CERN 704 Proton Synchrotron Department 4 February 1970
ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE
CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH
HIGHFREQUENCY AND PULSE RESPONSE OF COAXIAL TRANSlviiSSION CABLES
WI1H CONDUCTOR, DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES
H. Riege
GENEVA
1970
© Copyright CERN,
Gen€we, 1970
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CERN 704 Proton Synchrotron Department 4 February 1970
ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE N UCLEAI RE
CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH
HIGHFREQUENCY AND PULSE RESPONSE OF COAXIAL TRANSMISSION CABLES
WITH CONDUCTOR, DIELECTRIC AND SB~ICONDUCTOR LOSSES
H. Riege
GENEVA
1970
ABSTRACT
The distortion of arbitrary pulses is computed for coaxial transmission cables with
different kinds of losses.
for attenuation and risetime of rectangular and nearly rectangular pulses are developed.
The theory of combined conductor and dielectric losses is reviewed.
contribution of additional conducting or semiconducting layers to the losses in high voltage pulse cables is investigated. By use of Maxwell's equations, the propagation constants in the frequency domain are calculated. For coaxial cables with semiconducting layers also an approximate solution in the time domain i~ presented, by which the dis tortion of arbitrary pulse shapes can be numerically computed.
Starting from cables with normal skin effect losses, formulae
Furthermore, the
SIS/jmr/mta
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS
3. HIGHFREQUENCY APPROXH·1ATION FOR COAXIAL CABLES WITH LOSSES
3.1 cables with conductor losses only
Coaxial
3.2 cables with conductor and dielectric losses
Coaxial
Page
2
2
11
4. LOSSES BY CONDUCTING AND SEMICONDUCTING LAYERS IN COAXIAL HIGHVOLTAGE PULSE CABLES 
13 
4.1 Skin effect in conducting layers 
14 
4.2 Losses in semiconducting layers
APPENDIX I : FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF SOME TYPICAL PULSE SHAPES
15
23
APPENDIX II 

APPENDIX Ill 
SKIN EFFECT IN TWO CONDUCTING LAYERS WITH DIFFERENT CONDUCTIVITIES CALCULATION OF THE Cm1PLEX PROPAGATION CONSTANT Ys IN THE CASE OF AN IDEAL TRANSMISSION LINE WITH A SEMICONDUCTING LAYER 
27 29 
REFEREI1CES 
33 
1.
INTRODUCTION
In the fast ejection systems of highenergy accelerators the transmission of pulses through coaxial cables plays an important role. One problem is the power transmission from the storage line pulse generators to the fast kicker magnets, which deflect the par ticle beam. Risetime and attenuation of the transmitted pulses have to fulfil certain minimum conditions in order to guarantee a clean ejection. A second point of interest is the distortion of pickup signals (beam diagnostics, monitoring), which need to be known if one wants to eject efficiently. It is, therefore, very useful to have available theoretical methods, which allow the computation of the pulse response for different types of transmission cables.
The exact calculation of the response of coaxial cables to an input signal with an
arbitrary frequency spectrum is analytically a complex problem.
frequency content of signals practically applied is usually concentrated within a limited
frequency range
which describe the cable behaviour with a good approximation.
Fortunately, however, the
(see Appendix I).
Then it is often possible to find rather simple solutions,
2. TRANSMISSION LINE
EQUATIONS
The purpose of tl1is Section is to review briefly the wellknown general transmission
line theory [see, for example, Johnson 1 ), Matick 2 ), and Guillemin 3 )] and to
finitions which are used in the following Sections.
line to an input signal can be calculated from the transmission line equations for voltage V and current I as functions of time t and space coordinate z:
give some de
The time response of a transmission
(1)
Here R (resistance/length), L (inductance/length), G (conductance/length) and C (capacity/ length) are constant parameters.
that
For the spectral amplitudes of voltage and current, V , I
w
, it follows from Eq.
w
dVw(z)
~
= (R +
jwL) • Iw (z) = Z _{5} (w) • Iw(z)
(1)
(2)
d; diw(z) = (G + jwC)·VJz) = Yp(w)• Vw(z)
These equations are also valid if the series impedance/length, z , and the parallel
admittance/length, Yp, are arbitrary functions of w. are given by
s
The general solutions of Eq.
Vw(z) = v;
lw(z) =
f
0
exp (Yz) +
v:, exp (+Yz)
[v: exp (Yz) v:, exp (+Yz)] ,
(2)
(3)

2

where V+, V are the voltage amplitudes of the waves moving in the +z or z direction, respectively. The characteristic impedance Z _{0} is
w
w
(4)
and y represents the complex propagation constant, which is given by
If Z
s
and Y
p
are simple functions of frequency w, sometimes a solution can be found in
the time domain with the aid of Laplace or Fourier transformation.
3. HIGHFREQUENCY APPROXI~lATION FOR COAXIAL CABLES WITH LOSSES
Z _{0} can nearly be regarded as a real con
stant and y is a rather simple f1mction of frequency in the frequency range between
several hundreds of kHz and the cutoff frequency. From Eqs. (2) and (4) we see, if
For coaxial cables with small losses,
R <<
wL and
G <<
wC,
that
and
Y
=
z =
0
!1.
y c
1 + R/jwL
G/jwC
1 +
,
J(R + jwL) (G + jwC)"" jwjLC [1 +
f1_
VC
~(j~L + j~c)]
or,
if y
a+ jS
"' · 2 z;;
2
' 0
~"'lR+lG,
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
The first term of the attenuation constant a represents the losses in the cable con ductors, whilst the second term is the loss contribution of the dielectric insulator. Below a few hundreds of l~z the dielectric losses are negligible. However, at very high frequencies (more than 1 GHz) they may predominate.
3.1 Coaxial
cables with conductor losses only
Let us consider first a coaxial cable with an ideal dielectric insulator, but with conductors, which have very small, however finite, conductivities a., a (see Fig. 1). The currents produced by the longitudinal field component in the conductors therefore lead to losses, which increase with frequency on account of skin effect. The series im pedance Zs [Eq. (2)] in this case can be easily calculated with the aid of the Maxwell equations for cylindrical fields. Here the exact solution [which can be found in Johnson ^{1} )
and Fidecaro ^{4} )] is not presented,
very simple, but rather accurate, approximation for Z .
l
a
because already at fairly low frequencies there holds a
One can write
s
(10)

3

where Ri is the resistance of the conductors per length, and Li and La are the internal and external inductances per length.
OUTER CONDUCTOR
INNER CONDUCTOR
DIELECTRIC INSULATOR
Fig.
1
Configuration of a coaxial
cable
The approximate expression for Zsi obtained with the !~ell equations is given by
with r.,
a inner and outer conductor, respectively (see Fig. 1).
and with the wellknown formulas for La and C
r, a., a and~,~
1
a
1
being the radii, conductivities and permeabilities of the
From Eqs.
1
a
(4),
(5),
(10) and (11)
where E
= dielectric constant of the insulator
_{c}
2mo:
(11)
~0 = permeability of the vacuum ~ permeability of the dielectric
and
and B
furthermore
with ~i =~a~ ~ _{0} , ai
= aa = ac we get the following
y
=
Aj; + Bjw
a= ~A
B
=
Bw
+ 11. A ,
expressions for
y,
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}
A=l /E(_l_+_l_)
2 V~
ra
ri
B
=
•
1
ln(ra/rJ
~
These formulae are valid as far as the skin depth 6 to the radial thickness of the inner and outer conductors.
12/~wac is small with respect
a
(12)
(13)
(14)
^{(}^{1}^{5}^{)}
(16)

4

For a matched or infinitely long coaxial cable it is now possible to calculate the distortion of arbitrary input signals V.(t), the frequency content of which does not extend
l
considerably beyond the limits of validity of Eqs.
(3) and
(12) one gets the following relation between the Fourier components Vw(i) and Vw(O) of the
(13),
(15) and (16).
From Eqs.
output voltage Vout(t,i)
and the input voltage Vi(t)
(17)
If V.(t) = 0 fort<
l
O, we find the output voltage V ou
of cable by use of the convolution theorem 5 ) as
tlt,i) appearing after the length i
Vout (t,i) =
tB£
A~ J
2v 1T
0
VdtB£ x) exp ( (A£)
4x
2
)
x
~/ dx H(tBi),
2
(18)
where H(t) is the Heaviside function.
stricts oneself to the distortion of the signal and if the "cable risetime" To = (A£) 2
If one neglects the pure cable delay, Bl, andre
is introduced, one 
can 
write Eq. 
(8) withy= t/T _{0} , 
z = x/To 
also as 

y 

Vout(Y) = 
~ J Vi 
(yz) exp (lz) _{2} 
~~2 
• 
0
(19)
The output voltage Vout' according to Eqs.
any input signal by a FORTRAN program on the computer. easily find an exact solution.
(18) and (191 can be numerically evaluated for
in several cases one can
However,
A very simple response comes out for a delta pulse of weight 1, Vi(y)
= o(y)/T _{0} _{,}
in
the input of the cable.
of a cable with conductor losses is expressed as
By definition of the delta function o(y)
the delta response d (y)
c
The delta response dc(y)
(20)
is a good approximation for rectangular pulses of weight 1,
if the pulse length is much smaller than T _{0} _{•} In Fig. 2, dc(y) is plotted for To = 1. The
response uc(y) to a unit step input pulse, Vi(y) = H(y), follows directly from Eq.
(19) as
Vout(Y) = 
uc(Y) = 
erfc ( 
~) H(y) 
= 
[1 
erf 
(z~)] H(y) , 

where 

erf(x) 
1 
 
erfc (x) 
is the wellknown error function.
Figure 3 shows a plot of uc(y). can be expressed with a = T/To as
The response sc(y)
to a square pulse of length T
Vout(Y) =
sc(Y) =
erfc ( _{2} }y) H(y) erfc (u:a) H(ya)
(21)
(22)

5

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
01+
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
_{0} _{0}_{.}_{5}
_{1}_{.}_{0}
_{5}_{.}_{0}
Fig.
2
Delta response of a cable with _{2} conductor losses only.
normalized time;
t
= time;
To = (A~) ;
~ = cable
length.
10.0
y
y
= t/<o
A plot of square pulses with the same initial length T distorted by different lengths of cable is given in Fig. 4.
The next example is a trapezoidal pulse (see Appendix I) with a flat top length T
a'
and linear rise and fall pulse can be written
T'.
With a= T/< _{0} _{,}
= T'/<o the response tr
c
(y)
to
such a
V,,, (y J ~tr ,(y J ~;!; [! erfc (, }x] dx H(y)  Terfc [,);] dx H(y  a') 
yrerfc [,);] dx H(y  a a') + yr••erfc [,);] dx H(y a  2a')]
For a'
to the approximation
<<a (T'
<< T)
andy>
a'
= T'/< _{0} , an expansion of trc(y)
(23)
in a Taylor series leads
(24)
1,0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

6


o~,r~r,~~rrr~,~~.
_{0} _{5}
_{1}_{0}
_{1}_{5} _{2}_{0}
40
60
80
Fig.
y
=
3
t/T _{0}
Unit
step response of a cable with conductor
losses only.
=normalized
time;
t
time;
To
=
(A~) 2 ; ~=cable length.
100
y
Sc (tiT)
_{1} .o+~T~/~T~=~oo~~
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
2.0
(tiT)
Fig. 4 Distortion of a square pulse after different lengths of a cable
with conductor losses only.
length.
T
=pulse
length;
t
= time;
To = (A~) 2
;
~
=
cable
TI1e distortion of a trapezoidal pulse with a'/a = 0.2 can be seen in Fig. 5. Figure 6 shows the response to a parabolic input pulse (see Appendix I), which is computed numeri
cally from Eq.
for the parabolic pulse response.
(19).
For small rise and fall times, Eq.
(24)
is also a good approximation
Finally we regard the distortion of a pulse without
flat top, namely Vi(y) = sin 2 (rry/a), the response of which is presented in Fig. 7.

7

For practical purposes it is often not necessary to know the total shape of the dis torted signal. Generally it is sufficient to know the attenuation and the risetime of the pulse. Since the pulse, after it has passed through a certain length of cable, does not anymore present a flat top, the most convenient definition of attenuation of square
pulses with
voltage of the input pulse and Vmax the maximum voltage of the distorted pulse.
and without initial risetime is att = 1 Vmax/V _{0} _{,} where V _{0} is the flat top
trc (tiT)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
tiT
Fig. 5 Response of a cable with conductor losses only to a trapezoidal input pulse and a square pulse of flat top length T. T' = risetime;
t = time;
length.
To = (A~) 2 ; ~ = cable
1.0
o.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Vout
PARASOL~
INPUT
PULSE
04L+~~~~r~~~r~
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
Fig. 6 Response of a cable with conductor losses only to a parabolic
input pulse and a square pulse of
t
flat
top
length T.
T'
= risetime;
= time;
To
= (A~) 2 ; ~ = cable
length.
tiT

8

Yout
0
0.5
1.0
_{1}_{.}_{5}
_{t}_{i}_{T}
Fig. 
7 Distortion of a sin 2 
(nt/T) 
input pulse after different 
lengths 
of 

a cable with conductor 
losses 
only. 
T = pulse 
length; 
t 
= time; 

To 
= 
(A£) 2 ; 
t 
= cable 
length. 
A rough idea of the riset:iJne of a distorted pulse is given by the "cable riset:iJne"
To = (M) 2 • For a unit step To indicates the t:iJne
ing 48% of the input voltage V _{0} _{•}
the strong bending of the response function between V _{0} /2 and V max
rx from 0 to a certain ratio x of the max:iJnum voltage Vmax.
the maximum nearly coincides with the starting point of the second term of sc(y)
convenient to define the riset:iJne t
after which the output signal is reach
With this
value, however, one does not take into account
•
Therefore it seems more
as the t:iJne in which the output signal is increasing
For a square pulse of length T
Therefore it holds approx:iJnately
•
q
>
1
[see
with q = T/T _{0}
(25)
(26)
Eq. 
(22) and Fig. 
that 

and 
4] provided T > T _{0} _{•}
att ~erf (
~)
,
q
> 1
_{2}
We can also calculate the relative riset:iJne for a rectangular pulse Yrx Eqs. (22) and (25).
valid only for
In Fig.
= V(y
rx
q
> 1,
qyrx
> 1,
x
Yrx
~
[(1
> 0.5.

x) .fTici
+ xT ^{2} ,
t /T, from
rx
(27)
8 the attenuation of a square pulse is plotted as a function of q.
Figure 9
shows a graph of normalized riset:iJne Yrx = trx/T versus q for different ratios •
x
)/V max
When using these graphs practically one only has to determine the
Fig.
rx
y
=
9
t
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
NORMALIZED RISETIME
10
100
1000
10
000
q =T I "t _{0}
Normalized risetime Yx
rx
/T;
t
rx
= risetime
(from 0 to
to
•
from 0
x
x
V max
• Vmax)
;
of distorted
length;
rectangular pulses for
(A£) 2 _{;}
cables with conductor losses only.
T =pulse
To
=
£ = cable length.
~
Cl

11

attenuation factor A of the cable, either theoretically [Eq. attenuation curve a(w) [Eq. (13)].
Approximative formulae for attenuation and risetime of distorted pulses with finite, but, compared with the pulse length T, small initial risetimes T' can be derived from Eq. (24). With q = T/T _{0} and a" = T'/T the attenuation is given by
(15)] or from a measured
att
~ erf (
_{2} /Cl
1
J [
1

a"
4
exp
(

1 )]
4
q
1
~ ;:rrq
(
1 
a"J
4
,
(28)
valid for
The expression for the relative risetime y~x = t~x/T from 0 to x = V(y~x)/Vmax of such an output pulse can be written
a"
«
1,
q
>
1.
,
Yrx
a"
_ t~x _

T
 Yrx + z
(
1 + X
3/2) _

• Yrx
a"
Yrx + z
'
(29)
valid only for
Thus,
a"
«
1,
q
>
1,
qy'
>
1.
rx in a first approximation and under the specified limitations, the output rise
of a pulse with initial risetime T'
rx ideal square pulse plus half of the initial risetime.
time t'
is nearly the sum of the risetime for an
3.2
Coaxial cables with conductor and dielectric losses
At frequencies higher than 100 MHz the dielectric insulator of a coaxial cable is contributing more and more to the total losses. Hysteresis and relaxation of the polari zation in the dielectric material are acting in the same way, as if a real conductivity were present. Losses of this kind are linked with the radial electric field component and are quantitatively described by the loss angle 8 of the insulating material. Often 8 is found to be nearly constant in the frequency range between several hundreds of kHz and 1 GHz. If we replace G/wC in Eq. (7) by tg 8 and R by Zsi [see Eqs. (10) and (11)], the complex propagation constant y can be written
y ~ jWB + AfJW+! Bwtg
8
Physically this expression cannot be completely correct, since any transfer function should contain j and w only in the combination jw. Nevertheless, Eq. (30) is often
used ^{4} _{'} 6 _{'} 7 _{)} and
seems to be a rather good approximation.
(30)
The distortion of arbitrary input signals on a cable with conductor and dielectric
losses can again be computed according to the convolution theorem.
let us first deal with the pulse distortion by dielectric losses only. Disregarding the
cable delay Bt, it holds for the ratio of output and input spectral amplitudes that
But before doing this
(31)
where b =! B tg e. For an arbitrary input pulse Vi(t), Eq. (31) can be solved by Fourier transformation. The response to a delta pulse of weight 1, V.(t) = o(t) follows then
l

12

simply as
or with
Td
= o£,
t/Td = U
2
1
1
Vout(u) = dd(u) =  _{2}
TI
Td
1 + U
•
One can find the calculation and a plot of dd(u) pulse response sd(u) can be calculated as
in Ref.
6.
With Eq.
sn(u) =
~ [arctg(u) H(u) arctg(ua) H(ua)],
TI
(32b)
_{(}_{3}_{2}_{a}_{)}
(32b)
the square
(33)
where a= T/Td and T =pulse length (Fig. 10).
The response to an arbitrary input pulse .in a cable with conductor and dielectric losses can be computed by the convolution
y
Vout(Y) = J Vi(x) fl(y x) dx,
0
1vhere fl(y)
dielectric losses.
is the response to a delta pulse of weight 1 of a cable with conductor and
fl(y)
can be computed by the convolution
ll(y) =
y
T _{0} 2 J dd(y' • x) dc(Y x) dx
0
,
(34)
(35)
using Eqs. (20) and (32b). The parameter y' T _{0} /Td has to be introduced, if the
variable tis
however, different modes of calculation of the general pulse response.
time
normalized to To as in Eqs.
(34) and (35).
The convolution theorem allows,
For example, the
square pulse response scd(y) for conductor and dielectric losses can be computed from a
tl T
Fig. 10 Distortion of a square pulse after different lengths of a cable
with dielectric losses only. time"; £ = cable length.
T = pulse length;
Td
= o£
=
"cable rise

13

convolution between the square pulse response sd(u) for dielectric losses only and the
delta response dc(y)
for conductor losses only:
Vout(y) = sciY)
y
= T _{0} Jsiy' • x) dc(Y x) dx
0
•
(36)
In Fig. 11 a few distorted square pulses of constant initial length T are presented for different values of y'.
INPUT PULSE
1.0
',
I
I
I
Fig.
11
Response of
a
for
To=
(A£) 2
cable with
constant To but different Td•
conductor and dielectric
= Et;
t
y'
losses
to
a
length;
square input pulse
t
T = pulse
=time;
= const.;
Td
=cable length;
= To/Td.
4. LOSSES BY CONDUCTING AND SEMICONDUCTING LAYERS IN COAXIAL HIGHVOLTAGE PULSE CABLES
The simple theory of skin effect and dielectric losses enables us to predict the
behaviour of normal commercial coaxial cables rather accurately. Unfortunately, it fails for many of the available highvoltage pulse cables, in which wellconducting (graphite or carbon loaded paper) or semiconducting (conducting polythene) layers are present between the dielectric insulator and the conductors. These layers are used to increase the life
time of the cables, especially if they are constructed with braided conductors.
ing layers (generally between outer conductor and dielectric) guarantee a better electrical contact between the single wires and a better mechanical contact with the dielectric in sulator, which is also protected from the sharp edges of the metallic conductors. Release of high electric point stresses at the wires of the braided internal conductor and elimina tion of voids caused by thermal expansion of the insulator are the main reasons for using a semiconducting layer between internal conductor and insulator. On the other hand these layers may considerably increase the losses and deteriorate the pulse response. In the following sections some approximative estimates are made concerning the contribution of conducting or semiconducting layers to the total loss of coaxial highvoltage pulse cables.
Conduct

14

4.1 Skin effect in conducting layers
The losses arising
in an additional conducting layer are mainly due to skin effect
as in the metal conductors. The total loss of a combination of a wellconducting (metal) and a 'vorseconducting medium (for instance graphite) will now be studied for a plane case as shown in Fig. 12. We assume having a longitudinal electrical field in z direction,
MEDIUM 0
IDEAL DIELECTRIC OR FREE SPACE
E, IJ.•IJ.o,o'sO
MEDIUM 1
BAD CONDUCTOR
<l'=<l'l,IJ.IJ.o
z
MEDIUM 2
GOOD CONDUCTOR
<l'=<l'2,IJ.;IJ.o
E:Eo
y
FIELD
STRENGTH AMPLITUDE
ELECTRICAL
Ez(O)
Fig.
12
layers
of
Field distribution infinite extension.
in an arrangement of two plane conducting
Ez(Y) exp (jwt), the amplitude of which only depends on they coordinate. Since o _{1} << o _{2} _{,} at low frequencies the main current is flowing in medium 2 with a skin depth of
Oz
= /Zjlpowo _{2} _{•}
Then the resistance per unit length (in
6x (in x direction) is given by
z direction) of a strip of width
(37)
At frequencies high enough, where 8 _{2} is going to zero, the current is forced to flow mainly in medium 1, where again skin effect is taking place resulting in the higher
resistance
(38)
if 8 _{1} << d = thickness of the conducting layer 1.
impedance Z . of medium 1 and 2 is given in Appendix II.
The exact solution for the total series
The frequency interval where the
Sl
real part of Z ., the resistance R (w), is rising from R _{2} to R _{1} _{,} is determined by the para
Sl
S
meters d, o _{1} _{,} o _{2} _{•} Figure 13 shows the exact frequency dependence of Rs(w) for some special values of these parameters and for 6x = lm.
10
1o•
Fig. 13 Real part, Rs(w), of the series impedance Zsi calculated for skin effect in two conducting media (e.g. copper and graphite) according to Eq. (AII.S). d; thickness of the bad conducting layer (medium 1); 01 ; conductivity of the medium 1.
If we come back to a coaxial configuration (Fig. 1) and assume having a conducting 
a
r.
l
beuveen the dielectric insulator and the outer conductor,
(7)
as
layer of thickness d << r
we find the complex propagation constant from Eq.
(39)
With Eq.
(8) and Eq.
(AII.S)
the attenuation constant a can be expressed for 6x
2nr
a
as
(40)
In the time domain the computation of the distortion of arbitrary pulse shapes by a
cable with a propagation constant y, as given by Eq. approximation.
(40),
can be done
only in a rough
4.2
Losses in semiconducting layers
Whereas in conducting materials very small electric fields
can produce considerable
losses, in semiconductors only high fields will give rise to counting losses on account of
their small conductivity. Therefore, in a semiconducting layer of a coaxial cable mainly the radial electric field is contributing to the total loss. For the coaxial structure as shown in Fig. 14, we can determine the complex propagation constant y , if we suppose the
s

16

OUTER CONDUCTOR
INNER
CONDUCTOR
SEMICONDUCTING LAYER
DIELECTRIC INSULATOR
Fig.
14
Coaxial
cable with a
internal conductor.
semiconducting
layer between insulator and
conductors and the dielectric insulator to be ideal
conductor tO have the
~diel = ~s = ~o)•
(oc = oo, odiel
= 0)
and the semi
= ~ _{c}
(~
Same permittivity
E
and permeability ~ as the insulator
In Appendix III, ys is calculated with
as follows
Ys
For
6
«
1 we can simplify
(41)

(42) 

Separating this expression into real and imaginary parts it holds, with B 
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} 


(43) 
and
S =
wB
(
1 +
b,
1
2 1 + (Ew/os}
2
)
•
(44)
These formulae are equivalent to the circuit shown ill Fig. 15.
Equations
(41)
to (44) were developed under the condition of infinite conductivity
of the conductors. If we assume now having also losses in the metal there will not be very much change in the field distribution. The longitudinal electrical field components will not be exactly zero at the interfaces between insulator and metal and between semi conductor and metal. Nevertheless they are so small that one can linearly superpose them on the semiconductor losses. So we can write the total propagation constant
(45)

17

OUTER CONDUCTOR
Fig.
15
Simple model
INNER
CONDUCTOR
for
a
cable with a
semiconducting
layer
cd 
capacity/length of 
the dielectric insulator 

C 
capacity/length of 
the 
semiconducting layer 

s G 
conductance/length of 
the semiconducting layer. 

s 
and the attenuation constant
where A is given again by Eq. (15). Equations (45) and (46) can easily be modified, if
there is also (or only) a semiconducting layer in contact with the outer conductor.
also dielectric losses or losses by an additional conducting layer are present, the cor responding terms have to be added or to be modified.
If
(46)
The transfer function fT of a matched or infinitely long coaxial cable with conductor
and semiconductor losses is found from Eqs.
'n = B~, 'D = LB~/2 and To = (A~) ^{2}
(3) and (45) with jw replaced by p,
w
s
= _{0}
/E
s
'
fr(P.~) = e TnP
'or'
e _{}_{F}_{o}_{P}
TDw _{5} [1w _{5} /(P+w _{5} )]
_{e}
, ,
_{n}_{o}_{n}_{n}_{a}_{l} 
cond. 
semicond. 
_{d}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{y} 
losses 
losses 
(47)
The antitransformation of Eq.
(47)
into the time domain is possible by using the in
verse Laplace transform J _{0} (alt) of the image function exp (a 2 /4p)/p [see Ref.
is the normal Bessel function of order zero.
find the transfer function FT(t,~) in the time domain as
5].
J _{0}
Disregarding the normal cable delay 'n we
F (u.) =
T
>
rr:r;,w
0
D
r:::
2vTI
5
t
J exp[T /4(t x)J
0
(
0
t X
)3/2
exp [w (x + T
s
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D
I
I
(w /4 T
s
x)
D
dx

r;;
yX
(48)
where I _{1}
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input pulse V.(t)
1
can be computed from the convolution
TI1en the response to an arbitrary
(49)
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