,

Mru,
toku,

tokeru,
tor eru,

"to "to " to

write."

cut."
melt."

torn,

"to
"

take."

uru,

ureru,

to sell."

yomu,

yomeru,
kiru,

"to read."
yomu,
etc.,

316.

The

transitives

uru,

are

used in

translating such phrases as


sell

"to cut

a slab of stone,"

"to

goods,"

"

to read a sentence."

The

intransilives kireru,

"This "These goods sell cheaply," "This sentence does not read well." The Japanese construction
ureru, yomeru, are used in translating such phrases as

stone

cuts easily,"

is less

closely followed, but practical convenience often best

served,

" can," thus by employing the word


"

You

"
More

stone easily." These goods can be sold cheaply."


this
is

can cut

especially

this the case

when

the original
:

verb

is

itself intransitive

" to according to English ideas, thus iku, " never there is reference can But go ;" ikeru, any (I) go." " I " or " can " in the mind of the to Japanese speaker.

INTRAXSITIVES.

2 07

^[317.
to

The

difference

between the

intransitives in eru
is

and the
tend

true potentials in

areru and rareru

that the

latter

express moral ability "may" rather than "can," because the moral ability to perform an action depends on the sanction of a law outside the agent whereas the forms
;

in

eru

express

physical

ability

"can"

racier

than

"
is

may,"

because the physical ability to perform an action Thus ikemasu generally independent of any outer will.

" means " one can go (because the way is easy, or because " one is a good walker). Ikaremasu means "one can go It is (because there is no prohibition against so doing).

true that the

two forms are sometimes confounded, just as " " can't " where mayn't English speakers occasionally use would be more appropriate.
'

'

N. B. Ikcnai (politely ikemaseti) in the sense of " (that) won't do."


*|[

is

an idiom of constant occurrence

318.
in

The

difference in

meaning between

the passive forms

areru and rareru and the intransitives in eru, the former

implying, and the latter not implying, the action of an outer agent, may be illustrated by the following example. Kiraremasliita

would be used

in

speaking of a

man who had been

person. (lit. cut) Kireta would be used in speaking of a rope which had

killed

by some highwayman or other

snapped spontaneously, or of friendly intercourse which had

dropped without either of the


with each other.
If

parties to

it

formally breaking

319. Verbs belonging to the second and third conjugations are not capable of forming intransitives in eru, and therefore

make

shift

with

the

passive

potentials

in

rareru.

Note
formed

however

mieru,

"to
"

be

visible,"

"to
it is

seem,"
kikoeru,

irregularly from miru,

to see."

Like

"to be

audible," formed from

"
kiku,

to hear."

208
320.

THE VERB.

The

following are a few examples of intransitives


kikoemasen.
is-not-audible.

Sbzbshiknte
^Being-noisy,

" There
row, I " word.
/

is

such
hear

can't

a a

"It

can

be

said

lenai

koto

wa

nai.

Cannot-say fact

as-foi*, is-not.

in (though practice do not often people {say it)."


j ' '

Kono
TJiis

mama
fashion

de
bt/

zva

irarenai.

We

can

go

on

as-for, cannot-be.

(in this
i

way."
at

Kore de
Tliis

wa. wa,

Memo
shire

ikemasen.

This won't do
"
all.

by

as-for, positively goes-not.

Do

de

mo

ya
as-far,
p. 88.)

\
(

be-Jtnmvable Anyhow shinai. {ya-wa ; see N. B. to


(loes-not.

" There

is 11

means

fof knowing."

Mazukute
Jieing-nas y,

nomenai.
is-undrinkablr.

"
(

It is

too nasty to

(drink/'

Mazukute
JSeiny-nasty,

taberarenai.
is-tmeatablc.

"
(

It is

too nasty to

ieat."

Yomeru
Readable

ni
te

iva

yomemasu
is-readable

"
read

Oh
it
;

yes,

one can
it

as-for,

but

is

ex-

ga,

ga
(nom.)

hand although, koto no hoka


extraordinarily

mendo

warukutc, tremely difficult, owing being-bad. to the badness of the


desu.
is.

troublesome

handwriting."
at the

Observe the repetition of the verb


last

beginning of
is

this

example.
this

specially strong
^f

emphasis
(p. 88).

often expressed

by

idiom, for which see

124

ON TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE PAIRS OF VERBS.


321.

as a transitive

In English the same word commonly does duty both and as an intransitive verb, the context alone

determining in which of these acceptations it is to be understood. Sometimes the passive does duty for the

TKANSITIVKS AND INTKANSITIVES.


intransitive,

209
words
are

sometimes
In

altogether
the

different

employed.

Japanese

transitive

and

intransitive

meanings are almost always expressed by derived from the same root, thus
:

different verbs

INTRANSITIVE.
dku,
ist.

TRANSITIVE.

conj.,
;"
ist.

"to

akcru,

2nd.

conj.,

"to
"to "to

be open
hajimani,

open.
conj.,

"to

hajimeru, 2nd.
5

conj.,

begin

;"

begin.'

hirakeru, 2nd. conj.,

"to "to
"to "to
"to
to

hiraku,

ist.
7 '

conj.,

become
kacru,

civilised ;"

civilise.

ist.
;

conj.,

kaesu,
return.

ist.

conj.,

"to

return

kakureru, 2nd. conj.,

kakusu,

ist.

conj.,

"to "to
"to
" to

hide (oneself)
naoru,
ist.

;"

hide."
naosu,
i.st.

conj.,

conj.,

get well ;"


nobtru,

cure."
conj.,

3rd.

nobasu,

ist.

conj.,

stretch ;"

stretch."
conj.,

or em,

2nd.
;"

oru,

ist.

conj.

break
on'ru,

break.'
conj.,
to

3rd.
;"

orosu,

ist.

conj.,

"to "to
"to "to
"to

descend
.sv>/-,;,
I

lower."
COnj.,
to

St.

soroeru,

2nd.

conj.,

match
l.tsi''knru,

;"
ist.
;"

match."
conj.,

"to "to

tasukeni,
save.

2nd. conj.,
2nd.

be saved
talsu,
ist.

conj.,

tatern,

conj.,

stand
yakeru,

;"

set up."

2nd.
;*'

conj.,

"to

burn

ist. yaku, burn."

conj.,

2IO

THE VERB.

N. B. Sometimes only one of the pair is in modern use, e.g., tjosu, " " to dry (ist. conj., trans.), the corresponding intransitive of which hiru (3rd. conj.) is now always replaced by the synonymous verb
kaivaku.

^[322.

The

derivation of these pairs of verbs from a

common
:

root follows

no

fixed rule.

Practice

and the dictionary are

the only guides.


i.

At the same time we may note that


ist.

Numbers
:

of intransitives of the

conjugation end

in aru, thus

aratamaru,
kakaru,

"
"

to

be reformed.".

"to hang."
to

kasanaru,
?nazaru,

be piled up."

Such mostly have transicorresponding tives in eru belonging


to the 2nd. conjugation, thus, araiameru, kakeru,

sadamaru,
todomaru,

"to be mixed." "to be fixed."


"
for

kasaneru,
to stop."

etc.

The reason
is

that they are

such verbs in aru all being intransitives formed by the agglutination of the substantive

verb aru, " to be," to the stem.

^[323. ii. Numbers of transitives have stems ending in s, thus


:

of the

ist.

conjugation

"
kesu,
' '

kowasu,

to extinguish." " to break.

mawasu,
modosu,
utsusu,

"to
"

turn."

The

corresponding
follow

intransitives

no

to give

back."

fixed analogy.

wakasu,

"to remove." " to boil."


stem of such verbs is probably a fragment of the auxiliary suru,
in

The

5 terminating the

many
do."

cases at least

"to

KKFLECTIVES.

211

REFLECTIVE VERBS.
324.
\ve

The Japanese language has no reflective verbs. But may, before quitting the subject of intransitive verbs,
attention to the fact that
to

draw

many Japanese
as,

intransitives

correspond
following
:

European

reflectives,

for

irrtance,

the

JAPANESE INTRANSITIVES.
asobu,

ENGLISH REFLECTIVES.
to

"
" "
"

amuse oneself" ("


("

to play ").

hataraku,
kiitobireru,

to exert oneself"
to tire oneself" to

to

work

").
").

(" to get tired

sKitagau,

conform oneself" ("to obey


suru
likewise

").

Many compounds
English
reflectives, thus
j'isalsu

with
:

correspond to

suru,

"to

kill

oneself"

("to

commit
("to
be

suicide").

manzoku suru,
sfiitakn

"to
"to

content
").

oneself"

content

wo

suru,

prepare

oneself"

("to

get

taikutsu suru,

ready "). bore "to

oneself"

("to

get

bored
N. B.
have given

").

The
for

alternative non-reflective English equivalents,

each of the above, will

suffice to

which \ve show how easy it is to

render a reflective idea in some other way, and how natural it therefore was for the Japanese mind not to hit on the reflective form of verbal
expression.

English,
phrase.

In cases where the word "self" would be emphasised in Japanese idiom adds some other word to the

Speaking, for instance, of a child amusing himself one would simply say Asonde orimasu, whereas the emphatic " He is amusing himself" (i.e. playing alone) would be Htlori dc asonde orimasu.
(playing),

212

THE VERB.
CAUSATIVE VERBS.

325.

Causative verbs are derived from transitives or intran:

sitives

according to the following rule In verbs of the ist. conjugation add scru,

in

verbs of

the 2nd.

and
:

3rd. conjugations

add

saseru,

to the negative

base, thus

"
11

to

cause to

kill."

(korosu,

cause to put." (( to cause to know," i.e., "to inform."


to

" "
i.

to

cause to read."

to cause to obtain,"

e.,

"to
"

"

give.

"

to
,

cause

to

eat,"

i.e.

to feed."

"

to cause to

bathe."

\rsvi u
"

ts.

213

to warn," is an interesting example For^ though now current as a transitive " to verb, it is evidently nothing more than the old causative of ;';;/, shun." When you warn a man of a thing, you naturally cause him
7
.

B.

The verb imashimcrn,


of formation.

of this

method

to

shun

it.

1[

327.

All causatives are

conjugated according to

t'.ie

paradigm

of the second conjugaiion (p. 156) and are, like other verbs, susceptible of the passive voice, thus
:

shiraserareru,

"to be caused

to

know,"
i.e.

i.e.,

to

be

informed."
tabesaserareru,
abisaserareru,

''to be caused to eat,"

"to be

fed.'"'

"to be caused

to bathe."

In practice, however, these complicated forms are rarely

employed.
^[328. The

Japanese

causative

includes

several

shades o

meaning.

Thus

koshiraesaseru, the causative of koshiraeru


to

to prepare,"

must be rendered sometimes by "to cause

prepare" or "to make. .. .prepare," sometimes by "to allow to prepare" or "to let. .. .prepare." The fundamental idea of the causative is that while the action is
actually

whether

it

performed by one person, the question as to shall be performed at all is in some way or other

decided by another person.


IV.

B.

For

instance,

furasetaku
^[ 329.

In a few exceptional cases the causation is purely imaginary. you hope it will not rain to-morrow, and you say Myonichi nai lit. " do not wish to cause to rain to-morrow."
t

(I)

(it)

person

In causative constructions, the noun standing for the who is made to perform the action is marked by the
nt,

postposition

and
is

the

noun standing
is

for

the person or

thing

the

action

performed upon

marked

by

the

postposition wo.

214

THE
Kiku

VERIJ.

wo
(accus.),

ucki-ya

ni

f:/iri/sntiieinuHitt

garden^

by,}

make the gardener plant out the


chrysanthemums
at

" Please

ucsasJiite kudasai. 1 suguni immediately c<mshnj-to-plant condescend.


[

Daiku
Carpenter
(

wo
accus.)

yonde,
Jiaving-called,

"
send

It \\ill

be as well to

futsugb na
inconvenient

tokoro
place

wo
(a cats.')
ii.

for the carpenter,

naosaseru
1t>- cause-to-repair

sa
(nom.)
(is)

and get him to repair the broken places."

good.
ii-lsukete,

Ima
Aoic

kozukai
coolie

ni
to

niwa
garden

no
's
ii.

soft

ivo

cleansing (accus.)
good.

ga
(Mam.)
(is)

You had better tell the coolie to come and to-cmisc-to-do sweep up the garden."
saseru

commanding,

"

Tsumari sake
At-last

de

mo

kawase-\
to-be-caused1

"

tell

liquor

even

end

by

}'ou it will his Q'Cttin


'

rareru
to-lniy

no

deshb

yo

fact ^vill-probably-be, oJi! th e other (Example of passive of causative fromj liquor." the " Botan-Doro^}

[bullied

into

treating fellow tO

kaitc wo Henji Ait steer (acc^is.) writing

iru

kara,
because,

am

"Please

tell

tsukai no mono message 's person


kudasai.
cfnidesccnd.
A'.

wo
(acctis.)

matasKite messenger I causing -to-wait while answer.'

to

the wait

write

an

B.

ing, be itesasete

The gerunds itesashite and mataslnte should, strictly speakand matasete, according to the paradigm of the second
all

conjugation to which

causative verbs belong.

But

it is

very usual

in ordinary conversation thus to

make the gerund of such causative verbs

follow the analogy of the

first

conjugation.

Do not confound transitive verbs of the first conjugawhose stem happens to end in s, such as dasu, " to " " to put outside," "to send out ;" hayasu, grow (trans. ),
330.
tion

with causative verbs of the second conjugation, thus

CAl'SATIVKS.

Detagatie
H"t*liiny-to-yo-out

iru
is

kara,
because,

chin

zvo

dasJiite

"The
go
let it

jnitf (rtVYY/.v.)

inittiny-ontside

yattc to scndiny

pug
;

wants
please

knJasai.
condescend.

out out."

so

Mo/o
Oriyin

kara
from,
zvo

inia

no
'*

yo
fashion

now

"Did
now ?

(the

Japan-

ni
in,
sfii/n

hige beard ka
.-=

(acct/s.)

hayasfiite yroiviny

twa- ese) formerly grow were mustaches, as they do "

331.
tive

It is

true that

we have been obliged


first

to

use the causa-

word "let" in rendering the into English, and that we might


in

of these sentences
it

just as well have used


distinction

the

second.
in

Nevertheless

the

has

some

importance

Japanese.

confound kasu,
borrow," just as
talent,

"to

set

It would be a great mistake to "to lend," with karisaseru, "to cause to it would be a great mistake to confound up," with tataseru (from taisu], "to cause

In the case of " lending" and "causing to borrow," the difference is quite clear even in our English In Japanese it is so in all cases. idiom. Thus, latent
to stand up."

means to stand some dead object up, or to "set up" as Tataseru, on king some puppet with no will of his own.
the other hand, implies that the person

who
set

is

caused to
volition.

stand up

is

an agent possessed of independent


the causative

Talesaseru,

of tateru,

"to

up,"

would

mean

to cause another to set a third person up.

To
i.e.,

take

another

instance,

orosu

means

to

"lower,"

"to

launch," a vessel into the water, while orisascru (causative of oriru, "to descend") would be used, let us say, of making a person descend the side of a ravine on his own
feet.

2l6
332.

THE VERB.

Though scrupulous

with regard to the above point, the

Japanese are less careful than ourselves to distinguish the causative

from the ordinary active idiom. Thus, where we "I am going to have my hair cut/' they prefer to 4 2 2 3 3 say simply Kami hasami ni ikimasu\ lit. "(I) go to cut
should say
1

(my) hair
logical

."

Even

in

English,
precisely

however, we often violate


the

exactness

are apt to say that

we

really

architect,

mean is who himself


The

same way. Thus we we are building a house, when what that we are having one built for us by an
in

causes

it

to

be built by the masons.


cases

N. B.

causative occurs

idiomatically in a few

where

" European usage goes quite a different way. Thus, Such and such a Chinese character is react so and so" is in Japanese Nani-nani no ji wo

nani-nani

to
is

yomasemasn, with the causative representing our

passive.

The

idea

of course that the literary authorities induce the world at

large to pronounce the character in such or such a way.

The phrase KirasJiimashlte gozaimasn (from kirn, "to cut"), used by tradesmen to signify that they are "out" of an article, is a still more curious
instance.

333p.

Observe that though Japanese, as stated in ^f 327, 213, has passive forms of the causative, it has no causative
It

forms of the passive.

never uses such idioms

as

the

" to cause to be arrested," ''to cause to be altered," English etc., but always employs the corresponding active instead,
thus
:

Mihon
Sample
shite t

wo
(accits
)

molte
cin-ri/inff

kosa~\ jmv- samples


1

"We

will

let

sodan
consultation

[then
\cause
]

brought, about consult

be

some and
the
will

itiff-caiised-to-coine,

[matter."
samples"

More
etc.

lit.

"We

itashinidsho,

(some one)

to

bring some

(we)

^vil-ldo.
is

This

but an additional illustration of the marked pre-

ference which the Japanese language has for the active over

the passive voice.

(OMl'Or.NI) VKRBS.

217
" to bring," becomes mottc

N. B.
kosaseru,

Note

in passing

how

mottc

kttrit,

" to cause to

bring," the second verb

burn alone

suffering a

change of form.

All such cases are treated in the

same manner.

COMPOUND VERBS.
^|

Many complex verbal ideas are expressed in Japanese means of compound verbs, which replace the preposiby tional verbs of European languages, and sometimes cor334.

respond to whole phrases, thus


tobi-agaru,
lit,

"jump-ascend,"

"
i.e.,

to

ascend by jump-

ing,"
lobi-komu,

"
lit.

to

jump up."
i.e.,

"jump-enter,"

"to enter by jumping,"


i.e.,

"to jump in." tobi-kosu, "to cross by jumping," " to kill


kiri-korosu,

"to jump
" to cut

across."

by cutting,"

i.e.,

to death."

bitchi-korosu,

buchi-laosu,

"to kill by beating," i.e., "to beat to death." " to prostrate by beating," i.e., "to knock
i.e.,

down."
mi-maivaru, "to go round by looking,"

"to look

round."
mi-olosu,

"to drop
' '

mt-sokonau,
' '

to

kiki-sokonau,

in looking," i.e., "to overlook." " mistake in looking," i. e. "to see wrong. " " to hear wrong. to mistake in hearing, i. e.,
,
' '

shini-sokonau,

"to mistake
to divide

in

dying,"
''

i.e.,

"barely to
"

escape death."
wake-atacru,
If
' '

and

give,

i.

e.

"
,

to give in shares.

335-

The

many

scores of those in

following are further examples chosen from commonest use


:

among

de-au,

"to meet by going out," i.e., "to meet out of doors," "to encounter." " to forthcome and rise," i.e., "to be comdeki-agaru,
pleted."

2l8

THE VERB.
meguri-au, "to meet by going round," across after many adventures."
mi-tsukeru,
i.e.,

"to come

"to

fix

by seeing/'

i.e.,

"to notice."
i.e.,
f

moshi-awaseru, "to cause to meet by saying,"

"to

arrange beforehand."
nori okurcru,

the causative

(;/X!?.
in

""')
i.e.,

"to be

late

riding,"

"to be too

late" (for the train, etc.).

omoi-dasu,
to

"to put outside by thinking,"

i.e.,

"to

call

mind." " to loosen and ioki'dkasu,


isuki-ataru,

clear," i.e.,

"to explain."
i.e.,

against,"
uke-au,

"to reach by striking," " to come to the end "


receiving,"
i.e.,

"to

strike

(of a street).

"to meet by

"to guarantee."
"to take delivery
" to

" to take uke-ioru, by receiving,"


of."

i.e.,

uri-sabaku,

"to manage by
verbs recur

selling," i.e.,

sell off."

336character

Some
of

with

special

frequency
;

in

the
(to

second member of a compound


:

thus

mention only three or four)

Dasu denotes the action of coming out, taking out, or beginning, as in hashiri-dasti, "to run out;" lori-dasu, " " to "to take out naki-dasu, begin to cry."
;

N. B.
intransitive

Dasu
dene,

is

properly a transitive verb, corresponding to the " to come out." Its intransitive use in such comis

pounds

as hashiri-dastt

therefore

somewhat anomalous, but

it

is

sanctioned by usage.

Kakaru shows
verb
as
in
is

that

the

action

denoted
else that
it

by
is

the

chief

commence, or naori-kakaru, "to be on


to
'
'

about

accidental,

the
;;

road

to

recovery;"

tori-kakaru,

to

happen

to pass by.

COMI'OfM) VKKHS.
A'//vv//, generally

219
been begun

shows

that the action has

and then abandoned, as in hanashi-kakeru, "to break


thing."
A'iru,

s/n-kakeru,
off in the

"

to leave half

done

"
;

middle of saying some-

"to cut," indicates

totality,

as

iv

kai-kiru,

"to
"to

purchase the whole" (of a consignment,

etc.);

kari-kiru,.

"

to hire the

whole"

(of a

house,

etc.); shime-kiru,
repairs).

close

up"

(e.g. a

room undergoing
"
;

Komu
komu,
rain or

corresponds to the English word "in," as in


/iiri-komu,

tobi-

"to jump in snow coming


as

"to come
used

in

"

(said of

into the house).

On
less

the other hand, torn,

" to take,"

is

in

numberlittle

compounds

their first

member,

with but

in"

dependent meaning.
to

Tims, tori-atsukau, the same as alsukau,

manage;"

tori-kaeru, the

same

as kaeru,

"to change,"

"to
prefix
little

The "to investigate." exchange;" tori-shiraberu, seems to make the signification of the second verb a
precise.

more

337-

Occasionally
to

three verbs are

as moshi-agc-kaneru, a very respectful


hesitate

say."
lift

ageru,

"

to

It "
;

is

compounded together, to way of expressing "to of ?nosu, compounded say;"


' '

up

and kancru, "to be unable."

338. Compound verbs, like simple ones, are susceptible of taking the negative, passive, potential, and causative suffixes,
as
:

buchi-taosanakatta,

buchi-taosenakatta
luchi-taosarctc,

buchi-taosaseni,
all

"did not knock dnown;" " could not knock down " " being knocked down ;" " "to cause to knock down
;
;

from the verb buchi-taosu, "to knock down."

220
339.

THE VERB.

As

illustrated in the

examples we have given, the

first

compound verb is put in the indefinite form, while the second member alone is conjugated through the The first member generally various moods and tenses. stands in an adverbial relation to the second. Thus in buchi-korosu, "to beat to death/' the first member buchi shows the manner of action of the second member korosu.
of a

member

In some few cases, however, the signification members of the compound is co-ordinated, for iki-kaeru, "to go and come back again."
340.

of the

two
in

instance

The

Japanese
verbs that

language
it is

compound

essential for

make such lavish use of him who would speak


them
are
in

idiomatically to get into the habit of employing

preference to simple verbs

wherever possible.

Here

few examples of their use


Fiito

omoi-dashimasKita.
thinTf-Jiave-put-ont.

"
I

It

Suddenly

[to me.
1

jias

just occurred

Aa !
Ah
!

kaki'Sokonaimasmta.
tvrite-ha ve-rn istalten.

"Oh
"

have made a

[mistake
)

(in writing)."

Hem

Kiki-sokonai mistake

desu.
(it) is.

"You
j

have

heard

wrong.

Chodo
Just

watakushi

i
iokoro
place

de-kakertt
go-out

\norn ) deshila.

"I was

just

on

the

(point of going out."

Tsukai
Messengers narimasKila.
became.

ga
(notu.)

iki-chigai
go-differ

"The two

messengers

crossed each other."

Kono
Tliis

wo

kara, from, cri-dashimash ~.


inside

uchi

"I
best
"

will

select

the

from

among

these.

(aCCKS.) cJioose-ivill-put-out.

EQUIVALENTS OF
I'^uri-dashile
I'lilf-lirf/inniiif/

'111

I.

VKKIf

"TO

BE.

221

kita

Juts-come

kara

dcni
aoiny-OUt,

no
action

wo

"As
to
rain,
oft'

it

ini-awasemasho.
)-icitt-p)'olMibl!/-cttnsc-to-mcet.

put

my

has come on think I will walk."

Mo

futolsu

ii-tsukeru

222

THE VERB.

^[342. However aru, arirnasu, gozaimasu signify simply "to be" (not "there is") when construed with a gerund, as
illustrated in ^f 293.

Gozaimasu also means simply "to be"


adjective, as

when construed with an Kono


Tliis

mizu

wa,

taihen

ni

karil\
lifjhtl

ivater as-for,

mvfidly

"This

water
soft."

is

gozaimasu.
(it) is.

[deliriously
)

The
if

certain present tense of aru

and of arimasu

is

rarely,

ever, thus used with the u or d form of adjectives (see p. 120 and pp. 124 5), as the adjective includes in itself the

idea of the verb

the above sentence


karui.

"to be." Thus the less polite equivalent of would be simply Kono mizu wa, taihen ni
suffix, as

the verb aru appears explained in \ 186 (pp. 128 9), and there exemplified in a paradigm ; thus karuktt<i, " was " karukar r j, "is or will probably be light," etc. light

In the other tenses, however,

as

an agglutinated

^[343.

De

aru,

de alta, de aro, etc.

(familiar),

de arimashila, de arimasho, etc. (rather polite),

De arimasu, De gozaimasu,

de gozaimashila, de gozaimasho, etc. (truly polite), are the " that is to say, they there," simple verb "to be" without

mean "I am," "he,


"

she, or

it

it

is,"

" we

are,"

"you

are,"

they are/' and so on through

all

the other tenses.

Da

is

a corruption of de aru; daita and dard are corruptions of de


alia

and de

ard,

(Conf. end of

with which they exactly agree in meaning. ^ 88, p. 64.) These forms might with

propriety be written d'a, d'atta,


clearly to

and

d'aro, in order the

more

mark

their

composite
de
is

origin.

Kore
TJiis

wa
as-for,

nan
what

aru?}
'

" What

"
is

(it)

/(More
, <

this ? often, fCore wa

nan da
a

?)

Uso de gozaimasho.
'

bab]

ie

KoriVAI.KNTS
Tokaidn
rjfrrrfci'7

<>!'

'I

UK VKKH
ilia
ii-ciit.

"TO
(

HE."

223

kara
ft//,

mauwtlt'
tni'iiiiif/

In
xid c

"Though
mightn't

you
so,
it

think
to

ga
(iw
l

kaelte

toku

<lam.

J will
I

probably

be

(politely,

^contrariwise projit wttl-jn'ohnbli/-bc. de gozaimasho.)

shorter

gO

round

*|f

344. JDesti, dcshila,

\^y t h e Tokaido." and deshb have the sarn/i signification

respectively as de gozaimasu, de gozaimashila,

masho,

of which they are contractions.

Thus

and de gozaithe second


might

and

third

examples
:

in

the

preceding paragragh

equally well read thus

Uso desho.
Tokaido kara maivalle
ilia

ho
z)

ga

kaelle toku desho.


(ist.

Iru (3rd. conj. If. 345.


sJgnify properly

stem

and oru
hence "

conj., stem, on")

"

to dwell,"

to live,"
is

"

to

be

"

(in

certain

place).

Their chief use

as

auxiliaries

(see
in

294), in which function they are

now

often

employed

speaking of inaminate things, notwithstanding their original


signification,

which would seem

to limit their application to

living creatures. N. B. The use of iru for animate beings and aru for inanimate

still,

however, maintains itself in many idioms. Notice, for instance, the " " and difference between imasu or orimasu, " he is there (or here),

arimasu,
If

"

it

is

there

" (or here),

" there

is

some."

346.
iru,

"

Irassharu and o ide nasaru are honorific synonyms of to be," and of several other verbs, as will be shown

in If 405.

347. Ja, as a verb,


speakers.

is

not heard

from the

lips in the

of

Tok)o

But

in the Colloquial of

Kyoto,

language

of the stage, and frequently in printed Colloquial (co-called), it takes the place of da. It must not be confounded with
ja, the

Tokyo

wa, as in Koreja nai


(Conf.

contracted form of the two postpositions </<? for Kore de wa nai, " It is not this."

89, p. 64.)

224
*[[

THE VERB.
"
to be," not to

348. Naru,

be confounded with naru,

"

to

become," belongs almost entirely to the Written Language. We still find, however, in common use the form naraba
explained on
p.

185,

and such expressions


2

as isoganakereba

nanmasen
not 1
"
i.e.,

2
,

lit.

"

it-is-not

(i.e.

"you must make

"conclusive present*" nari, items of an enumeration, and hence


to

it won't do) if-one-hurrieshaste;" also occasionally the used to separate the various
,

coming

to

correspond

our conjunction

<:

or

:"
(

I oka
Ten-flays

nan,
is,

halsuka
twenty-days

nan.
is.

less

" Ten or twenty days :" UL ,c ten days or a

(fortnight."
^[

349.

Suru, properly

"

to

do," sometimes passes over into


^[^[

the sense of

"to

be."

See

356 and 357.

THE VERB
more constantly in Japanese than the verb the suru, irregular paradigm of which has been given
350.

No

verb recurs

on

and whose primary signification is " to do," "to make," the French faire. Sometimes it stands indep.

159,

pendently in

its
it

proper sense of doing or making, the noun


as

governed by

taking the accusative postposition wo, usual with transitive verbs, thus
:

Ikusa

Sffiiaku

wo suru. wo suru.

"To make

war."

Rybri

ivo suru.

" To make preparations." " To cook " {faire la cuisine).

v Jama wo

suru.

("To make
\
,
.

|
(

.. , " to be in the way.

obstruction "/..,
'

" To make

Mane wo
*

suru.

4
(

imitation," imitate," also simply to " do (something bad).

"to "to

One form
T[

of the present tense

is

so termed in the Written Language.

Conf.

177, p. 121.

SURU.
(t
(

2 2

o-

~,

Having
then."
are

done

so

;"

"and

Omae

do shimasu

r>

"What
adjectival

you doing

?"

(famil.)

Compare
as

also such
2

and adverbial expressions


that
2
1

chart

to

shita*,
1

lit.
2
,

"did
lit.

quiet

,"

i.e.,
1

simply
," i.e.,

"

quiet ;" subc-sube shite

"

2 having-done smooth

simply "smoothly." ^[351.


to

(Chan and sube-subc are onomatopes.)

More

often suru sinks into being a

mere

suffix serving

verbalise

nouns.

Of

verbs

thus formed, the

modern
following

language contains an
are a few specimens
aisuru,
:

enormous number.

The

"
"
,

to love ;" to arrive ;" to

from
,,
;'

at]

"love."

chakusuru
hisuru,

chaku, "arrival."
hi,

"

compare
decide
;"

,,

"comparison
"refusal.
5
'

9
35'
S.

jisuru,

kessuru,

" " "

to refuse ;"
to

,,

ji,

,,
,,

ketsu,

"decision."

sassuru,

to guess ;"

salsu,

"

a guess."

anshin suru,
choai
,
.,

" to

feel at

ease ;" from anshin,


,,

sum,
J

"
\
(

to love
.,.^

;"

choai,
(

"love."

kaikwa suru.

(" to be(come))
, ;

"
,,

civilisaA
.

civilised

'\
)

kaikwa,
'

}
,,

tion.

kcnkwa suru,
roshi suru,

"

to quarrel ;" to die in prison ;"

kenltwa,
''"'

"a

quarrel."

"

* **'

."S."'"
lochaku,

tuchaku suru,

"

to arrive ;"

,,

"arrival."
transliterators
to

N. B.

It

seems to have become usual

among

attach stiru to the preceding

noun

(e.g.

aisuru, chakusurii)

when

this

noun
(e.g.

consists of a single Chinese character,

and

to write it separately

anshin sum, choai suru} when the noun consists of two Chinese There is nothing to object to in this practically convenient characters.

distinction.

226
352.

THE VERB.

If

When
it

the

noun
first

is

a monosyllable,
is

the

verb formed
if
it

from

by means of sum
to the
"

sometimes treated as

belonged does not refuse

regular conjugation, ihusjt'sanai,

"he
But

(as if

from

jisu),

instead Qfjishinai.

this is incorrect
IT

and somewhat

vulgar.

353-

When

the

noun

is

a monosyllable ending in n, suru


in

generally changes

to zuru

the Written

Language, and

being conjugated regularly according to the paradigm -of the third The same thing sometimes happens even conjugation.
this jiru

thence to jiru in Colloquial speech,

when

the final letter

is

not

n,

thus

"
anjiru,

to

be anxious
correspond

;"
;"

from an,
,,

"
ojiru,

to

"opinion." "
>

^
? 8 =

d,

correspond- [*;
ence.
\

'

"
ronjiru,

to

argue

;"
;

,,
,,

ron, son,

"argument."
"injury."

"
sonjiru,
If

to

be injured

354.

The examples
Suru
is less

words.

3 are all Chinese ^f^f 351 attached to words of native frequently

given

in

The following and several others Japanese origin. however, in common use " to cigar i-sagari suru, go up and down ;" from
:

are,

the

indefinite forms (used substantively) of agaru, " and sagaru t to descend.


' '

"to ascend,"

ne-gaeri suru,

"to
kaeru,

turn in bed;" from neru,

"to

lie,"

"

to sleep,"

and
li

kega suru,
^f

exchange." to be wounded ;" from kega, " a wound."


(for suru)

"

to

355.

There are a few instances of zuru orjtm being agglutinated to an adjective stem, as
:

karonjiru,
*

" " to think light." lightly of;" from karui,*


karoshi
in

Karoki,

the

Written Language,

whence the

of

karonjiru.

SURU.
'

227
from omoi,
' '

'

omonjiru,

to

esteem

"

;"

heavy.

But these words sound bookish, and are not much used
in

genuine Colloquial.
J ust as

H 35^

mean "to make


a

French the expression/dirt* chaud does not hot," but "to be hot," so also in Japan-

ese the verb resulting

from the combination of


a
transitive

sum
may

with
in-

noun

is

not

necessarily

verb.

It

deed be transitive; but sometimes it is intransitive, and sometimes it corresponds to an English passive, as variously
illustrated in the

examples given in the preceding paragraphs. In a few cases, e.g., shojiru (for shosuru), "to produce" or "to be produced," it has a double acceptation. Usage is
usage sanctions the corresponding passive is obtained by
passive serareru or sareru, thus
"
;
:

the sole arbiter in each instance.


transitive use, then the

When

substituting for suru


aisuru,

its

"
<
<

to love

aiserareru,
" ckdchaku sera ~
;

"to be loved."
'
'

chochaku suru,

to thrash

t(

rent,

j
[

et

thrashing.
e
'

omonjiru,

"to esteem;" omonjirareru,

357-

instead of wo.

Sometimes suru, when used independently, takes ga It then signifies "to be," as in

O/o

ga

suru,

Zutsu ga suru, headache."


^[

"There is a noise." "There is a headache,"


the

i.e.,

"1 have a

358. Construed

with
:

particle

to,

suru means "to be

about to," thus " Jko to

stiite, Being about to go." Construed with the particle ni, suru forms an idiom

which the following sentence may serve


Kaelte

to illustrate

kara no koto ni shiyo. J


s'

"I

will leave

it till

Hnvlny-returnetl ufter

tiling to ivitt-do.

\ after

my

return."

228

THE VERB.
VERBS LIABLE TO BE MISTAKEN FOR EACH OTHER.

"f[

359. Foreign students of Japanese are often naturally perplexed by the fact that the stems of many verbs of the ist. conjugation end in r, while two of the "bases" (the certain present

and
is

3rd.

conjugation because the stem is shabcr, the indefinite form shaberi, and the negative base shabera. On the other hand, tsumeru, "to pack," is of the 2nd. con-

shaberu,
It

and the conditional base) of verbs of the 2nd. For instance, conjugations always contain an r. " to of the ist. or of the
chatter,"
is

2nd.?

of the

ist.,

jugation, the letter r belonging in this case, not to the stem,

but to the termination.


faded flowers),
is is

Similarly chir-u,
ist.

"to
while

fall"
?ii-ru,

(like

of the

conjugation,

"to

of the 3rd. boil," Especially perplexing are such pairs of verbs as her-u (ist. conj.), " to diminish," andtie-ru (2nd.
conj.
ki-ru
),

"to pass through"; kir-u

(ist. conj.),

"to

cut,"

and
first

(3rd. conj.),

"to wear."

Neither

is it

easy at

sight to distinguish correctly all the forms of, say, todomar-u,

the intransitive verb "to stop," from those of todome-ru,

the

corresponding transitive verb "to stop." Practice and the


dictionary are the only guides in this matter.
*|[

360.

The comparative paradigm on the opposite page


differences

will

serve to illustrate the

obtaining,
sets

in the various

moods and
verbs,

tenses,

between pairs or

of like-sounding

such as those above-mentioned.


all in

The
are
:

three

verbs

given are
iru,

daily Colloquial use.

They

ist.

conj., to

stem

ir;

sense of

"

be useful,"

"to go in," used and in the phrase

chiefly

in

ki ni iru,

the " to

go

into one's

mind,"

i.e.,

"
ir
;

to

be agreeable to one."
in."

irent, 2nd. conj.,

stem
/;

"to put
dwell,"

im, 3rd. conj., stem

"to

"to

be."

VERBS LIABLE TO BE CONFOUNDED.

22 9

lru "to go in," and ircru, "to put in," are related to each other as respectively the intransitive and transitive forms of the same verb. The resemblance of these two to
t

iru,

"to

be,"

is

merely fortuitous.

l
^i

i.'ifi

,1

I1III

llrl

-fill * i||

11 I fi
is.
o

l.il

zhmlmwAl
O'S-~-S-S-S

5-5'S

525

I I 1 ! 1I FIII

a
<2
Form

'*

^ ^

Ba
onal

Present

te

ms
CJ

till 1

^Juo J

HI y u

'--

230

THE VERB.
VERBS USED AS OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH.

If

362.

Some

few verbs,

mostly in the gerundial form,


e.g.,
;

are

used as postpositions,
motle,

"with,"

ni yotte,
If

" "by means of from mo/su, "to " " " to "owing to fromyoru, rely.
;

hold."

363.

Others

correspond

to
:

English

adverbs,

adverbial

phrases, or conjunctions, thus

;" indef. form ofamaru, "to exceed." of hajimeru, "to "for the first time,") gerund " hajimete, " never before. " j begin (trans. ). " kaelie, contrary to what one might expect;" gerund o^ kaertiy "to return" (intrans.).

amari,

"too (much)

kiri (vulg. kkiri),


sore-kiri,

used as a

suffix

"only that;"
) j

indef.

meaning "only," formof&ir, "to

e.g.

cut."

nokorazu,

" without excep-

negative

gerund of nokoru,

tion," "all."

"to remain."

sayo nara, "good-bye," lit. "if that) nara(ba), condition" be so (we shall meet again). j al ofnaru, "to be.'*
semele,

"at

least,"

"at most
"

"
;

gerund of semeru,

to "treat

with rigour."
shiite,

"urgently;

gerund of shiiru, "to urge."

!*.
tatoela,
^f

"altogether," -a,,."

"for instance
present tense
:

"
;

condit. of latoeru,
in

"to compare.

"

364.

The

is

some few

cases doubled

and

used adverbially, thus


kaesu-gaesu,

"over and over again;" from

kaesu,

"to

send back."
If

365.
verbs,

It

has already been shown in pp. 140


verbs,

how Japanese

and phrases formed from

frequently rep lace

the adjectives of

European languages.

CHAPTER

X.

THE ADVERB, INTERJECTION, AND


SPECIAL PHRASEOLOGY.

CONJUNCTION".

Almost all the 366. Japanese has few if any true adverbs. words corresponding to our adverbs prove, on examination, to be stragglers from the other parts of speech. It will,
however, afford some insight into the nature of the language,

and be

practically useful to students, to glance at the various expedients by which the necessity for adverbs is obviated.

367.

The

indefinite

forms

in

ku of adjectives

are

used

adverbially, and correspond adverbs in "


ly," although,
4),
1

for

the most part to English

as

80

181

(pp. 122

such

is

has been explained in ^[ not their original force,


at the present

nor indeed their invariable force even

day

Zosa
Difficulty

naku
not-being,

dekimasu.

"It
done."

can

easily

be

(it)fvrthcomes. |
(

Aiarasfnku tsukurimasJnta. have-made. Newly


Kilanarashikti
i

"It has
"

been

newly
1

1 built.

miemasu 2

"
.

It

looks 2

dirt(il)y

longer used colloquially, except " alin the ku form corresponding to our adverbs, e.g., kotogotoku, " together ;" mattaku, quite."
adjectives are

N. B.

Some few

no

368.

e.g., kon-nichi,

Japanese nouns often correspond to European adverbs, " lit. "this day," i.e., " to-day ju-bun, lit.

THE ADVERB.
parts,"
i.e.,

"ten

"plenty," "exceedingly;"

b-kata,
(ist.

lit.

"great side,"

i.e.,

"mostly;"

ko-ko,

lit.

"this"

ko),

"place" (2nd.

Words

"here." (Conf. ^f 64, p. 45.) ko), i.e., of this class retain their substantive character so comin fact the postpositions,

pletely that the equivalents of such particles as

"from,"

etc.,

"of," at," can be construed


:

"

with them as readily as with any other substantives, thus

Doko
WJiere

made
till,

ide

ni\

honourable exit

"

to[
j

How
?"

far

are

you

narimasu
becomes ?

going

>

Asuko mere
kl

kara
front,

saki
front

wa

>-N
imI

It

is

no distance on
tQ

aa-frr,

from there
place."

the

desu
is.

next

'

mediately

Itsumo no kimono Ahcays of clotlies

de yoroshiiA
by
(is)

clothes

W "^ordinary
(oata to one s
,

good.

1
\

,,

.,'

own

servant.)

A/o
-After

de
by,

koko
here

wo
(acftts.)

soji

\
I

" Please

cleaning

room
hotel?)

clean afterwards."
to

this

sHite kudasai. doing condescend.

(Said
'

the servant at a

Sonna ni
So
ikenai
*'c

sawaija

as-for-i)uiking-a-roiv,\
!
|

"I

Say!

yo

make such
'

you mustn't a row/'

-no-go,

oJi !

369.

Some nouns
:

receive an

adverbial tinge by

means

of

reduplication, as
ho-bo,

"

naka-naka,
naka,
tabi-iabi,

everywhere ;" from ho, "side," "direction." " more than " you might think ;" from very/' " inside."

" often

;"

from

tabi,

" a time

"

(une /bis).
"
(le

toki-doki,

tokoro-dokoro,

" sometimes " time ;" from toki, " here and there from
;"

temps).

tokoro,

" a place."

MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS ON ADVERBS.


370.

233
are

There

are

also

many

words

which

nouns

etymologically speaking, but which are always or almost always used as adverbs, and which mostly take the postposition ni, as jiki or jiki ni, "immediately:" sude ni,

"

already

;''

sugu or sugu
decay

"
ni,

directly."

371. Phonetic
these words in

their passage

the state of adverbs.


of

considerably altered some of from other parts of speech to Thus do j* "how?" is a corruption
has

yd ? "what manner?" Similarly ko, "in this and a, "in "thus;"' so or sayo, "in that way; that way," are derived from kono yd, sono yd, and ano yd
dono

way,"

respectively.

372. Many words which we are obliged to translate by adverbs or adverbial phrases are the gerunds of verbs, as How truly words of 3 (p. 230). explained in ^f*|f 362
this class retain their verbal force

even at the present day,


Kllori
1

may

nokorazif,

be seen from the use of such phrases as " even 2 " all without lit.
exception,"
3

mo 2
1

one-person

remaining-not (behind)."
373. The following are some of the chief Japanese words corresponding to our adverbs, not already mentioned in this chapter. More will be found in the paradigm on p. 52.
bakari, "about,''

"only."

ilsudemo,

"

always
"

;" ivith

negative verb t "never."


little,"

ma, quite (always combined with the following


dake, "only," " as. .as."
.
.

"

"about,"
"

adjective,

whose
is

initial

consonant
makkurai,

hanahada,

( '

"

doubled, as
pitch-dark,"

very.

" how ?" ikaga j> iku bun ka, " rather," "more
or less."

from kurai, " dark.") " still mada, ;" with a nega" tive verb, not yet.
' '

234
mala,

THE ADVERB.
"
again."
first

"
taisb,

much,"

"
very."

mazu, "in the " well !"

place," (In this sense often abbrev. to ma. )

takusan,
tokoro

same
de,

as taiso.

" and so."


tokoro ga, "still."

"thereupon,"
nevertheless,"

mo,
motto,

"already;"

with

a
"

negative verb,

"no
.
.

more.

"more"
"
as
if

naru-take, ble ;" "

(adverb). as possi"
. .

yahari
part),

(emphatically "also." (emphatically

yap-

naze
safe,

/"

"

possible.
?"

"

why
" a

yohodo
podo),
zehi,

well !"
little."

"

yop(from

very."

sukoshi,

"positively''
ze,
'

tada (vulgarly and


tically

empha"

Chinese
hi,
' '

"good," and
worse
").

"

"merely," tattd), nothing but."


' '

'bad," like our phrase

for better for

tadaima,

immediately
tada

zuibun,

" a
"

(from
N, B,
" "

and
much
as

ima,

"

good
(as in

"

deal,"
pretty

"now.")
Avoid, as
as possible,

pretty tired ").

the Japanese equivalents for

very
It

and " a

little,"

the Japanese rarely

employ them.

374. may foregoing list should contain no equivalent for our adverbs of affirmation and

seen

strange that the

negation, "yes

"and "no."
There
exists,

The
it

reason

is

that there are


"

no words
in

exactly corresponding to our


is

"
a

yes

and "no'
ie

Japanese.

true,

word

which

means "no;" but

it is little

used, except

when

the denial

is The word he / hei! or hail which may emphatic. sometimes be translated by " yes," is properly an interjection used to show that one has heard and understood what has

been said to one.


statement.
will cry

It

Thus,

when

does not generally imply assent to a a tea-house girl is called, she

out hei / simply to show that she is coming. Instead of "yes," the Japanese say "that 1 is 2 so 8," so 3 da 2, more politely so desu, still more politely sayb de gozai-

masu.

" Similarly for

no

"

they say

" that

is

not so," soja

" YES" AND "NO.


nai, politely sayd de gozaimasen. verb of the question, thus
:

235
else

Or

they repeat the

Do Honourable itnderstandittff to has-[ mashita ka ?( F r use of P ast ten } [stand ?" Inhere, conf. f 274, p. 176.^ ) become
' '

wakari

ni

nari-\
:

OU

Ullder-

WakarimasKtia.
II a ve-understood.

<

[ \

Yes.

Wakarimasen.
Understand-not
.

"No."
is

O
Honourable

ide ni
exit
to

narimasu ka
becomes
?

/>

ne coming?"

Sayo de gozaimasu.
So
IV.
(it)
is.

B. In familiar intercourse, sayd de gozaimasu is often abbreviated the single word sayd. Some speakers use the word ikanimo for "yes ;" but this is decidedly old-fashioned.
to

375.

The Japanese have


to

a habit,

which generally proves

irritating

foreigners,
in

another,

especially

answering one question by cases where a European would


of

simply say that he did not know.

Thus
(

O
Honourable

kaeri ni
rettirn
to

narimashiia ka P
Jtas-become
?

" Have they come (home ?


'"

Jkaga

de

gozaimasu
is

ka ?
?

"How

is

it?"

i.e.,

"I

(don't know.

"

If

376to

the

from ours with respect Japanese idiom differs The answer given to a negative interrogation.
illustrate the

following examples will serve to

difference,

which must be constantly borne standings are to be avoided " Isn't he ?"
:

in

mind

if

grave misunder-

coming

Kimasen ka ?

236

THE ADVERB.
" No."
(Le., It is so as the negative in your question implies.)
!

)
>-

Sayo de gozaimasu. Kimasen.

He!
Kimasu.

yes, he is." " Of course he is !"

"

Oh

Kimasu

to

mo.

(Conf. middle of p. 85.)


IF

Adverbial phrases are formed by means of the postpositions de, mo, to, and especially m, thus
377:

don

to,

" with a bang."


skillfully."
"

shidai-shidai

' '

ni,

little

by

sude

maru
metta

' '

de,

quite.

tonto

ni

' '

(with a negative "


rarely.

already." (with a negative verb), "not in the least."


ni,

"

mo

verb),
^f

wazaio,

" on purpose."

378.

Onomatopes,

like

the

English words

"

ding-dong,"

topsy-turvy," "higgledy-piggledy," etc., which are generally classed as adverbs, are extremely numerous in Japanese.

"

Such are bura-bura, expressive of sauntering


expressive of complaining or scolding
;

guzu-guzu,

of the yelping of a dog


of obscurity or listlessness

pika-pika,

kyan-kyan, expressive expressive of glitter ;


;

soro-soro, expressive of slow


;

movement
all

bon-yari, expressive

katchiri, expressive

of a clicking

words beginning with the etc., letter/ are onomatopes, excepting pan, "bread."
sound,
etc.

Almost

N. B.

There

is

room

for

doubt whether Japanese pan

is

simply

the like-sounding Spanish word, or whether it may not rather be a cor" " ruption of Portuguese pao," anciently spelt pam ;" for the Portuguese

came

to

Japan

fully

forty years before the Spaniards, namely, in the

middle of the i6th century.

INTERJECTIONS.

^[379.

The

chief

interjections,

besides

he

(see

p.

234)

and those more or less " eh's ?" which occur in

inarticulate
all

"

ah's !"
:

"oh's!" and

languages, are

THE INTERJECTION.

237
!

A ita !
and

a cry of pain,

derived from the exclamation aa

Ha, the stem of the adjective


!

"
iiai,

painful."

Ara

an exclamation of surprise, used chiefly by women.


!

Dokkoisho

a sort of sigh of

relief,

used

for instance

when

one has

safely lifted
is

This word
380.

something heavy and put it in its place. rarely employed by any but the lower classes.

Do?no,

lit.

"even (mo) how?


difficulty,

(do

r>)

This much-used

term expresses
corresponds to

hopelessness,

astonishment,

and

what

some extent to such English phrases as "do may," "well I never!" "really now!" or to an
:

emphasis on the chief word of the clause, thus


OmoshiroKute domo. Being-amusing
.

}
j

It

was so amusing,

that. ..."

But very often the sentence perhaps remaining unfinished. domo or naka-naka* domo is a mere expletive, used to gain
time and to cover paucity of ideas. Hale na ! equivalent to our " well,
381.

never

!"

Ke

or kkc,

final

expletive conveying the the

idea
is

of

an indistinct conviction on
translatable

speaker's

part,

often
atta
!"

by

"surely"

or

"I
is

believe."

Thus
was

means "

there was ;" but aila-kke

"
j

surely there
believe

N dekiru Ashiia made ni To-morrow Try in, ^vill-1>e-rcady

he

said

it

WOU ld

to

sempd

de

ittakke.

that, other-side at,

said-surely.

'

be morrow."

ready

by

tO-

Ke

is

used only in the most familiar intercourse.


particle,

Koso, an emphatic which precedes it.

used to strengthen the word

Ma !
*

an exclamation of surprise or entreaty, used chiefly

See

369, p. 232.

238

THE INTERJECTION.
Very often
it

by women.
all.

it

sinks into

Do

not confound

with ma, for


^f

meaning nothing at mazu (see p. 234.).


6.

Nan

emphatic, see footnote to


/

197, pp. 135

^[382. Naruhodo
exact

English
it?"

a very useful word, for which there When pronounced in a equivalent.


it

is

no

tone

of great surprise,

corresponds
don't

to

"who
"well,

would have
I

thought

"you
it

say

so!"

never!"

But more often


voice,
see."

pronounced in an assenting tone of and then it means "oh! indeed," "really!" "I When some one is telling a long story, it is
is

usual to chime in

with

naruhodo
2

! at

every

point

he

makes,
1

or every time he pauses to take breath.

Instead

say so ?" or less politely so ka />


IT

of naruhodo, one

may

so

desu

ka*

/>

lit.

"

is

that

383to
it

Afe or ne,

vulgarly

draw

attention to the preceding

and provincially ria or no, serves word or clause, which

of
for

emphasises and separates, wa (see p. 85). Indeed


the

somewhat
it

after

the fashion
to

may be superadded
and

wa
as

sake
ne,

of

greater

emphasis

distinctness,

Kore wa
know," or
as

The meaningless "This, this." "don't you know?" with which so


their

"you many

English speakers interlard


the
nearest

remarks,
to
it

has

been sug' '

our language. gested equivalent n'est-ce Occasionally it might be rendered in French by pas?" in German by "nicht war?" and in English by such
in

idioms as

"

is

it?"

"do you?"

"won't

they?"
it

etc.,

according to what has gone before.

Sometimes

shows

that the speaker is puzzled, as so desu ne (pronounced in a hesitating tone of voice), " well, I don't know," or " let me

Ne belongs exclusively to familiar intercourse, and should never be employed on official or public occasions.
see
!

"

HAD LANGUAGE.

239

Many

persons are in the habit of beginning sentences, and even of calling people, by means of the words ano tie/ (ano

=
"

"that"), just as English speakers often begin by


If

"

say

384. Oi! an exclamation used to call people.

Oya-oya! an exclamation of great surprise, from the mouths of women.

heard chiefly

Sa/

or

Sa/
at the

emphasis

Short sa is used by the lower end of a sentence, thus


:

classes to give

Korc kara Xow from

iku no

sa!

"Now
(N0
is

'

we'll

go along
^[

(we)go!

emphatic also; see

113.)

Sa and

sa are used indifferently to urge, hurry, or defy, as


o
ide
exit

Sa/

nasai!

"Come
"
!

along!

come

Honourable

deign! \ along
is

very

common

idiom

sayo sa!

"of course," "yes."


:

Fo, used emphatically at the end of a sentence, as " Arimasen yo! "I have none, and there's an end of it
!

Zo, belonging rather to the Written


Colloquial,

but
to

still

occasionally
it

heard

Language than to at the end

the

of

a sentence,

which

adds emphasis.
"

Ze seems

to

be a

variation of zo.

N. B.

The

in a sentence

you," is somes intercalated personal pronoun anata, with a certain interjectional or expletive force, chiefly by

members

of the lower classes.

BAD LANGUAGE.

3^5-

Japanese
for

languages

is honourably distinguished from most of the world by being totally devoid of oaths.

Where,
swear

instance,

European
steed, a
lit.

driver
"

at his

unmanageable

Japanese

would probably will only em''


!

phatically exclaim kore!

"this
}

or sore! "that

Koin

rya! and sorya! (for kore

wa and

sore

wd) are used much

24O
the

BABY LANGUAGE.

same way,
"
;

"fool
are

as scolding expletives. The words bakaf " " berabo-me! "scoundrel chikusho ! "beast etc.,
; ;

common

terms of abuse.

The me Q^ berabo-me

is

a sort

of particle of contempt, which may be suffixed to any noun, " that brute of a dog. as ano inu-me,
' '

BABY LANGUAGE, ETC.


*|[

386.

In Japanese, as in English, there are numerous special

words and corruptions of words which are used by young children, and also by adults in addressing young children.

abayo,

Such are "

"

goodbye

baby
' '

enkofi
nenne,

"

to sit."

English "ta!"). from the ash', an-yo, feet," hence "to walk."
baya, from obasan
lady/'
bebe, "clothes."

from

ne ru,

e '

to

sleep."
nennei, doll."
tete,

from

" an old "granny/'


,

ningyb,

"a
te

" the hands ;" from


' '

repeated.

boichan*
chan,

"a

little

boy."

umamma,\
wan-wan,
*'

food.

"

from san, "Mr.," "Mrs.," "Miss."

perly

"a dog" bow-wow ").


tele,

(pro-

animals.
an-yo,

Most of these words are Thus a pet dog's


its little

also used
forefeet

in

are

addressing pet its hind feet

"tummy
to

"

pon-pon.

387.

There are also some few words which are almost


confined
the
fair

entirely
o hiya,

sex.

Such

is,

for

instance,

"cold water"

(lit."

"honourably

fresh"),

which

men
*

call mizn.

Derived from bdsan, " a Buddhist priest," Japanese children resembling Buddhist priests in having shaven pates.
" f Perhaps from en, "the floor," and koto, thing," "act." be Not to confounded with o the term J mamma, "rice," " food," used

by adults.

Umamma

is

probably fimai,

"

good

to eat," twice repeated.

COURT LANGUAGE.
388.

24 I

A number
in

of objects
the

and actions

receive

peculiar

designations

mouths of members of the Imperial

Family, and of those privileged to address them. Although ordinary mortals can have no use for this exalted phraseology, a few specimens of it will doubtless not fail to interest the
student.

Some

of

the
are

Court words

are

survivals from

Classical times;

some

tion," used to signify

euphemisms (e.g. asc, "perspira"blood ") some, as kachin and o kale,


;

belong also to the language of women, while others are of


uncertain origin
E
:

Y
N
.

KX

**

242

CONJUNCTIONS.

ciations, e.g. gozarimasu for gozaimasu, kudasare for kudasai, etc.

nasare

for

nasai,

CONJUNCTIONS.
"|f

389. Conjunctions, can scarcely be said to exist in Japanese

an independent part of speech, their place being taken, partly by conjugational forms of the verb and adjective, With regard to the partly by postpositions, partly by nouns.
as

word "and,
stantly

"

which
of

is

in

Western languages the most conthe necessity for


it

recurring

all

conjunctions,
is

almost completely obviated in Japanese by the construction with the indefinite form or the
gerund, explained in ^f^f 278
is

between verbs or clauses

281.

Between nouns, "and"

sometimes represented by ni or to, as explained in ^f 109 and ^f 119. But more often the two nouns are simply placed side by side, as Kazusa Boshu, "Kazusa and Boshu" (the

names of two provinces on


Occasionally

the ocean side of

Tokyo

Bay).

"and"

is

represented between verbs

never

by the phrase so shite (pedantically shtko " shite or shika shite), lit. having done so." But this idiom, imitated from the Chinese, must not be used too freely.

between nouns

"But"
must
this
is

is

sometimes represented by shikashi ; but neither

Japanese word be repeated nearly as often as


in English.

"but"

" Or"

is

sometimes expressed by means of the word

nari,

as explained in ^f 348.

" Provided"
Iki

is

represented by such constructions as


sureba.
if-tlo.
)

sae
even
is

Going

"Provided one goes."

"While"

sometimes represented by the word nagara

agglutinated to the indefinite verbal form, as arukt-nagara, " " while walking ; sometimes by tokoro, as explained in ^f 58.

EQUIVALENTS OF ENGLISH CONJUNCTIONS.

243

The

following references to sections of this work, in which

words or constructions corresponding to the chief English conjunctions are treated of, may be found useful
:

"although," see

*[f

288.

"since,"

see
,,

^[
,,

99

&

135.

"and,"
"as,"

,,

,,389.

"than,"

I35&2I2.
117.

,,

99*287. "that,"
,,99.
,,

,,

"because,"

,,

"though,"

,,

,,288.
,,57, 5 8,&287.

"but,"

,,

288
97
I

&

389." when,"

" either...

or,"
|
j

,,

,,

&

"
348.

whereas,"

,,

,,58*93.
58.

"neither...

nor,"
"if,"

"
,,

"
,,

"whereupon,",,

"whether,",, ,,97.

128*287. "while,"

M>,
as,"
:

57>5 8
is

>

& 3%9-

390. "As," meaning "in the same manner " " " road," thus by the noun tori, lit. way,

expressed

Kono
Tliis

tori

no
>s

1 mono.

'

tvay

\ a- ) tilings.

"Such
ni

things as this."

Watakushi

no

iu

tori

nasai. /. ( j
w. deifjn.

"Please
tell

do

as

J
391.

of say

ivay in

(I

you."

Details concerning the best

manner

of translating the

English conjunctions into Japanese in various contexts beThe long not so much to grammar as to the dictionary.
student
bashi's
is

accordingly referred to Messrs.

Satow and

Ishi-

"English-Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language," where the words in question are amply illustrated.

CHAPTER
HONORIFICS.
^J

XI.

392.

No

honorific

language in the world idioms than Japanese.

is

more

saturated

with
affect,
itself.

These idioms
very

not

only the vocabulary, but the

grammar

although scattered references have been made to the subject of honorifics in former chapters, it seems advisable to gather together under one heading all the leading maniTherefore,
festations of a habit of speech, without a proper mastery of

which

it

is

impossible to speak Japanese with any approach

to correctness.

393'

The

llse

of honorifics
:

is

guided by four main consi-

derations,
i.

namely

Honorific forms are used in speaking of the actions

or possessions of the person addressed, while depreciatory or humble forms are used in speaking of oneself. In other

words, what
tory,
ii.

we should

style the first

person

is

self-deprecia-

and the second person complimentary.


In speaking of others (what honorifics are used only

we should
if

call

the

third
is

person),

the person spoken of

superior in rank to the person spoken to, or if he is present and, though not a superior, at least an equal, or assumed to

be such

for courtesy's sake.

iii. There are gradations in the use of honorifics, according to the greater or less respect meant to be paid to the person spoken to or of.

PRINCIPLES GUIDING THEIR USE.


iv.

245

signification,
style

Honorifics have a tendency to lose their original and to sink into mere marks of a courteous

of

speech.

Sometimes

they

become

absolutely

meaningless.
394.
in
It

has been asserted by


that

some
of the
is

that the use of honorifics

Japanese replaces
languages.

personal
strictly

pronouns
correct.

of

European

This

not

The

expression go hon, for instance, means not only etymologically, but also in the

"

the august book/' intention

mind and

It is only of every Japanese speaker who makes use of it. " are an august person, that the words go because " you

hon come, in many contexts, to correspond pretty closely The corresponto our more precise phrase "your book." often for dence is still only approximate go hon may very
;

some other august lady or gentleman " her book "or " his different from you, i.e., it may mean book." In some circumstances it may denote the book of the most august of all persons, namely the Emperor, and

mean

the

book

of

this

is

indeed the more primitive signification of the Chinese

character with which the

word go

is

written.

"

august business,"

may be

either

"your

Similarly go yd, business," "his

business," or

" Government business."

Like considerations

apply to other honorific phrases.


395.

Descending from general considerations to

particulars,
facts
:

the student should

remember the following leading

In addressing an equal or superior, the word o, nourable," or go, "august" (conf.. ^f 210, p. 143), is prefixed to most of the nouns denoting objects belonging
to

" ho-

or connected with

him

in

any way.
is

Even

adjectives

and adverbs sometimes take one or other


prefixes.

of the honorific

O,

being of Japanese origin,

mostly employed

246

HONORIFICS.

with native Japanese words,


origin,
is

while go, which

is

of Chinese

mostly

the Chinese.
this

rule.-- (9

employed with words borrowed from But usage admits of numerous exceptions to and go are applied to the third person,
^f

subject to the limitations mentioned in


If

393.

396. Here

are a few
:

familiar instances

of the use of these

honorific prefixes

O kodomo-shu.
O taku. O taku desu ka O rusu. O rusu desu.
Go Go Go
shochi.

You r
,

:,'

( his -

her>

etc ')

,,

(children.

" Your (or his) house." " Is he at home ?" " Your absence."
(or his)

"

He

is

out."
(or his) consent."

" Your
' '

shinrui.

Your

(or his) relations."

son

"Your
(

(or his) loss" (in

(money,

etc.).

O O

kega.

"Your
"
fa
!

(or his)

wound."
his)

fa P

<>

your (or

kind

(influence" (/A shade).

Yohodo
Vert/

o kirei desu. ( honmiruUy pretty is. j

"
this

It is

"

very pretty

(e.g.

garden
"
is

Danna
Master
bust/

wa
as-for,

\
I

honourably

"

My

master

busy.

isogashiu gozaimasu.
-is.

Go moitomo
very

de gozaimasu.
is.

"You
(

are

perfectly

(right."

Go

August tedium

taikutsu de gozaimasMlaro. prcibably-was.

" You must have


bored.
"

felt

*J[

397.

Occasionally

order to

make

the

word sama, " Mr.," is added, expression still more polite, thus
the
:

in

CURIOUS HONORIFIC IDIOMS.

247
for)

Go

knro
trouble

sama. Mr.

"(Thanks
trouble."

your

"
,

You
for

O
Honourable

have had a long


;" or

machi-do
wait-ion*/

sama. Mr.

\
"i

time to wait

" Excuse

keeping you waiting ^so lon'o(

me

kinodoku
Honourable
poison-of-tJie-spirit

sama.
Mr.

"I

am
"

sorry

for

|
is

your Sake.

N. D.
^

Regret on one's never by kinodoku.

own account

expressed by the word

^[398. Examples such as these introduce us to the use of o and go in (so to speak) an objective way, which at first

sounds very strange

to

European
(
\
}

ears, thus

O
Hononrabli/

"It
,

is

yo.su gozcumasu.
cJieap

w.

efT u_.._ .u. I have the

cheap, Sir,"

"'

honour

to offer

-*il

i.e.,

(it to you cheap.


l(

b US ala

liasnmasMa.

..

jv,

(.

have been sadly


calling

August remissness (l^hacc-donc. ^

re-

Go
August

burei
rudeness

mbshi-agemasHita.
(!} said-lifted.

"I was
to

very

rude

(
(

VOU."

Jama
Honourable
obstacle

ilashimashita.
(1 }7iave-done.

" Excuse

me

for

| having interruptedj/0#."

At a

first

hearing,

the literal import


to

of the individual
that the Japanese

words may cause the student

think

Far from any speaker is applying honorifics to himself. The idea underlying Japanese mind is such a thought. these idioms is that the cheapness of my goods, and even
the

remissness,

the rudeness,

the interruption,
to

and what
you, have connection
as if

not, of

which

have been guilty with regard

a sort of reflected glory cast on with so exalted a personage as

them by
yourself.

their
It

is

one

248

HONORIFICS.
I

should say "

"

had the honour

have had the honour to be remiss in calling;" to be rude to you," etc. Moreover such

are

phrases about remissness in calling, about rudeness, etc., for the most part mere verbiage corresponding to no
actual facts,

399.
"
first

The phrase

o saki,
It

two contrary ways.


(apres vous),
first."

honourably first/' is employed in sometimes signifies " Please do you go

"

sometimes "Kindly excuse me forgoing

400.

Many words

in

common

use

take

without any

honorific intent vis-a-vis the person spoken to, especially in the mouths of women and of the lower classes. Thus we
daily hear such expressions as
o bake, o bon, o cha, o deki,
'

"a goblin."
'

o iomurai,

" a funeral."

a tray.

"

tsukisama,
(lit.

"the moon"

<tea."

" Honourable Mrs.


!").

"a " pimple,"


'

Moon
o tsuri, o

boil."
o kane, o naka,

" small change."

money.
f

tsuyu,

"soup"

(lit.

person's in-

side."
o tagai, o tenkiy

"dew"). oyu, "hot water," "a hot


bath."
o zen,

"mutually."
" the weather. "
' '

"the small
etc.
,

trays

on
is

o tera,

Buddhist

which Japanese food


served ;"
etc.

temple."

These are

examples of the

become meaningless.

tendency of honorifics to Occasionally honorifics are used with

a point of satire, to convey an indirect attack under cover of an irreproachably courteous style of speech. Thus, not " Botan-Doro" far from the beginning of Chap. II of the
the novelist

Encho

tells

us that Dr.

Yamamoto

Shijo was

POLITE PERIPHRASES FOR VERBS.

249

"an honourable
(o

chatter-box and

an honourable quack"
o
seji,

taiko-isha

no o s/uibcri)\

Compare

"flattery;"

o teinld,

" a hoyden."
o

401.

Pedantic

word of which

speakers sometimes use on, the Classical Another honorific is an abbreviated form.

current in ancient times was mi,


still
lit.

synonymous with
Mikado
(see
p.

o,

and

retained in such words as

35); miya,

"honourable house," hence "a Shinto temple," less often "a palace," and, with the addition of the word sarna, " " " "a of the Imperial Family of Japan. princess prince or In the phrase o mi ashi, "your feet," the two honorifics o
and mi are used
402.
pleonastically.

In order to

make

verbs polite,

the plain forms,

as

given in the verbal

by those

in

paradigms on pp. 154 9, are replaced These are, however, masu, illustrated on p. 160.

scarcely honorific in the proper sense of the word, that is to say that they are more often simply marks of a courteous
style than

of any special respect paid to the person adFor the latter purpose it is usual to employ a periphrasis consisting of the word o, "honourable," the indefinite form of the verb, and mosu (" I say ') if the first
dressed.
5

person is intended, or nasaru (less frequently ninaru) if the Nasaru means " to second or third person is intended.

ask,"

Thus tanomu, "to deign," ni narn means "to become." becomes o tanomi mosu, "I ask," and o tanomi nasaru,

or o tanomi ni naru, " you ask." The past tanonda becomes The polite tero ianomi moshila and o tanomi nastla, etc.

mination masu
masYi, o

may be superadded, thus o tanomi moshitanomi nasaimasii ; o tanomi moshimashita, o tanomi


:

nasaimasKUa.

The periphrases here indicated are used in They need not indeed addressing equals and superiors. always be accorded the preference over the simpler forms, but

5O

HONORIFICS.

The more they should be scattered about pretty freely. exalted the rank of the person addressed, the more frequently
must they be introduced.
If

403.
the

Another way of making a verb honorific


ordinary conjugation by
it

is

to replace

the

corresponding potential

forms,
is

sounding more polite to suggest that a person


than bluntly to state that he does
for
it.

able to do a thing

Thus
is

we have

noborareru,
for

noboru,

"to go

up;"

naku narareru,
betters

specially affected
;

naku naru, "to die." This locution by the lower classes in speaking of their
it

but in some few cases

is

adopted by
B.

all

the

world, as iraserareru and bserareru (usually corrupted to


irassharn and ossharu, as explained in the N.

near the

bottom of
*J[

p.

251).

404.

The

" to use of the verb agent, raise," construed with

the gerund,

shows
that

that

something

is

lowly person myself for


itadaku

some one above me.


superior to

being done by that The use o,.

shows
to

some one

me

is

condescending

enough

do something for me. We have already noticed this incidentally under the heading of passive verbs, in ^[ 312, Here are a few additional examples 4. pp. 203 "I will go and ask Kiite ageinasho.
:

Hearing
Kiite

"

ivill-lift-up.

(for you.
^

itadakito

Hearing ivMuHy-to-pul-on-the-head gozaimasu. am.


Oshiele
itadaldtai.
tvish-to-jnit-on-tJie-Jicad.

LQ
j

^\\ you would


(

be
for

k j n( j ag tQ agk

me ^
"I
nQW
wish you would be kind as to show me

( \

Teaching

"I venture to hope nil that int \ that }'OU will take Honourable opportunity itadakito misete gozaimasu,\ opportunity of letting me

tsuide

sJioivinf/

wisJtiny-to-receive

atn.

(see

it."

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE VERBS.

25 1
recurring

405.

There
for

are,

moreover,

several

constantly

which separate verbs are employed according ideas, as the expression is meant to be honorific or humble.

The

chief of these are

PLAIN VERB.
,

HONORIFIC.
o ai

HUMBLE.
o

" to meet

nasaru,

me

ni kakaru.

iku,

"to go;"
or
to

(o ide

nasaru ,*

mairu,

(irassharu,
(o ide nasaru,

agaru, makaru.

iru

be

;"
\

iru, oru.

oru,

irassharu,

"
kariru,
kiku,

to say ;"
to

ossharu,
'

"

borrow

o kari

nasaru,

mbshi-agcru. haishaku suru.

"to hear;"
"
(

o kiki nasaru,
o ide

uketamawaru.
(mairu,
\

kuru,

to corne ;"

nasaru,

(irassharu,

agaru, makaru.

"to see;" mseru " to show ;"


suru,

goran nasaru,
o mise nasaru,

haiken suru.
o

me

ni kakeru.

"to do;"
" to eat
;"

(nasaru,
(asobasu,

suru.
(iladaku,

chodai

laberu,

(meshi-}ageru,
\ (

suru.
itadaku,

ukeru,

"

to receive

;'

o uke nasaru,
\

chodai

suru.

yaru,

to give

(kudasaru, kureru ^, & \

ageru,
shinjo suru.

N.B.
which
is

The

slightly irregular

used to express so

many
of

verb irassharu (see shades of meaning,


the

f
is

270, p. 171),

a corruption

of iraserareru, the potential

causative of iru, "to enter." " to say," is a corruption of Ossharu, the honorific equivalent of in,
" to say."

'oserareru, the potential of the little-used verb oseru,

406.
in

Of course

the

honorific verbs can only

be employed

speaking to or of others, while the humble verbs are

Or

o ide ni naru.

Similarly in the instances given belovv.'^

252

HONORIFICS.

applied only to the speaker himself, or to some one intimately connected witL him, for instance, his own child
or servant.

The

following are a fe^ examples of their use

O
Honourable

me
cues
?

ni in
/>

kakete

mo.\
<(

yd
good

gozaimasu ka
is

poking even,\ [you


}

May
?"

show

it

to

mise nasaimasen ka ? Honourably sliow deign-not or Misele kudasaimasen ka ? Showing condescend-not ?

" Please won't [show it to me ?"


((

you

Haiken

ga

dekimasu
can
o

ka
?

/>)
}

Adoring-loon (nom.)

M
Have
(

?>

iu hanashi wo Such .strv(accus} kih nasaimashila ka f

Ed

honourably

K
< <

ou heard
.

this
f

hj

hear liave-deigned

[news) t" I
)

Mada
Still

uketamawarimasen.
(7) have-not-7ieard.

~^ o

not yet

"

So
So

osshatle

kudasai. saying condescend.

< <

Please say so.


I

"

>

Uso
Ijie

wo
ye
to

mbshi-agemasen.
irassharu ?
deign-to-go ?

"
)

am

not deceiving

(acats.) (I}say-lift-not-up.
I

you, Sir."

Doko
IfJiere

" Where are you going ?"

Gakkd
school

ye
to

mairimasu.
go.

"I am
"
college.
}

going

to

the

O
*j[

daiji

ni
to

asobase.

" Mind you take care


of yourself.
'

Honourable care
407.

l>e-i>lcased-to-doJ

notice.

The treatment of The honorific

the imperative

mood

calls for special


^[

verbs mentioned in
:

405 make use

of their imperatives, thus

HONORIC IMPERATIVES.
asobasef

253
to

" be pleased
"deign
L

do
"
!

"
!

goran nasai!
irasshail or irasshai-\

to look
"

mashi!
o ide

"deign
' '

to

go

(or

come, or be.)
"
! !

nasai I

kudasait

condescend to -give
deign to do

meshi-agare ! nasai !
osshaimashi! N. B.

"deign
l '

to eat" (or drink) "


!

"deign
is

to say

"
!

ide nasai

often familiarly abbreviated to o ide ;

goran

nasai to goran.

own

408. But except occasionally in addressing coolies or one's servants, and in the naval and military words of com-

mand, the imperative mood of other verbs can scarcely be Such a style of said to be in use (conf. ^f 291, p. 189).
address would sound too rude and abrupt.

The
:

following

examples will serve to by which the imperative


"o

illustrate
is

the honorific, periphrases

habitually replaced

<u

54
409.

HONORIFICS.

^f

The above forms are those generally used in addressIn speaking to the latter, the equals or superiors. degree of politeness may be increased by lengthening the 1 l periphrasis, thus: o kak? nastte^ kudasa? ("honourably
ing

In condescend 4 deigning 3 to write 2 "), o mise nastte kudasai. one kaitekurei inferiors addressing may say ("writing give"),
miseie kurei, or katie o kun nasai ("writing honourably giving miseie
o

deign"),
verbs.
fatrcru,

kun nasai,

and

similarly with

all

other of
p.

(Kun is a corruption of kure, the indefinite form "to give," of which kurei is the imperative (see

These latter forms are those to be preferred in speak171.) ing to one's own servants, to coolies, and to the servants at small inns and tea-houses. They would be too familiar as
a

mode

of address to one's friend's servants, or to the servants

at a first-class hotel.

Such must always be

treated

to

fail-

amount
graphs.

of the

honorifics illustrated in the preceding para-

applies a fortiori to teachers, In fact, from shop-keepers, etc. the point of view of the proper use of honorifics, the term "inferiors" includes few but coolies, peasants, and the
office-writers,

The same remark


respectable

speaker's

own

children and servants.

a matter of
his

fact,

be his social inferiors


this

Other people may, as but politeness forbids

reminding them of

Even animals
says to a

are often treated to

by a rude mode of address. honorifics, as when one

dog

instead of tale
If

o ide! instead of /fozV "


\

"come

here

"
!

o tachi!

"sit

up

But

this is semi-jocular.

410.

It

is

rather

common,

in

slipshod talk addressed to


:

inferiors, to

omit the honorific imperative, thus


irete.
)

Cha
Tea,

wo
(MCUS.)

"Make
(for

(lit.

put in) some tea."


irete o

putting-in. ]

Cha wo

kun
;

nasai.)

The
ellipsis

sentence thus appears to end in a gerund

but the

must always be mentally supplied.

Observe also the

PLEASE,
phrase... &?
better...,"

THANK

YOU.

255
to...,"

ga

it,

"it

will

be good

"you had
:

which

frequently replaces the imperative, thus

Ko
Tints

shiia ho

ga
(zs)

ii.

j
(

"You
it
;

had

better

do

did side (now.)

good.

like this."

N. B. For ho conf. p 144, foot-note for the past shita in a context where the present would better suit European ideas, see ^[ 275, pp.

1767.
1f

411.
lents

Dozo and

doka,

which the dictionaries give as equiva"please," are comparatively


little

of our word

used.

The
good

honorific equivalents of the imperative


their absence.

amply make Properly speaking, both dozo and doka

mean, not so much "please," as "somehow or other," "if possible," "by hook or by crook," "managing to do a
thing," as in the following example
:

Doka
SomcJiow-or-othcr

waiakushi no

I
hito

of

wish

could

be
view

jiron
contention,

wo
(a ecus.}

people

so that ga managed support my (iJom^) would


ii

others

sansci

shite

kurcreba
if-give,

of
they

the

approval doing
but....

(is^yood,

hardly

matter." {But 1 that dare hope

ivill. )

Arigalo,

"thank you,"

is

likewise

used

less

profusely

than
to

European equivalents. It must never be employed mean "no, thank you." This latter phrase finds polite
its

Japanese counterparts
(without
If

in

it),"

and yoshimasho, "


of special

yoroshiu gozaimasu, "it is all right I think I will desist."


honorific

412.

The

use

and humble words

is

Thus, occasionally exemplified in nouns as well as in verbs. whereas the general term for "head" is atama, the polite

one

But the honorific tendency comes into peculiar prominence in the case of nouns indicative of the degrees of relationship, of which we give the chief
is

o tsumuri.

256
PLAIN NOUN.

HONORIFICS.

HUMBLE TERMS.
serve to indicate

257

speaking to you.
they

"your father," "your mother," when / am But if I am addressing my own parents,

mean

respectively

"papa" and "mamma;"

for

it

is

natural for a dutiful son to address his parents politely. It is only in speaking (/"them to an equal or superior that he
will

haha.

be led to substitute the humble expressions oyaji and The term o fiikuro is slightly vulgar. The other

words in the column marked "Honorific" are used only of the relatives of the person addressed, those in the column " marked " Humble only of the first and third persons.
414.

that properly

Formal speakers occasionally employ humble terms Such belong to the Written Language only.
t

are

gu

ward

;" so,

"stupid;" hei "broken down;" " coarse " ;" as in rough,"


t

sctsu,

"awk-

gu-fu,
gu-sai,

lit.

"

the stupid father,"

i.e.,
i.e.,

lit.
lit.

" the stupid wife,"

" my father." " wife."

my

hei-sha,
set-taku,

"the broken-down company," " the awkward lit.


house,"
i.e.,

i.e.,

" our firm."

i.e.,

"my

house."
fare

so-han,

lit.

"coarse

rice,"

"the poor

which

alone I
415.

am

able to offer you."


explicitly depreciatory nouns depreciatory words of any class are

But generally speaking,


explicitly

and indeed
rare.

Speakers show their humility chiefly by abstaining from applying honorifics to themselves, or to anybody or anything connected with themselves. Thus, whereas o kuni, lit.

" honourable country,"


the simple

serves to designate
is

"

your country,"

word kuni

taken

to

mean " my country/'


first

Similarly the simple verbs komarimasfnta, wakarimasJnta, etc.,


naturally in
respectively

most cases denote the

person,

and
(lit.

signify

"I was

troubled,"

"I understand"
o

"have

understood"),

whereas

Sazo

komari

nasaimasKitarb

258
signifies

HONORIFICS.

"You

must have been


/>

'

greatly

troubled;

and

O
?"

wakari ni narimasKita ka

"
signifies

Do

you understand

416. There are

no

polite

modes of address

exactly correspond-

" ing to our "Sir" or


their

Madam."

But the student who has

perused this chapter with care will be able to judge how amply absence is made good by the use of verbal and other
honorifics.

Kami Sama,

god or goddess." Shaka Sama, "Buddha" (the Buddha, Shaka Muni). "the Mikado," lit. Son of Heaven." Tens/it Sama,

Of titles, that " a Shinto

in

commonest use

is

Sama,

as in

In speaking of ordinary mortals,

Sama

is

viated to San, which then corresponds to our

"

mostly abbreMr.," thus


:

Walanabe San,

"Mr. Watanabe."
expressions as Monsieur le Ministre.

Koshi* San, "the Minister" (Plenipotentiary).


N. B.

Compare such French


is

Sometimes San
lit.

replaced by the Chinese word Kun,

"Prince;"
affected

thus,

Watanabs Kun.

This expression

is

whose by the young men of the present da\ to be of the grandiloquent order. is Members of slang apt the Diet also habitually refer to each other as so-and-* > Kun.

much

*j[4iy.

and "Miss."
Watnnabe

There are no words corresponding to our 'Mrs." These are replaced by such periphrases as
"
jyjrs

Walanabe San no okusama.}


Mr.
's

Watanabe"

lady.

Watanabe San no
Waianale Mr.
's

ojosan.
i/ounr/-ladi/.

Miss Watanabe,"

Pan-ya no okamisan,
N. B.
meaning
*

"The

baker's wile."

(Instead of mentioning her surname.}


"

Such an expression as Watauabc San, though properly Mr. Watanabe," has come, quite of late years, to be sometimes
written with different Chinese characters, also
he, as an ancient sage,

A'vs/ii,
'

means " Con-

fucius.'

But

would be Koshi Sama, not /Cvshi San.

MR., MRS., MISS.

259
"
in

employed

to signify

" Mrs. " or " Miss

Watanabe

cases where

no

confusion of persons can arise.

^[418.

Women's

personal
are

Christian

names)

followed by the
intercourse.

title

names (corresponding to our preceded by the honorific o, and San but the San is omitted in familiar
;

Such names are mostly borrowed from graceful


:

natural objects, less often from other sources, thus

O O O O O

Hana San, (Honourable) " Blossom Haru San, ,, "Spring"


Malsu San,
,,
,,

"

(Miss).

" Pine-tree"

,,

Sd San,
Take San, Yone San,
is,

"Pure"

,, ,,

"Bamboo"
" Rice
"
,,

however, dropped before such women's names as consist of more than two syllables, thus Kiyoshi
Honorific o
neither

(San), Sonoe (San), not O Kiyoshi (San), O Sonoc (San) ; is it employed before surnames or men's personal
(for these see p. 36).

names

Observe that Japanese usage

puts the
If

surname

first,

the personal
it

name
is

last.

419.

It is
title
if

not usual in Japan, as


of

in

England,

to

drop

the

"Mr." between

friends.

To do

so

would

savour,

familiarity

not exactly of contempt, at least of that excessive Officials, by which contempt is said to be bred.

Mr." in addressing their however, mostly drop the subordinates when on duty. This is on account of the halo which surrounds superiority in official rank. No
Japanese speaker ever applies the word "Mr." to himself. If, therefore, a friend's servant asks what name he is to

"

announce, the caller must give Brown, or whatever it may be.

his
It

name simply

as Smith,

would sound conceited

were he to speak of himself as Smith San or

Brown

San.

CHATER
SYNTAX.
420.
that

XII.

The fundamental
qualifying

words

of Japanese construction is precede the words they qualify.


rule

Thus
it

defines,

the adjective or genitive precedes the noun which the adverb precedes the verb, and explanatory
clause.

or dependent clauses precede the principal


object likewise precedes the verb.
adjective

The
that

The

predicative verb or
the

of each clause

is

placed at

end

of

clause, the predicative verb or adjective of the

main clause

rounding

off the entire sentence.

A
it

7
.

B.

defines,

adverb, instead of immediately preceding the verb which sometimes heads the whole clause.

The

421.

Postpositions, which are words corresponding for the

most part to English prepositions and conjunctions, follow the word or clause to which they belong. This seems, at
first sight,

an infraction of the fundamental rule of Japanese

construction as laid

down

in the

preceding paragraph.

But

the history of the language shows that this apparent exception


is

really

an exemplification of the rule

itself.

Some

of

the postpositions were originally verbs,

follow their object, e.g. korc 1

yori

2
,

such naturally "than 2 this1 ," " henceas

and

forward,"

lit.

"

" to leaning (yori being from the verb yoru,

lean") on this."

"thing,"

Some were nouns, e.g. wa, which meant "person," so that _/<? wa, which now means
ship"
or

"as

for

the

simply

"the

ship,"

originally

meant "ship thing." means lit. " the

Yama

no ue,

"on

the mountain," the

top (u) side (he) of (no)

mountain

CHIEF RULES.

261

the noun (yamd)." In such cases it is, historically speaking, which qualifies the postposition, not the postposition the

noun.

Other postpositions again were independent exclaitself.

mations, each, so to speak, forming a clause by


is

Such
Al-

the accusative postposition

wo

(see

"jf

130,

p.

92).

together, in every case


is

traceable,

we

find

where the etymology of a postposition that its position after the noun conto

stitutes

no exception
verbs

the

main

rule of construction set

forth in

422.

\ 420. When the


same

of

several

clauses are intended to

express the

tense or

mood,

it is

only the

last

of these

verbs that takes the suffix by which such tense or


indicated.
in

mood

is

The

previous verbs

all

the higher style, the indefinite)

assume the gerundial (or, form. Adjectives assume


Conf.
^f^f

either the gerundial or the indefinite form.

278

283 and
2V.

80.
rule,

B.

This

which was formerly

inviolable,

is

now

occasionally

transgressed.

423.
tence.

When the

verb has a subject, this usually heads the sensubjectless,

But most verbs are


to

and express rather a


explicit-

coming-to-be with reference


ly

some person than an act

In the absence of a declared to be performed by him. subject, the word on which it is desired to lay most stress
is

often placed at the beginning of the sentence,


particle wa.

and

isolated

by means of the

with this paragraph


seq.
t

student should compare what has been said of wa in pp. 85 et


discussion
will

The

and

the

further

of the
^f^f

subjectlessness

of
7.

Japanese verbs,
f

which

be found in
will

427, pp. 266


to
illustrate

424.

The

following examples
:

serve

the

above rules
Ki-iroi

hana.
flower.
|

Yellow-coloured

yellow flower."

262

SYNTAX.

Makka
Kura
Godown
Kirei
orimasu.
Prettily

na
no kagi.
of
Jtey.

kao.
face.

' '

fjuitc-rcd beiny

very red face."

"

The-key of
are

the

godown."
ar-

ni

sorolte

beiny-in-ordcr

"They
[ranged."

all

nicely

Mae

kara

yoku
well

shit-

Hefore from, teru Mlo.


iny-atn 2icrsotl
-

JtnowI

"A

person

whom

knew

well beforehand."

Ki
sai.

wo

tsukete
fixing

kndacon-

Spirit(acczts .)

Please take care.'

descend,

Kono
Tliis

isugi
next

no
of ri

shuku
post-town

made,
till,

nan
^vllat

hodo
about

leagues

many miles " be to the next town ?

"How

may

it

arimasho ?

Goku goku tsugb Extremely extremely convenience

"It

is

extremely

incon-

ga
{110111.}

ivarui.
is-bad.

venient."

Taiso

ni

Nihon-go
Japan-lanyuayv

Greatly

"He

speaks

Japanese

yoku
well

tsiijimasu.

beautifully."

communicates.
?)iade
till

Ilsu

matte
haviny- waited
hilolsu

Wlien
7/to,

yubin ga
kara,

mo
even

even, post (now.)

one

"Wait

as I

may, no

letters

kimasen
conies-not

makolo
ti-ut7t

because,

ni come, so that I in quite anxious."

am

getting

shimpai ni narimasu.
anxiety
to (I)becorne.

EXAMPLES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Ano
That

hen
neighbourhood
to,

wa,
shimo-doke

fuyu\
de

as-for, winter

ni
to

naru

becomes when, frost-melting


(tioi/i.}

by,

michi ga
roads

warukiile, bad-being,

aruku

ga

dekimasen.

winter comes, in that roads so are koto neighbourhood bad with the thaw, that act it is impossible to walk."
the

"

When

(MOM.) fortJicomes-not.

" No indeed when I okiie, lya, mo! hands Ar o indeed! having-risen, got up, I couldn't wash dekimasen wo arau koto mo hands. The basin act even forthcomcs-not (accut.) wash was entirely frozen over, no mizu deslilta. Chdzu-bachi to efforts and all
!

my

wa ga

Washing-basin

'$

tvater

my

maru de
altogether

^break

the

ice

were

in

(twin.)

shimalte, lun- ing -finished,

do

vain." (More lit., "It frecze-sticJiing was a fact (des/itta) that mo sKiie
even, des/nla.

kori-tsuite

shiyo

how doing ga arimasen


is-not

wash cannot my it was a fact that hands


I
.
.

doinff-ivai/ (110 in.}

my
osshai-

efforts are vain," etc.)

Sonna
SucJi

koto

wo

things (accus.) deigninr/-not-

Diasezu
kita

ni,

sekkaku

motte

to-sai/,

toilsomely huving-carricd

Please do not feel any such delicacy about me by acit, but oblige cepting it, as I have
' '

mon(o] desu kara,


t/ting
(it}is

dozo

taken
bring
(Said
to accept

the
it."

trouble

to

hacc-coinv
iotle

because, please

kndasai.
condescend.

to

one

who

hesitates

taking

a gift.}

Or take
Joro
Courtesan

the following proverb

no makoto
's

to,

tamago no
's

"When
truthful

you
egg,

find

truth

and, egg

courtesan

misoka arcba stii-kaku, four-sides, if (t/icsc)arc, last-dai/-of-tJie


ni Isuki

a
will

square
the

a or then

moon

come
night

ga
(now.)
to

deru.
will- come- out.

month

on,

moon

on the last of the month."


out

N. B.
real

According

the old Japanese calendar,


artificial

"moons," not by

miracle for the

moon

to

which went by "months," it would have been a come out on the last night of the month, i.e.,

on the night before new moon.

26 4
425.

SYNTAX.

Now

for a slightly

more formal example,


form
in
:

specially illus-

trating the use of the indefinite


It
is

correlated clauses.

taken from a
ni
to

modern Buddhist sermon


\

Uma
Ilorse
' '

mukatle

Kokb

wo

confronting, tsukuse /"

"Supposing
tell
filial

you
to

were

to

'Filial-piety (acais.}

exhaust!"

horse
or

okami ni
wolf

mukatlc

"

practise

Chugi

to confronting, "Royalty tsukuse !" nado io practise (acats.) exhaust!" etcetera, thut animals ilia tokoro dekiru ga,

piety,

wolf

to

wo

loyalty,

those

would

not

be

able

said place koto de


fact

altJioiif/Ji,

fortJicomes
is-not

to

zva

gozaimasen

do what you
But

required of
has
the
to

indeed
Jiito

them.

man

ga,
whereas, ze-hi
right-usrong

wa
as-for,

person

intelligence

wherewith

zen-aku
good-evil

wo
(accus.)

discern

right

from
evil
;

wrong,

ivakalsu
discern
alle,

chie
intelligence

ga
(nom.)

good
can
to

from
only

and
be

he
said

kimi ni
lord
to

chu
loyalty

wo
(accus.}

then

first

being,

be

tsiikushi,
exliaustiny ,

oya parent

ni
to

truly

man,

when he
towards
filial

practises
his

loyalty

hb

wo

tsukushi,
exhausting,

master
his

and

fill<d-picty (acctis.}

piety

kybdai

wa
fil/ii
S2)ouscs

naka
intercourse

towards
he
his
is

parents,

when
towards

brethren as-for,

yoku,
being-good,

wa
as-for,

affectionate

mutsumashiku,
being-Jiarmonious,

hbyu

ni

brethren,

when

he

lives

friends to
??iakolo

harmoniously
wife,

with

his

wa
wo

shitashiku,
molle
taliing,

when
his

he

is

as-for, being-intimate,

amiable

sincerity

niaji'wathaving-interhaji?ncte
firstly

towards

friends,

and
his

(acctts?)

te
course

koso, indeed,
to

shin acts
truth

sincerely

in
"

all

no
>s

social intercourse.

Kiio

iivaremasu.
gets-said.

person that

CORRELATION OF CLAUSES.

265

Here
sKitnsliiku

the
five

two

Isiikushi's,

yoku,

mulsumasfiiku
all

and

indefinite forms

must

be rendered by

the gerund, because majiwaile the verb of the next clause, with which they are all correlated, is a gerund.

Next we give another passage from the same sermon, illustrating the use of the gerund in correlated clauses, and
426.
also, in

one instance (sukunaku),


is

that of the indefinite form.

" are rendered by the present few," because the verb omoimasii at the end of the sentence is in the present
Siikunaku
tense
:

Kono
Tliis

goro ni itarimashite,
period at
lo

Jiaving-arrived,

Bukkyo Buddhism
wa,
as-for,

mosu
(they^swj

mono
thiitf/

that

" At the present day

tada

kato-jimmin
low-class-pcoplc
lo

no
's

Buddhism has sunk

into

merely
place

shinzurtt lokoro
belie ciny

natte,
having -become, de iva

that
ijb

being the belief of the lower classes only. Few


persons
in

chutb
middle-class

the

middle

thence-upivards in as-for,

sono
its

dori reason

wo
(acctts.)

wakimaeleru
discerning -are
;

and upper
stand
its

classes under-

raison

d'etre,

hito

ga
ieba,

sukunaku
are-few;
soshiki

s hum 0)1
religion

most
that

of

them fancying
is

persons(iwm.')
to

no toki
'$

religion

thing

that

if-one-saijs, funeral-rite

time

which comes into play


only at funeral services."

bakari
only

ni
in

mochiiru
employ
(they} think-,

koto

no
's

thing

ni yd manner in

omoimasu.
:

Again take the following Hilo ka to omoeba, ''One might have taken Person ? that if-onc-tJiiiiliS, but for human beings Kilo de mo naku yurei ka them human not were beings. also is-not; they gJiost person else one might have taken to onioeba, yurei de Or them for ghosts ; but neither that if-one-thinlis, ghost
; ; ''

mo
also

nai.
is-not.

were they ghosts."

266

SYNTAX.

Here
because

the indefinite form naku has exactly the


;

same sense

as the final nai


it

but

it is

preferred to nai in the first instance,

merely ends a clause and does not complete a

sentence.

means of
178
1

For further examples of the correlation of sentences by the indefinite form and of the gerund, see pp.
8 1,

and

also the stories

and

extracts in the

Practical

Part passim.
^[

427.

Of

all

the

peculiarities

of Japanese syntax, the most

foreign student is the already mentioned puzzling It is not that fact that most sentences are subjectless.
to the

the subject

is

dropped but

still

"

understood," as so

fre-

quently happens in Latin, but that it does not exist at all The best way of in the mind of the Japanese speaker.
getting behind this
difficulty
is

to

consider

the

case of
say,

passive constructions in our


for

own

language.
style

We may

has recently been built next door to mine." Now by whom has it been The sentence gives no information on this point. built?
instance,
in

"

house

European

The

action

is

affirmed,
it is

but no mention

is

made

of any

In Japanese that the verb used


agent.

just the same, with this difference,

is

English people say

"

an active instead of a passive one. house has been built (by />). The

" In strict reason the (/") has built a house/' Japanese say two assertions are identical for it is only the grammatical clothing of the thought, not the thought itself, that varies.
;

Thus

the example in question,


as follows
:

translated

into

Japanese,

would run
Konaida
Iteccntlly

walakushi

no

tonari

ni
in,

seiyo-ziikun
Europcan-coiislruvtivn,

I
ivo

of nexl-door

no
's

ie

ialemasHlla.
Jtas-built.

house

(accus.)

MOST SENTENCES SUBJECTLESS.


I.e.,

267

"Next door

to

me,

recently (some one) has built

a European house."

" I think I'll send these Again, take such an instance as We do not in English explicitly boots to be mended." In Japanese the sentence state who is to do the mending.
will

run thus
kutsu
Loots

Kono
These

wo
(accus.)

naoshi ni

yarimasho.
tvill-2'obablt/-send.
is

mend

to

Here the verb

naoshi,

"mend,"
is,

active,

but as usual

subjectless, so that the wording

as literally as

may be

send the boots (for some one) to mend." going The verb yarimasho is subjectless too; but no ambiguity can arise with regard to it. For who, under ordinary
I

"

am

to

circumstances,
his

will

trouble himself about


is

any boots but

own

The pronoun "I"


its

be supplied that

omission

so obviously the one to can cause no ambiguity.


in

One

specially complicated

class of instances,
in

which two
clause,

different

pronouns must be supplied

the

same

has been already treated of from other points of view in T 312 and ^[ 404. Let us again take up the last example of ^[404, omitting the first unessential words. We thus
get

Miscte 1
2

itadakitb*
1

gozaimasu*,

lit

"to-be 3
"

wishing-to-

receive

showing

,"

but employed to signify

"/-am

wishing-

to-receive

I wish you your showing," in other words, would show me." The Japanese go the length of omitting

personal

iteration of

The perpetual pronouns in almost all cases. " I" and "me," "you," "your," "he," etc.,

to

which characterises the languages of the West, would seem them no less tiresome than superfluous and absurd. The
is

student

referred to almost every particularly to every

and more
for

page of this Handbook, page of the Practical Part,

examples of the omission of personal proneuns and of

268

SYNTAX.

the general stibjectlessness of verbs.


to

He
this

should also
latter the

refer

71

and

to

^f^f

122

125,

in

which

difficult
of.

particle zva,

which has a bearing on

point,

is

treated

*|[

428.

The

relative

order of the direct and indirect objects

of the verb depends on circumstances. Whichever of the Tn English the two it is desired to emphasise comes first.

same end
two

is

often attained by using the

word "

the

"

for the

more important, and "some"


objects.

for the less

important of the

Thus,
Hito
ni
to

kane

wo
(acctes.)

Isukawasu
to-f/ivc

Person

money

means " To

give the person

some money."
tsukawasu
to

Kane means " To

wo

Kilo

ni

give the

money

somebody."

^[429. Though, properly speaking, every sentence ought to terminate in a verb (or adjective used as a verb), the final verb is often omitted for brevity's sake, when there can be

no ambiguity

in

the

meaning, especially
:

in short idiomatic

sentences, for instance

Korc
TJiis

bj/,

de shimai (desu). end is.


haiken

j
)

"This is the last." (The fullform is the politer.')


" Please
just let

Choito
A-iittie

(wo

rcspcctfui-(iiancv('(cciis?)\

me

look

negaimasu).
(/)
&<*/

fa minute."
>

Watakushi sansei (itashimasu).

"I beg

to

second

the

I
Ilsu

seconding

do.

(motion.''
(ni\
to[
|

go
anfjtist
/>

shukkin
oflice-f/oin</

When
becomes ?

"When
office ?"

does

he gO

to

narimasu)

ELLIPSIS.

269

Makolo
TtnitJi
(

ni
in,

sk&araku

me
ei/cs

" some-time Really it is quite a time ni kakarimasen since we last met."


(/) Jiang-not
(

honourable
desKitd).
it-lias-bccn.

on,

This

is

a set phrase in constant

use.)
t

Taiso
(Jnio

ni

kirei
pretty
iimasii.) say.

dcsu
is

to \

Greatly

mat!
j

"

It

js

said to be extremely

ga
(iioin.')

pretty."

people

This omission of
form of
ellipsis,
is

final

verbs,

though

not the only one.

the commonest The fondness of the

Japanese

for

442) often lands


exactly

long and highly complex sentences (conf. ^f them in the predicament of not knowing
to finish.

how

The speaker

then perforce breaks

off either with a

gerund
1

(conf. ^[ 4 10), or the postposition

ga

(conf. ^[ 2g7, p.

86), or a concessive form,


." 01

somewhat

as if

one should end by "and.


sentences as
le ;
so
so

"but.
deas.

.,"

of further definitely expressible

Thus we

through absence get such

bakari
onJ.y is

mo gozaimasen keredomo
even
is-not
althmtt/Ji,

No;

meaning "That
explain
to
it,

other reason behind

There is some not the only reason." but the speaker either does not care to
;

or does not exactly

know how

best to set to

work

do

so.

430.

As
is

in the case of verbs

only the

last

of a set of cor-

related verbs takes the suffix

denoting the tense or

mood

which
it is

common
last of

to

them

all,

so also in the case of nouns

only the
to

a set of nouns that takes the postposition


:

common

all.
1
,
1

Thus

Yokohama

Kobe*,

Naga-

'

'

) j

The

ports

of

Yokoha"
.

sak? nadcf no* minato*.

4 ma, Kobe, Nagasaki, etc

270
N. B.
lation, as

SYNTAX.

The word
nado
is

"etc." might be dropped from the English trans-

often absolutely meaningless.

cha
Honourable
tea

to

kwashi
caltcs

and

wo
(acctts.)

"Bring

tea

and cakes."

motle
havhiff -carried

koi.

come.

Mo

(with any other postposition which


set,

may
:

precede

it) is,

however, suffixed to every noun of a

thus

Ryukyu

ni mo,
in
also,

Chosen Korea

ni mo. \
in
also,
j

"Both
ill

Korea.

in "

Luchu and

431.

Inversion of the regular order of words

is

rare.

It

occurs for the most part only when a word or clause which ought to have been inserted in an earlier portion of the sentence, has
in at

the end.

been forgotten, and is therefore perforce brought From such forget fulness result phrases like
:

the following, which not infrequently occur in conversation

Sono
Tliat

okamisan, married-u'oman,
naru,
becomes,

jishin
eartJiquaJtc

to
tJiat

ieba,

mas-

if-onc-say, pcrfccfly-

sao
f/rccn

ni
to

kowagaite.
being-frigJitcncd.
:

It

should, properly speaking, run thus

to ieba,

Sono okamisan* jishin "Mrs. so is (so-and-so) kowagatie, massao frightened of earthquakes, that
politely narimasu.')

ni naru.
(more

she turns green at the bare mention of them."

Again

Naka-naka
Positively]

hi
fire

nando
etcetera

ni
at

atatcha
as-for-toucJiinff,

iraremasen,
(l)cannot-be,

goran

no

tori, ^va^/ >

isogi no

yd
business

desu kara.
te

aii<ju<it-rjlance 's

Jmrry

's

because.

If a lady

is

meant, then say ol-usama, not okamisan.

Conf. middle

of p. 256.

INVERSION, NEGATIVES.

271

This sentence should, properly speaking, be


tori, isogi no naka-naka kara, hi nando ni alaicha irare-

Goran no

yd desu

"I am,
busy
to

as

you
able

see,

far

too

be

to

sit

quiet,

mascn.

warming my hands

at the fire."

In familiar conversation,
is

occasional inversion,

such as

here instanced,
variety to

and

may perhaps be thought to add liveliness But it would hardly be conthe expression.

sidered appropriate in a set speech. In Japan as elsewhere, however, usage sanctions a few special locutions which seem
to

instance,
like
kita,

run counter to the general rules of the language, for the placing of the adverb aflcr its verb in phrases

Ima
"

kita bakari,

which

is

more idiomatic than Ima

bakari

He

has just come."


:

432.

Negatives destroy each other, as in English, thus

"

Nai

koto
fact

wa

It is

not a fact that there


,.

nai.

"Therein?
do

as-for, is-not.

some
It

or

Ther e are some."


not
to

Kd

won't do
,-

shmakereba nanmasen. th
I

It

wws/ be done

if-do-not,

is-not.

A! B. Such mutually destructive negatives are very frequently used, the practice having been apparently borrowed from the Chinese.
.

Occasionally the Japanese employ a negative where we should employ a positive construction, for instance in " Before that such phrases as Ano hito no konaimac, lit.

comes

person's not coming," "


(or came).

The

but signifying simply "Before he train of thought here seems to be

that, before a
yet,

man

comes, he of course cannot have come

and

similarly in other cases.

272

SYNTAX.

433- Japanese has no negative pronouns, adverbs, or con" " junctions, such as the English words nobody," nothing,"

"

none,"

"

never,"
is

"

nowhere,"

" neither.

nor,"

etc.

Their absence
or adjective,

supplied by the negative voice of the verb combined with positive pronouns and other

positive words.

Thus,

for the

English
2

"I know
"
(I)

nothing,"

a Japanese will say Na(n)ni l


1

?no

shiranai*,
far

know-not 3

anything

'

,"

more

literally

(so

as

the

grammatical

For expression is concerned), "I ignore everything." " There are none to be had 1 anywhere," he will say Doko 2 3 3 " ni* mo* lit. even in 2
1

gozaimasen\

Everywhere
4
.

'

'

(more

where

are-non-existent

serve to illustrate the

The following examples will manner in which the various kinds of


and other

English negative and quasi-negative assertions, kindred idioms, are expressed in Japanese
:

Dare mo
Donata mo
Everybody

shiranai.

(familiar)
(i.e.

\
'

Everybody Jtnows-not.

'

go

zonji

ignores) nai. ga

Nobody
knows."

(polite')

august knowledge (nom.) is-not.

persons
i.e.,

{"There know."
Shiru
Shiru
hito

some are who know not," "Every body doesn't

mo gozaimasu.
also

Know persons Know


shiranai

}
)

Some people know."


"Some people know, fand some don't."
>>

(thcre^are.

\ hito mo areba, persons also wJiereas(-t here] -are,[

Mto

mo gozaimasu.
(therefore.
Jiito

ignore persons also

Skitter u

iva

sukund\
I

Anowmg-arc
gozaimasu.

,,

persons as-for, few

c "There are few who know;' or "lew people know


-

ttrT

Mattaku
Completely

zonjimasen.
J(now-not.

M'.GATIVES.

273
I

Kuwashiku
Minutely

wa
as-for,

zonjimascn.
luton'-not.

don't quite

know."

Mattaku
ly

Isumi ga
crime (HOM.)

nai.
is-not.

t(
(

He has

not committed

the smallest crime."

Aiw

Jiilo

wa,

ichi-do

mo

That person as-for, one-time cven\

"He

has

never

OnCC

Mia koto ga gozawiasen. came act (twi.) is-not.

[come."
}

Konai

loh

mo gozaimasu.
I

he

" There are times when doesn t come> "He doesn't always come."
,

Kuru

toki

mo

areba,

\
' '
I

Comes time konni toki

also whcreas-therc-is,

mo

gozaimasu.
in.

comes-not time also

(and
}

Sometimes he COmCS, sometimes he doesn't."

Kuru
Comes

koto

wa suknno
few

gozaimasu.
are.
(

He
hi

rare ]y

comes."

act as-for,

" There
tt

is

Konai

koto wo. gozaimasen.


is-not.

no such thing
coming>
.

nQt

Comes-uot act as-for,

Re
(

^^ come
"He

Sukoshi mo
A-little

konaku narimastiita. even coming-not lias-become,


ijirimasen.
f

has quite

left

Are
That

kara

"I

have never touched

from (I ^meddle-not.
ikimasen.
go-not.

lit
f
\

since then."

Doko ye mo
Kvcrytvhere

"I don't go anywhere," or " I go no where."


"
|

Sappari
Quite

wakarimasen.
(l]undcrstand-not.

don't

understand

it

Sukoshi
A-little

mo
even

wakarimasen.
undei'stand-not.
'

at all."

Yoku zvakarimasen.
Well

/
\

"I
Stand

don't quite
it."

under-

nnderstand-not.

Yoku
Well

wa
as-for,

wakarimasen.
understand-not
|

"I
Utand

don't
it."

quite

under-

274
IHina miemaseu.
All
appear-not.

SYNTAX.

"I
'<

can't

see

any

of

'them."
)

Mina wa
All
as-for,

miemasen.
appear-not.

I can't

see

them

all/'

A7

B.

limiting

power

Observe the radical difference of signification of wa in such instances as the last.


Idkimasen.
j

effected

by

t'i

Tonto

'

Quite (7) Jiear not.

have heard nothing.

Amari
Too

kikimasen.
hear-not.

/
I ii

"I
much.
"

have

not

heard

much

or "

Hotondo

kurai desu. nai is. Almost exists-not degree

is hardly any;" There is little if any ;" more lit. "It is almost to

"There

the

pitch

of there

being

none."
Kito to kybdai desu "It is impossible that person tvith, brothers are shirana i to iu ivake he shouldn't know about kara, because, ignores tJiat say reason it, seeing he is the fellow's " ni wa mainmasen. brother.
TJiat
to

Ano

ffoes-not.

434.

The

difficulty of

using negative constructions correctly

soon as the learner clearly grasps the fact that in Japanese the negative and the verb are not conceived of as two separate ideas, as is mostly the case in European
will disappear as

languages,

but as a single idea.

Even

in

European

lan-

guages, however, there is no lack of parallels to this Japanese idiom. Thus " to disapprove/' for " not to approve;" " to " not to disregard," for regard;" "impossible," for "not
possible,"
etc., etc.

"

limits the use of the word sukunai (vulg. sukenai), few," to predicative constructions, as instanced in two or three of the

N. B.

Custom

in the preceding section. Thus we can only render the phrase Few people know " by Shitteru Into wa sukunai (more politely siikuno " The knowing people are few," never by Sukunai hito gozaimasu), lit.

examples
"

orm
-en shitteru.

.vi

ION.

275

"

many."

The same remark The sole case in which


is

applies to the kindred adjective oi, the words sukunai and oi can l>e used
:

attributively

in relative clauses, for instance

Nandemo,
,

shina
article

no o
'.

snkunai\ sukunai
scarce
/*'.
.

ni/tli

hiff-irhatever,

'^very kind

of article

toki

wa,

ne

^a

tako

gozaiinasu.

time

as-for.

price (tioni^.dcar
ni
in,

kishti wa, I\yo To-day as-for. train


oi

kara,

voJiodo
pleiitlfiilli/

nori-tc gn riders (noffi.} konzatsit

because, ni<niy shimasKita.

confusion

There was a great bustle at the train to-day, because there were such a lot of travellers."
:

'

It

may
"

means
here.

because,"

perhaps be thought that as toki means "when," and kara the construction is not an attributive one even

It is so,

however, from the Japanese point of view, toki being even


"

now apprehended

as a noun signifying time," and kara also having almost certainly been a noun in the archaic period of the language.

435. In Japanese almost all quotation, whether of the words of others or of the speaker's own thoughts, is direct. The manifold shiftings of person, mood, and tense, which are

brought about
quotation,

in

are consequently

European languages by the use of indirect unknown. Thus a Japanese,


the plans of an absent friend,
'
;

when mentioning
say

does not

"He
shall

said he

repeats his friends


'I

would be back by Sunday;" but he exact words, and says He said that
:

be back by Sunday/" would run as follows


:

In

Japanese the phrase

' '

Nichiyb made
till,

kacru
"
to,

"
to

iimasJnta,

''Sunday
A/\

(S)ieill-return,"
that,"

that (he} said.

B.

The word
also to,

cannot be omitted in such contexts.

Compare

117, p. 82.

One
tions,

alteration does, however,

commonly occur
lit.

in

quota-

an alteration affecting the honorifics.


to

'For instance,
3

you say

me O

ide*

nasat

3
,

"Deign

honourable 1

276
exit ," i.e.,
2

SYNTAX.

"Please come."

Now,

if

am

repeating this

remark of yours to a third person, prevents me from applying honorifics


quotation marks.
I
:

my

modesty naturally
even within

to myself,

therefore express the idea

"

He

asked

me

to

come"

thus

Watakushi ni "
ni iimashita

Koif

to iimashila,

(conf.

next \},

non-honorific verb kuru, " to


o ide nasaru.

or Watakushi ni kuru yd employing the corresponding come," in lieu of the honorific

So

persistently inherent in the

Japanese habit

of speech

is

the tendency to give

honour

to others,

and

to

abase
436.

self.

The
1

sole kind of indirect quotation ever


is
lit.

employed by

the Japanese
2 \vovdsyo ni
,

a locution

with the present tense and the


:

"in 2 the manner 1 ," thus


io
that,
\

Kitto
Positively

kuru ni yo come manner in


koi.

"Go

and

tell

him

(to

be sure to come."

so
so

ittc

having-said

come.

(Said to an inferior in speaking of another inferior^

Kuru
Conic

yb

ni

io
iluit

itta

ga,
tJiottgh,

manner in muko de
opposite
at,

do
lioiv

(I]said shite

"I

told

him
it

to

come;
abso-

but he said

was
for

mo
A'.

korarenai

io

doing iimasu.
says,

lutely impossible " to do so.

him

even, cannot-comc that

B.

the

last

To may be omitted after yd example, and consult p. 48, line 6,


of the

ni.

Notice the word imtko in


it.

for

The phraseology
That of the next
Daiji ni Car efidly
ni
in,
is

above examples
:

is

not polite.

extremely so

nasaru
deign-to -do osshatte

yo manner
kudacon-

"Please be so kind as to
tell

yoku
well

deigning -to-say

him

to take great care of

saimashi.
descend.

himself."

QUOTATION.

277
are

Somewhat
phrases as

similar

in

character to the above

such

Yosaso
Good-appearance

ni omoimasu.
-in

"
}
j"

think

it

looks as

if it

(/) thinTt.

would do."

the preceding paragraph

437. Notwithstanding the example given at the beginning of the (Kitto kuru yd nito so ilte koi)
t

Japanese

command
Haru
to

generally avoid within another.

such

phrases containing one Thus, rather than say "Tell

come

here/' they will mostly prefer

the simpler

expression

"Call

Haru,"

viz.

O Haru wo
O-U<tru
or

yonde
politely

koi!

(accus.) having-called

come!

more

O Haru wo
O-Haru

yonde

kudasai!
condescend!
for
:

(accus.} caUinff

Rather than say "Tell Jiro to get the jinrikisha ready

me

at

twelve o'clock," they will use the causative and say


ni
at,

yu-ni-ji
Twclve-o'clocJt

deru
go-out

kara,
because,

firo
J~ir5

ni
to,

kuruma
jinritiisha

no
'.<t

shl-

pre-

taku
j)a ration*

wo
(acctis.)

sashite
Jiaviny-caused-to-do

oku
to-place

ga

ii.

(twm.) is-good.

I.e.,

o'clock,
for

may be, "As I am going out at twelve be well to cause Jiro to make preparations \\iejmnk7sha." Similarly, "Tell him to wait" becomes
as literally as
it

will

" Cause him

to wait," Matashtte kudasai.

In still more complicated cases, the difficulty is often turned by omitting one whole clause. Thus, where an would master told me to tell servant say "My English

you,

Sir,

that he particularly wishes to see you," a Japanese

servant will
ticularly

more

briefly say

"My

wishes to
:

see

you."

In

master said that he parJapanese the sentence

would run thus

Shujin
Master
said.
A".

ga
(nom.)

ze/ii

positively

o ai-moshitai honourably "(/) ivish-to-meet"

to

that

moshimasKUa.
B.

to say."

Do not misinterpret the word mdsJiitai as signifying " wants O ai-mosJiitai is simply a very polite equivalent for aitai, the
\
402, p. 249.

desiderative adjective Qiait, " to meet." See

hand, Japanese constructions with quotations are often pleonastic, some such formula as "he said"

On

the other

being used both before and after the words quoted, instead of once only, as is the case in English. The following
example, taken from Dr.
this

Kato's lecture given


:

later

on

in

volume,

will

show what we mean

Doiisu no teisugakusha Schopen^

Germany
hauer
hauer
'
'

's

philosopher
iu
hito

Schopen-

1 '

to

no iuta kotoba
hotaru no
firefly
's

The German
'

phi-

that say person 's said tewrfs

ni,

Shukyo
"Religion

wa
indeed

in,

yd

na

mono.

Kurai

losopher Schopenhauer has said Religion is like a firefly. It can


:

Darlt fashion being tiling (is). iokoro de nakereba, hikaru koto ga shine act (nom.) place if-is-not,

shine
places'
said]/'

only
[is

in

dark he

what

dekinai"
forthconies-not"
If

to

moshimashtta.
(/ie)

that

said.

438.
ges,

Interrogation

is

not denoted, as in European langua-

The conby an inversion of the usual construction. struction remains the same, but the interrogative particle
ka
is

generally added.

(See

p.

68.)

If 4-39-

Passive constructions are very sparingly used, and

when

used, their

grammar
the

is

peculiar (seep,

tf*>

et

seq;

also pp.

57
in

58,

204,

and 216).
267,

The

passive

is

almost

always

replaced
pp.

by 266

subjectless

active construction

explained

or else by an intransitive construction, as


5

explained in pp. 204

and pp. 190

i.

Thus, to give

ABSENCE OF PERSONIFICATION.

279

one or two additional examples, a Japanese will riot say "As has already been explained." He will say " As (I)
have already explained,"

Sude ni
Already

loki-akashimasJiila
(/) have-explained

tori.
ic<t>/.

He
but

will

"A

not say "It has been notified by the Department," notification has issued from the Department/

Yakusho
Office

kara
from,

tasshi

ga

demashila.
has-come-ouf.

notification (ncm.)

440.

Inanimate objects are

rarely, if ever, personified.


all

Not

only does Japanese idiom eschew

such fanciful anthro-

" pomorphic expressions as the hand of Time," "old Father "Nature's Christmas," "the spoilt child of Fortune,"
abhorrence of a vacuum,"
etc., etc.

almost to prohibit the use of the


will

name

as the subject of a transitive verb.

it goes so far as of any inanimate thing For instance, a Japanese


;

but

not say

"The

rain

delayed me," thus appearing to

attribute an rain
;

action to those inanimate things, the drops of


:

but he will turn the phrase intransitively, thus

Ame
Rain

no lame ni
>s

oi ni

osoku
late

narimasMla.
(/) Jtare-become,

sake in, greatly

"
I.e.,

am

very late on account of the rain."


it

Similarly

will

not

come

into his head to

employ such a

phrase as

"His
no
's

diligence surprises me."

He

will

say:

A no
Tfiat
I.e.,

Kilo

benkyd ni
diligence

wa

person

at,

shimasu. admiring-astonishment (/) do.

kanshin

"I

feel

astonishment

at his diligence."
itself less

441.

Thus no language lends


faculty than

to

the imaginative

and mythopoeic
instance,
ligion

does

Japanese.
strife

When,

for

European speaks of "the


likely

between Re-

and Science," he very

spells these

names with

280
a capital

SYNTAX.

R and a capital S, and unconsciously slides into regarding them as being, in some sort, actual things, even individualities capable of aspirations, aims, and conquests,
of teaching and sustaining their devotees, of themselves on those who slight them, etc.,

revenging
etc.

Such

mythology (for mythology it is, albeit those who have been reared under the exclusive influence of European modes of
expression

may

not at

first

recognise

it

as such)

is

utterly alien

to the matter-of-fact Far-Eastern mind.


years, the study of English,

During the last few and the translation into Japanese

of great

numbers of English and other European books,

in the occasional adoption by public speakers of such expressions as Rekishi ga watakushi-domo ni wo os 7rieru, a literal rendering of our phrase " History " " But such " Europeanisms are teaches us that

have indeed resulted

quite unidiomatic,

and would scarcely be comprehended by


at
least a

any Japanese save those who have themselves tincture of Western learning.
^f

442.

Languages

differ greatly

in

the degree of integration

of their

sentences.

For

instance,

Chinese

and

Pidjin-

English simply put assertions side by side, like stones without cement, as " He bad man. My no like he." Our more synthetic English would generally subordinate one " I don't like assertion to the other, coupling them thus of the most he one is a bad man" Now him,
:

BECAUSE

essential

characteristics

of the
it

Japanese language

is

the

extreme degree to which


in

pushes the synthetic tendency

the structure of sentences. Japanese always tries to incorporate the whole of a statement, however complex it

may be and however numerous


of a single
sentence,

its

parts,

within the limits

inter-dependent.

whose members are all mutually In fact the normal Japanese sentence is

INTEGRATION OF SENTENCES.

28l

a paragraph, or (so to say) an organism, as much more complicated than the typical English sentence just quoted, as the English sentence is more complicated than the

Chinese or the Pidjin-English.


take the following anecdote, the

As an
first

illustration,

let

us

paragraph of which forms but one sentence in Japanese, though it may be


conveniently broken up into four or
443five in

English

HEMPO-GAESHI.
liito

TIT FOR TAT.

Aru*
no
of

ga
torimasu
passes
,

naga-ya?
toki,

^.-certain person

(tiom.} block-of-houscs

mae
front
(

wo
tccus.}

in passing one day 4 ni tsuniazukimashitareba naga-ya front of a block of on ichcn-he-Jiad-stumbled, bloclt-of-Jiouscs houses, tripped against baka ni no uchi no hito ga a stone. Thereupon, to of personitiom.) of inside fool some one inside the "AitataJ*" to koe shite*, block of houses made " AJi malting, !-7ioiv-painful !" tliat voice fun of him, and cried wo kakemasKiia kara, tsumazuita "
(acctts.)

time,

ishi stone

"A

certain

man,

placed
zva,
as-for,

because, (the)stnmbled

hito

ima-imashii
disagreeable

to
tJiat

person

out Oh how I have hurt myself I" So he who had tripped


:

omoimashila
(he) tliouglit

ga,
thongJi,
' '

waza
I

to

imrposely

constrained himself to be quiet (although he


felt

otonashiku' ,
sedately

lya

go
august

men
excuse

disgusted),

and

pray nasaimashi/ KemasKila no wa, excuse me, I thought Kicked deign! thing as-for, that what I had kicked ishi ka* to anata was a stone. omoimashitara, But was stone ? that ii-Jierea#-'I-)thougJit, you it the of your tip no hana no saki desJiiia ka ?' nose ?"
: !

"Nay!"

said

"

Oh

of
to

nose of h'mashita.
(he^said.

tip

ivas

"

that

Hcmpo

is

a Chinese expression meaning " requital

;"

gaeshi

is

the

to return nigor?fdfotm of kaeshi, the indefinite form of kaesu, 2 Ant, " to be," sometimes has the sense of "a certain." (trans.). 3 Naga-ya, lit. "long house," is an expression denoting the quarters

"

"

282

SYNTAX.

Naga-ya

no

hito

no kokoro-mochi t
I

"

wonder how the


inside the
felt

feelings Slock-of-Uonses of person 's dcshitarb P donna zva,


tis-for,

man

block

of houses
j

on
in

re-

^vhat-liJie

jn'obably-tv ere ?

(ceiving this snub."


as
illustrated

^[

444.

The

integration

of

sentences,

the

foregoing example, is secured by the application of the rule of syntax which was set forth in ^[422, p. 261, and illustrated

264 6, and which is here exemplified in the word furthermore by the incorporation of quotations, and by the use of such particles as kara ("because") and ga (" whereas") and of the conditional and concessive moods
in pp.
;

shite

of verbs and adjectives. into idiomatic English


at

it is

In translating a Japanese sentence generally necessary to break it

each of these hinges, as they


to

may perhaps be
(yashtki)

termed.
daimyos,

formerly attached

the

mansions

of the

as

Such naga-ya as remain are now mostly let out in sets of two or three rooms to poor families. 4 TswnazukimasJntara would be the more strictly Colloquial form of this word; but see p. 184. 5 Hito wo baka ni suru means " to make a fool of a
residences for their retainers.

person
object

;"

is left

but here of course Jnto ga is the subject of the verb, and the unexpressed. 6 Aitata ! is the same as aita ! at the top
7 Otonashzku,

of p. 237.

more

lit.

like a

the verb iimashita at the end of the sentence.

grown-up person." It qualifies 8 Ishi ka, " perhaps

a stone."

Taken more

literally

still,
:

quotation of the speaker's thoughts perhaps be a stone ?"

the words is hi ka are a direct " Is it a stone ?" " i.e., May it not

PRACTICAL
PART.

[[

445-

SHORT PHRASES
IN-

CONSTANT
1.

USE.
I

Amari

mita

koto
fact

ga
(nom.)

have

hardly

ever

Too-much have-seen
gozaimasen.
is-not.
2.

seen any.

Anata
You,

mazu
\vell,

do

iu

Well,
j

what

is

your
?

tvJiat-sort-of

go
auffust
3.

ryoken
opinion

de gozaimasu
is?

opinion on the subject

Arigaid
TfianJeful

gozaimasu. (/) am.

Do How

Thank

you.

Oh
it.

itashimashile !
Jiaving-done ?
4.

pxay don't mention

Ate
Reliance

ni
to

narmasen.
becomcs-not.

He

is

not

to

be

depended upon.
5.

A/o

kara

go
august

aisalsu

Afietivards

amnvcr

I will

send

my

answer

wo
(accus.)

mbshimashb.
tvill-say,

afterwards.

6.

Chito
A-little

kake
fo-place

honourably
>

Pray

sit

down

nasaimashi.
deign.

moment.

" Amari, conf. ^[ 219, p. 148. 3. I.e., You are grateful to what?" It is done still more having polite to substitute Do
I.

me

for

tsYika-

matswima shite
passive,
loins."

for

Do
p.

itashimashite.
205.
7.

4.

Observe the avoidance of the


" the supply koshi wo,

and

conf.

After

cltito

286
7
Chitto
A-little
8.

SHORT PHRASES

IX

CONSTANT USE.
It
bit.

mo
even

kamaimasen.
mattcrs-not.

doesn't

matter
let

Chitto

haiken.
adoring-lool*
(let

Please
me
do}.

just

me

A -little

look.

Da
"'

Desu
(ft) is,

ga. ga.
but

.(famil.)
.(polite)

Yes, but.

ro.

Danjitc
Consulting

mimasho.
(/) tvill-see.

will
it.

speak
shall

to

him
?

about

1 1

Do

shimasho P
shita

What
ho
side

we do

12.

Do
How
yokaro ?

ga
(noin.)

What
we had

do
best

did

you do ?

think

13.

Dochira yc
Where
to,

irasshaimasu r
deign-to-go ?

Where

are

you going

14.

Doka
SomcJtow

nasaimashita
have-deigned

ka P
?
itashi-

Have you
self? or
Is

hurt youranything the


?

15.

Go

matter with you


busata
remissness
I

havcin

mashita.
done.
1

have been very rude not coming to see


for so long.
for

you

6.

Go
Inf/nst

kurb
trouble

sama. Mr.

Thanks
trouble.
(Said chiefly

your

to inferiors.}

8.

Conf.

p.

268.

9.
;

middle of a sentence

Properly speaking, this phrase should come in the but in familiar conversation it often begins one.

For ga = " but," see p. 67. which reason we print it


quantity.
10.

The u
in
this

of desii

is

pronounced before ga, for

context without the

For miru

auxiliary, see p. 193.


for

n
in

and

12.

mark of short The Japan-

ese habitually use

"how?"

"what?"

such phrases as these.

For ho seep. 144. 13. For irasshaimasu^ substitute ikimasu in speaking or still to an inferior. 14. For nasaimasKita substitute shimasliita,
less politely shJta,

See p. 247.

19.

in speaking to an inferior. 15. See p. 247. Yukknri is a sort of noun, which the addition of
;

16.

to

turns into an adverbial phrase

conf.

f[ 377, p. 236.

SHORT PHKASI-X
17-

IN

<

ONSTAM

TSK.

28 7

Go

men

nasai.

288
27

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT USE.


Ichi-nichi

rusu
absent

desu.
is.

He
away
I've

is

(or

will

be)

One-day
28.

all

day.

Ikenai

kolo

Can't-go tiling

shimashita. have-done.

gone

and

done

a stupid thing.

29.

Ikura

mo
even

gozaimasen.
is-not.

There
more.

is

Saw-much
30.
Itsit

scarcely any

no
's

kolo
fact

deshita

When

did

it

When
3
1
.

happen
;

was?

lya
Disagreeable

desu,
(it)is,

yo !
oh!

or Get No, I won't along with you or None of your impudence


!
!

32.

Kagen
Bodtty-state

ga warn
(no in.)

gozaiis.

I feel

bad

poorly.

masu.
33.

Kare
TJtat,

kore tarimasho.
Uiis, \vill-pv-obably'-suffice

think

it

will

be

about enough.
I

34.

Kaze
Wind

wo

hikimashita.

(accus.) ,(/)

have-drawn.
. .

have caught cold.


counting found that.
all

35.

Kazoete
Counting

mireba

On
over, I

them
. . .

ivhen(I)scc.

27. Ichi-nichi

means

" one indifferently


is lit.

to

^[

152, p. 103.

28. Ikenai

day "cannot go"

"

or "

day

;"

see N. B.

= "nogo," "won't
is

conf. ^[317.

29. This

idiom

may

be explained thus:" There

do;" not even

enough

to

make

it

worth asking

how much
31.

there

is."

30.

For the

construction itsu no, conf. p. 232. of the lower class. 32. Kagen is
contradictories
well-being),
"

phrase used chiefly by

women

originally

one of the " syntheses of


" increase " (of bodily

noticed on p. 34, ka
33.

is an idiom expressive of approximation, like our "more or less," "pretty well," 34. The " " English word a cold cannot be translated more literally into Japanese.

and gen " decrease."

meaning Kare kore

35. Mirit,

" to see," here has

rather

its

proper

signification,

than

the auxiliary use explained on p. 193. Moreover the conditional here has the sense of " when... ;" see p. 184.

SHORT
Kiite

1'IIRASKS

IN

CONSTANT

TSK.

289
better

ktiru
to-cotnt'.

go,
n.-.ui

You
and
ask.

had

go

(familiar}

i.

(is)

good.

37.
f

asme
Kimi
Feelings

kudasai.

Please

tell

me.

'ausing-to-Jtcar condescend.

38.

ga
(nont.)

ivarui.
(arc)

bad.
tori

It makes quite shudder. (familiar}

me

39. nasai.
deign.

o Kochira yc to honourably Here

to-pass

Please come in here. The formula used to invite


?';/.)

a guest

40.

Kokoromochi
Komaita
koto

ga

warm.
(arc]

I feel

unwell.

Jtodily-feelinffS (now.)

bad.

41.

desu.
is.

It is

a nuisance.

Was-bothercd fact
42.

Komban
Kondate
Bill-of-farc

wa

!
!

Good
misete

evening.

This-night as-for

43.

wo
(arcits.)

Please
bill

show

rne

the

showing

kudasai.
condescend.

of fare.

44.

Konnichi
This-dat/

wa !
as-for
!

Good day
you do
"
?

or

How

do

is the to ask," is almost always proper word for thus replaced in the mouths of Tokyo speakers by kikn, properly " to hear." For kuru as an auxiliary, see p. 193. 37. KikasJnte should, strictly speaking, be kikasete, but see N. B. to p. 214.

36.

Tou, which

38.

Observe

how Japanese
marked

prefers
is

the intransitive

to

the

transitive

construction, of which

"it"

the subject in
41.

English,

and

conf. p.

279 for

this

feature of the language.

The

use of the past,

42.

where the present would seem to us more natural, is idiomatic here. Some polite phrase must be mentally supplied but it is never ex;

pressed, unless
ther as

it

be some such
o sitzitshiu

hackneyed remark about the weagoiaimasu,

(Komban wa)
it

"What

a pleasantly cool

evening

is !" etc.

44.

Same remark

as that concerning No. 42.

290
45-

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT USE.

Kore
Tliis

de
by

takusan.
plenty
(is).

This

is

quite enough.

46.

Kore de yoroshii ja nai ka f


Tliis

Won't

this

do

by,

good

isn't

47-

Kore
Tliis

wa,
as-for,

nan
what

de
by

What
of?

is

this

made

dekite

orimasu ?
Is

eventuating

48.

Kore
Tliis

wa
as-for,

nani
wJiat

ni
to

What
for?

is

this

used

tsukaimasu
(do people]

ka P
(it)

use

49.

Kore
Tills

Oh
wa,
o
Jionoiirablc

having

excuse me for inconvenienced

jama
impediment
50.

wo

as-for, itashimasJiiia.

(accns.)

Jiave-donf.

you. as a polite phrase on ( Used


concluding a
visit.')

Kore
Tills

wa,
as-for,

shikkei!
rudeness.

Oh
for

pray excuse being so rude.


!

me

51.

Kore
Tills

wa,
as-for,

yoku
well

o
Jionoiirablc

You

have

done

this

deki
eventuatlon

ni
to

narimasJiita.
lias-become.

beautifully.

52.

Mada
Still

yohodo

aida

ga
(noin.)

There
of time.

is

still

plenty

plenty interval

arimasu.
is.

53.

Mae
"Before

ni
in

mo
also

itta

tori.

As
stated.

have

already

said

way.

54.

Maido
Eacli-timc

go
aiiffiist

yakkai
assistance
I

am much
for

(sama) desu.
(Mr.)
is.

you

your

obliged to constant

kindness.

47. For 45. Supply dc gozaimasu at the end. 46. Forja see p. 64. " is the intransitive dekiru, corresponding to our passive made," see
IF

3 IO P- 2O2
>

5- Supply

itasliimasliita at the end.

54. Conf. p. 247.

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT


55-

USE.

29

Makolo

ni

moshi-ivakc

292
65.
sJnte.

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT USE.

Minai
Sceing-not

furi

ivo
faccus.)

manner

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT USE.


74.

293

Motlo

make
t>>-cfi<'<i/H'ii

Please
little

go
in

down
your
price.

more

nasa.
<(<!</ it.

75.

Nai
Isn't
fact

iva

na
isn't

There
There
is

is

some

or

some.

(tlesu).

76.

Naka-naka shochi shimasen.


I'osith'cl;/

He

won't hear of

it.

consent

does-not.

77.

Nan
IF/tat

dc

mo

yoroshii.
(is)

by even,

f/ood.

Anything

will do.

(More
78.

politely yoroshiu gozaimasu.)

Nan.

desu (ka) P
is
(it)

What
is

is

it?
?

Wat
Nan
WJtat

>

the

matter
?

or or

What What
?

did you say


79to

osshaimasu

/>

that

deif/n-to-say ?

What do you
Can't you thing
tell
?

say

80.

Nanzo
Something -or-other

omoshiroi

us some-

hanashi
talk

ga
(until.)

amusing gozaimasen ka P
is-not
'!

amusing

81.

Nodo
Throat

ga
(novi.)

kawakimasliila.
Jtas-dried.

I feel thirsty.

82.

hayo (gozaimasii}. is. Honourably early

Good morning.
I

83.

itoma moshiinasho. Honourable leave will-probably -say

think

must
kind

be

going.

84.

O
Makeru is

kage sama de
sJtade

By
fluence.

your

in-

llitH'mrablf
74.

Mr-

by.

literally

" to " to lose " (a battle or a garnet, hence

come

down
77.

in price." - 75.

For the syntax of double negatives, see

p. 271.

Nan
mo
is

not the subject of the sentence.


dc'

" de mo, though representing the English word anything," is The sentence is subjectless, and nan
to the Latin ablative

an indirect object corresponding


82. It
is

causation or instrumentality.

of course

denoting absurd to use this

phrase, as foreigners sometimes do, in the afternoon.

294
85.

SHORT PHRASES

IN

CONSTANT USE.
I

O kage sa?na, Honourable shade Mr.,

sukkari
i/tiite

am

quite well again,


for

thanks

your
t<>

kind
your \
)

naorimasJiile gozaimasu. am, recovered


86.

enquiries.
/ RIorclit. \hiflucnce."

"Thanks

kangae
reflection

no ue, ina
>s

ya
?

Honourable no go
>s

top,

nay

Kindly
matter

think

the
let

henlo

wo
(accus.)

ukagai(I)ivill-

over,

and

august reply

me
way

have an answer one


or the other.

masu.
enquire.

87.

O
Honourable
is.

kinodoku
poison-of-spirit

am

sorry

for

it

on

de gozaimasu.
88.

your account.

machi-do

sama.
Mr.

Honourably
89.

lony-tvaitinr/

Excuse me for keeping you waiting so long.


what
for
I Really excuse

O matase-moshiHonourably Jiaviny-caused-toni makoto ai-sumimashite,


tvait,
irutli

know
to

not
offer

in,

niutually-

having

kept

you

masen.
is-not-propcr.

waiting so long.

go.

naka
Honourable

ga

inside (now.)

sukihas-

I feel

hungry.

mashita.

become-empty.
91.

(familiar)

Honourablc mashb.
probably-do.
92.

iomo companion

itashiivlll-

should

like

to

go

with you.

tdshi

mose.
say.

Show
"

the guest

in.

Honourably let-through
85. After

word de, by," which strict logic Naorimasliltc gozaimasu is more polite require. than simple naorimashlta would be. 86. "Reflection's top" is, after not so very different from our phrase " on reflection." Instead all,
insert the

sama one may

and grammar would

of saying "

an answer yes or no," the Japanese phrase mentions the For negative only. 89. Still more polite than the preceding number. mosu as a humble auxiliary, see p. 249. 90. For o naka, see p. 248.

SHORT I'HKASKS
93.

IX

CONSTANT USE.

295

Isnidc no
*.s
<

sctsu.

Whenever
to suit

it happens your convenience.

94.

yasumi

nasa
deign.

Good

night.

(-i

95.

Okashikule
Keing-fniini/,
(

lamaranai.
f)enilnre-not.

It is really too

funny.

96
ni
to

Oki

ni

sewa sama
Mr.
to

am much
you
for

indebted

honourable help narimasKila.


Greatlu
(f)have-bcco))ic.

your

kind

assistance.

97.

Oki ni osoku
Greatly
late

narimashita. have-become.

Excuse
so
late.

me

for

being

98.

0-sawagi
Great-uproar
koio

deshila.
(if}was.

All was confusion.

bustle

and

Oshii 99. Regrettable


I

desu,
is,

ne

I !

Oh

what a

thing

eh ?

pity

oo.

Osoroshii
FrigJitful

domo
really

michi road

How
the road

frightfully
is
!

bad

ga
(nojii.)

warui.
(zs)bad.

(familiar)

101.

Osoroshii
Frightful

lakai mori da, dear thing is.

It is frightfully dear.

(familiar)
i

o2

-warai
Great-laitgJiter

shimashiia.
(wc)did.

We
over

had a good laugh

it.

92.

The use

ferior is to

93.

I.e.,

mose here shows that a person who is your infor one politely considered your superior. " Don't take trouble about it but, should the occasion offer...
of

do something

etc."

94. It is optional to

omit the termination masJii


if

in.

all

such cases.

95. Conf.

218.

96.

As
Oki

one should say, " I have come

deal of your help."


100. In
strict

in

means

but see

first

N. B. on

grammar we p. 124. As shown by

in for a great okiku means " big(ly)." should have osoroshlkti, not osorosliii ;

"

greatly

;"

beginning

the Japanese turn in quite a different " what " and " how." 'vith

this example and the last, manner our exclamatory phrases loi. Men' is familiar for mono.

296
103.

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT

USE.

Sakuban
Xiast-nir/7il

wa,
as-for,

yoppite
all-niylit

neraremasen

deshila.

SHORT 1'HRASKS
113.

IX

CONSTANT USE

So nn<i

niori

desn,
in.

That
Well

is

just

about

it.

14.

Sonnara,
t.

then,

don't

do

litt:'>ni-ftl>l?/

to-ilcit.

nasai.

115.
o

Sono
T/nit

me
<'//<'*

hisashiku go, f cut/till 1 1/ oflet-. ni kakarimasen.


in.
(/ )/KI n. (/-u<>t.

It

is

some time
met.
to
I

since

we

last

am
you

li>ni.'Hir(iM<'

delighted

see

T/su

mo
Sono
Tlidt

go
ho

soken
>:>lm*t

de

looking so

well.

I'dny

...

n 6.

wa

There
that

are

more

of

side a?-for

kind

than

of the

gozaimasft.

others.

17.

So re
T/it

wa
as-fw,

so
f>o

dc

gozaiis.

That

is

so

or

Yes,

no doubt.
.

1 1

8.

Sore
That

wa
?-for,

so desu
fw>
/

ga

Yes, but.

19.

Sude ni moshi-agemasMla
Alreatl>/

As
had

have

already
to
in-

tcll-liftcd-up

the

honour

form you.
I2O.

Sukoshi
A-llttle

mate,
wait.

(familiar)

Wait a minute.
Please be so kind as to wait a minute.

121.
nasai.
delffn,

Sukoshi
A-littlc
(polite)

machi
tu-wail

122.

Taigai

wakarimashila.

understand most of

Supply at the civl some such phrase as o mcdeto gozaimasu, a subject for congratulation." 116. See p. 144. 122. The past tense here idiomatically replaces the present ; conf. ^[ 274, p. 176.
115.
is

"it

298
123.

SHORT PHRASES IN CONSTANT USE.


Taiso
Vert/

nigiyaka
lively

de

go-^

It

was very

lively.

zaimasnua.
tvas.

SHORT PHRASES
133.

IN

CONSTANT
/

USE.

299
!

Yoi mi-harashi desu,


Good
view
is,

nc
di

What

a beautiful view

'.'

134.

Yoi mono
Good thing

wo
(accus.)

What
that
is
!

a beautiful

thing

motomc
to-scc7i--out

honourably nasaimasKila.
havc-dcigncd.

which you

have

bought
is,

135.

Yoi

tenki

de gozaimasu.

It is fine

weather.

Good-ivealJici-

(A phrase used on accosting


any one in fine weather.*)
It
is

136.
deshila.
(it)

Yoku
Well

kega
ivound

shimasen
does-not

lucky

he

didn't

hurt himself.

ivas.

dbmo omoshiroi indeed amusing Very hauashi de gozaimasu.


137.

Yoppodo

It

is

really
story.

most

amusing

story

(it)

is.

138.

Yoroshiu Good
is.

gozaimasu ka
is

/"

Is

it all

right

Yes.

Yd
Good
139-

gozaimasu.

Yosaso
Likely-to-be-good

ni
to

should

think

it

would do.

masu.
thin*.
1

40.

Yoshila
Desisted

ho
side

ga
(>ui,

yo\vill~

think

it

will

be best

to give

up the

idea.

karo.

probably-be-good
141.

Zosa

There

is

no

ga

nai.

difficulty

Difficulty (noin.) isn't.

ibout
a large

il.

(familiar')

136.

This sentence
is

illustrates

number

of cases containing

the idea "it


will.

fortunate that... "The final desJiila

may be

omitted at
the ad-

139. Japanese idiom requires ni in such phrases,


is

when

jective of probability (.. .so no)

verb following.
conf. p. 176.

turned into an adverb by the fact of a 140. Past tense used idiomatically for the present
;

141.

More

politely,

Zosa gozai mas en.

446.

ADDITIONAL USEFUL
PHRASES.

i.

Ano Ano
/*

fiito

kolo

mma
2.

uso desu.
kilo

Every low says


to

word
is

that

fel-

lie.

no na

zva,

nan

What
(more
lit.

iimasu

say that
3.

is his name ? What do people his name is ?)

Ashita

wa yo ga gozaimasu
hanashi no tane ni

kara> heiko zvo yasumimashb.


4.

I shall be too busy to study to-morrow.

Chitio zva

It

will

be

something

narimashb.
5.

to talk about.

Daibu

kimasJiita

kara,

ni nalte kata-kage desoro-soro

of

kakemashb.

places so I shall begin to think of going out.


;

There shade

is

good deal

in

many

Daibu niwa no sakura ga 6. saki-kakemasKila kara, tsugi no Nichiyb atari ni zva, Mukbjima ga chbdo yoroshiil gozaimashb.

A good many

cherry-

blossoms have begun to come out in the garden so I suppose Mukdjima will just be at its best about next Sunday.
;

i.

end of
5.
it

For a good example of a similar construction with no, see p. 76, 1 10. 2 For to in, see p. 58 and p. 82. 4. Lit. " talk's seed." ^[
auxiliary kimashlta

The

makes the phrase paint or photograph,

as

were, the gradual


flat

oncoming of the shade.


219.

Simple nalta would be


kiinashlta
;

a very
6.

substitute for
p.

For kakeni see


its

compound natte Mukdjima is a


lit.

conf.

197.

part of

Tokyo
in

celebrated

for

avenue of cherry-trees.

Observe the manner


" because the

which the two

clauses are connected

by kara,

cherry-trees have

partially blossomed, etc."

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.

3 OI

7.

Do

ka ko ka, Isugo

ga

deki-

We
other.

shall
it

be

able

to

masu.

manage
Yokohama

somehow

or

8.

Doha

made no
ichi-mai

/old

(fuku-gippu

wo

class

Please give return

me

first-

ticket

to

kudasai.

Yokohama.
ka ni sasarete,
neie
I
I

9.

Domo !

have lain down, but


sleep,
I

mo

nc-tsukarenai.

can't get to

am
10.

so

terribly

bothered

by the mosquitoes.

Fur iso desu

kara,

yoshi-

masho.

It looks like rain ; so I think I will give up (the idea of the excursion,

etc.).
1
1

Hidoifuri ni natte

kimasJiita.

It

has

come on
as
it

to rain
is

SKikashi, yudachi desu kara, jiki

akarimasho.

only a thunder-shower, I suppose the sky will soon


Still,

hard.

clear
12.

up

again.
all

Hiiori

de
kara,

orimasJnla
masJiita.
13.

bon-yari neimiku

shite

was so dull
that I

by

nari-

myself,
sleepy.

got quite

li no

ga

nakereba,

maru

If

there

are

no good
take any

de yoshimasho.

ones, I won't of any kind.


tori

14.

li-tsukela

ni

shinai
I

Why

didn't

you do
?

as

no wa, do sKita mon da r

ordered vou

" somehow or " 7. Do ka ko ka is an idiom meaning other," by hook or by crook." If for dekimasu were substituted dekimasho^ the " I think we shall be able," etc. 8. Kippu, " a phrase would signify
ticket," takes the auxiliary

numeral mai, because a

ticket

is

flat

For akarimashd, many prefer to say agarimas/io, "it will probably lift." 13. For no ga, conf. ^[112 and 14. Do shlta mon' da? here translated "why?" would be TJ 137.
thing; see
p.

109.

II.

more

literally

rendered by " what sort of conduct

is (this)

?"

302
15.
to,

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.


Iki-nari sonna koto wo do shite mo wakarimasen.

That couldn't possibly


be
understood
without
reference

some previous
to the subject.
1

6.

Ikura kake-atte mo,

shochi

All

my

talking hasn't

shimasen.

succeeded in getting him


to consent.

17.

Ima-doki

sono yd na koto
to

Very
sort

little

of

that

wa

atla Yoshi ! sukunai. shita tokoro ga, toji no ron wa aimasen.

of

thing
;

goes

on

ni

nowadays
supposing
instances

and

there of its rence, it doesn't suit the spirit of the age.

even be to occur-

1 8.

Jikd-gara

de,

asa-ban

wa

We
the

are getting

stizushiku narwiasfiita.

season,

mornings

on in and so the and evenings

have become cool.


19.

Kana wa
-ji

sukoshi wakari-

masu ga,

wayomemasen.

understand the I but read the Chinese


I

Kana
can't

little,

cha-

racters.
15. Iki-nari,

"abruptly,"
;

"disconnectedly."

17.

Sukunai,

is

al-

generally convenient to reverse, as has here been done, the order of the ideas, when trans-

ways

predicative, as here

see pp. 274-5.

But

it is

lating a clause containing

sukunai into English.

Yoshi, the conclusive


is

form

(see pp. 121-2) of the adjective_yoz,

"good,"

here used as an

exclamation, but forms from the grammatical point of view a sentence " by itself. To shita tokoro ga is an idiom meaning granting " that 18. Gara, suffixed to a noun, indicates "kind," "nature," here " cause," very much like the postposition kara, " because," of which it is probably but a nigorfed form. 19. Kana, see p. 9.

Notice

the

force

of

the

two wa's, acting


understand
read them at
it

like
little
;

Greek

"
:

py

and

As for

the Kana, I
I can't

but as for the

Chinese ideographs,

all."

European's instinct

would probably lead him

to use the accusative particle

wo

in this place,

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.


20.

303
prices.

honto
dasai.
21.

Kake-nc wo iwanai no nedan wo itie

de,

Don't ask fancy


Tell

ku-

me

the

true price,

please.

Keiko

wo suru

ni,

do

iti

What What
price

is

the best
?

way

ambai ni hajimetara yokard ?


22.

to begin studying
is

ikura

Kelchaku no tokoro wa, made makarimasu ka r>

the very lowest


will

you

go down

to?
23.

Kiga
Kitto

ye

iku

michi

wa,

Which
Kiga?

is

the road to

dochira de gozaimastf?
24.
koi.

kuru yd

ni

so

itte

Go and

tell

him

to be

sure to come.

25.

Komban
kara,

wa
yagu

taiso

hie-

It

is
;

masu
kudasai.

zvo

masKtte

night

some

very chilly toso please put on more blankets.

26.

Komban wa
kila

taiso

ka

ga

dete

kara,

kaya

wo

tsutte

kudasai.

There are lots of mosso to-night ; quitoes please put up the mosquito-net.

27.

Komban

wa yakwai
kara,
ii.

manekareia
shitaku

reifiiku

ni no

You must

put out

my

wo suru ga

dress-clothes, as I am invited out to a party this

evening.
28.

Konna

tansu

wa,

doko

de kaemasu ?
instead of wa.

Where can one buy such cabinets as these ?

Notice how the Japanese construction omits both " the nominative " I and the accusatives " it " and " them." 21. Lit., " in it

doing practice,

sort of

manner?"

will probably be good if one had begun in 22. Lit., " as for the place of decision, etc."

what
24.

For the important subject of the rendering of indirect quotations, see p. 275 ct seq., and especially ^[ 436 for the idiom in this phrase. 28. For
such intransitives as kaeru, " to be buyable," see
p.

205

ct seq.

34
29.

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.

Kono

muko

no

tsuki-

Where
to?

does

this

lead

atariwa, doko desu f


30.
zva,

Kore kara
do desu
/*

saki no michi

How
I

is

the road ahead

31.

Kore

kara

undo ni de-

am

going out
exercise.

now

to

kakemasu.
32.

take
molte kimasen ga,

some

Mada

aru ni iva arimasu.

Although they haven't brought them yet, there is no doubt about the things
being there.
Well, we here to-day,
will

33'

Mazu

made
34.

konnichi wa, kore ni ilashite okimasho.

leave

off

Mijikai

no

mo

areba,

nagai no mo gozaimasu.

Some some are


the

are
long.

short,

and

Moshi! koko 35. iu iokoro desho *


36.

wa nan
ii-yo

to

Excuse me, what may be

name

of this place

Nan

to

mo

ga
ga

It is

quite indescribable.
that diffi-

gozaimasen.

Nani ka futsugo 37. shojimasJiiia to miete


38.

It

would seem
have

culties

arisen,

and
study

so,

Nan-nen

bakan

keiko

How many

years'

hanashi ga dekiru yd ni narimashd ka ?


shitara,
29,
is

do you think would enable one to talk ?


to this,

More
32.

lit.

"

As

for the abutment-place opposite

where

it?"

is

arimasu, "as for their existing, they exist," an emphatic construction see p. 88. Any verb may be so used
ni
;

Aru

wa

for emphasis' sake.

33.

Oku

is

auxiliary

conf. p. 194.

34. Conf. p.

196 for this peculiar construction with the conditional. 35. Instead " of moslii, one may say go men iiasai, deign to pardon me," <>r
chotto

ukagaimasu
it

" I

just enquire."
37.

36.

More
"
it

lit.

" there

is

no

way

of calling

even what?"

Our phrase

\voulclseemthat,''

or the adverb "apparently," is generally thus rendered by the gerundial construction to miete, the sentence 1 eing reversed, and another clause being necessary to clinch it. 38. Lit. " If I did about how many years' study, will it probably become to the forth-

coming

of talking ?"

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.


IVatsH to chigatlc, fuyn 39. ira ryuko-byo ga nakuie, yoros/iin gozai7)iasu.

305
better
in

We
winter
for
\ve

are

off

in
;

than

summer

have no

epidemic
!

diseases in winter.
40.

O
soto

kaeri

nasaimashi !
o

Sazo
41.

wa

samu

gozaiOiuoi-

Welcome back You must indeed have found it


cold out-of-doors.

masJutaro.

0!

kuiabireta.

Oh
ed
than
I

am

tired.

walkfurther

gakenaku kyo wa aruita kara,


gakkari
s/rtia.

to-day
I

much

(familiar)

am

had meant to do, quite played out.


!

and

Oil nesan ! Biiru ip-pon 42. Tstiide ni motle kite o kurc.


kanjn no kaki-tsuke
ivo.

I .^ay, waitress Bring a bottle of beer, please. And let us have the bill at the

same
43.

time.
officially,

Omote-muki
kiite

de

naku,

Don't ask

ask

nai-nai de

kudasai.

privately please.

Sakki made wa de-kakcru 44. tswnori da Ila ga,yoki no sei


ka,

kibun

ga waruku

nalla

kara,
sai.

deru no

wa

yoshimasho.

Kuruma-ya wo

kotowatte kitda-

Until just now I had intended to go out. But whether it is from the effect of the weather or from something else, I feel quite un-

well now, and so shall give up the idea of going out. Please tell the jinriKisha-

man
45.

that he
!

is

not wanted.

Sensei /

korc
r*

wa

do

iu

Teacher
the

what
of this

may be
?

imi de gozaimasho

meaning
go

Sensei ni choito 46. nasaru yo ni so itte koi.

idc

Just

and

ask
here.

my

teacher to

come

So iwarcte wa, damaite iraremasen.


47.

domo

impossible to hold on being spoken to in that way.


It
is

one's

tongue

40.

phrase used by any of a household to their master, or by


41.

hotel people to a guest.

Gakkari

is

a sort of

onomatope
"

for ex-

haustion.-

,12.

44. Derrt 110

At the end supply mottc kite o kiti\\ ~va might be replaced by deru no wo.

please bring."
46.

Seo

p.

276.

306
48.
to,

ADDITIONAL USEFUL PHRASES.


Soko no dote ye agaru junsa ni togameraremasu.

The
with
that

police will find fault

if you walk on embankment.

you,

Sono ga shir er it 49. old nifutsugb de gozaimasn.

Mo

to,

It

will

never do for that

to get
I

known.
got
all

Taiso ase ni natta kara, 50. ivo sukkari ki-kaekimono mashb.


51.
shita.

have

into such a

perspiration,
will

that I think I

change

my
all

clothes.

Taiso kumotte mairimaSoko-bic no suru toko


atari
shire-

The sky
over.
I

has
feel

clouded

thoroughly

wa

wo mimasu to, ko??iban ytiki ga furu ka mo


Tsngi no
shuku
1

which makes chilled, think that perhaps it

me
may
it

mascn.
52.

snow
made

to-night.

How many
the next town
I
felt

miles
?

is

to

nan

ri gozaimasu r

Tsumaranai 53. bki ii-kakerarete,


rimashita.
54.

koto

wo
koma-

much annoyed
in

at

ni

addressed being manner.

that

no

ga

Watakushi wa achira ho ye ichi-do mo itta koto nai kara, annai wo hitori

As
in

have

never

been

that

please

direction before, engage a guide for

yatolte kudasai.
55. ato

me.
kirei desu

Yuln no

wa

michi

ni

ga, komari-

Snow
but
it

is pretty to look at, puts the roads in a

masu.
48. Lit.

frightful state afterwards.


" the

hence"

fact."

embankment of there." 5 1 Toko is for tokoro, Mimasu to, " when I see," " when I consider"
.

"

place,"

(the fact

For suru in the that there is, i.e. that I am feeling, an under-chill). " one sense of " to he," see *|[ 356, p. 227. Furu ka mo sliiremascn, lit.
cannot
55.

know whether
lit.

it

will

snow."

54. Itta koto, conf.

277,

p. 178.

More

"one

is

troubled by the after-roads."

447-

EASY
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
via ni
iii

1.

I\fa<Ja

aimasho ka

Mo ma

aimaxcn.
k<j

I still be No, you won't.

Shall

in

time?

3[o ma ni aitnasumai 2. Mada ma ni aimasu.

still

Don't you think I shall be in time ? Yes, you

will.

3.

Omosftiro gozaimashila ka ?

Was
not very.

it

amusing

No,

le

amar i omoshiroku
tea

wa
<Je

gosaimasen.
4.

Go

lyoki

ikaga

How
Much

do you
better,

feel to-

gozaimasu
zaimasu.
nai'iinashila.
5.

Arigato goOki ni kokoro-yoku

/M r

day ? thank you.

Do

kangae nasaru ka ?
lsukimas.cn.

What do you
it ?

think about
at

Kangae ga
6.

can't

arrive

any

opinion.

rarcinasho
koto
7.

Watakushi-domo ni mo mika r Mirarenai 7ra arumai.

Anala

ga

wa, gozaimasu
7i\i

kodomo-shu
1

too be allowed to do you think ? I don't think there is any reason why you should not.
I

Can

see

it,

icalakYts/ii

ka r dokushiu

le ; de

Have you any


No,
I

am

children a bachelor.

gozaimasu.
3.

For amari, see

88.

Such

elliptical

For the wa after omoshiroku, conf. p. p. 148. " sentences as " No, not very in the Fnglish version
in the next
is
lit.

of this example
sible in
6.

and the answer


5

Japanese.

The answer
201-2,

example, are not admis" consideration sticks not."


271.
7.

Conf.

309, pp.

and \ 432,

p.

More

lit.

"As

for

you, are there honourable children ?"

308

EASY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

8. Ryoko menjb wo o mochi de gozaimasu ka P He! shoji ilashile orimasu.

Have yon
Yes,
I

got a passport have.

9.

ka P

Embi-fuku de irasshaimasu Sore de nalm mo,

Are you going


ing clothes, Sir will frock-coat
?

in even-

No,

my
well

fnrokftu-kdto de yoroshii.

do

meshi-mono ki-kae nasaimasu ka P


10.

zvo

o
!

lya

kono yoi ho
1

mama
lo

de,

uwagi dakc

kaeyb.

enough. Are you going to change No, I your clothes, Sir ? shall remain as I am, except that I will put on a
better coat.

1.

Senjitsu wo shina

iva,

kckkb

na

Many

thanks

for

the

arigatb

zonji-

beautiful present you me the other day.

made

Do

itashimasnile !

Makolo ni
shitsurei
it.

Oh
It

pray don't mention

somatsu na mono de gozaimasJnla.

de,

was

really

such

rubbish, that it was quite rude of me to offer it to you.

8.

Ryoko may be omitted.

The answer

to

this question is rather

In simpler parlance it would high-flown. en = " swallow," />*' = " tail," 9. In Chinese

be

He!
="

motie orimasu.
clothes."
is

//

Sore
nearest

de naku

mo,
is

"even

without

that."

Fnrokku-koto

the

approach

which Japanese organs are capable. 10. a very polite term for clothes, used chiefly by servants Yoi /;<? = " the good one," or "a better in addressing their masters. " one," my best one." Observe the simple non-honorific kaeyo, used
to "frock-coat," of

JMesJii-mono

be by the master in addressing his servant. Between friends it would kacmasho and the servant in the question uses the still more honori;

fic

II. (Answer.) It is the rule (o use some such depreciatory phrase as this in speaking of a present made by oneself to another. The self-depreciation does not sound at For the dc in somatsu na mono de, see all excessive to Japanese ears.

periphrasis o ki-kae nasaimasu.

p.

This method 138, ^[ 2co ct seq. 12. When there carefully studied.

is

of correlating sentences must In.no bell, as in all old-fashioned

as in No. 14. Japaneses houses, the visitor cries out O lano moshimasu The servant here s-ays simply taku, rather than o takit, in order t<> avoid applying honorifics to any one connected with the family he himself belongs to, even though it be the lady of the house herself.

EASY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.


12.

309

(Visitor rings

the

bell,

and servant appears.)


Irasshaimashi
!

Welcome
o

Okusama

wa,
1

uchi

de

Is

Mrs. * * *

at

home

gozaimasu ka r

He !
13.

laku de gozaimasu.

Yes,

Sir.

Rusu-cliu,

ni donaia
s>

mo

o ide iva nakatia ka

Did any one was out ?


Yes,
called
Sir,

call

while

He !
kata

ga

irassJiaimasJiile,
' '

senkoku kono tcfuda no o kaeri


"
to

gentleman
this

ni

naliara,
.

YorosJiiku
a polite phrase

and left and he desired


pliments to

card

m bsarem ash lla


This
last clau

comyou when you


his

in"

constant use.

came home.
I
/

14.

lano()>ii)

inoshimasu

beg
This

to
's is

ask

\tlicrc is

the form, formula used wJicn\ no to house-bell. house-bell, )


I

Irasshaimashi

Welcome
o

Go

shujin
/*

wa,
rusu

laku de

Is

your master at
Sir,

home

gozaimasu ka

Tadaima
masu.

de

gozai-

No,

he has gone out.

So desu ka ?
o
' '

Sore de

lua,

Indeed
tell

'

narimashilara, Smith mairimashilc, ga " to YorosJiiku mbshimasJiita


'

kacri

ni

him,

Then please when he comes

itte

kudasai.
13.

home, that Mr. Smith called and desired his compliments to him.

lit. "Did no one call?" the Japanese usually preferring such questions negatively. The potential mdsaremashlla. at the end is more polite than plain mdsn would be ; see ^[ 403, p. 250.

More

to turn

14.

The mi

of tanomi

is

often

dropped

for

brevity's sake.

Persons

who
that

" Taiioinn." arc not scrupulous about politeness cry out simply These little dialogues instance the use of so many honorific idioms,
it

might be well

to

read through the Chapter on Honorifics, p.

244

et seq., in

connection with them.

11448.

FEW

PROVERBS.
i.

Ame
Itaiii,

fuile,

/m via {/-fallen,

After rain the hard.


("Good comes

ground

gels

kalamaru.
hardens.

out of evil.")

2.

Aiuase-niono
Jolned-tliinf/

2ua,
<ts-for,

That

which

has

been
is

artificially

joined together

hanare-mono.
sep<irable-thin<j(is}.

easily separated. / Said of a husband and wife who


\disagree.

3
te,

Bo
Jtludf/con

hodo
amoiint

negatJiavitiff-

hari
needle

hodo

requested,

amount

To ask for a bludgeon's worth, and to get a needle's worth.

kanau.
corresponds.
4.

Dor obi)
Thief

ni
to,

Spending money on the


pursuit of a
bad." ("
thief.
after\
J

sen.

Throwing good money

money.
5.

Go
District
iva,

ni
into

ille

When you
conform
/

enter a district,

havinyni
to

to its

customs.
Rome, do as\
/

go
district

sJnta-

entered. '

con-

When you \Rome does."

"

are in

gae!
font 1
6.
1

Haki-damc
"

ni

tsuru.
storJt.
('

Swccp-nionnd on,
Supply da, the end. 5. This
2.
is,"

stork A jewel in

on a dust-heap.
u dunghill.")

after

hanarc
irii,

.^.
"

Supply

wo

tsuiyasii at

itU- is

the gerund o f

(o enter."

PROVERBS.

7.

Hart
\<;<lf<l'i>

hodo
(ininiuil

no
*.s

koto
Uihi.il

To talk of a thing as small as a needle as if it were as


big as a bludgeon. / make mountains "To To m
Vmole-hills.

zvo
(accus.)
ill.

liodo

ni
to

bhid{/con

amount

out

of

to -sun.

8.

Hilo
I'cofile

no
's

inrasa

mo,
even* t

Gossip only
five

lasts seventylike\

rumour
(is).

xeceiity-ji ve-daus

will blow over / V" a nine days' wonder."

days. The scandal

().

Hllo
I'ri'xini

wo
(accus.)

noroeba,
if-onc-curses,

Curse a man, and there


will

ana
hole*

be two graves.

futalsit.
tii'O

(mutiiatc).

(A curse strikes not only him against whom it is pronounced, but also him who pronounces it.)

10.

Hiza
Kiiees

to

mo,
even,

danconit
'

with

Consult any one, even if be only your own knees.


" In there
is

multitude
safety."

of

sultation
1

(dj).

counsellors > )

Hotoke

no
's

kao
face

/no,

Even

a Buddha's face can

Buddha
san-do.
three-times.
12.

even,

only be tickled thrice. (" The crushed worm will turn.")

/
Well

no
's

uchi
inside

no
's

kawazu.
fron.

Like a frog in a

well.

(Knowing nothing of the world.)

$3.

Ichi

wo
(accus.)

kiile,

To know
a part.

all

by hearing

One

havinff -heard,

JU
ten

ivo
(accus.)

shint.
to-knoiv.

(Said of mental acuteness.)

14.

Inn
J)o{/

ni
to

natle bccomiity

mo,
even,

If

least

you become a dog, at be the dog of a great


nothing by halves.")

o-doko
larfje-itluce

no
'.s

inu
dot;

ni
to

nare

/
I

house.
("

been me

Do

8. Supply da, "is." 9. Supply some such words as

Supply ga dekiru.\Q. Supply shiro.'i\.


sliika

*nadcrarenai'i

" cannot-stroke 2 but 1

(three-times.)"
loo* shirazu* ("
is

12.

The complete saying is Ino


"

uchi no

kawazu daikni*in

knows-not 3 the ocean 1 "). Shirazu here and

No. 30

iclic of lh

Book Language, the

conclusive negative present."

312
Iri-mame
]'tirc7icd-pcas

PROVERBS.
ni
on,

hana.
blossoms.

Blossoms on parched peas.


thistles." ("

Grapes on thorns and

figs

on\
/

6.

Jigoku
Hell

no
's

sala
dccisiotis

Even

hell's

judgments

mo,
also,

kam
money
Kai-inu
Keeping-dog

shidai.
according(are).

may
all

be swayed by money.
Money
is

("doors."
tc

the key that opctis\


/

17.

ni
by.

To
("

get one's

hand

bitten

hand

wo
(accus.)

kamareru.
lo-gct-bitlcn.

by one's own pet dog.


Nursing a viper
in one's

bosom.")

8.

Kawai
J)ear

ko
child

ni
to !
.'

wa

A
made

pet

child

should

be

to travel.
spoil the\ )

labi

wo

sase

.journet/ (accus.)

cause-to-do

/ "Spare the rod, and (child."

9.

Koiuashi,
(Ss)afraid
;

milashi.
ivants-io-see.

Afraid,

and

yet itching to

peep.

20.

Kybdai
Brethrcn

wa
as-for,

taother-

Brotherhood

is

the

first

step towards estrangement.


in thicker than water." (The

nin
Itcople

no
of

hajimari. beginning

(arc).

exact reverse of our " Blood \ /

JMekura

mind
me-aki
sons, ci/c-open
71111.

tJionsand-pcr-

there

For every thousand blind are a thousand who


see.
opinion
is

senthoiisand-

can

(The world's
balanced,
striving

so evenly

that there is little use in after unusual and often

jH'i-SOns (arc).

unappreciated excellence.)

22.

Mitsu-go
made.
till

no

lamashii
soul

A
soul
till

Tfirec-child's
liyakii

three-year-old child's remain the same he is a hundred.


will
is

hundred
16.
19.

(changes
18.

not).

("

The boy

father to the man.")

Supply

da.

A good example
Supply
da.

imperative, second conj. of the survival of the conclusive form of adjectives,


;

Sase! = sasero!

each word being here grammatically n complete sentence


20.

see pp. 121-2.

21.

Supply ant.

22.

Supply kawaranai.

PROVERBS.

313

23.

Nama-byoh

PROVERBS.
29.

Oni

no
's

rusu
absence

ni
in,
/

Demon
senlaku.
tvashing
(to do).

the

Doing the washing when demons are absent.


"

When

\\vlll

the cat' s away, the mice play."

30.
' '

" Analects "


"

"Kongo"

yomi no
's

To
lects,"

have read the " Ana-

Rongo
1
.

reading shirazu.

and
know

not

to

know
happy\
/

them.
/

"Analects"
3

Jtnoivs-not.

" If ye
if

these things,

\are ye

ye do them."

San-nin
TJiree-persons

yoreif-comechie.
cleverness.

When
sult

three

people conthere results

ba,
together,

Monju
Monju

no
's

together,

wisdom worthy of Monju.


("

Two
"

heads are better than one."

32.

Shaka
TtuddJta

ni
to,

sekkyo.

Preaching
/

to

Buddha.

sermon.

Teaching your grandmother to\ Vsuck eggs." )

33-

Shinda
Died
kazoeru.
to-connt.

ko
child's

no

toshi

To
("

reckon

up

dead

wo
(accus.}

child's age.
Crying over
spilt milk.")

34.
ko.
city

Sumeba,
If-you-reside,
(ids).

miyaccipital-

If you becomes

live

in a place,

it

the
make

capital so far
one's

as

you are concerned.


can

home any-\
)

(One
Sentakti
If
is

where.
to be

29.

Supply wo suru.
"

believed
the

tenlaku,

changing

house."

so,

original

corruption of meaning of the


a
to sec."

" To proverb was change house when the demons are not by
30.

The Confucian

" Analects " are

one of the most venerated of


of

the Chinese Classics,

and a committal
to

them

to

memory was

formerly an essential part of every Japanese gentleman's education.

The proverb
not, as

applies

the failure

to

put principles into practice,

might be supposed, to the non-comprehension of texts. Yomi, the indefinite form of yomu, " to read," is here equivalent to yomu liilo.

For
is

s/iiraztisee p. 311, note to

No.

12. in

31.

Monju

the personification

of

wisdom

the

(Sanskrit Manjnsri) Buddhist mythology. 32.

Supply -oo sum. 34. Supply da. This proverb means that a can accustom himself to any circumstances.

man

PROVERBS.
35.s-///.

315
Just

Todai,

moio
bottom

kura(is)

Ctindlcstick,

stick
all. /

is

below the candlethe darkest place of


to get\ /

</</>/.'.

" One has to go abroad \newsofhome."

36.

Tokoro
rf<t<-<-

kawareba,
i/'-chanyvs,

shina kind

So many
manners.

places, so

many

kawaru.
ffntllf/CS.

37.

Uma
Horse

no
's

inimi

Ill

<w

Pouring prayers
horse's ears.
(Taking useless trouble.
)

into

in,

ncnibutsu.
prayer-to-Jituldha
(to say}.

38.

Us/7i'
C'oiv

wa
<ts-foi;

nshi-zure, cfnv-cotnjwnion;

Cows

consort with cows,


horses.

and horses with

uma
Jiorsc

wa
as-for,

uma-zure.
horse-companion,

" Birds of a feather flock together.")

39.

Uwasa
Gossip

wo
(accus.)

surcba,
if-one-does,

If you talk of a man, shadow will fall on you.


/

his

kage ga shadow no m
(

sasu.
.

" Talk of the Devil, and

he'll

ap-\

strikes.

40.

Walaru
Cross

sekai
tvorld

n
in,

Cross

the whole world,


will

oni

wa
as-for,

and you demons.


/

find

no

nai.
is-not.

There

is

demon
41.

\everywhere.

kindness to be found"\ )

Wazawai
Calamity

wa
as-for,

shimo
below

Calamities below.
(It is

come

from

kara.
front
(arises).

not enough to flatter the great. ingratiate yourself with the underlings for the power to hurt you rests chiefly with them.)

You must

35. Kitrashi, conclusive

form of knrai, "dark;"

conf. pp.

12

2.

37.

Supply wo

iu.

41.

Supply okorn.

449-

FRAGMENTS
OF

CONVERSATION.
1.

THE
!

POST.

Kesa, yiilin

wa

kimasen ka

r>

He !

mairimasen.

Hale-na

Kino no asa

Hama ye

dashlla hcnji

ga mo knrn

wake da ga
2.

AN

EXHIBITION.

Tonen

?no

Ueno ni hakuranhvai ga
kikimasen.

arimashb ka ?

Ikaga deshb ka ?

Tonto uwasa

wo

3.

A
!

REQUEST.

Dekiru nara,

kyb-jii

ni kore

wo

utsushile

kudasai.

Domo
4.

so

wa

ikimasen.

ENGAGING A TEACHER.

Dozo yoi shisho wo sagashile

kudasai.

Mi-atari shidai, Isurete mairimasho.


5.

WHAT

SALARY?

Hito-lsuki no sharei wa,

dono kurai

yaltara yokarb ?

Ma ! ju-shi-go-cn
I.

dejiibun de gozaimasho.

For "yes," where

pp. 235-6.
line of the

Hama

is

"no" would seem more natural, see ^[376, a familiar abbreviation for Yokohama, The last

may

Japanese text is extremely concise : Hama ye das hit a henji be best construed by expanding it to Hama ye dashita teganil no

FREE

ENGLISH
TRANSLATION.
1.

THE
can't

POST.

Have no
out

letters

come

this

morning?

No, none have come.


I

make

it

Why,

there ought to be an answer

to the letter I sent to

Yokohama

yesterday morning.

2.

AN

EXHIBITION.
?

Is there to

be an exhibition

at

Ueno

this
I

year also

don't know.

have not heard the

slightest

rumour on

the subject.
3.

A
by
!

REQUEST.

If

you can manage

it,

do please copy

this

to-night.

O
4.

really, that is

quite impossible.

ENGAGING A TEACHER.

Please look out for a good

teacher for me.

As soon
5.

as I find one, I will bring

him

to you.
I

SALARY.
,

How much

salary should

give a

month

(e.g.

a teacher or clerk )? I should say that $14 or $15 would be ample. Well,
to

Jienji.

The
in

sentence

is

incomplete

but such incomplete sentences

ending
actly

ga are of frequent occurrence, the speaker not knowing exwhat to add 2. Ikaga dcslio ka is more or less conf. p. 186.
;

" equivalent to

don't

know

"
;

see

375, p. 235.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
6.

MEAL HOURS.
to

Kochira de wa, gozen no jikoku wa,


/>

nan-ji

nan-ji desu ka

He!

O him

iva ju-ni-ii

han

de, o yashoku

ga

shlchi-ji

han

de gozaimasu.

Sore de wa, asa-han zva P

He!
shidai.

asa wa,

kirnari

ga gozaimasen.

Anala no go isugb

7.

AN

ENQUIRY.

Moshi !

ukc-tsukc

wa,

kochira

desu

ka?
Hci !
8.

koko ivo

massugu ni

o ide ni

naru

to,

sugu soko desu.


to

ANOTHE ENQUIRY.
J
.<

Koko kara Fuji ga mieru

wa,

hontb desu ka

Ma / mieru
9.

to

mosu

koto de gozaimasu.

TALKING TO A CHILD.
otonashii koto !

-5*5,

botchan ! koko yc o kake

nasai.

ikutsu desu ka

Yatsu.

Taiso okii koto

Gakko ye

o kayoi

desu ka ?
doybbi dcsii
kara,
o

He !

mainichi ikimasu ga,

kyb 7va,

hiru-giri deshita.
10.

TALKING TO A FATHER.
gozaimasu ka
taisb
/*

Kono

ko zva, anaia no

go

sfiisoku dc

He !

"iVatakushi no sbryb de

gozaimasu.

Sore wa,
Je
6.

rippa na

go shisoku

ivo

mochi nasai-

wasKite, sazo o tanoshimi de gozaimaslw.


!

dbmo, ivampaku de komarimasu.


Jit-ni-ji hail de
:

notice
;

how
*[[

de,

used predicatively, correlates


fifth

this clause

with the next


p. 139.

conf.

200, p. 138, and the fourth and

examples on

After asa-han wa, supply itsit de gozaiinasn ? After shiilai, supply de gozaimasu. 7. For koko wo, conf. p. 232. " the assertion that 8. To wa stands for to in koto wa, Fuji can," etc.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
6.

319
hours
for

MEAL
?

HOURS.

What

are

the

meals

here

Luncheon
past seven.

is

at

half-past

twelve,

and dinner

at

half-

Then what about


Breakfast
?

breakfast
is

There

no

fixed time for


to yourself.
is

it,

Sir.

You

can

have
7.

it

whenever convenient

AN
;

ENQUIRY.

Please,

this the
it

enquiry office?
a minute,
if

No

but you will

come

to

in

you go

straight on.
8.

ANOTHER ENQUIRY.
?

Is

it

true that Fuji can

be seen

from here
Well,
9.

it is

supposed to

be.

TALKING TO A CHILD.
here.

Here,
are
!

my

little

man

sit
?

down

What

good boy you

How

old are you

Eight.

How
Yes,
lessons
10.

big you are for your age


I
till

go

there every

day.
it is

Do you go to school ? But to-day we only had


Is
this
little

noon, because

Saturday.

TALKING TO A FATHER.

boy

your

son

Yes, he

is

my

eldest.

Indeed, you have a fine fellow for an eldest son. a source of happiness he must be to you
!

What

Oh
to do.

no indeed.

He

is

so naughty,

don't

know what

9.

For hot than, seep.


;

240.

Koto

in tai so okii
is

koto!
;

is

used excla-

matorily
lo.

see p. 39.

The

o of o hiru-giri

meaningless

see p. 248.

quite irrespective of facts, and

Such complimentary and self-depreciatory speeches are customary, must not be understood too literally.

320
11.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

THE TELEGRAPH.
ga
,

Kokoe-ra
!

wa,

hempi da

kara,

denshin

nakute fujiyu desu, nc

Sayb de gomimasum.

Oi-oi dekimasu de gozaimashd.

12.

SPEAKING

Ni'hon-go

ga
koto

WELL. JAPANESE wakari m narimasu.

Anala

wa,

yoku
de

Tonda

osshaimasn.

Do
Honib

shite !

Naka-naka

xosb

gozaimasu. lya ! do itashimastute

Hppa de gozahuasu.

13.

No THOROUGHFARE.
dasb
koko
da.
de,

Ann hashi wa fushin-chu


ga
kakaitc imasu.

de,

brai-donie

Dbri

kari-bashi

14.

COMPLIMENTS ON MEETING A FRIEND.


do ilashimasJiite

Konaida

iva

tochn de hanahada shikkei.

le

watakushi koso.

ShikQshi, are kara

dochira

yc

irasshaimasKlla ?

15.

MESSAGE.

Sakki no tsukai wa, mada kaelte kouai


iru ka ^

ka

2
j

Naiii

wo

sJilte

Taisb iema

ga

toreru.

Oka la

saki sa?na

ga

rusu

de, maite de

mo

or imasu n' de

gozaimasho.

12.

Lit.

"As

for
13.

understanding."
"

you, Japan language becomes well to honourable " DC, see ^[ 200. Daso is the adjective of pro79^/7 dc ^

bability

of da, " to be."

being reasonable," here

'

that

is

why." 14. These and similar complimentary speeches are in constant use, and do not sound absurd in Japanese, though the faults npo'ogised
for

on both

sides are generally quite imaginary.

Afler shikkei supply

itasliimaslnia. After koso supply de gozaimasJiita,

Apropos the sentence

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
11.

321
isn't

THE TELEGRAPH.

It

is

inconvenient

it?

being no telegraph in this part of the country, on account of its being so out-of-the-way.
there

Yes.
12.

But

suppose we

shall

have

it

in time.

SPEAKING JAPANESE WELL.

You speak
?

Japanese

beautifully.

Nonsense
nese
is

How
it.

can you say such a thing

My
really

Japa-

very poor indeed.


bit of

Not a

How

can you say so

You

speak

splendidly.
13.

No THOROUGHFARE.
closed, because the

It

seems that the thoroughis

fare

is

bridge over there

undergoing

repairs.

Ah
14.

yes

That

is

why

they have put

up a temporary
I

bridge here.

COMPLIMENTS ON MEETING A FRIEND.


for

beg your

pardon
day.

having been so rude to you in the


all

street the other

Oh

no, not at
after

It
?

was

who was

rude.

Where did

you go
15.

we

parted

MESSAGE.
ago,

Hasn't the messenger


yet
it.

whom

sent

some time
is

come back
is

What

is

he doing ?
se'nt

He
to
is

a tremendous time about

Probably

it

because the gentleman you


is

him

out, so that the messenger

kept waiting.
where one has been

beginning Slukashi, notice that such questions as to


or
is

about to go are not considered indiscreet by the Japanese, but are, on the contrary, used in the best society. 15. Sakki is emphatic for
saki ; conf.

25, p.

18.

Toreru
" the

is

the intransitive corresponding to

the transitive verb torn, "to take;" conf. p. 206.

Saki sama "the

gentleman in front," bottom of p. 79.

i.e.

gentleman over there."

For

'

see

322
1 6.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

FEELING UNWELL.
/"

Kyb no

shiikivai

ni zva,

iras-

shaimasen deshita ka

He !

kyo wa,

nan da

ka, kokoro-mochi ga

warukute ikemasen

kara, kotowari

wo

itte

yarimashila.

1 7.

ON BOARD

SHIP.

Kyo wa

yoi nagi de gozaimasu,

net

So de gozaimasu.

Go

doyo ni shi-awasc de gozaimasu.


r
1

Anata wa, Kobe ye o ide de gozaimasu ka le. Nagasaki made mairimasu.


Ikaga de gozaimasu ?
Kiisuenjo

de ip-puhn

itashimasho

ka? Sa !
1

o tomo itashimasho.

8.

PICNIC.

Kyo wa,

ii

hiyori da kara,

undo kata-

gata

Ojigoku wo mite kimasu kara, nani ka bento wo san-nin-mae isoide koshiraete kudasai.

mi-tsuknrotle,

He!

shochi

itashimashita.

Go

sJm

wa,

nani-nani

wo

motasemasho ?

Sake wa,
deyoroshii.

liiru ip-pon

to,

fusukc, ip-pon

ni,

soda-mizu ni-hon

He !
19.

kashikomarimasJiita.

VISITOR.

daso da kara, nan de


kudasai.

mo ari-awase-mono

-Ima mieia o kyaku wa, mada gozen-mae de gohan wo dasliite

He !

shochi itashimashita.
so had, that
it is

Warukute ikemasen, fairly lit. " teing 16. more simply "it is too bad." Similarly too far;" kutabiretc ikemasen, "I am too
pp. 147-8.
17.

no go
"it
^[

"
;

tokute ikemasen,
tired," etc.; conf.

is

218,

For the

objective honorific* in

go doyo and o tomo, see

18. p. 247. Ojigoku (" Big Hell ") is the name of a \alley near Miyanoshita containing some boiling sulphur-springs. It is also called

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
1

323

6.
?

FEELING UNWELL.
don't

Didn't you go to the meeting

to-day

No.

know what

it

is,

but

I feel

unwell

so

sent

an excuse.
17.

ON BOARD

SHIP.

It

is

beautifully

calm to-day,

isn't

it?

Yes, indeed.

It is

lucky
?

for all

of

us.

Are you going


No.
I

to

Kobe

am

What do you
smoking-room
All right,
1

going on to Nagasaki. say to our going and having a pipe in the


?

come along
As

8.

to

Ojigoku

haste,
three.

we are going So please make and put up something or other as luncheon for
PICNIC.
it is

fine

weather to-day,
exercise.

for the

sake of a

little

All right, Sir.

What

liquors shall I send

Liquors

bottle of beer, a bottle of whisky,

and two

bottles of soda-water, will

be enough.

All right, Sir.


19.

VISITOR.

It

would seem

that the visitor

who

has

just arrived has not dined yet.

thing to

eat.

Anything that
Sir.

So please give him somehappens to be ready will do.

All right,
Owaki-daiti,

i.e.,

" the Valley of the Great Boiling."

Undo
:

katagata,

more

lit.

" at the

same time

as exercise."

Mite kiniasu

conf. kuru,

p. 193.

Go

s/iu

is

Chinese for the Japanese o sake, and sounds more


the nearest approach most Japanese can

polite.

Fusuke

is

make

to the

KasMkomarimasliita, or shochi itaslumaslnta, as immediately above, is the usual term by which an inferior expresses that he has understood the orders of a superior.

pronunciation of our word "whisky."

324
20.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

ASKING

THE

WAY.

Moshil

Hakubulsiikivan iva,

do no hen desu ka ?

Sayb de gozaimasu. Sore iva, koko wo massugu ni iku to, migi no ho ga junsa no kbbansho de, hidari no ho ga HakuMon ni " Hakubutsukwan " to kaita gaku ga butsukwan desu.
agete arimasu kara, jiki shiremasu.

Kore wa, dbmo !

arigato zonjimasu.

21.
(o

COMPLIMENTS
ni kakarimasu).

ON

FIRST

MEETING.

Hajimemashite
to

me

Watakushi

wa Tanaka Tsunemasa

Nanibun yoroshiku negaimasu. de gozaimasu ka r Kanete sommei wa uketamawatte Sayb Watakushi wa Smith to mbsu mono dc, orimashita ga
mbshimasu.
1

igo o kokoro-yasii

22.

TAKING LEAVE OF
Konnichi

FRIEND.

Taisb chdza

wo

itashi-

mashila.

wa mb

o itoma (ni) itashimashb.


j*

Ma !

Yoi de wa gozaimasen ka

Mb
wa

shbshb o

hanasJii

nasttc irasshaimashi.

Arigato gozaimasu ga }

konnichi

chito

tori-isogimasn

kara, izure rnata sono uchi ukagaimasu.

Sayb de gozaimasu ka P
mbshi-agemashita.

Kore

iva iaisb shitsurci bakari


o tachi-

Sonnara, mala o chikai uchi ni zehi

yori wo
20.

For the active past tense kaita, "wrote," where English idiom
^[
lit.

requires

the passive past participle " written," see Similarly in the case of gaku ga agate ariMasii,
21.

293, pp. 190-1. " a tablet is

raising."

The complimentary
carefully

numbers should be

committed

phrases in this and the next three to memory, as they are in

constant requisition, however queer and stilted the English transla-

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
20.

325
tell

ASKING THE WAY.


to the

Please, Sir!

would you

me
find
left

the

way

Museum
Yes
!

Let

me

see

If

a police-station to your right,


is

you go straight on, you will and the building on the

the

Museum.

You

will

know

it

tablet over the gate,

with the

word

at once, for there is a " '


'

Museum

written

on

it.

Oh
21.

very

many

thanks,

Sir.

COMPLIMENTS ON FIRST MEETING.


Tsunemasa.

This
Sir.

is

the

first

time I have had the honour to meet you,


is

My name
friend-

Tanaka

beg

for

your

kind

ship.

Oh

indeed

before, although

have had the honour to hear of you My name is Smith. (we have never met).
I

Henceforward
intimacy.
22.

hope you

will

honour

me

with

your

TAKING LEAVE OF A FRIEND.


visit,

unconscionably long
leave.

I have paid you an and must now be taking my

Oh Why hurry so ? Do please chat a little longer. Many thanks, but I am rather pressed for time to-day.
!

I will call

again soon.

Must you
of

my

Well, pray excuse the shortcomings really go ? imperfect hospitality, and remember that I count upon

your
tions

visiting

me

again very soon.


After
iiketamaivatt^

may

sound.

orimasJiita

ga,

must
by
"

be

supplied

some clause such

as has here been rendered in English

have never met."

After o kokoro yasTi supply negaiiiias-ii.22,.

we Yd

would be more
often used
p. 219.
;

strictly

conf. N. B. to p. 125.

grammatical than yoi de wa, but the latter is For the tori of tori-is oghnasu, see

At the end supply negaimasu.

326
23.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

THANKS FOR ASSISTANCE RECEIVED.


tabi

Sale dan-dan
arigato

kono

wa go

shusen

kudasaimashile,

gozai-

masu.

le! iki-lodolrimasen
medetb gozaimasu.

de,

makolo ni

Shtkashi mazu o

24.

NEW YEAR

CONGRATULATIONS.

Mazu

akemashite, o

medeto gozaimasu.

medeto gozaimasu.

Kyuto

narimashite,
negaimasii.

arigato zonjimasit.

wa iro-iro o sewa sama ni Nao tonen mo ai-kawarazu

25.

AN EARTHQUAKE.
wo go sukoshi mo
ga
iva,

Anata saki-hodo jishin ga gozai-

mashita no
le
!

zonji desu ka ?

zonjimasen deshita.
hido

He-he !
hana-ike
deshita.

Yohodo
yurele,

gozaimashite

ano

lokonoma
ni naru

no

sunde-no-koto

ni taoreso

hodo

Sore

naka-naka oki na jishin de gozaimashila,

ne

Nan-ji goro deshita /

Sono
desJnta.

toki,

tokei

wo mimashitara,
!

ichi-ji

ni-jip-pun

sug
desu.

Naruhodo
Watakushi

ha-ha

Sore de
ni

iua,

shiranai

wake

wa,

ichi-ji

Tsukiji

wo

demasJiite,

kunima

de mairimashita
taro.

kara,

dkala

sono

tochu

de

gozaimashi-

" Dan-dan, gradually," which serves to show have favours long-continued your been, is a word constantly thus used in polite speeches. After makoto ni must he supplied some
23.
!

Sate = " well "

how

such clause as that which


myself."
idea
is

we have
at.

translated

by

"

am ashamed
;

of

" Result "


less

is

not actually in the original expression


24.

but the

more or

pointed

" Akemasliite refers to the open-

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
23.

327
I

THANKS FOR ASSISTANCE RFCEIVED.


all

am

very

much

indebted to you for

your kind assistance on


really
I

this occasion.

Not

at all
little.

am

ashamed

of myself for

having

done so

Anyhow,

congratulate you on the result.

24.

NEW YEAR

CONGRATULATIONS.

beg

to offer

you

my congratulations on the New Year. The same to you. I trust that you

will

continue to

me

throughout the present year those favours by which I have has just profited in so many ways during the year that
closed.

25.

AN EARTHQUAKE.
?

Did you

feel

the earthquake a

few hours ago

No, I didn't feel it at all. Indeed ? It was very


to

violent.

It

was such that the


it

flower-vase there in the alcove shook so that


fall.

seemed

likely

Then it must indeed have been a About what o'clock did it take place ?
I

severe earthquake.

looked

at

my
In

watch

at

the time,

and

it

was twenty
feel

minutes past one.

Ah,
it.

see.

that

case
at

was bound not to


o'clock,

As

left
it

Tsukiji

one

and went
I

in

iinrilusha,

doubtless

took

place

while

was on

the

road.

"

ing

of the

New

Year.

Kyiito

is

lit.

" old winter " in Chinese, hence


lt

Shiranai ivake, just about to," 25. Sttnde no koto ni not " a reason which does not know," but "a reason why /should not " know ;" conf. p. 58. J^snkiji is the name of the foreign " concession
"last year."
(quarter) in

Tokyo.

For sono = "oi

that," see p. 54,

328
26.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

HIRING
-zoo

JINRIKISHA.
itlc,

Ueno no Hakubutsnkwan ye
no
koenchi
?nala
j>

Oi! kuruma-ya Kyaku. ne ! sore kara Asakusa


da ga,

kembutsu
station

sfiite,

kaeri ni Ginza de kai-mono


'n

shite,

kono

made kaeru

ikura

de

iku ka

He ! hidoku o tema ga toremashb ka f Shafu, Kyaku. lyal so tema wa toremai, -yukata made ni kaeru tsumori da kara.
Shafu.
to

He /

Sore de wa, danna


sukoshi takaku

shichi-jii-go-sen negai-

gozaimasu.

Kyaku. Shafu.

H'm
le
!

wa

nai ka

/>

Yohodo michi-nori mo gozaimasu kara,

kes-

shite o takai koto

Kyaku. Hoteru ye

moshi-agemasen. Sonnara, sore dake yarn kara, kaeri ni Teikoku choito yoile kurei, iazuneru Kilo ga aru kara.

wa

Sfnkashi, kore

wa
!

tema

wa

torenai.

Shafu.
mashi.

He

Yoroshiu

gozaimasu.

meshi

nasai-

27.

LETTERS FOR THE MAIL.


ni kono tegami

Moshi!

Haru San!
Nihon-ji

Dare ka

wo yubm-kyoku ye

motasete,

de kaile aru ho wa, kaki-tome ni sasete, ukc-tori


kereba naran ga,
jis-sen no
yoroshii.
kitle

wo

torana-

yoko-moji no ho wa, gwaikoku-yuki da kara, ivo hatte, iada sashl-ire-guchi ye irete kureba

He !

kashikomarimaslula.

26. Ueno and Asakitsa are districts in Tokyo, the Ginza is a street, and the " Imperial " a large hotel in European style. Notice the correlation of clauses in the first sentence by means of the gerund

kara is repeated several times. The clause tazttnertt hilo ga inverted it should properly precede the words kaeri ni- immediately above. 27. Learn this example thoroughly by heart, parse it, and
;

am

IKACiMKNTS OF CONVF.KSATION.
26.
I

329
say,

HiRixd
to

JiNRiKi'siiA.

Fare.
at

want

go
to

to the

^Museum
Public

Ueno, you know,


at

y/wvXv-man from
!

there
to

on

see

the

Garden

Asakiisa,

then

make some purchases


for
?

in the

Gin/a on the way back,

and

to return again here to the station.

How much
it,

will

you go
Fare.
dusk.

JinriKisha-man.

Shall

you be long about


;

Sir?

No,

probably not

for

intend to be back by

Jinriltisha-man.
cents.

Well then,

Sir,

must ask

seventy-five

Fare.

H'm.

Isn't that rather

dear

JinriKisha-man.

No,

Sir

haven't

named
you

at all

a high

price, for the distance is very great.

Fare.

All right, then

will give

that

much.

So

just look in at the Imperial Hotel on the way back, as But that won't take I have some one to call on there.

long.

JinriKisha-man.
27.

All right,

Sir.

Please step
I

in.
tell

LETTERS
to

FOR

THE
these

MAIL.
letters

say

O-Haru

some one

carry

to

the post-office.

The

messenger must have the one which is addressed in Japanese characters registered, and must get a receipt for it but in the case of those written in Roman letters,
;

it

will

be enough

if

he sticks a ten cent stamp on each,


into the post-box,
as they are to

and

just

drops them

go

abroad.
All right,
Sir.

analyse it, and you will have laid the foundations of a practical mastery of that most difficult portion of Japanese grammar the integration of
sentences,
pp. 280-2.

which
SJnra

is

treated of at the
is

end of the Chapter on Syntax,

a familiar abbreviation of skiran.

33O
28.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

NEARING YOKOHOMA.
are

Ano

oki

daibu

shima ga
shima

miemasu ga,

wa nan
}

lo in

shima de goz-iimasuP

Are ga
to iirnasu.

hu no

Shichi-lb de gozaimasu.

Mae
shir a.

no

ga

He !

are de mo,

hilo

ga sunde imasu ka

El
lo,

Sunde

iru dokoro de

wa

arimasen.

Koko kara miru

Oshima nazo ni wa, mannaka ni gozaimasu ga, ni mura-kazu ga rok-ka-son sono mawari alie, funkiuazan ga mo arimasu. Aio no shima-jima ni mo laigai mottomo
chiisb

munin-tb

mo arimasu

keredo,

hlio

ga sunde imasu.

He !
29.

Sayb de gozaimasu

ka?

CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

Kono shuku

ni wa, Yaso-shu

no shinja

ga

bi lo iu kola desu, ne.

He!

so de gozaimasu.

Kono hen wa, moppara Yaso wo

shinkb ilashimasu.

Kwaidb ga

talle

orimasu ka

j>

He !
waki ye

Kore made wa, kochb san no


lalle

lellaku zvo
lsuile t

karinikwaidb

nimochiile orimashila ga,


orimasu.

tezema ni

kond* shinki

Kybshi wa,

Seiyb-jin desu ka

So de gozaimasu. Nichiyb-goto ni shusseki shile, sekkyo Kono goro de wa, senrei wo uketa Kilo ga Uasaremasu,
yohodo fuemashila so desu.

So desu ka ?
28.

Sore wa, naka-naka na


see p. 43.

koto desu, ne !
etcetera," usually tones

For dokoro
a
little

Nazo, properly

"

down

the force of the preceding word.

We
son,

have

tried to reJlfura,

present this

by

the term "for instance" in the English version.

(" village") has for its auxiliary

numeral the word

which

is

but the

Chinese synonym of the word mura ; hence rok-ka-son = "

six villages."

For the sense of

taishlta,

and

its

exclusively attributive use, see p.

141

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
28.

331
a

NEARING YOKOHAMA.

see

quite
?

number
in

of

islands out there.

What
Seven

islands are they


Isles

They
is

are

the

of Izu.

The one

front

called

Oshima (" Vries Island"). Indeed I wonder whether there


!

are any

people living

on

it?
!

People living on it ? 1 should just think there were Small as it looks from here, Vries Island has a volcano in the middle, round the base of which cluster

Why

no

less

than six

villages.

The

other

islands

too,

though
people

doubtless
living

some

are

uninhabited,

mostly

have

on them.

Dear
29.

me

You

don't say so

A
there?

CHRISTIAN

CHURCH.

There
Christians

is

said
this

to

be

large
isn't

number

of (Protestant)

in

town,

Yes.

Most of

the

people in

this

neighbourhood are

Christians.
Is there a

church

Well,

hitherto

the
is

mayor's

villa

has

done duty

as

church.

But

it

too small,
site.
?

and so they are erecting a

new building on another


Yes
said
;

Is the pastor a foreigner

he

comes

and

preaches

every

that

great

numbers of people
Christianity
29.
is

have

It is Sunday. been baptised

recently.

Indeed
and top of

Then
p.

in a very fair

way

here.

142.

Were Roman

Catholics intended, the term

TensJntkyo would be used instead of Yaso-shn, and Tenshu-do for hvaido. The zcma in tezema is the stem form of the adjective semai, "narrow." "Going to official business" is skukkin; to any other,
shiitchd or shiisseki.

Naka-tiaka na koto, " a considerable thing."

332
30.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

FIRE.

*0ya! kwaji

to

miele,

hanshb wo utleru

ga

shirase bakari da kara,

daijbbu

da ga,

hbgaku wa,

dochira ni altate iru ka mite kudasai.

He !

tadaima solo kara maitla mono no mbshimasii- ni wa,


desit.

sappari miemasen so

Tabun kinzai de gozaimashb.

31.

THE THEATRE.
Kino waki de

Chikagoro Kabuki-za
1

ga

aita

so

desu ga,

gedai wa, nan de gozaimasu ka r


kikimasJiitara,

He!
"

kondo

wa "

Chiishin-

gura
desu.

no tbshi dasb de,

de-kata

mo

daibu kao-zoroi

dasb

So
deshb.

desu

ka ?

Sore

ia,

kybgen

ga

ii

kara,

kitlo

aiaru

32.

EARLY TO BED.
watakushi wa,

Hanahada

shitsurei

de gozaimasu

ga,

go men

kbmurimashlte, fuserimasu,

mybchb wa, yohodo hayaku shuttatsu suru tsumori desu kara.

Dbzo ivatakushi-domo ni

kamai naku

yasumi nasaimashl.

Komban wa,
kereba

zehi kono kaki-mono

wo

shi-agete shimaimasento

narimasen yue, yo ga fukemashb

omoimasu kara,
ka

mybchb wa, shikkei nagara, o me ni kakarimasen shiremasen ga, zuibun to go kigenyb.


30.
in the

mo

The "intimation" (shirase) of a distant fire, that is, of one not same district of the city,~consists of two strokes of the fire-bell.
w<7

Mdshimasu ni

= "he

says."

The words sappari

mietnascn are a

" quotation from the other man, and so desu nearly = he says," the the equivalent it contains thus as construction Japanese being pleonastic, of

"he says" both

before
31.

and

after the
is

words quoted

conf. latter part

of

437, p. 278.

Kabuki-za

the

name

of the chief theatre in


lit.

Tokyo.

Gedai,

"

title," is saidjto

be a corruption olgcidai,

"list of

KRAGMKXTS
30.

ul

(OXVKKSATION.
to
it

333

FIRE.

Halloo! there would seem

be a

fire

they are ringing the lire-bell.

However,
Still,

as

is

only the
in

"notice-bell,"

it

is

all

right.

please

go and see

what direction the


Well,
there
is

fire is.

Sir

man who came

in

a
it

nothing to be seen.

Probably

minute ago says is in one of the

suburbs.

31.

THE THEATRE.
enquiring

hear that the Kabuki-za Theatre


is

has recently re-opened.

What
at

being acted there


friend's house,

On
that
that
it

yesterday

learnt

was The Forty -Seven Ronins, the entire most of the best actors are taking part in it.
?

play,

and
be

Indeed

That

is

good

piece.

Doubtless

it

will

a great success.

32.

to
I

do

so,

EARLY TO BED. Although it is very rude of me I must ask you to excuse me if I go to bed, as
to

intend to start very early to-morrow morning. Oh pray retire without paying attention
!

me.

must

positively finish

this

writing

to-night.

So probably

I shall

me

if I

know

not get to bed till late, and therefore please excuse wish you a prosperous journey now, as I don't whether I shall have the honour to see you in the

morning.
accomplishments."
epic of loyalty
Its

and revenge,

For the story of the Forty-seven Ronins, a little see Mitford's " Tales of Old Japan."
is

Japanese title, Chu-shin-gitrct, well describes it ; for the tale indeed a "store" of the feelings and deeds of "loyal retainers/'
32.

The
final

first

sentence

is

inverted

the clause beginning with mydcho

tva should, properly speaking,

come

first.

The

last

sentence lacks

some
often

such

verb as o idc nasaimasJn. The phrase go kigen thus used where we should say " goodbye."

yd

is

334

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

DIFFICULTY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE. Domo! 33. Nihon no kotoba wa, taihen ni iri-kunda mono de, domo ! koshi no magaru made manande mo, shosen oboe-tsukusemasumai.

le / masaka sono yd na muzukashii mono de mo gozaimasen. Keiko sae sureba, nan de mo nai koto desYi.
34.

ASKING THE WAY.


kara
san-chd
ga,

Chotto michi

Kore
yoko-cho

saki no tokoro ni hidari


soko
iku

wo ukagaimasu. ye magaru
ma/a migi

ga

am

ye

haitte,

sore kara

ye

magatte,

massugu ni
to

n desu.
!

Sonnara, kono ton


35.

narande orimasu, ne

THE WAY

TO THE BRITISH LEGATION.

Chotto

mono

wo

Igirisu koshihuan ye wa, do mairimashitara yoroshiu gozaimasu ka ?

tazune

mbshimasu.

He /
hidari yc

Sore wa,

kono
o

Shimbashi-demae
ide

no yoko-dori

wo

goku hazure no Sore wo migi-tte ni Tora-no-mon to iu mitsuke ga arimasu. o hairi ni narimashile, doko made mo o ide ni narimasu to,
to,

massugu ni

ni narimasu

Sakurada-mitsuke

to

iu

mon

no

mae ye
,

tsuki-atarimas'ii.

Kondo nakaye

hairazti ni, o hori ni tsuite


to,

mo

irasshaimasu

ye doko made muko ni Eikoku kdshikwan no hata ga


hidari

micmasu kara,

jiki shiremasu.

Domo,
36.

arigato zonjimasu.

O jama wo
shampan

ilashimastiita.

TOAST.

Aruji,
:

wo

tsuida

koppu wo
makoto ni

mochi-nagara, za wo tatte Kaku-shinshi wa, yoku komban


ivatakushi

wa

o ide kudasttc,

wa

kinki ni Liemasen.

Nao ai-kawarazu shimmitsu

naru
35.

o tsuki-ai zvo negaimasu.

Shimbashi

is

the

name

railway terminus is situated. This example is in the 36.

of the quarter of Tokyo in which the chief Konda is a contraction of kondo wa.

guage, which

is

stiff style, bordering on the Written Lanusual on such occasions. Shampan wo tsuida koppu>

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
33.

335
Really,

DIFFICULTY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE.

Even if one Japanese is a terribly complicated language. were to study till one's back became bent with age, one
could not learn
it

Oh
34.

no

it

is

thoroughly. hardly as difficult a thing as


set yourself to
tell
it.

that.

It is

a mere nothing

only you ASKING THE WAY. Please


three

if

me

the way.

About
is

hundred and
left.

sixty

a turning to the

You must
after

yards further on, there turn down it, and then


straight on.

turn again to the right,

which you go
it ?

Then
35.

it is

parallel with this street, isn't

THE WAY
;

TO

THE

BRITISH

LEGATION.
tell

Excuse
the

my

asking you

but

would you kindly


?

me

way

to the British Legation

Certainly.
this street

Look

here

If

you follow

straight

along

branching

off to the left in

front of Shimbashi,

you will come to a gate called Tora-no-mon on the right hand side at the very end. Go through it, and walk on
and on,
till

you come
that,

to a gate called the

Sakurada

gate.

Don't go through

but turn to the


will at

left

along the moat,


is

and go

straight on,

and you

once know which

the British Legation by seeing the flag ahead.

Very many thanks, on your valuable time. A TOAST. The 36.


his hand, rises

Excuse

me

for

having trespassed

host, taking
:

a glass of champagne

in

and says
!

Gentlemen
in

am

really

overwhelmed by your kindness


I

coming
"a
lit.

here to-night, and

trust

that

you

will

ever

continue to favour
lit.

me

with your friendship.

glass (into

shi,
still

= each gentleman."
Nao

which someone) has poured champagne." KakushinKinki ni taemasen lit. = " (I) cannot endure
ai-kaivarazu,
etc.,
lit.

the delight."

= "I

mutually changing not."

Nartt

is

bookish for na

request intimate intercourse ; conf. ^[ 197.

33 ft
37.
deshita.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

KEEPING A VISITOR WAITING.


Shi-kaketa yd

Hanahada

shikkei

ga

atte, o

matase mbshimashita.
o negai ga atle deia hanahada sumimasen.

Do
ri

ilashimashiie /

Jitsu

wa, sensei ni

desu ga,

o isogashii tokoro wo,

38.

LOOKING IN ON AN INTIMATE FRIEND.


Konnichi wa
/

KyaJm.
Aruji.

taku desu ka P

Dare ka

Mia.
!

Dete mi-na
kochira ye.
o ide

Nyobo.

Hail oya ! ma

Kyaku.
Nyobo.

Kyo wa mo doko ye ka
le, orimasu.

desu ka?
.

Ma !
!

o tori asobasc

Anala
!

Nakayoshi San ga
Aruji.

irasshaimashita yo

So ka?

Sa

kochira ye.
!

Kyaku.
Aruji.

Sensei o uchi datta, ne

Yoku hayaku

de-kake deshita.

Kyaku.
Aruji.

Hayaku mo
Naruhodo
/

nai.

Mo
da

ku-ji sugi da.

Kyaku.

Kyo

iva

Sunday

kara,

mo

rusu

ka

to

omolta.

Aruji.

Sunday de mo, beisudan ate-hameia yo ga nai shi, sukoshi kibun ga warm' kara, doko ye mo demasen
deshita.

37.

Near the end,


38.

viz. after

tokoro wo, a sentence

is

left

unfinished.

Hanahada sitmwiascn
truded on you).
"

very improper" (for me to have inThis example and the next are taken from the
^ii
is

Fudc Shashin."

Observe how

in

Japan
versa.

it

is

the husband
is

who
non-

orders his wife about, and not


honorific.

-vice

The word nydbd

For the na of dele mi-na, seep. 167, N. B. Male speakers should avoid such strings of exclamations as Ilai ! oya ! ma ! and also the anata used as an interjection, and the yo ! in the good lady's next

KACMKNTS OF CONVERSATION.
Kindly excuse

337

37.

KEEPING A VISITOR WAITING.


;

my

rudeness in keeping you waiting but I was occupied with something which I could not leave half-finished.

To tell the truth, what Oh pray don't mention it But I must have come for is to ask you a favour.
! !

apologise for intruding on you

when you

are so busy.

38.

LOOKING IN ON AN INTIMATE FRIEND.


(at ike door}
(to his

Visitor,

Good day

Are you

at

home ?

Host.

wife}
it is.

Somebody has come.


(To the
in.

Go and
is
it

see

who

Wife.

All

right.

visitor]

Oh!

you?

Please
Visitor.

come
is

Has your husband


No, he
at

Wife.

home.
is

already gone out to-day ? Please come in. (To her

husband}.
Host.
Visitor.

Here

Mr. Nakayoshi.
visitor}

Indeed

(To the

Oh

please
!

come

in.

And
You
Not

so you are at home,


are

I see

Host.
Visitor.

on the move very


It's

early.

at all.

past nine o'clock.

Host.
Visitor.

You

don't say so.


I

To-day being Sunday,


have gone out.
True,
for

thought you

might

Host.

But I had no special reason it's Sunday. going out, besides which I am feeling rather So I was stopping at home. unwell.
ttasai.

remarks. After kochira ye supply o tori " " is Sunday paraded by the speakers

to

The English word show their erudition.


For shi

Japanese nichiyoln wculd do just as


lit.

\\eil.

Betsitdan ale-hameta yd,


this little colloquy,

"

specially allotted (but active, not passive verb) business."

see p. 81.

Observe the scantiness of honorifics in

arising from the intimacy of the

two men.

3
39.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.

ARRIVING AT A TEA-HOUSE.
!

Jochii.

Irasshaimasht

Makoto ni
n'e !

o atsu

gozaimasu.
tokoro

Kyaku.

Zuibun

atsui,

Motto

snzushii

wa

arimasen ka?
jFochu.

Mina san ga
Sono uchi yoi
ni negaimastt.

so

osshaimasu ga,

kono tori fu-

sagatte orimashite, makoto ni o kinodoku


tokoro

sama

desu.

ga akimasu

kara, doka koko

Kyaku.
40.

So ka r>

Shikata

ga

nai.

MEETING DISPERSED.

Kono

aida chotto o taku ye

ukagaimashltara, anala iva go fuzai de gozaimashlte, okusan no osshaimashlla ni wa, ILuniura-Ro ye enzctsu wo o kiki ni
o ide no yd ni nketamaivarimashlta

ga,nani
de,

ka mezurashu

enzetsu de

mo

gozaimasJiita ka ?
setsu
zva,

Of Sono
mastiila.

chodo

orimasen
!

shilsurei ilashichito

Ana
hlto

hi wa, ai-niku deshlte, ne

motlomo

osoku
to,

de-kakemashlta ga,
doya-doya

Ibumura-Rb
dele

110

mae made ikimasu


naze
ka
to

ga

kimasTi

kara,

omoiic

kikimashitara,

ni fitreta koto
meijita

ni-bam-me no enzetsu -chu nani ka sukoshi jnrei ga alia to ka de, keisatsu-kwan ga chushi zvo
sude ni kaisan ni natta toko deshite, jitsu
tii

tame,

zannen

deshlta.
iva, oshii koto tv)

Sore
39
in

nasM/nashila.
to the
.

Observe how the waitress uses honorifics

guest,

but

not the guest to the waitress.


his

There would,
"

l.<>>\

ver,

be no harm

Kono tori, this way," is often equivalent to doing so. " as The words " I cannot accommodate phrase you see." " have to be added in the English version, to you with one yet Sono uchi, lit. " meanwhile," hence " soon." complete the sense.
our
40.

Go fuzai

is

prefer o rnsn.
in

The Ibumnra-Ro

a highly cultivated expression. ="


(;-J

The common
")

people

upper storey

was a tea-house
delivered,

T6ky5, where meetings were held and

sets of lectures

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
39.

339

ARRIVING AT A TEA-HOUSE.
Welcome
Very
!

Waitress.

It is
isn't

very hot to-day,


it?

Sir.

Guest.

hot,
?

Haven't you any cooler


for

room
Waitress.

All

our guests ask


are,

cooler
full

rooms.
I

But
sorry

we

as
I

you
sit

see,

so

that

am

to say
yet.

cannot accommodate you with one

Please

down

here,

Sir,

until a better

room becomes
Guest.
40.

vacant.
it.

Oh

then there's no help for

MEETING DISPERSED.

When

looked

in

at

your house the other day, you were absent, and your wife
said that

the

you had gone to listen to a Ibumura Hall. Were the lectures


!

set

of lectures at
all

at

interesting?

Oh
then.

begin

was very rude of me to happen to be out just On that day it was unfortunate, you know. To and then, I was rather late in starting with,
it
;

got as far as the pouring out in confusion.


I

when
of

Hall,

found the people

all

And on
the

enquiring the reason

this,

was told that

in

second lecture there had


slightly

occurred some remarks

infringed the government regulations, or something of that kind, and that So the police had ordered the proceedings to be stopped. when I arrived, the meeting had already broken up, which

which

was a

pity.
!

Oh
it

am

sorry for your disappointment.

" being the Japanese custom to make a day of it," and to have one lectjre delivered after another for hours at a time, sometimes on the
subject, but very

same
has

often

on

different subjects.

The Kinki-kwan

replaced thelbuinura-r3 as a favourite place for such meetings. The direct would. ide no yd ni is an example of indirect quotation.
iiia

now

be o

da

to ;

conf. pp. 275 5.

Toko near the end

is

for tvkoro.

340
41.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
SHOPPING AT MIYANOSHITA.
Kyaku.

Go men nasaif

Akindo.

He !

irasshai !
!

Chito o kake nasaimashl !


Jioka ni iro-iro

Nam

ka goran kudasaimase

Mada

gozaimasu.

Kyaku.
Akindo.

Omocha wo sukoshi misetc

kudasai.

He /

kashikomarimashita.

Kono

te*

no mono de

wa

ikaga de gozaimasu ?

Kyaku.
yorimashd.
Akindo.

Namhodo !

kono

uchi kara, iru dake no mono

wo

Danna
Koko ga

kore

wa

ikaga

makura
demasu.

to

mbshimasHite,
satsu-ire.

naka kara,

Talide gozaimasu? kono tori, andon ga

Hiki-dashi ga futatsu arimasu.


iro-iro shi-konde

Sorolan, yoji-ire,

kagami,

arimasu.

Mada
Korc ga

koko ni ko iu mitsu-ire-ko

no o lento ga arimasu.

fude-sashi, kore

wa

tabako-ire.

Mina

daifdbu ni dekite orimasu.

I\yaku.

Mazu

sonna mono

wa yoroshii. \

Oku wa, kodomo

no miyagc ni suru n da kara, koko ye yori-dashlla omocha ga kore dake to, undo-dcima ga mitsu, muko ni mieru shttan-iro no Ion ga ni-mai
to,

kono shashin-basami ga futatsu.

Kore

dake de, ikura ni narimashd P

Akindo.

He!
ni

arigatb

zonjimasu.

Atari-mac wa,
ni-en
go-jis-sen

ni-en

roku-ju-go-sen

negaimasii^ make-mbsliilc okimashb.


*

ga,

ni

The meanings
"
sort,"

of

te,

properly

"

hand," are almost endless.

Here

it

"

signifies
^

kind."

For sonna mono

wa yoroshii,

conf. p. 292,

No.

72,

and

footnote.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
41.

341

SHOPPING

AT

MIYANOSHTTA.

Customer.

Excuse

me.
Dealer.

Oh

pray

come

in,

Sir.

Please
I

sit

down a

moment.

Please inspect

my

wares.

have others besides,

of various descriptions.
Customer.
Please

show me some
!

toys. this

Dealer.
suit

All right, Sir

How
!

would

kind of

article

you

Customer.

Let

me

see

will set aside

from

among
called
;

these the ones that I want.

Dealer.

Sir

how would

a travelling pillow.
also
this

suit you ? comes out of lamp


this
It

It is
it,

like this

purse for

paper-money.

has
it,

two drawers.
an abacus,
is

There are
a

all sorts of other things inside toothpick-holder, and a looking-glass.

Here again
into one. are
all

luncheon-box
is

in three parts,
is

which

all

fit

This
quite

a pen-stand, this

a tobacco-pouch.

They
sort

solidly

made.
Well,
things
I I

Customer.

don't

want
are

that

of
as
:

thing.

Most
which

of

the

want

intended
are

presents
the toys

to take
I

home
have
those

to the children.
set aside here,

Here they

besides three cups-and-balls,


trays

two

of

sandal-wood-coloured

over

there,

and these two photograph-frames. whole lot come to?


Dealer.

How much may


Sir.
;

the

Oh

many

thanks,

The
but I

usual

price

would be two dollars sixty-five cents have them for two fifty.
% Negau, " to beg,"
is

will let

you

often used

by

the lower classes

when

address-

ing their superiors, to signify

"to say," "to do," even "

to sell."

342
Kyaku.
ikenai.

FRAGMENTS OF CONVERSATION.
Sore

wa

taiso tdkai.

Sonna ni kake-nc wo Helm

Zutlo o make nasai.

Akindo.

Id

do ilashimasKite !

Kesshifc o takai koto


nara,

wa

moshi-agcmascn.

Dono kurai made

negawarcmasho*

ka?
Kyakn.
Akindo.

So sa

ne

Ichi-cn go-jis-sen nara, kaimasho.

Sore dc wa,

danna

Sonna ni kake-nc wa moshimascn.


inasen de, Did sukoshi o kai kudasai. \

go muri de gozciimasu. Dozo go jodan osshai-

Kyaku
Akindo.

Sore de wa, ni-en made ni kaimasho.

Sayo dc gomimasu kaP yasu gozaimasu mala negawankereba* narimasen bara, o makc-mbshite ga, Zelii o umc-awase wo. \ okimasu.

See footnote to preceding page, and also


"

^[

j"

little

Deign to buy more for it."

(it)

little

more

M
(dearly),

403, p. 250. " Please i


c.,

give

me

FRACMKXTS OF CONVKKSATION.
Customer.

34$

That

is

awfully
as
that.

dear.

on such fancy prices


great deal.

You mustn't put You must go down a


expect

Dealer.

The

things

Really Sir, are not at


?

how
all

could you
dear.

me

to?

What would be your


I'll

idea as to the price, Sir

Customer.
will let

Well,

let

me
that
as

see

take

them,

if

you

me

have them

for

one dollar
is

fifty.

Dealer.

Oh

Sir,

unreasonable.
to

don't

put

on such fancy
the things.

prices

you seem

don't joke in this way,

Sir,

Please suppose. but give me a little more for

Customer.
Dealer.
ever, price.

Well, then,

I'll

give you two dollars.


?

Only two
for

dollars

That
I

is

cheap,

Sir.

How-

as I

hope But do,


alarming

your custom,
Sir,

will

please,

give

me

go down to that the chance of recoupagain.


\Ye have expanded
Uine-<i:caseru
is

ing

this

sacrifice

by buying of me

Supply some such final verb as negaimasu. the idea of this phrase in the English translation. " '* to fill in (a hole with earth).

lit

ANECDOTES.
450.

MAKOTO NO
TRUTH
2

SEKKEN.'
ECONOMY.
Kamakura*
Katnakura
Shikken
Itegent

>s

Kencho-goro
Hencho-period
tsukaeta
served

no
's

koto
fact

de,

ni
to

being,

Aolo
Aoto

aru
a-certain

yo
night

to iu yakunin Fujitsuna ga, Saemon Fujitsuna that say official (now.), Nameri-gawa wo w.ilaru toki ni, kerai Nameri-river (acctts.) crosses time iti, retainer

Saemon

ga
(noiu.)

ayamalle
erring,

zeni
coin

ju-mon wo kawa ye
ten-cash
(accus.)

otoshimasJiila
dropped(trans.)

no
act

river

to

wo*, whereas,

ni hilo Fujitsuna wa, kyu Fujitsuna as-for, suddenly people

w:)
(acctts.)

yatoif
having-hired'

taimatsu
torches

wo
(accus.)

tsukete,

kologotoku
completely
6

hirowasele
liaving-caused-to-

having-lighted,

kaeraremasJiita.
2>ic7t-ttpt

deigncd-to-return.

Kono
This
"

koto
act

ivo,
(accus.)

aru
zeni
coin

Jiilo

ga
(nom.)

waratte,
laughing-al,

" Wazuka ju-mon


Trifle

certain people

no
's

wo
(accus.)

oshmde,
grttdfiing,

taimatsu
torches

wo
(accus.)

ten-cash

I.

Language
2.

Students curious of comparing the Colloquial with the Written will find this same story told in easy written style, in

the present

writer's " Romanized Japanese Reader," Vol. i, p. 34. For the use of nengo or "year-names," see p. 116. The best book of reference on the subject of Japanese chronology is Bramsen's "Japanese Chronological Tables." 3. Kamakura, two days' journey

by road from the

site

of the

modern

city of

Yedo

or Tokyo, was,

during the Middle Ages, the capital of the feudal rulers of Japan.

The

during the thirteenth and a portion of the fourteenth centuries, and Aoto Fujitsuna held high judicial office under the fifth ruler of their line.

Hojo family

of Shikken, or

"Regents," occupied

this position

Aoto

is

the

surname, Fujitsuna

the

personal

(equivalent

to

our

ANECDOTES.
TRUE ECONOMY.
The
following incident happened about the period styled

Kencho (A.D.

1249

1256).

When Aoto Saemon

Fuji-

tsuna, an official in the service of the

Regent of Kamakura,
night,

was crossing the River Nameri one


his
let

a retainer of
river,

ten

cash

fall

by mistake into the


hired
all

where-

upon
them
water.

Fujitsuna
light

"hastily

some
the

men,

and

made
the

torches

and pick

money

out of

Some one
to

is

reported
' '

to

have

laughed

at

this,

and
cash,

have

said

Through

grudging

the

ten

" Christian ") name, and

Saemon a kind

of

title,

almost come to form part of the actual name gawa is a small stream near Kamakura. 4.

itself.

which has, however, The Namerisentence

The whole

down

to here forms a sort of accusative to the following clause relating " " or Thereupon Fujitsuna' s action ttpon what had happened. " whereas " is the nearest approach to a literal English rendering.
5.

The

indefinite

form yatoi

is

here equivalent to a gerund, because

correlated with the gerund tsukete immediately below: conf. p. 178, and p. 264. 6. Observe how the sentence is rounded off by ^[ 278,

kaeraretnas hita (honorific potential for kaerimasJiita ; conf. [ 403, Further examples of such honorific potentials are offered p. 250.

below by Idkaremasliita, iwaretnashlta, and mosareinasliita). Hirowaseta alone would sound bald to Japanese ears, which generally expect to have the whole action related down, to its very end ; conf.
[

302, p. 197.

346
kattari,

ANECDOTES.
Hito

wo
(nccus.)

now-buying,
taiso

people

yatoitari notv-hiring

shite,

nyuhi
expense

*ga
(noni.)

doing,

kakattard.
has-pi'obably-cost.

Kore
TJils

koso
indeed
ilia

Ichi-mon
one-cash

oshimi
grudging

great-deal

no
's

hyaku
hundred

shirazu
ignores

da"
is"

to

so

desYi.
is.

that

said

appearance

Sore
That

ivo
(nccity.}

omou
tJiiitJi

mono
persons
shite

kikaremash'ilc, ga Fujilsuna Fujitsuna (noin.) Jtaving-deigned-to-Jtcar, mo zeni aro tsuiyaslrita ga,


also

lc

So

" So

wa,
as-for,

may-be
Kara,
because,

although,

spent

coin

tsuyo
circulation

iru
is

muyo
usclessness

ni
to

iva
as-for

naran
becomes-not

doing

ga,

kawa
river

no
's

soko
bottom,

ye
to

shizunda
sanJt

ju-mon
ten-cash

wa,
as-for,

ima
noiv

tvhercas,

hirowaneba,
if-do-not-picli-up,

tenka
ivorld

no
>s

takara
treasure

wo
(accus.)

ushinau
lose

kara
because

da
is

"
to

iwaremashita.
deigned-to-say.

"

that

Kore-ra
Suc7i-as-Miis

ga,
(now.},

makolo
iruth

no
's

sckken

to

iu

mono
thing

desu.
is.

economy

that

say

Oku
Mostly

wa
as-for f

tori-chigaete,

sekken

wo

(acats.) economy taking-and-misUik'ng, ni naru mono mo arimasn rinshoku okonau tame ni arc sake for, parsimony to become prrsonv also practise no ron ni to no Jiilo sore-ra dojilsu ga, 's discussion in whereas, such like 's people u<itli, same-day

wa
as-for,

narimascn.
becomes-not.

Shikashi,
Nevertheless,
ilasfitfara,

tdji

no
's

kdzai-gakusha
political-economists

no
of

se/su
opinion

ni
to

present-time

ikaga
Iioir

mbsaremasho
ir>U-they-probabltj-dci<in-lo-K(n/

ka ?
?

if-one-made,
7.

razit

is

In this proverb oshiuii oshiviu Into, "a grudging person." Shinot the negative gerund of shint, but its Classical "conclusive

ANKCDOTF.S.

347

what with Fujitsuna must have been put to great expense,


buying torches and hiring men.
This indeed
is

to

be

"Penny

wise

and poundfoolish."

Fujitsuna,

hearing

of

this,

said:

"There

may be
spent
is

some

folks

who

think
it

so.

But
in

the

money

not wasted,
the ten
if

because

remains

circulation,

whereas

cash that sank to the bottom of the river would,

not picked up,


is

have been treasure


'

lost

to

the

world.

That

why

acted as

I did.

Actions of

this

kind are examples of true economy.

Most

people,

mistaking one

for

the

other,

fall

into

parsimony while endeavouring

to

practise
is

economy.

But

though there are such,

Fujitsuna

not to be mentioned

on the same day

as they.

Still,

if

one were

to

ask

the

opinion of the political

economists of the present

day,

what

would

they

say

negative present," which


I. e.,

is

"I do

this because,

if

equivalent to the Colloquial shiranai did not pick it up," etc.

348

ANECDOTES.

451.

ARIGATA' NO KICHIBEI.
THANKFUL
"
Arigala "Thankful
2

>S

KICHIBEI.
to

Mukashi
Anciently

no
's

Kichibei"
Kichibei"

that

azana nickname
being,
to

zvo
(accus.)

tsukerareteru
koto

is-having-got-affixed

ojiisan old- gentleman

ga
(now.)

arimasftite,
(there)

donna what

demo
soever

"
"
(I

thing

kuraslnie
passing-the-time
1 '

am) tlmnliful ! (I am) thankful! " natsu hito iru Kito deshite,
is

Arigatai!

arigaiai!"

yorokonde*
kite,

that rejoicing,

ga
(nom.)

person

being,

summer, person
de
"

coming,

" To-day
to,

Kyd

zva,
as-for,

hidoi
violent

atsusa
Jieat

gozaimasu is "
m',

to
tJtat

iimasu
says

kono
tJiis

ojiisan

no
's
4

hento
ansiver

" Atsui jisetsu

wa,
as-for,

when,
atsui
hot

old-gentleman

in:

"Hot
wa,
us-foy,

season

ho

ga

arigatai.
(is)

Samiti jibun
Cold

samui
cthl

no
fact

side (nom.)

tJianJfful.

season

ga
(nom.)

arigaiai"
(is)

thaiitfful

"

to

yorokonde"
rejoicing

orimasu.
is.

that

Mata
Again
' '

hito

ga
(nom.)

Kichibei
Kichibei

no
's

bimbo
poverty

wo
(accus.)

sass/iite,

people

Nam
to,

ka

to

"

go
august

fujiyu
inconvenience

deshb

guefsing, "
to

Something-or-other

that

must-be "

that

iimasu
say

"fe/
"No!

walashi

wa
as-for,

sai-shi
ivife-cJiild

no
's

shimpai
anxiety

^vhen,

me

mo
also

naku,
is-not,

umai mono mo tabemasezu ; sono


tasty

set ka,
?,
b
,

naga-iki
long-life

things also

cat-not

that cause

wo
(accus.)

shite

imasu

kara,
because,
"
to
(f

arigatai"
am) thanltful"
ilte

to

tada
merely

doing
' '

am
Arigatai
"TJianJfful"

that,

nan dc mo
everything

imasu.
is.

that

saying

I. Arigatai would be more strictly grammatical but the stem form For tsukerarete 2. conf. p. 125 arigata with no is more idiomatic
; ;

ANECDOTES.

349

THANKFUL
Once upon
a

KICHIBEI.

time

there

was

an

old

man

who
led

had got nicknamed


a

"Thankful Kichibei," and who


always
thankful
for

happy
it

existence,

everything,
to

whatever

might

be.

When

any

one

came

see
heat,

him
the

in

summer and complained

of the
the

excessive

old

man would
thankful
for

reply:
the

"In
heat.

hot
the

season

we

must
year
friend

be

In

cold

time ot

we must be

thankful for

the cold."
his

If again

any

should sympathise with


inconvenient
it

poverty,

and remark
he would
with
wife
it

how
say:

must be
I I
I

in

every

way,

"Oh!
child,
this
for

no! do

am
eat

troubled

neither

nor
for
ful

nor

savoury food.
long-lived,

Perhaps
I

is

reason that
it."

am
he

and

am

thank-

Thus

did

use

the

word

"thankful"

about everything.

To yorokonde to itte yorokonde, i.e., irn see bottom of p. 192. 3. " 4. Arigatai here has a sort of objective rejoicing, saying that." " " thankful," but sense, i.e., it means not exactly worthy of being thankful for." After to supply itte, "saying." 5.

35

ANECDOTE?,

Aru
A-certain

toki,

yoso
elseivliere

no
's

uchi ye
Jtouse

ille,

kaeri-

time,

gake
tvJiile

ni
in,

omote
front

no
's

hashira
post

de
by,

tohaviny-yonc, retnnilnyatama wo kotsun to*


Jiead
(acc./s.)

butlsukemashita
fiit

ga,

yahari
also
itte

"
"

bumpingly
arigalai!"
tJtariltfal
!

Arigalai!
Tltanltfal

ivhereas,

"

to

kuchi no

uchi

de

imasit kara,
is

soba
alongside
iva,

ni iru
in
is

that
Kilo

mouth

'

interior in

ga
1

" Kichibei
*'

saying

because,

San

person

(nom.)
'

Hichibei
!
!

Mr !
'

anata you
to
'
.'

nan de mo

ka de mo"
whatever,

Arigalai
'

arigalai !
Thatilifttl

m-for, everutliing ii-nasaru ga,


naij-fleiyn

Tliatikful

that

tohereas,

hashira
post

de atama at head

ivo
(accits.)

ulte,
Jiaviny-Jtit,

sazo indeed

ilakaro

must-be -painful
.>>"

sore ga, ^vhereas,that


?nashitara, Jie-had-heard

de nani

ga
kono
tJiis

arigalai
thanltful
ilai

n
fact

desYt
is

to

kiki-

by, tvJiat (nom.)

"

that

when
no
fact

"He!
"Yes!

no

ga

arigatai
tJinnkfnl

painful fact (vw.)

desu.

' '

Naze

to

innasu
says

to*,

inia

buiiiuketa
ft't

toki,

"

WJiy ? that
kudakeie,

u'hen, nviv

time,

a Lima head
itai

ga
(nom.)

shinde
(intrans.),

shimaimisluta
Jiad-finisJtcd

irj,
if}

koto
1

having -broken

mo
also

nani
o

mo

dying ivakarmiasen

pa'.nfu

fact

anything understand-not

inochi ga, whereas, life


cU*
by,

mo
also,

atama
head

mo,
also,

kage
influence

sama
Mr.

buji
accldentless

dishila
has-"jeen

kara t
because,

honourable
ilai

no
fact

ga
(nom.)

shiremasu.
ift-Ttnoivable.

painful

" Sore desu


" T/utt
shita.
is

kara,
because,

makoto
trath

ni

arigatai"
:'

to
th'it

knl'i<>t)ia-

in(a;>t)tJian\'ful

uimt'ered.

6.

Kotsun
7.

to

is

ing.

An

idiom, which

an onomatope for the sound of bumping or thumpis also pronounced nan de. wo, kan de mo*

ANECDOTES.

351
to

One
he

clay,

when,

having

gone

friend's

house,

was

returning

home

again,

he
at

struck

his

head

tremendous blow against


even then, one
thanks,
'

post

the

entrance.

But

who was

near him heard him muttering his


Kichibei,

and exclaimed: "Mr.


But

you say 'thank


to

you
for

to

everything.

what can there

be thankful

in

hurting

yourself

by

striking

your

head

against
is

post?"

"Why!"
I

replied

Kichibei,

"the
you

pain
see

exactly

what
I

am

thankful

for.

Don't

that

if,

when
been

struck

against

the

post just now,


I

my

skull

had
felt

fractured

and

had

died,

should
I

have

neither

pain

nor

anything

else,

whereas

now

feel

the

pain

because,

thanks to your
are

kind

influence,

my
I

life

and

my

head

both

safe

That

is

why

am

truly thankful."

This ka or kan is probably the root of kare, " that." 8. Naze to in to is an idiom meaning "for this reason," more lit. "if you ask why, (then it is as follows.) "9. The words o kage sania, " thanks to your kind
influence," are an
p. 294,

empty compliment, indeed almost an

expletive

conf.

No. 85.

352

ANECDOTES.

Sum
mkyo
to
12

10

to,

kono
this

koto

wo
(accus.)

Thereupon,

thing

kara saki-hodo ffeviOM~perlod since,


l '

koko
here

no's

ga
(HOIK.)
( '

kiile

orimasKile,

Naruhodo
OJi .'-indeed

!
!

"

retired-old-man

listening

having -been,
arigatai,

"

"

tJiat

kanshin admiration
also,

sfiite,

Aa

!
! (/

doing,

" Ah

am) thankful,

arigatai ! thankful
.'

Wa-

takushi mo,

ima
nf)ti>

wa
as-for,

satori

wo
(accus.)

hirakimashita.
have-opened.

enlightenment

" Iro-iro
" Several-Kinds
burning,

nani
no
s'
'

ka
tsurai

no sewa ga
'

yaketari
labi-tabi

something-or-other

cares (nom.) somethnes-

sama-zama
various-sort
aitari

koto

ni
to

disagreeable

things

often

shite,
'

Aa

kurushii,

kurnshii /
'

Alt ! (it is) distressing, sometimes-meeting doing, distressing f ni kono yo ni natla to Jilsu ga iya this world (nom.) Truth to lias-become' that objectionable in,

omou koto mo think fact also


inochi
life

arimashita
lias-been

ga
(now.)

aru
is

kara
because

no
's

" Shite miru


''

15

/0,

ima

And-tlierefore,

now
also,

naruhodo
ycs-indced

!
!

waiakushi mo

I
ltj

arigatai/"
thankful
!

ANECDOTES.

353

Hereupon

the

old

father

of the master of the house,


to

who had been


beginning,

listening

the

conversation

from the
said

was

struck

with

admiration,

and
be.

"Yes,
has
divers

indeed.

Thankful,
a
lesson.

thankful

must we

This

taught
cares

me
and

Often,

when
various

worried

by

confronted

by

misfortunes,

have said to myself

how

wretched,

wretched

it

all

is,

and what an odious


me.
itself

place the

world has
exist

become
because
therefore

to

But even
exists.

all

these

things

only

life

careful

consideration

shows

that,

as

Mr. Kichibei has just

said,

too

have

everything, everything to be thankful for."

13.

S&oagayakeru

(intrans.)

= " to

100 yak-u (trans.)

= " to
lit.

take great trouble."

be busy and anxious." Kore to iu no 14.

Sewa

mo

"also that (which people) say (is) this." 15. More lit. "when, having done so, one looks." Conf. sum to at top of The words watakushi mo are, as it were, hung in the ail16. page.
"this also,"

more

without reference to any verb, while banji is the subject of arigatai, here taken in its objective sense (conf. p. 349, note 4).

354

ANECDOTES.

452.

MATEBA
IF- WAIT,
miyako
capital

AU
WILL-AGREE
machi
no
's

TOSHI.
YEARS.*
Unazuki
Nodding

Mukashi,
Anciently,
to

no
's

ni

Bala
Granny

mercantile-quarter in,
ii

iu

kuchi-lenko

mono
person

ga
(jwm.~}

ari??iashile,
(there) being,

that
itsu

say moutJi-glibness

good

mo yome ya
bride

muko
bridegroom

no
's

seiva
help

wo
(accus.)

shite,

yo

wo
ni
to

always
okuile

or

doing,

life(accus.\

orimasftita

ga,
ivhereas,

am
a-cerlain

toki
time,

san-ju-go
thirty-five

passing

wa

nan?
becomes
to
tvitJif

otoko no loshi

wo
(accus.)

kakushite,

man
engumi

ju-go no musume
's

's

years

having-Jiidden, fifteen

girl

wo
(accus.~)

tori-mochi,

yuino
betrothal-gifts

made
even
toshi

marriage rasemashita

had-arrangcd,

okuhad-

ga,
ivhereas,

sono
that

nochi
after,

muko
bridegroom

no
's

no
of

caused-to-send

years

fukelen?

koto

wo

musume no

oya

ga

kiki-tsukele,

Advanced-arc fact (accus.) 's parent (o;.) Jtaviny-Jieard, girl " Hoka ni nani mo nai mumoshi-bun wa ga, " Elseii-Jiere but, bridein, objection as-for, isn't anything ko to musume to toshi ga ni-ju mo chigatte wa,

groom and daughter and, years


ikani
fioiv

(num.) ttventy

even differing as-for,


to
iu.
tJiat says.

shite

mo yome

ni
to

zua
as-for,

yarenai"
cannol-send"

doing even, bride Otoko no ho de wa,

" Yuino
*'

made
even

sumashila
have-concluded
inconvenient

Man
kara
since

's

side on,

Hetrotlial-gifts

wa,
as-for,

shinrui

ye
lo

taishtte

mo,
even,

sonna fiiisugo na
sncJi

kinsmen

confronting

koto

iva
as-for,

kikasareJiai

kara,
because,

zehi
positively

moraif-

thing

cannot-cause-to-hear

ivankereba shochi shinai" iu to nakddo mo kara, receive-not, consent do-not" that says because, match-maker also hidoku ni meiivaku tsui kono koto ivo shilc,
violently

quandary

doing,

last

at,

this

affair

(accus.)

kami

ye
to

uttaemastiita.

honourable superiors

appealed.

ANECDOTES.

355

IF

THEY WAIT, THEIR AGES WILL COME RIGHT.


time, lived
in

Once upon a
metropolis,
there

the

mercantile

quarter

of the
called

a glib-tongued old

woman

Granny Nod, who gained


marriages.

her livelihood

by negotiating
a

Well,

she

once

arranged

match

be-

tween a

man
of

of five-and-thirty,
fifteen,

whose age she concealed,


far

and a

girl

and had gone so


customary on
having

as

to

make
But
far

them exchange
afterwards
the

the gifts
girl's

betrothal.

father,

heard
years,

how
to

advanced
old

the

bridegroom

was

in

said

the
to

woman:

"I
;

have

indeed no
I

other

complaint

make about him

but really

cannot think of giving


differs

my
was
as

daughter

to

one

whose age

from

hers

by
it

twenty years."

On
he

the

bridegroom's
not

side,

however,
forego
relations,

urged
it

that

could

consent
his

to

her,

was

impossible,

even

vis-a-vis
after

to

mention
changing

such
gifts

difficulty

the

ceremony

of ex-

had

once

been
in

concluded.
terrible

Thus the
and

match-maker was
at last she

placed

quandary,

brought the matter before the judge.

2. I.e., "year's which will agree if one waits." " " had For fitkcte 3. already become (thirty-five years old.) int conf. bottom of p. 192. 4. O katni de w<z = "the judge," more lit. "at the superiors," i.e., "the Government." For de thus
I.

i.e.,

used, conf.

*[[

90,

p. 65.

The words immediately

following

mean

ANECDOTES.

kami
Honourable
calling-fortli

de
at,

zua*,

sd-ho
both-sides

superiors
to

yobi-dashi ni

narimashite,

musume no
girl
's

hav ing-become,

" Sono-ho oya ni " You parent to,

honourably

wa,
as-for,

ittan

once

kado
point

wo
(acats.)

wo ima-sara nan no shite, yakusoku agreement (accus.) having-made, no^l-again what 's moile hadan ilasu*?" to o tazune
taking,
to,

rupture

make ? "
gi
affair

Mat
iva,
as-for,

Jionourable enquiry

ni
to

nari?nasu becomes

He!
" Ah !
lie

kono
tJiis

nakddo
rnatcJi-maJter

no
's

u-Jien,

mono
person

amari
too-much

itsuwari

wo
(accus.)

moshimashite,
Jtaving-told,

san-ju-go
iJurty-five

no
's

muko
bridegroom
differ.

ni
to,

ju-go
fifteen

no
's

yome de
bride

wa,

toshi

ga

ni-jii

by

as-for, years (noin.} twenty

chigaimasu.

Sore
TJiat

yue
owing-to,

fushbchi
dissent

wo
(accits.)

mdshimasKita.
(I)said.

Semeic
At-most

toshi

hambun-chigai
half-difference

nara,
if-were,

musume
girl

wo
(accits.}

years

Isukawashimasho.
will-pt'obably-send.

Kono
TJiis
' '

toki
time,

yakunin
official

no
's

moshi-watasaremasu
deigns-to-speah-across

ni in

wa

5
.-

as-for:

Sonnara,
If-is-tJius,

sono-ho

no
of

nozomi-dori
u'isJi-tvay

ni
in,

shite

tsukawasif
(/)

"

you

doing

will-give

kara,
because,

ima
notv

yori

go-nen

tatte

musume
daugJiter

wo
(accus.)

okure.
give.

Muko

from, five-years having-elapscd, no ho mo, sore made


till

iva
as-for,

kanarazu
positively

bridegroom 's side also, that Sono toshi ni matanakcreba naran. TJiat to is-not. year if-waits-not,

nareba,
wi'ten-becomes,

oloko

man
Jialf-

wa
as-for,

shi-ju,

onna

wa
as-for,

hatachi.
tivcnty-yeai's.

Chodo
<Just

hambun-

forty;

woman
toki

chigai
difference

no
's

ni
to

naru

"
to

mdshi-watasaremasJnta.
deigned-to-spcali-ao-oss

time

becomes" that

sagariniashita. descended. because, botJi-sides fearing-entering o sabaki desu. ni omoshiroi yi/su

kara,

sd-ho

osore-itte

Truth

in,

amusing

Jionourable

judgment

is.

ANECDOTES.

357
both
parties,
for

The
girl's

judge,
father

having

sent
his

for

asked

the

what
to

was

reason

breaking off an

engagement
' '

which he had once agreed.


see,

The

father

replied

You

my

lord,

the

matter stands thus.


a
falsehood,

The
there

match-maker
being a

told

too

outrageous

difference

of

no

less

than

twenty years

between a bridegroom of five-and-thirty and a bride of


fifteen.

That

is

why

said

I
if

could not consent.


their

would give him


most by
half."

my

daughter,

ages

differed

at

Then
is

the judge gave

judgment
I

as follows:

"As

that

how

matters

stand,

will

decide in accordance with


five

your

desire.

Do

you give

him your daughter


his side also,

years

hence.
wait
girl
till

The bridegroom, on
then.
It

must
forty,

faithfully

By

that

time he will

be

and the
ages
will

twenty.
exactly
parties
it

will

be the time when

their

differ

by
left

half."

Thus was judgment


judgment-hall
with

given,

and

both

the

deep respect.

Truly

was a witty decision.


come
to calling forth both sides."

literally

"it having

5.

Observe

the total absence of honorifics in the judge's address to the litigant 6. Lit. "in parties, who are of course immeasurably his inferiors.
his deigning (honorific potential) to give

judgment," the verb becoming a sort of noun capable of taking postpositions after it. 7. Tsnkawasii (the final tt becoming short before kara, as in the case of itasn a few
up)
is

lines higher

here a sort of auxiliary,

yarn

see p. 196.

35$

ANECDOTES.

453.
' '

MUHITSU NO KAME.'
tora
kiite,

Inu no hoem /oh]


"
to

to

iu

ji

wo

te

ni Mile nigitte

oreba, hoen

omae ni

ionda

me

ni atla.

Hohd !
Yiibe,

do

stiile i>

yo fukele kara kacru


nigitta
le

to,

frame

ga wan-wan
kore !

to

hoe-kakaru yue,
kamareia.

wo

dashilara,

konna

ni

Fu!
daro.

******
wo
dashiie

Sore

wa,

mada

Nihon no

ji

wo

shir an

kame

Nihon-moji
de

yomcn*

mono

wa,

kame bakari

mo

arumai.

1[

454Sake-zuki ga
kara,

SAKE NO YUME.
aru hi fulsuka-yoi de zuisu

ga shimasu*
to,

hachi-maki

wo

shi-nagara

nelc

iru

yumc

ni

sake

wo

hilo-iaru
' '

hirolte,

u-yorokobi de,
!

noman* saki kara


Jiiroi-mono

shita-uchi

sfii/e,

Kanro

kanro

koiisit

wa

/*

NOTES TO f 453- i- This and the four following anecdotes are taken, with slight alterations to make the phraseology more colloquial, from ft&"Jogaku Soshi" or "Ladies' Journal of Education." For kaine,
see p. 26.

The
2.

the Chinese character


classes.

idea at the bottom of this story as to the magic power of " Jf^, tiger," is one commonly held by the lower

Different nominatives
it is

must be supplied

to the

two verbs

one person who is supposed to show (lit. put forth) the character, and another who cannot read it when so shown.

dashiie and yomen ; for

ANKCDOTF.S.

359

AN ILLITERATE DOG.
You
told

me

that
if

when

leave off doing so

a dog barked at one, he would one wrote the Chinese character for

clenched.

"tiger" on the palm of one's hand, and kept one's fist I have had a rough time of it for having Well
!

listened to you.

Indeed

How

so

A
as
I

European dog began barking and flying at So I stuck was coming home late last night.
fist

me my
got

clenched
bitten
!

out towards him, and just look

how

Oh

Then probably

it

was a dog who had not yet

learnt Japanese writing.

Dogs

are doubtless not the only creatures

incapable of

reading Japanese writing

when shown

it.

A DREAM OF LIQUOR.
Once upon
after

a time a toper,

feeling

headachy on the day


a

spree,
his

had
.

fallen

asleep

with

towel

round

head 2

cask of liquor,

Then he dreamt which caused him


it,

that he

w rapped had found a


r

so

much
said
:

joy

that

he

licked his chops before tasting

and
2.

"How

deli-

NOTES TO f
headache.
3. p.

454.

i.

See

357, p. 227.

To

help to cure the

bottom of
case
see

For the negative iwman, instead of the positive, see Lit. "as for this fellow, the pick-up-thing," 271. 4.

freely rendered
;

by

^[

123, p. 87.

" Here's a find !" the " as for Lit.


5.

wa being exclamatory in this having come as liquor," meant to

360
Keisatsu-sho
kite

ANECDOTES.

ye todokeru no ga atarimae da ga,


mi-nogasenai.

sake to

wa,

Mazu
shite

ip-pai

yarakaso
"

ka
itte,

/>

Jya

/ onajikuba*,

kan wo

nomu

ho

ga

ii

to

kan

wo tsukeyo to suru toki, ju-ni-ji no don no oto ni odoroite, " Aa / me ga samemashila kara, zannen-gatle : hayaku
hiya de nomeba yokatta !
"

455.
Wakai
misc-saki
otoko

HAYARI
ga futari
' '

WO OU
Fukiya-cho
tokoro

1
.

no
hitori
o

Eri-zen*

no

de

iki-aimashita

ga,

wa
suru
"
to

awata-

dashlku

te

wo

fulte,

Kimi ni wa

iro-iro

hanashi

mo

arimasu

ga,

ima

kynyo*

ga

dekile,

kitaku

tokoro

desu* kara, izure kinjitsu o tazune

moshimashd

iu to,

ddmo sono yosu ga hen da kara, hilori wa odoroite, " " 1 Kyuyo to wa, go bybnin de mo aru ri* desu ka ^ to " le / kanai ni : hitori
kikimashitara,
iva, Tvarai-nagara tanomareta hayari no han-eri ivo ima kono mise de kai7 mashtia ga, tochu de temadotte iru uchi ni ryuko-okure

ni naru

to,

taihen
!

desu
"

kara,

tachi-banashi

mo

o kotoivari

mdshimashita no sa

" convey the meaning of a windfall of liquor," this Japanese idiom being used of unexpected events. 6. Lit. " if it is the same (i.e. all the same), it is good to drink it having made heating." Japanese sake tastes best hot, and is generally taken so, it being heated by placing the bottle in hot water. 7. Midday is signalised, in modern Tokyo, by the firing of a gun, which gives the time to the townspeople. NOTES TO *[ 455. i. Lit. "to pursue fashion." 2. We have The name is, however, rendered Eri-zen by "a haberdasher's."
really a j-roper noun, compounded of eri for han-cri (see vocabulary), and zen for Zembei or some such " personal name," of the owner of

the shop. 3. Observe how the young man, true to the habits of the student class at the present day, interlards his ordinary conversation with such high-sounding Chinese terms as kyu-yo, "urgent business ;" " in a lew " near " " days," i.e., ki-taku, kin-jitsit, lit. returning home ; " I am home ;" on = sum desu Kitaku tokoro my way just days." 4.

ANECDOTES.
cious

361
find
!

how
to
!

delicious

Here's a

It

ought to be
like
!

reported
liquor

the
!

police-office.

But a

windfall

this

no

cannot

let
!

take a glass
waiting
to
till

No,

no

Well escape me. There will be nothing


it
7

shall I
lost

by
it

warm it.'" So he was just going to warm, when the midday gun wakened him
I
it

set

with a

start,

pity

whereupon he ruefully exclaimed was that I did not make haste to drink
:

' '

Oh

what a
!"

it

cold

THE PURSUIT OF FASHION.


Two young men
front of a

having

come
in

across

each other
Street,

in

haberdasher's
his

shop

Fukiya

one of
I

them waved
at present,
I

hand
;

hurriedly,

and cried out

"
:

have a

lot to say to

when
other,

you must put off the conversation for a few days, The will come and see you at your house."
asked
urgent
for
' '

but as urgent business

calls

me home

astonished at his friend's strange excitement,


business
that
"
!

him what this meant to say,


been taken
ill.

might

be, his
first

whether
family

he

instance,

any of

had

Oh

no,

replied the

young man

with a laugh ; "I have just been getting at this shop a kind of kerchief which my wife commissioned me to

buy and
for

for

her.

The

reason

why

said

couldn't stop

you now, is that it would be an awful thing her to fall behind the fashion while I was loitering
talk to

on the way."
conf. p. 42.
5.

Lit.

"as

for
7.

(your saying) that (there

is)

ness
is

"

6.

N', see
if

p. 79.

From
to

here to the end

is lit.

urgent busi" because (it)

terrible

(she)

becomes

fashion-lateness,

while

(I)

am

time-

taking in the road-middle, (I) refused (honor.) even standing talk." No is here emphatic (conf. ^[ 113, p. 79) sa is emphatic and
;

exclamatory.

362

ANECDOTES,

1[

456.

DAIKON.'
na
o-byakushd

Mommo
ni-san-nen

ga

daikon
kara,

wo

tsitkuraseru

ni,

omon yd ni dekinai z

" Okata otoko-domo


dele,

no sewa no ivami no dard" to\ jibun de halake ye


tsuchi tvo

ye " Kore wa, kore wa! Danna Sama


,

hotte

iru

tokoro

kosaku-nin
!

ga

tori-kakatle,

ofoko-shu ni o sase

nasaranai de9
"

go jishin de nasaru
eshaku*

to

wa

o habakari de
zvo
iva*

gozarimasu
taiefc,

to

wo sum

to,

danna wa hara
m',

" Ore ga daikon wo tsukuru


da"
/o
10

ha bakari
hitori

to

fii-iodoki

okoru tokoro ye,

mata

ki-kakatle,

"Kore wa! Danna Sama


Shikashi-nagara,
mosftita

no go rippuku

wa go
"

mottomo.

kare

wa nan

no fumletsu

mo nashi ni

no de

11
,

ne

mo ha mo nai koto

de gozaimasu.
iva,

Aio-saki no kangae no nai mono

haji no

nc ni haft

wo kaku mono da. u


NOTES TO
^[

456.

i.

This story and the next

may

serve as

specimens of the jeux-de-mots in which the Japanese sometimes indulge. Here the play is on the word habakari, and on the phrase ne

mo ha mo
leaf,"

nai,

"

insignificant," but

more

lit.

" without either root or

as fully explained in

the portions of the English translation


2.

between square brackets.


" tsukiiraseru

More

lit.

"having radishes grown,"

being
3.

the causative of tsukuru" "to make," hence "to


Lit.

grow"

tr ans.). 4.

"do

thinking."

Supply omotte.

this situation," see p. 42.

not forthco me according to (his) way of 5. For tokoro ye, here rendered by "in O de lit. "not deigning honoura6.
t

bly to cause to do."

7.

This clause

is

lit.

"as

for (the fact) that

(you) deign (to do so) by (your) august self." 8. rendered eshakn ivo sunt by the word "politely."

We
It

have very freely

properly signifies

ANECDOTES.

363

RADISHES.
2 ignorant farmer had been growing radishes for two or three years with indifferent success. So, attributing the

An

failure

to his

men
field

out into the


situation he
by.
is

himself and

having scamped their work, he went In this began digging.


Sir !" cried the labourer politely,
"

was seen by a labourer who happened to pass


Sir!

"Oh
your

Oh

"it

dreadful to find you working like this yourself, instead of

letting

men work

for you.

[Or,

this yourself,

instead of letting your

If you work like men work for you, you

"

will gel leaves only,"

habakari

The

ha bakari meaning "leaves only," while a polite phrase here rendered by "it is dreadful"~\ "You farmer, angered by this remark, exclaimed:
is

are an insolent fellow for daring to


I

tell

me

that,

when

grow
:

radishes, get nothing but leaves." Just at that moment another labourer happened to come up, and said
shall

you are quite right did not mean what he said, and so
doubt,
Sir,

"No

to
it

be angry. Still he not worth taking is


nor

any notice of it.


leaves"
remark,

"

"

[Or,

It is a thing having neither roots

This second outsider's


thus interpreted,
it

and

ivould-be

peacemakers
the first

is

more sweeping even than


not only

mans ; for
The

denies the production,


leaves (ha).]

of radish roots

(ne), but even

of the

thoughtless have to suffer perpetual humiliations.

" to " to apologise,"

make

excuses."
10.

9.
to,
is

To

wa = to
itte,

iu no iva, " the fact

of your saying that."


ii.

After

supply
lit.

"having

said."

The

sentence,

down

to here,

"

Neverthless, as for him,

it 12. Lit. being the fact that he spoke without any discrimination." " As for people without consideration of after and before, they are people

who

get

shame on the top

of shame.''

364

ANECDOTES.

1f

457.

ATAMA
no
osho

NI ME.

O
yonde,

tera

san ga aru toki go-zuki no kyaku


' '

wo

ichi-met?

uchi-hajimemasu
de,

to,

sYtki

koso

mono

no jbzu
kotogoloku

nare*"

kyaku

wa

sumi-jimen
osho

mo

doko

mo

tori-kakomimasJiila

kara,

san ga
shtkiri ni

kuyashi-

gatle,

semcte ip-pd dake


ni

de

mo

ikaso*

to,

me

zuo

koshiraeru koto

kufii

wo

shite

orimasii

to,

atama

no

ue ye hai ga takaiia kara,


te

urusagaite,

go-ishi

wo

motta

de atama

wo

kaki-nagara,

" Kono hen ni

hitolsu

me ga

dekitara,

bkata ikiru de aro."

Atama no ue ni mata

hilotsu

me ga

dekitara,

"

milsu-

me

"

nyudo*

desu.

should

NOTES TO know

Tf

To appreciate the point of this story, one i. 457. the game of go ("checkers" or "go-hang," the latter

word being a corruption of the Japanese goban, " a checker-board "). In one variety of this game the chief object is, by establishing "eyes," i.e., spaces surrounded by not less than four of one's o\vn
counters,
to

stop the spread of the opponent's


too,

counters

over

the

board.
space."
the

Remember, At the end


of the

that

me means both "eye" and "open


is produced by open space, or of an eye, on

of the story a ludicrous effect

alternative idea suggested of an

the

top

priest's

head, the suggestion

being equally funny

ANECDOTES.

365

AN EYE ON THE TOP OF THE HEAD.


Once upon
a
time,

the

priest

of a Buddhist

temple

invited a friend

who was fond


to

of playing checkers, and


But,
it

the
says,

two

sat

down

game.

as

the

proverb
that

"fondness gives
blocked
great
ever}-

skill."

So

came about

the

friend
priest's

single corner

of the board, to the


said

mortification.

"If

only,"

the

latter,

"I

could

but

get

one

side

free!"

And

with

these

words,
\in

he made constant
"eyes"].
his head,

efforts to

open up some spaces

Japanese,

Just

then

some

flies

collected

on the top of
scratched
pieces,
his

causing him
the

annoyance.
that held

So he

head
:

with

hand
get

one of the
space
[in

saying

" If
eye"']

could

an open

Japanese,
freed."

"an

here,

probably the corner

would be

Another eye on the top of

his

head w'ould have turned


as]

him
friar.

into
"

[the

sort

of hobgoblin known

a "three-eyed

whichever way you take

it.

2.

Lit.

"one

surface,"

i.e.,

"one game"

(on the deed is


verb

surface of the board). 3. Lit. "(a) fond (person) inskilful of (the) thing (he likes)." This proverb is in the Written Language, where the emphatic particle koso causes the
flat

following it to take the has died out of the Colloquial.


ikaszi,

termination
4.

<?.

This

peculiarity

Ikasd

is

the probable future of

the transitive corresponding to the intransitive ikiru, "to live." means "shall perhaps make alive," hence " in order to free." Or mitsn-tne kozd" the " three-eyed acolyte," one of the super5. natural terrors of Japanese youth.

Thus

it

366

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

1[

458.

BOTAN-DORO.
DAI IK-KWA1.

Kzvampo*

san-nen

no

shi-givatsu

ju-ichi-nichi,

mada
Tenjit?
okonai-

Tokyo wo Edo to moshimasKUd koro, no yashiro de Shbtoku Taishi* no go


mashite,

Yushima
sairei

wo
dele,

sono

told

taiso

sankei

no

Kilo

ga

kunju

ifashimashila.

Koko
bei*
to

ni,

Hongo
katana-ya

San-cho-?ne

ni

Fujimura-ya
sono

Shim-

hi

ga

gozahnastiile,

mise-saki

ni

zua

yoi

shiromono
hilori

ga
no
de,

narabete
o
iro

aru

tokoro

wo,

tdri-kakarimashita

samurai
no

wa,

toshi

no
no
bin

koro

ni-ju-ichi-ni
sJiita,

gurai
sukoshi
agete

shiroi,
to

me-molo
miete,
o

kiririlio

kanshaku-mochi

no

ke

wo
na
o

gntto

yuwase,
tsuke,

rippa
sella

na

haori

ni

kekkd

hakama

wo

wo
ni

hailc,

saki

ni

tachi ;

ushiro

wo

shimete,

asagi no happi shinchu-zukuri no bokutd


kono

kara

lonlen-obi
sasJilteni

wo
aru

chugen

ga

isiiki-sotte,

Fuji-Shin
kake,

no

misc-saki

ye

iachi-yorimashite,

koshi

wo

narabele

kalana

wo

Jiito-iori

nagamete,
This piece consists of the
10),
first

NOTES. Botan-Doro

i.

(see p.

slightly edited

in order to

two chapters of the make them more

genuinely colloquial, and to remove a few expressions which English standards of propriety condemn. The title of the novel alludes to an
incident in a later portion of the story,
relate here.
2.

which

it

would take too long

to

Kivampd

is

the

nengd,

or

"

year-name,"

which lasted from

A.D. 1741-4;

conf. p. 116.

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

367

THE PEONY LANTERN.


CHAPTER
On
still
I.

the 4th

May, 1743,
the

in

the days

when Tokyo was


Shotoku

called
at

Yedo,
the

festival

of

Prince

was

celebrated

Shinto

temple

of Tenjin in Yushima,
in

and the worshippers assembled


occasion.

great

crowds on the

Now
known

in

Third

Street,

Hongd,

there

was a sword-shop

as

for sale in

pass by.

articles exposed Fujimura-ya Shimbei, which were seen by a samurai who happened to He appeared to be about one or two-and-twenty

the fine

years of age,
in his eyes,

had a

fair

and a cue

complexion, a vivacious expression indicative of tightly bound up,

slight quickness of temper.

beautiful pair of trowsers,

He wore a splendid and sandals soled with

coat,

leather.

Behind him,
servant in

as

he strode along in front, there followed a blue coat and striped sash, with a wooden
fastenings.

sword having brass


at the shop,

The samurai looked


glancing round at
all

in

sat

down,

and,
:

the

swords that lay

there, said

3. Tenjin is the posthumous name, under which the famous and unfortunate court noble, Sugawara Michizane (died A.D. 903), is

worshipped as the god or patron saint of letters. Shotoku Tnts/ii, the great imperial patron of Buddhism 4.
lived

in

Japan,

from A.D. 572

621.

5. Strictly speaking, Fujimura-ya is the name of the shop, and Shimbei the personal ("Christian") name of the shopkeeper. But Japanese idiom does n:>t clearly distinguish between a shop and its

owner.

Conf.

55, p. 40.

368

BOTAN-DOR5, CHAP.

I.

Samurai
kon-ito

' '

Teishu ya

Soko

no

kuro-ito

da

ka,

a no kuroi iro no tsuka ni nam~ da ka shir en ga, ban-tetsu no tsuba no tsuita katana wa, makoto ni yosaso

na shina da ga,

"

chotto o misc.

Teishu:
wa,

"

Hei, hei !

Korya

cha

wo

sashi-age-na

Kyb Tenjin no go sairei dc, laisb hilo ga demashita kara, sadameshi drat wa hokori dc, sazo o komari asobashimashitarb
"
to,

katana

no
to

chiri

wo
no

harai-nagara,

"He!
rai

goran asobashimasc"
le

sashi-dasu

wo,

samu-

wa

ni

totte,

mimasJitte,

Samurai:

" Tonda yosaso na mono.


Bizen-mono* no yd ni

Sessha no kantei

suru tokoro dc wa, " do da, na ?

omowarem

ga,

Teishu

"Hei!
Ose

Yoi
no

mekiki

de

irasshaimasuru.

Osore-irimasMia.

tori,
1

watakushi-domo
de arb
to

nakama

no

mono mo,

Tenshb

Sukesada
koto

oshii gozaimasu ga, " zannen de gozaimasu.

ni

wa,

no hybban de nanibun mumei de y

Samurai:
Teishu:

<f

Go

teishu ya !

Korc wa dono kurai suru,

"Hei!

mbshi-agemasen mei sae tori,

Arigatb gozaimasu. tadaima mo ga,


tabun
de,

kake-ne

wa

gozaimasiireba,

mbshi-agemashita mo ne-uchi no

gozaimasu ga, " masu.


6.

mumei no

tokoro

kin

ju-mai de gozai-

Bizen

is

the

name

of a province in Central Japan,

famous for

its

swords.

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

369
there

"Mine

host!

That sword

over
I

with the iron

guard to the dark-coloured hilt, the braid is black or dark blue, Just let me have a look at it."

don't

know whether

looks like a good one.

"All
to

right,

Sir,"
:

said

the
!

shopkeeper.

(Then aside
the

the

shop-boy

" Here

you

offer

gentleman

(Then again to the samurai:} "To-day, owing to the crowds gone out to see the festival, the roads are sure to have been dusty, which must have been a great
nuisance to Your Honour."
said
:

some

tea!"

Then, dusting the sword, he


it,

" Here
it

pray look at

Sir

"
!

With
it

these words,

he handed
specting
it,

to the samurai,
:

who, taking

up and

in-

said

"It's an awfully

good one.
it

So

far as

can judge,

should incline to consider

a Bizen."

"Ah!"
real
It
is

replied

the
I

shopkeeper,

"Your Honour
with
dealers
in

is

connoisseur.
just

am

overpowered

admiration.
the

you make no doubt of


the
sixteenth

as

say.
its

The
But
a great
is

other

trade

being the handiwork of Sukesada in


unfortunately
"
pity.
it

century.
is

bears

no

maker's name, which

"Mine
' '

host

What

the price of
Sir.

it,

eh

"
?

You

are very kind,

ask no fancy prices


tell

as I have just

had the honour

to
if
it

; and, you, the sword would

be an extremely valuable one, name engraved on it. But as


is

only
is

it

had the maker's

anonymous, the price

ten dollars."

7.

Sukesada was a famous swordsmith of the Tensho period, A.D.


-

'573

1592.

370

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

Samurai

" Nani P

Jii-ryb to ka
ka, e

P ?

Chitto takai

yo da ga,

shlchi-mai han ni

wa makaran

Teishu

"Do

itashimashite !

Nanibun, sore de

wa
to,

son

ga

mairimashite* hei! Naka-naka mochimashite, hei!"

shikiri ni

samurai

to

teishu to
to,

katana no nedan no kake-hiki

wo

itashite

orimasu

ushiro

no

ho

de

tori-gakari

no

yopparai ga kano samurai no chugen wo

loraete,

Yopparai
hyoro-hyoro

"Fat/ Nam wo
to

shiyagaru /'
shiri-mochi

to

ii-nagara,
tsuki,

yorokele,
liitai

patatlo

wo

yo-

yaku

oki-agatle,
to

de nirami,

iki-nari genkotsu ivo fuiui,

cho-cho

buchimashila ga,
"
to

Chugen
sakaraivazu
shikiri ni

wa,
wabite

' '

Sake
ni

no
te

toga

da

kannin

shite,

ni daichi

wo

tsuki,

atama

mo,

nao mo
iva,

chugen

wo
to,

yopparai wa mimi ni nagutte imasu tokoro wo,


kerai

wo mo

sagete,
kakezit,

samurai
odoroki-

fiito

mimasu

no

Tosuke da kara,
shite,

mashite, yopparai ni

mukatte eshaku ivo

Samurai:
mashita
ka

"Nam
zonji?nasen

zvo

kerai-me

ga luchbho

ivo

itashi-

ga, ibnin ni nari-kawatte, watakushi

ga

wabi

ivo

moshi-agemasu.

Dozo go kamben wo."

Yopparai : "Nani! Koitsu wa, sono-ho ni kerai da to /> Bushi no tomo wo suru nara, Keshikaran burei na yatsu.
shujin

no
r
1

soba

ni chiisaku

natte

iru

nan da
8.

Tensui-oke* kara san-jaku


is

ga tozen. mo orai ye

Sore

ni,

de-shabatte^

This sentence
too

incomplete
to

the next also, the worthy tradesman

Ix'ing

much

excited

speak grammatically.

MochimasJute

is

polite for niottc, the postposition.

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
' '

I.

371

What
I "
?

you say ten

dollars

That's rather too dear.

But

suppose you'll

go down

to seven

and a

half,

won't

you

"Oh!
So,

really," said the

shopkeeper;
the

"why!
"

should

lose at that rate.

Indeed, indeed I should.

while the samurai and

sword-dealer

went on

bargaining about the price of the sword, a drunkard, who happened to pass by at the back, caught hold of the samu-

" Hey what are you up to?" and came down staggered, plump in a sitting posture. Then, managing to get up again, he glared at the fellow sideways, abruptly shook his fist at him, and began to pommel him. The servant, laying the fault on the liquor,
rai's servant, and, calling out
!

beating patiently, and, without offering any put his hands on the ground, and apologised over and over again with downcast head. But the drunkthe
resistance,

took

ard would not so

much as give ear to his apologies, and The samurai suddenly haphim the more. thrashed only as the fellow being thrashed was round to look and, ; pened
.

his

own
' '

retainer

Tosuke, he was taken aback, and


:

made

excuses to the drunkard, saying I know not of what rude act that

man
;

of mine

may

have been guilty towards Your Honour but I myself beg' to apologise to you for him. Pray be so kind as to pardon
him."

you say that this creature If he goes outrageously rude fellow ? out as a gentleman's retainer, it would be but proper for
said the drunkard,
this
is

"What?"

"

your servant,
to
!

him

But no
9.

keep himself in the background near his master. what does he do ? He sprawls out into the road
the

Rain-tubs or water-buckets stand in certain places along

streets in

Tokyo, as a provision against

lire.

372
tsuko no samatage

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

wo

shite,

sessha

wo

isuki-ataraseta

kara t

yamu
hitoe

zvo ezu
:

chochaku itashita."
' '

Samurai
ni go

kamben
"

Nani mo ivakimaen mono de gozaimasu kara, Temae nari-kawatle o wabi wo zvo.

mbshi-agemasu.
' '

Yopparai
iokoro

Ima

kono

tokoro

de
inn

temae
de

wo

tonto

tsuki-atatta

kara,

ga yorokcla mo oru ka lo

omoeba,

mi-nasaru
itashita.

kono gerb-me ga He, jibeta ye hiza zvo tsukasele, kore ! kono yb ni irui wo doro-darake ni tbri^

do

shila

/>

Burei na yatsu da kara, chochaku Sessha no zombun ni itasu kara, " Kono
dbyb

shila

ga,

koko

ye

dashi nasai."

Samurai
mono,
inu

tori,

nani
de

mo

wake

no

wakaran
dbzo

no

mono

gozaimasu kara,

go

kamlen kudasaimashi."
Yopparai
:

"

Korya omoshiroi !
lomo
ddyb

Samurai ga
zva

mil no

wo
no

meshi-tsurete

Hajimetc ukelamawalla ! aruku to iu ho


temae
mbshi-ukete
ivabite

arumai.

Inu
de

mono

nara,

kaeri,

machin
zva

mo

rybken
shujin

narimasen.

kuwashite yard. kerai Kore !


daichi
tsuchi

Do
no

mo,
zvo

buchbhb
tsuki,

ga wabiru nara,
'

ye
ni

ryb-ic

wo

'Ju-ju

osorc-itta

to,

kbbc

zvo

tataki-isukele,

wabi wo

sum

no

ga

atarimae.

Nan

da P

Kata-te ni katana no koi-

guchi zvo kitte i-nagara, wabi zvo suru nado to wa, samurai ?io Nan da j* Temae zva sessha zvo kint ho de arumai.
10 ki ka /'

10.

Observe the extreme rudeness of the style of address,

the insult-

ing pronoun temae, "thou," and the absence of all honorifics. The commonest courtesy would require ki desu ka for ki ka. The sober
sanntrai answers politely, the verb
peculiarly courteous.

makant

three lines lower

down being

BOTAX-DORO, CHAP.
a

I.

373

good three

feet

beyond the

water-barrel,

and prevents

people from passing, and so made me stumble up against That's why I couldn't help giving him a thrashing." him.

"He
"whom
beg

is

thoughtless

fellow,"

replied
"

the

samurai,
I

I earnestly entreat

Your Honour

to pardon.

to apologise for

him

to

you myself.

"Just now," continued the drunkard,

"as something
I
it

came bang up
ruffian,

against

me when

staggered,
!

thought

that perhaps there

was a dog there. But no and he made my knee hit the ground.

was

this

Here, just
like this.

look!

he has made

my

clothes

all

muddy

gave him a thrashing, because he was an insolent fellow. What do you think of that ? I'm going to do what I want
with him
;

so be

good enough
is

to

hand him over


samurai,

to

me."
is

"You
stupid
to

see,

Sir," replied the

"that he
is

too

know what he
"
!

doing.
to

He

no

better than
"

a dog.

So do pray be kind enough


that's

pardon him.

"Well

good

retorted the drunkard.

"I

never
for
?

Is it etiquette heard of that sort of thing before. samurai to go out walking with a dog for a retainer

a
If

he

is

no
I

better

than a dog,
strychnine.

I'll

take charge of

him and

poison him with


like,

You may

apologise as you
!

Gracious goodness won't take your apologies. If a master wanted to apologise for his servant's insolence,

the natural thing for

him

to

do would be

to

put both

hands on the ground, and to express his regret over and over again, apologising and striking the earth with his
head.

you
use,

are

But what do you do ? While you are apologising, busy with one han'd loosening your sword for What do pretty manners indeed for a samurai!
?

you mean " knave ?

Is

it

your intention to

kill

me,

you low

374

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

Samurai:
de kai-tord
shita
to

"

Jya

kore wa,

temae

ga kono

katana-ya
mite

zonjimashiie,

tadaima kanagu

wo

ima-

no de

tokoro ye, "


.

kono

sawagi ni

tori-aezu makari-demashita

Yopparai:

" Eil

sore
"
to

iva,

kau

to

mo kawan

to

mo,

anata no go katlc da n
shikiri ni sono suikyb

nonoshiru no wo,
iru
12

samurai

wa

wo nadamete
' '

to,

Orai no

hito-biio

wa,
to,

Sorya
e

kenkiva da ! abunai zo !

"

**Nani.P kenkiva da
"
da.
' ' ' '

?"
!

"So
to

sa!
to,

aite

wa samurai
:

Sore

wa

kennon da
s
3

"

iu

mata Mtori ga
to

Nan

de gesu,
to

ne

"

' '

Sayo sa ! katana wo kau

ka,

kaivanai

ka no machigai daso desu.

Ano

yopparaite iru

samurai ga hajime ni katana ni nc wo


kaivarenai de iru tokoro ye,
kotchi no
tsuketa

tsuketa ga, takakute

wakai samurai ga
kara,

mata sono kaiana ni ne

ivo

tokoro
stiita

yopparai
ore

wa

'

okori-dashtle,

Ore ga
'

kab
to

to

mono wo,
ka

ni

lusata

de ne wo
to

tsuketa

ka,
:

nan

to

no
so

machigai-

rashii"

ieba,

mata

hitori

" Nani sa!


ne f
sono
(

ja arimasen

yo

Are
ni

zva

imi

no machigai da,
kara,

Ore no uchi no
kaivari
'

inu

machin

wo kuwaseta
ivo

no
to

inu

wo
no

watase.

Maia machin
inu

kuwascte korosb

ka iu

desu
11.

ga,

no

machigai

wa,

mukashi kara yoku

Here the drunkard uses honorifics, but ironically. Observe the incorporation into one gigantic sentence of all the various dialogues of the bystanders, from here to the end of
12.

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

375

It is only that "By no means," replied the samurai. had thought of purchasing this sword of the dealer here, and was just inspecting the metal-work, when all of a 1

"

sudden

got in for this row, and

"

"Oh!" laughed the drunkard, "whether you buy the " wheresword or don't buy the sword, that's your affair to to endeavour samurai continued appease his upon, as the
;

drunken frenzy, the passers-by put in their word, saying " " Look out there's a take care
!

quarrel

"What ? you
' '

Yes

say there's a quarrel ? " the parties to it are samurai.

"

"That's a bad look out." Then, as another asked what

it

was,

somebody

replied

"Well, you see, it appears it's a misunderstanding That drunken samurai about the purchase of a sword. there first priced the sword, and was just refusing to buy

on account of its being too dear, when the younger This angered samurai here came up and also priced it the drunkard, who found fault with him for pricing,
it

been intending

without reference to him, an article which he himself had That's more or less what the to buy.

misunderstanding sprang from." But another broke in, saying,


it

"Oh
is

dear no

that's

not

at

all.

The misunderstanding
'
:

about a dog.
killed

One of
with
let

the two said to the other


strychnine, you must give

As you

my dog
and
in

me

yours in return,

me

poison
always

it

with strychnine too.

Disputes about dogs have

been

common

for

you

know how,

Shirai u

the paragraph on p. 378,


13.

and

conf.

442-4.

The touching
is

story of Shirai

Gompachi and

of his lady-love,
I.,.

Komurasaki,
p. 35 ft
set?.

to

be found in Mitford's " Tales of Old Japan," Vol.

?6

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
!

I.

arimasu yo
kenkzva
iu
to,

Shirai

Gompachi nado
ni
kilo

mo,

yahari inu

no
to

kara anna sbdb

nalla

no desu kara,

net"

mata sola ni iru

ga

" Nani

sa ! sonna

wake

ja

nai.

Ano futari
no

zva oji oi no aida-gara de,


zva
oji

ano makka

ni yopparatte iru

san

de,

wdkai

kirei

na

hito
to

ga
iu
hito

oi dasb

da.

Oi ga

oji

ni kozukai-zeni
to

wo kurenai

tokoro

kara no

kenkiua

da"

ieba,

mata sola ni iru

zva:

"Nam'/
zva

are zva kinchaku-kiri


iro-iro

da" nado
shite

to,

orai no
ni,

hito-bito

no

hybban
zva
1*

zvo
:

iru

uchi

hitori no

oloko

ga mbshimasu ni

"Ano
ni

yopparai
hito

zva,

Maruyama Hommybji

naka-yashtki

sumu
ga,
zva

de,

moto zva Koide

Sama

no go kerai de
ni fukeri,

atta

mimochi
suppa-nuki
shichu

ga

zvarukute,
shite

shu-shoku
zvo

ori-ori
zvo

nado

hilo

odokashi,
toki zva

rambb

hataraile

wo

bgyo

shi,

aru

rybri-ya

ye

agari-komi, jiibun
(

sake sakana de hara

wo fukuraslnta ageku
tori ni

ni,

Kanjb

zva,

Hommybji naka-yashiki ye

koi!'

to,

bhei ni kui-taoshi

nomi-taoshiie ariiku Kurokazva

Kozo

to iu

zvaru-zamurai desu

kara,

toshi no

zvakai ho zva

mi-komarete,

tsumari sake de
ka
t

mo

kazvascrareru no

deshb

yo"

" So desu

/"

Namizvakai

taitei
14.

no
Each

mono

nara,

kitte

shimaimasu

ga

ano

of the larger daimyos usually possessed three mansions in


titles

Yedo, respectively distinguished by the or " middle," and shimo or " lower."

of

kami or " upper," naka

HOTAN-DOR5, CHAP.

I.

377

Gompachi's case, too, it was a quarrel about a dog which " grew into all that trouble. "Oh dear no! said another onlooker at the side of
7 '

him who had


least.

just

It

seems

that

been speaking, "that's not it in the the two samurai are relations,
his
is

one the uncle, the other


with
the scarlet face that

nephew.
the uncle,

It is

the drunkard

young fellow that is the nephew. them arose from the nephew's refusing

and the handsome The quarrel between


to give his uncle

some pocket-money. But another man, standing


"

"

by,

said

"Oh!

no,

he

is

pickpocket.

And

then,

among

the

various

comments which were


delivered

made by

the

passers-by,

one

man

himself of

the information that the drunkard

\vas

a swashbuckler of

a samurai called

middle mansion

Kurokawa Kozo, who was living in the of Hommyoji at Maruyama, and who
been
a
retainer

had

originally

of

my

lord

Koide,

but who, being ill-behaved, had sunk into debauchery, used often to frighten folks by drawing his sword at random, and used to roam through the streets in a
violent

and
of

way
his

into
fill

manner, sometimes forcing his when he had had eating-houses, and then,
disorderly
victuals

and

drink,
to

telling

the

eating-house-

keeper to come for

payment
that

the

middle mansion of
his

HommySji,
riotous
less

thus
so
the

ruining

people
the

by

violence

and
into

living,

present

row \vould

doubt-

end

in

younger
?" said

samurai getting

bullied

treating

him
!

to liquor.

" Oh

is

that

it

a voice.
I

"

Any

average

man would

cut the ruffian down.

But
will

won't be able to do

so,

suppose the young samurai " he ? for he looks weakly.

7&
ho

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
wa,

I.

domo

bydshin
iva,

no yd

da kara,

kiremai,

ne

"
!

" Nani! ga

Are

kenjutsu

wo

shiranai no daro.
koshi-mikc

Samurai
lo

kenjutsu

wo
ga
gutto

shiranakereba,
chira-chira

da" nado

sasayaku
hairu
micte,

koe

wakai samurai no

mimi ni
to

kara,

komi-agc,

kampeki ni sawarimashita

kao

ga makka

Samurai :

ni nan, ao-suji wo tatete, tsnme-yori, " Kore hodo made ni o ivabi wo mdshite mo,

go kamben nasaimasen ka f" " Ktidoi! Mireba, Yopparai : go jikisan


o-ha
ka,

rippa

na

samurai,

izure

no go hanchu ka

wa

shiranai ga,
' '

uchi-karashila
!

rdnin!"

to

anadori ;

Shitsurei

shi-

goku
i'tle,

lyo-iyo

katto

tan

to kamben ga naranakereba, do sum ka ? wo waka-zamurai no kao ni haki-tsukemashita

"

kara,

sasuga

ni

kamben-zuyoi
to

zvaka-zamurai

mo,

korae~

kircnaku

narhnaslnta

miete,

"Onore!
boko,

shila kara dereba

tsuke-agari,

masu-masu tsunoru bari

bushi taru mono

no kao ni tan

wo

haki-tsukcru to wa, fu-todoki na


to

yalsu!^

Kamben ga
ya de mite
hayai ka,

dekinakereba, kb suru"
ita

ii-nagara, ima katanatc

Bizen-mono no tsuka ni
to

wo kakwu ga
hana no saki

surari

hiki-nuki,

yopparai

no

ye

pikatto dashita kara,

kembutsu

wa

odoroki-awale, yoivaso

na otoko da kara,
no
ni,

mada

hikko-nuki

wa

shimai

to

omolta
ko no
to

pika-pika

to

shiia kara,
ni,

" Soraf mtilaf"


shi-ho

to,

ha ga kaze ni chini yd
15.

hap-po ni bara-bara
lit.

subjectless

and highly irregular sentence,


(i.e.,

"

You when
!

come out from underneath


with pride
;

you are puffed up abuse and violence accumulating more and more ; as
conciliating),

am

BOTAN-DORo, CHAP.

I.

379

"Don't you believe it!" whispered another. be because he doesn't know how to use a sword.

"It must

samurai

who doesn't know how to use a sword is a coward.'' And the buzz of these whispered insinuations found
way
and,
to

its

the

young samurai's
flying

ears,

and

he

flared

up,

evidently

into

passion,

his

face

became

scarlet,

and the blue veins stood out on

his forehead,
:

and he drew
I

close to the drunken wretch, and said "Will you not excuse my retainer, even after

all

the

apologies

have offered
idiot!"

?"

"You wordy
at you,

laughed
fine

the

other.

"To

look

you are a mighty


that

might suppose
great
vassals,

gentleman, of whom one he either was one of the Shogun's

of the clans. But you are a shabby, disreputable vagrant. Nothing could I am less than ever disposed be ruder than your conduct.
or else belonged to one
to excuse

you

and now what

will

you do

?"

and with

these words he spat in the

This

was too much


the

young samurai's face. for the patience even of one so


' '

Impudent wretch "to presume thus upon my forbearance, to continue getting more and more abusive and violent, and actually to spit in a gentleman's face As you won't accept apologies, here's what I'll do to you !" And with these words, and almost before he could be seen to have placed his hand on the hilt of the sword which he had just been inspecting in the shop, he out with it and
long-suffering as
that

younger man.
he,

you are!"

cried

flashed

it

in

the

drunkard's

face.

Thereupon the by-

standers

took

fright.

"Oh!
it

he has drawn his sword!"


the hands of him, who,

cried they, as they


for

saw

flash in

your spitting saliva into the face of a person


"
!

who

is

(taru, for to

ant) a warrior, what an impudent fellow

380
nigemashite,
kiri,

BOTAN-DOR5, CHAP.

I.

machi-machi no kido wo

toji,

roji
de,

wo

shime-

akindo

wa mina

to

wo shimeru sawagi

machi-naka
hitori

zva zva

hissori to

narimasKita ga,

Fuji-Shin no
to shite,

Icishu

nige-ha

wo

ushinai,

tsukunen

mise-saki

ni

suwatle orimashiia.

Sate

Kurokaiva

Kozo

wa,
13

yopparatte
de,

wa

orimasuredo,

Nama-yoi honsho
kemmaku ni
nige-dasu

tagawazu

ano

waka-zamurai no

osoremashile, hyorotsuki-nagara ni-ju-ashi bakari

no wo,

samurai
aite

wa

" Onore kuchi hodo de

mo

nai.

Bushi no

ni ushiro
to,

wo

miser u

to

wa,

Jiikyb

na yatsu!

Kaere ! kaerc!"

setta-baki de ato
to

wo

okkake-

masu

to,

Kozo wa mohaya kanaivan

omoimashiie, hyorote

isuku ashi

wo fumi-shimele, katana no
zoo,

tsuka ni

wo

kakele,
li

konata ivo furi-muku tokoro


to

waka-zamurai wa
to

Ei!"
to,

hito-koe,

kata-saki

fukaku

buttsuri
sakebi,

kiri-komu

kirarete,

Kozo wa,

"A/"

ttcP
to

kata-hiza

wo

isuku

tokoro

wo

noshi-kakatte,

" Ei!"

hidari no kata yori

muna-

moto ye kiri-tsukemasJnta kara,


shimaimasJnta.
zvo
sasKite,

hasu ni mitsu
iva

ni

kirarete

Waka-zamurai

sugu

to

rippa ni todome

chi-gatana ivo furui-nagara, Fuji-Shin no mise-

saki ye tachi-kaerimashita ga,

moto yori kiri-korosu ryoken de


kesfiiki

gozaimasKita

kara,
:

chiilo

mo dosuru

mo

naku,

waga
mizu

gerb ni mukatte

Samurai:

"R'ore/

Tosuke!
to

sono

tensui-oke
to,

no

zvo kono katana ni


16.

kakero!"

ii-tsukemasu

A proverb.
;

Classical tagawazu~Co\\o<\. chigawanai.


tto

17.
to,

Pronounce atto as a single word, the postposition conf. bottom p. 82.

standing by emphasis for

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

381

taking him for a weakling, they had imagined would not And then, like leaves scattered by the wind, off they draw.
fled helter-skelter in every diiection
;

and

the

ward-doors

were

made

fast,

and the

barriers of every lane

were closed,

and the shop-keepers all shut up their shops, so that the whole street was deserted, the old sword-dealer alone continuing to
sit

listlessly

in

his

shop-front, simply because

he was too

much dazed

to run away.

Well, drunk as
that
'

Kurokawa Kozo

was, he,

on the principle
scared at the

a tipsy
that

man

follows his natural bent,'

was painted on the young samurais face, tried rage to escape, and had gone some twenty paces with a staggering gait, when his antagonist pursued him with his
sandals

on and cried out, "Wretch! your conduct does

not bear out your insolent words.


for

You
!

are a coward,

showing your back to a gentleman you are, are Come back come back " disputing with. you
!

whom

Then

Kozo

seeing

it

was

no

longer

steadied himself on

his staggering legs,

any good, put his hand on

the hilt of his sword,

and was turning


with
the

to face the

young

samurai,
"

when

the

latter,

single

exclamation

Ha

"
!

so that the

slashed deep into his shoulder, cutting him down, man fell on to one knee with a cry, when his

opponent, springing on him again, cut at his chest in such The wise that he fell sliced obliquely into three pieces.

young

samurai then

de-grace, and returned

dexterously gave him the coupto the sword-shop, shaking the

blood from

As he had from the beginning off his blade. intended to cut the swashbuckler down, he was not flurried in the slightest, but turned to his servant, and said
:

"

Here, Tosuke

pour some water on

this

sword from

382
Saizen

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

yon furuete
koto

orimashita

Tosuke

wa

'

Heil

ton-

demonai

ni narimashila.

Moshi kono

kolo

kara Qlono

Sama

no o namac de

wa, ai-sumimasen.
koto.

mo demasu yd na koto ga gozaimashite Moio wa mina watakushi kara hajimatla


t

Do

"
itashitara, yoroshiu
' '

gozaimasho

/*

Samurai
Shlchu
yalsu da
ivo

Jya

Sayb ni shimpai
rajnbb-nin, "
to,

sum

ni

wa

oyoban.

sawagasu

kiri-sulete

mo kurushikunai

Shimpai suru-na !
shtle,
:

gero ivo nagusame-nagara,


iru

yuyu

to

akke

ni

torarete

Fuji-Shin

no

ieishu

wo

yobi

"Korya! Go teishu ya! Kono kireyo to wa onioimasen dalla ga,


Yohodo yoku
Teishu
ie

katana

wa,

kore

hodo

naka-naka

kiremasu.

hirer u" to iu to,

zua,

furue-nagara

"

Jya

Ana/a

sama

no

ga

saete oru kara de


'

gozaimasu"
iya !

Samurai
da, na

'

lya

Mattaku hamono ga

yoi.
to

Do

Shtchi-ryo ni-bu ni makeie

mo yokarb

"

iu kara,

Fuji- Shin

wa

kakari-ai

wo

osorele,

" Yoroshiii gozaimasu."

Samurai:

"Iya!

Omae

no mise ni wa, kesshite meikono


koto

waku

7va

kakemasen.

Tomokaku

wo

sugu

ni

jishimban ni iodokenakercba naran.


chotlo suzuri-bako

Nafuda wo kaku kara,


"
to

wo

kashile kurero !

iwarcie mo,

teishu

wa
ni,

jibun no soba ni suzuri-bako no ant no

mo me

ni tsukazu

furue-goe
18.

de,

ese

sentences

This sentence excellently illustrates the manner in which Japansometimes fail to hang together logically. The first

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
that

I.

383

water -tub;"
all

whereupon Tosiike,
:

who

had

been

trembling

the while, exclaimed


it

"Oh!
dreadful

Sir,
if

has

come

to

pretty

pass.

It

will

be

our master, your father, gets his name dragged And I was the cause mud because of this. the through
of
it

all.

What

shall I

do

"
?

"Nay,"
not
fret

said the samurai,


that.

to

comfort him,
fellow
is

''you need
goes about
in
it."

like
all

A
town

disorderly
!

who
about

disturbing

the

there

no harm
fret

cutting

down

a creature of that sort.

Don't

And

with these words, he called out nonchalantly to the terror"Ha! ha! mine host! I never stricken shop-keeper:

thought

this

sword of yours would cut


It cuts first-rate."

as well as that.

But

it

does cut.

To which the shop-keeper, trembling the while, made answer: "Nay! it was because Your Honour's arm is
skilful."

"Not
really

at

all,"

replied

the

samurai.
?

"The
I

blade
you'll

is

good

one.

And how now


and a
half."

hope

go

down
the

to seven dollars

So the sword-dealer, anxious not affair, said that it was all right.

to

get implicated in

"And
will

allow your establishment to convenience on account of what


I

mind," continued the samurai, "that in no case be put to any inhas

happened.
to the

Of

course

must report the matter


let

at

once

warden of

the ward.

Just write a card."

me

use your writing-box a minute 'to


"

if followed by is, so to speak, suspended in the air, as for) a disorderly person who disturbs the town-middle, he

clause

wa :
is

(As

a person

whom

even cutting

down

is

not bad."

384

BOTAN-DORC), CHAP.

I.

"

Kozoya/ Suzuri-bako
zva,

ivo

molie

koi!"

to

yonde mo,

kanai no mono
shimai,
Kttori

sakki no

sazvagi ni doko ye ka nigete


to
sJiite,

mo

orimasen kara, hissori

henji

ga

nai Kara,

Samurai
gara dake

"Go

ieishu !

Omae
"
!

zva

sasuga ni go shobaini gozaru

attc,

kono mise zvo

chilto

mo ugokazu

wa, kanshin na mono da, na


Teishu
' '

lye,

nani!

home de

osore-irimasu.
.

Saki-

hodo kara haya-goshi ga nukele,

iatenai no de

."

Samurai:
nai ka
"
r*

"Suzuri-bako

zva,

omae no

zuaki ni

aru ja

to

iwarete, yoyo kokoro-zuite, suzuri-bako


to,

wo samurai

no mae ni sashi-dashimasu

samurai
to

zva

suzuri-bako no

futa

zvo hiraite,

fude

ivo tori,

sura-sura

namac wo "Iijima
oki,

Heitarb

"
to

kaki-owari, jishimban ni todokete

Ushigome

no o yashikiye o kaeri ni narimastiita.

Kono shimatsu wo go shimpu


ni o
( (

lijima
to,

Heizaemon

Sama

hanashi
"
kitta

wo mbshi-agemasu
to

Heizaemon

Sama wa

Yoku

ose

ga

atle,

sore kara sugu ni kashira no

Kobayashi Gondaiyu Dono'


sasJiitaru
nari?Jiashila.
19.

ye o todoke ni narimastiita ga,


naku,
kiri-doku

togame mo

kirare-zon

to

We have freely

fright."

rendered this clause by unable But the popular Japanese idea on the suject is

"

to stir

through

that one of the

bones actually gets put out of joint through fright. 20. Gondayu, here rendered as part of this personage's name, was originally a title indicative of a certain rank ; but it came to be used

more or

less at will

that this Kobayashi

among the samurai class. It is to be supposed Gondayu was an official entrusted with certain

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

I.

385

But the shop-keeper, never noticing that the writing-

box was close beside him, called out

in a

tremulous voice
to

"Boy!

bring the writing-box!"


;

command

which

for all the people in the nothing but silence responded house had fled none knew whither when the row began,

and there was no one

present.
' '
:

So the samurai exclaimed

Mine

host

really

admire your courage, the courage proper in the owner of a sword-shop, sitting here in your shop without " moving an inch, notwithstanding this affray.

covers

"Nay! me
' '

Sir,"

gasped

the
I

tradesman.

"Your
"

praise
stir

with confusion.

have been unable to

through fright ever since the beginning of it, and

Why

"
!

said
?

the
"

' '

samurai,

isn't

the

writing-box

there at your side

These words at last brought and he pushed the writing-box lifting off the lid, took up a " name, lijima Heitaro," then warden of the ward, and went
.

the

shopman

to his senses,

towards the samurai, who, pen and quietly wrote his


reported the matter to the

home

to his lord's

mansion

at

Ushigome.

On

his

relating

the

whole

affair

to

his

father,

lijima

Heizaemon, the latter praised him for his manly deed; nor was the young man specially blamed when the report It was sent in to their superior, Kobayashi Gondayu.
all

simply ended by being so much the better for the slayer, and so much the worse for the slain.
which the lijimas belonged, and who happened
still

affairs of the clan to

The title of Dotio, " Mr./' though be their immediate superior. is often used in writing, rarely if ever heard in actual speech.
to

386

BOTAN-DOR5, CHAP.

I.

459.

DAI NI-KWAI.
lijima

Sale
loki

Heitarb

Sama
na
ni

wa,

toshi
chitto

ni-ju-ni

no

ni

waru-mono

wo
kishb

kiri-koroshite,
o
bjite,

mo

osoreru

keshiki

mo
toshi

naku,
^vo

kata

de

gozaimashita
chic

kara,

tom

masu-masu

ga
naku

susumimashiie,

sono
katoku

nochi

go
o

shimpu
no

sama

ni

nararete,
to

go

wo

tsugi

asobashi,

Heizacmon

na

wo
o

aratame?
hatamoto*

Strido-lata*

moshimasu
ni

kara

Miyake okusama wo
shusshd

Sama
o

to

mukae

narimashite,

hodo

wo
de,

Tsuyu Sama go rybshin wa


o

to

no o nyoshi sukoburu mbshi-age, yoi go kiryb no uchi no tama no yd ni te

naku

go

aishite,

sodate

ni

narimashita

ga,

sono

ato

ni

kodomo

ga
*

dekimasezu,

hito-tsubu-dane

no
'

koto

desu
seki-

kara,

nao-sara

go
de,

hisb
o

ni

nasaru

uchi,

kbin

ni

mori nashi'
narare,
'

ie

mo

jbsama wa kotoshi lotte ju-roku ni masu-masu go sakan de gozaimashita

ga,
tori,

mitsureba

kakunt

yo

no
no

naraC

to

iu

tatoe
to

no

okusama
nochi
to

wa

sukosht

yamai ga
no

moto

natle,

isui ni o

naku nan nasaimashila.


kaji-muki
nochi-zoi
o

Sono

go

fujiyu
o

tokoro

kara,

Kuni
ga,
to

iu

wo
to

mukae
to

ni

narimashita
aida

tokaku

jbsama

O Kuni
lijima

no

ga nan
kore
zvo

naku
ni

ori-aimasen
omoimashile,

de,

Sama
ye

mo
bessb

mendb
1.

Yanagi-shima

wo

ko-

change of name on some important event was a


the

common

practice in Old Japan.


2.
I.e.,

bank of the aqueduct

in

Koishikawa, Yedo.

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

II.

387

CHAPTER

II.

Now lijima HeitarS, having, at the age of two-andtwenty, cut down a ruffian, and being an energetic young samurai who knew not what fear was, grew wiser and
wiser as he advanced in years.

Later on, having lost his and the inherited he changed his name to father, patrimony a wife from the family of a then married and Heizaemon,
hatamoto
little

called

while, there

named
hand.

O
As

After a Miyake residing at Suid5-bata. was born to them a daughter, whom they Tsuyu, and who was so beautiful that her

on her as if they had held a jewel in their they had no other children after her, their only pet, their care for her increased all the more ; and " no barriermeanwhile, there being, as the proverb says,
parents doted

keeper to keep time back," the young


sixteenth year,
ever,
this

girl was now in her and the family was more prosperous than

when, as an exemplification of the saying that "in world what waxeth waneth," some ailment, quite
first,

slight at

attacked the mother and ended by carrying

her

off.

Afterwards

lijima,

finding

that

the

household

would

not work smoothly without a mistress, took to himself a second wife named O Kuni. But somehow or other, the This daughter and O Kuni did not get on well together.

was a trouble
3. 4.

to the master of the house,

who thereupon
Book

See vocabulary.

Kakuru

Both these sayings are inherited from the is equivalent to Colloquial kakem, 2nd conj.

Language.

388
shirae,
o

BOTAN-D5RO, CHAP.

II.

josama

ni

Yone

to

iu

jochu
kore

wo
ga

tsukete,

betsu-zumai

wo
ie

sashite

okimashita

ga,

lijima

Sama

no o

no kuzureru hajime de gozaimasu.


toshi

Sate

sono

mo

tachi,

akuru*

ioshi

iva

josama

wa ju'Shichi-sai ni o
Koko
ni
'

nari asobashimasKita.
lijima
to

ni

hanete

Sama yc
mosu
o

de-iri

no

isha

Yamamoto

Shijo
taiko-isha

mono ga
shabcri
de,
to

gozaimashite
shonin
in

jitsu

wa
tame

no
te

tasuke

no

ni

saji

wo

ni

toranai*

jimbutsii

de

gozaimasu kara, nami no o isha nara, chollo kamiirc no naka ni mo gwan-yaku ka ko-gusuri de mo haiile imasu ga, kono ni Shijo no kami-ire no naka
...wa,
irete

no tezuma tane yara, hyaku-manako aru gurai na mono de gozaimasu.


kono
ni
isha

nado

ga

Sate

no

chikazuki

de,

Nezu

no

Shimizusono

dani

dembaia

ya

kashi-nagaya

wo

mochi,

agari de kurashi wo tatete iru ronin no Hagiwara Shinzaburb to mosu mono ga umare-tsuki arimashite,
kirci

na

otoko

de,

toshi

wa

ni-ju-ichi

de de

gozaimasu
gozaimasu

ga,
kara,

mada
soto

nyobo

mo

motazu,

goku

uchiki

ye

mo

demasezu, shomotsu bakari mite orimasu

tokoro ye,

aru hi Shijo ga tazunete mairimashite,


' '

ga yoroshiu gozaimasu kara, sono kaeri ye de-kakete, ni boku no chikazuki lijima Heizaemon no besso ye sat* Kimi wa ittai uchiki de irasIe' yorimashb.
Shijo
:

Kyo wa,

tenki
1

Kameido

no

Gwaryobai'

sham

kara,

fujin

ni

kokoro-gake

nasai?nasen

ga,

This is Classical for akeru, 2nd conj., "to open," hence "to 5. " next " in " next begin," hence used to signify year." The 6. spoon (with which medicines are mixed) is the physician's
special

emblem.

In the free translation

we have used

the phrase

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
built a villa
in

II.

389

the neighbourhood of Yanagi-shima,


to reside

and

sent his

daughter
called

there separately,
this
it

attended by

maid

Yone.

And

was which was the

beginning of the downfall of the house of lijima.

Well, that year too passed by, and in the following one Tsuyu entered her seventeenth year.

Now there was a man named Yamamoto Shij5, who had long been the family physician of the lijimas. In one of those reality he was a chatterbox and a quack, doctors of whom it is said that they write no prescriptions
a man out of regard for the welfare of their patients, who carried about in his pocket-book such things as the

wherewithal for conjuring tricks, or else paper-masks for acting the mimic, instead of the pills or powders of which any ordinary physician has a little store by him.
Well,
called
this

doctor

had a

friend,

an unattached samurai

lived on the income Hagiwara Shinzaburo, fields and house property which he owned He was naturally a handsome at Shimizu-dani in Nezu.

who

derived from

man,
age,

still

and so shy

unmarried though already twenty-one years of that he would not go out, but occupied

himself with nothing but reading.


Shijo

came
is

to

call

upon

him

one day,
lei us

and

said

''As

it

such

fine

weather to-day,

go and see the


look

plum-blossoms
in
at

at

Kameido, and, on our way back,


?

the

villa

of a friend of mine,

What ? you
" "

say no

You

lijima Heizaemon..are altogether so shy, that you

" as our nearest equivalent to the Japanese, writing prescriptions taking the spoon in hand."
7.

fantastic old plum-trees,

garden in Tokyo, celebrated for the picturesque beauty of " recumbent lit. the dragon plum-trees."

its

39O
danshi
ni
tolte

BOTAN-DOR5, CHAP.
wa,
nai.

II.

fnjin

no

tsuki-ai

hodo

lanoshimt
besso

na
wa,

mono
fujin no

wa
o

Ima
de,

moshita

lijima

no

ni

bakari

sore

wa !
de

sore

wa /
jochii

yohodo
to

leppin

josama
kara,

ni

shinsetsu

na

tada

futari-giri

Honto
de,

ni

ume

kikimasen.

mo itte kimasho. de mo kekko na kurai josama miru mo yoroshii ga, ugoki mo shinai, kuchi mo Fujin zua, kuchi mo kiku shi, ugoki mo
desu

jbdan dakc

shimasu.
fiitari-zure
besso

Tomokaku
de

ki-tamae !

"
to

sasoi-dashimashite,

Gwarydbai ye

mairi,

kaeri

ni

lijima

no

ye

tachi-yorimashite,

Shijo
io iu

"Go men
:

kudasai /

Makolo

ni

shibaraku /"

koe

wo

kiki-tsukemashite,

Yone
:

" Dona la sama r Oya-oya! irasshaimashi!"


1

Shijo

" Kore

wa /

Yone
ka ?
koko

San /

Sono

nochi wa,
ni
/

tsui ni nai

go busata
kara

itashimashita,

josama
sore zua

wa
naritsut

o kaivari

mo gozaimascn
kara
zva,

Sore wa,

kekko,

kekko /

Ushigome

yc

hiki-utsuri

ni
tsui

mashile

domo

cmpo

na

no

de,

go

busata

ni narimashite,
' '

ma koto

ni ai-sumimasen"
o

Yone

Ma !
ka
to

anata
omotle,

hisashiku

mie

nasaimasen
itashite

kara, do nasatta
orimashita.
' '

maido o
"

mvasa wo

Kyo
Kyo
'

zua dochira zua

ye ?

Shijo

Gwarydbai ye
mireba, hozu

umc-mi
?tai*' to

ni
iu

de-kake~
tatoe

mashita
tori,

ga,

Ume

ga

no

mada

mi-tarinai

no
"

de,

niiva

no

ume wo

haiken

itashilakute mairimasKita.
8.

Shijo

is

joking.

The
is

real saying

is

one looks upwards, there

no

limit,"

Ue mireba, hozu ga nai, " If " there is no limit to the i.e.,

possibility of aping one's superiors."

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

II.

39 1

take no interest in ladies' society, whereas there is noIn the villa thing so delightful for a man as that society.

which

I
!

and oh
that
treat

have just mentioned there are none but ladies, a perfectdear me there are only two of them,
!

ly lovely

young

girl

and a good-natured maid-servant, so


fun.

we can have some


just

simply

to

look
;

soms
can't

are beautiful too

lady is really a Doubtless the plum-blosbut then they don't move, they
at.

The young

speak,

whereas

women

possess
"
!

both motion and

speech.

Anyhow,

please

come along

see the plum-blossoms,


in at lijima's villa.

So saying, he led him off, and they went together to and then, on the way home, looked

"Excuse me!"
all this
' '

called

out Shijo.

"Here
' '

am,

after

long time."
"
is
it ?

Who
in
!

answered

Yone.

Oh,
is

really

pray
un-

come

"

"Ah! O Yone!"
lady
is

cried Shijo.

"It
I

really

an

conscionable time since


quite
live

my

last visit.

well.

Well,

well

this

is

hope the young But splendid.


here from

you do
gome,
is

so far off since you

moved

Ushi-

that I have

become
"

quite remiss in calling, which

really too

bad of me.
' '
!

Why it's so long since we last had the of pleasure seeing you, that we wondered what had become of you, and have been constantly talking about " Where have you been to-day ? you.
Yone
:

' '

Shijo

To

see
'

the

plum-blossoms
'

at

Kameido.

But, as the saying

is,

When one

looks at the plum-blosyet feel that


to

soms, there is no end to it. have seen enough, and have

So we don't come hoping

we

get a

sight

of the plum-blossoms in your garden."

392

BOTAX-DORO, CHAP.

II.

O
ddzo
shita

Yone

l '

Sore
o

wa

yoku

irasshaimastiita.
to,

Ma I
bara

kochira
kara,

ye

hairi asobase!"

kirido

wo akema-

"Go men
' '

kudasai!"

to,

niwa-guchi

zashiki ye tdrimashita.

Yone
irasshtte

Ma !

ip-puku meshi-agare /

Kyo
komaf/e

wa yoku
to

kudasaimashita.

Fudan wa,
samisfiikutte

ivatakushi

o jo-

sama

bakari

desu

kara,

on'masu

iokoro de gozaitnashita."
' '

Shijo

Kekko

na

sumai

desu.

Sate,

Hagiivara

Uji!

Kyo kimi no go meigin


ne,
'

ni osore-irimashlta*

Nan

to

ka moshimashiia,

e r

Tabako ni wa, Snri-bi no umas/ti


'

Ume no naka
deshiia
ka,

10

ne

/*

Kampuku,
1

kampuku

Boku no yd na

ochaku-mono wa, deru ku mo dchaku

de,

Ume

komete,

Magirawashi-keri,

Kado-chigai'"
ka, ne
11

ni shoken bakari shite ite wa, ikemasen no sake no nokori ga koko ni am kara, ip-pai Sakki yo ne r> lya desu ? Sore de wa, hltori agare-yo ! Nan desu,
I

Kimi no yd

de

chbdai

itashimasho

"
to

ii-nagara,

hydtan

wo

dashi-

is supposed to be able to compose but the so-called verses here given are of course only Ship's This particular kind of chaff, invented on the spur of the moment. stanza is termed hokku, and consists of three lines of respectively five,

9.

Every Japanese of education


;

in verse

seven,

and

five

syllables.

Japanese prosody knows nothing either of

rhyme
10.

or of quantity.

Conf.

465

et seq.

The words
is

lit.

mean "As

for tobacco (-smoking), within the

plum-trees,

delicious of striking-fire,"

"
i.e.,

How delicious

it is

to light

BOTAN-D5RO, CHAP.

II.

393
!

Yone

"Well, well
in
this

please

come

and a good welcome to you Oh " and so saying, she opened way
!

the wicket, so that the

visitors,

with a

"By

your leave,"

passed through the garden entrance into the house.

Yone
to

"

Oh

please

smoke

It is

exceedingly kind
generally
us,

We are of you to-day. because there are the two of dull, only
have come
mistress

very

my young

is a splendid house. Well, Mr. Hagiwas quite taken aback by that beautiful stanza What was it again ? of yours to-day. To the smoker
:

and I." "This Shijo


!

wara

'

How
Is the
' '

sweet for striking a match entourage of the plum-blossoms


it ?

'
!

That was

it,

wasn't

Admirable
the

admirable

In

the case of a

villain

like

me,

verses that

come out
:

of his mouth are villainous too.


'

My

stanza was

In belauding the plum-blossoms


I

And belauded
' '

got confused, a lovely


it.

girl

instead/
to

think that was


are,

It

doesn't

do

be always reading
the remains of

as

you
it.

indeed

it

doesn't.

As we have

the liquor

of

we took with us on our picnic, just have a glass What ? you say no ? Well then, I'll drink alone ";

a pipe

among

inverted.
delicious,"
p. 121.

the plum-blossoms The second and third lines are Note the conclusive form of the adjective Ytmashi, " is equivalent to the more genuinely Colloquial timai, and conf.
!

"

ii.

Keri

is

loquial the

word would be magirakashita.

a Classical termination of verbs and adjectives. In Col" mistake Kado-chigai, lit. a

of gates," refers to Shijo's preferring the house where the young lady lives to the celebrated garden with the plum-trees. have represented

We

this

meaning very

freely in the third line of the translation.

394
kakeru tokoro ye,
mashite,

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.

II.

Yone ga cha

to

kwashi wo motte mairi-

O Yone:
agare /
"
:
' '

" Socha de gozaimasu ga,

hitotsu

meshi-

Shijo

Dozo mo

kamai kudasaru-na I

Toki

ni,

kyo

wa

josama ni o

me

ni kakaritakute mairimashila.

Koko

ni iru no wa,
so
he,
to,

boku no goku shitashii hoyu desu.


o miyage

Sore

wa
E,

kyo

wa

mo nani mo

jisan itashimasen.
osore-irimashita.

he! arigatd gozaimasu.

Kore wa,

kwashi

wa
!

ydkan.
to,

Kekko !

Sa !

Hagiwara Kun,

meshi-

"

agare-yo

O
Ima

Yone ga

kibisho

ye yu wo sashi ni

itta

aio de,

' '

Jitsu
desu.
shite

ni koko

no uchi no o josama wa, tenka ni nai


to

bijin

ni irassharu kara, goran nasai!"


io t

hanashi

wo

orimasu
o josama,

mukd no yo-jo-han no

ko-zashiki de

lijima

no

Tsuyu Sama ga, hito-mezurashii kara, shoji wo


miru
to,

sYtkoshi akete nozoite

Shijo no

sola
ii,

ni suwalte iru
hlto-gara to
ii
13
,

Hagiwara Shinzaburo no
'

otoko-bnri to
'

Onna

ni shitara donna dard P


to

to

omou hodo no
shite,

otoko

desu kara, hito-me mimasu

zotto

do shita kaze no
kita

fuki-mawashi de anna
to

kirei

na tonogo ga koko yc

no ka

omou

to,

katto

nobosele,

makka na kao ni
to

nari,

nan

to

naku
12,

ma ga
It is

warukute, pata

shoji

wo

shime-kitle,

uchi ye

when coming
13.

a graceful Japanese custom to bring a present with one to pay a visit.


often thus used in enumerations. " whether to itte
It

To

ii is

may

be most easily

parsed as equivalent to

mo,

saying that."

BOTAN-DdRO, CHAP.

II.

395

and with

these

words,

he

was

just in

wine-gourd, when
saying
:

Yone came

bringing out his with tea and cakes,

"

It is

poor

tea,

but pray take a cup of

"
it.

"Please don't take any more trouble about us," replied "By the way," continued he, "we have come Shijo.
to-day in hopes of seeing your young mistress. This gentleman here is an extremely intimate friend of Oh by the bye, that reminds me that I have mine. Oh thank forgotten to bring you any present to-day.

here

you

am
The

really

quite

tions.

sweetmeats

overcome by your kind attenare bean paste. Delicious!

Come

along,

Mr.
after

continued he,

Hagiwara, do take some. Really," Yone had gone to pour some hot
' '

the young lady of the house is water into the tea-pot, one who has not her equal for beauty in the world. " She'll be coming now ; so look at her.

While he was thus speaking, lijima's daughter, MissTsuyu, in the small four and a half mat room opposite,
visitors,

curious to see the rare

had opened one of the

slid-

ing paper doors a little and peeped out; and, as she did so, her glance fell on Hagiwara Shinzaburo seated at Shiso manly, so distinguished-looking, handsome jo's side,
to the pitch of

making one think what a

beautiful

woman

he would have made.

And

she started,

and wondered

what stroke of fortune had brought hither so handsome a fellow. Then, the blood rushing to her cheeks, she became scarlet, and, overcome by a feeling of awkwardness,
shut the paper slide with a click, and retired within it. But, as she could not see his face when shut up in the room, she again gently slid the door open, and, while pretending

9^
Jiairimashtta

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
ga,

II.

uchi de iva otoko no

kao

ga

mirarenai

kara,

mata

soito shoji

wo

akete,

niwa no ume no hana wo


to

nagamerufuri wo

shi-nagara, choi-choi

Hagiwara no kao

wo

mite
to,

wa,

hazukashiso

ni shoji no

uchi

ye hairu ka

to

omou

mata dele kuru.


no

Detari

hikkondan,

hikkondan

detari, moji-moji shite iru

wo

Shijo

ga

mi-tsukemashite ,

' '

Shijo

Hagiwara Kun

Kimi wo
/

josama ga sakki
ivo

kara tsuku-zuku mile imasu, yo

Ume

no hana

mini

furi wo
mite iru,

shite ite

mo, me

no iama
tonlo

wa maru

de kotchi

wo
to

yo

Kyo wa,

kimi ni kerareta,

ne

"

uwasa

zvo shite iru tokoro ye,

Gejo no
<

Yone ga

dele mairimashite

"

O josama
de

kara

Nani mo gozaimasen ga,

hon

no
to

inaka-ryori

ik-kon
ai"

sashi-agemasu.

Ddzo go yururi

mcshi-agarimashlie,
'

kaivarazu anata no go jodan

wo

ukagaitai

to osshaima^Ti.

' '

Shijd
o

Dbmo

/ osore-irimasJnta.

Kore wa, kore wa


Sakki kara

suimono

kekko /

arigato

gozaimasu.

rei-

shu Tea motte orimasu ga t o kanshu


Arigaid gozaimasu.
ni.

wa mata

kakubelsu.

Ddzo
nai.

josama ni mo irassharu yd
yitsu

Kyo wa ume ja
!

wa,

josama wo...

lya

nani

"
r>

BOTAN-DORO, CHAP.
to

II.

397
cast
sly

gaze

at

the

plum-blossoms
to time
at

in

the garden,

glances
within

from

time

Hagiwara's

face.

Then

again, apparently

the

sliding

overcome with bashfulness, she withdrew but had hardly done sodoor,
face
in, in

when once more her


fidgeting,

out and

popped out. And so she went on and out, which Shi jo perceiving

said

"Mr. Hagiwara
staring
at

I say!

the

young lady has


She may pretend

been
to

you

all

the

time.

be

looking at the plum-blossoms ; but for all that, her eyes indeed they are. are turned completely in this direction, To-day I have been quite thrown into the shade by
you, eh
"
?

came

While he was thus chattering away, the maid into the room and said
:

O Yone

"My

young

mistress

bids

me

say

that,

though she

has nothing worthy your acceptance, she begs you to take a glass of wine accompanied by a snack of our

poor

time over

She hopes you will take your own and give her the benefit of your amusing conversation, as on previous occasions."
rustic
fare.
it,

"Really,"

replied

Shijo,

"I
dear

much

civility.
!

Dear
this

me
!

am confounded by some Here is soup


! !

Delicious

Thank you
but
thanks