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CERN 70-4 Proton Synchrotron Department 4 February 1970

ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE

CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH

HIGH-FREQUENCY AND PULSE RESPONSE OF COAXIAL TRANSlviiSSION CABLES

WI1H CONDUCTOR, DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES

H. Riege

GENEVA

1970

© Copyright CERN,

Gen€we, 1970

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CERN 70-4 Proton Synchrotron Department 4 February 1970

ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE N UCLEAI RE

CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH

HIGH-FREQUENCY AND PULSE RESPONSE OF COAXIAL TRANSMISSION CABLES

WITH CONDUCTOR, DIELECTRIC AND SB~ICONDUCTOR LOSSES

H. Riege

GENEVA

1970

ABSTRACT

The distortion of arbitrary pulses is computed for coaxial transmission cables with

different kinds of losses.

for attenuation and rise-time of rectangular and nearly rectangular pulses are developed.

The theory of combined conductor and dielectric losses is reviewed.

contribution of additional conducting or semiconducting layers to the losses in high- voltage pulse cables is investigated. By use of Maxwell's equations, the propagation constants in the frequency domain are calculated. For coaxial cables with semiconducting layers also an approximate solution in the time domain i~ presented, by which the dis- tortion of arbitrary pulse shapes can be numerically computed.

Starting from cables with normal skin effect losses, formulae

Furthermore, the

SIS/jmr/mta

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

3. HIGH-FREQUENCY APPROXH·1ATION FOR COAXIAL CABLES WITH LOSSES

3.1 cables with conductor losses only

Coaxial

3.2 cables with conductor and dielectric losses

Coaxial

Page

2

2

11

4. LOSSES BY CONDUCTING AND SEMICONDUCTING LAYERS IN COAXIAL HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE CABLES

13

4.1 Skin effect in conducting layers

14

4.2 Losses in semiconducting layers

APPENDIX I : FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF SOME TYPICAL PULSE SHAPES

15

23

APPENDIX II

APPENDIX Ill

SKIN EFFECT IN TWO CONDUCTING LAYERS WITH DIFFERENT CONDUCTIVITIES

CALCULATION OF THE Cm1PLEX PROPAGATION CONSTANT Ys IN THE CASE OF AN IDEAL TRANSMISSION LINE WITH A SEMICONDUCTING LAYER

27

29

REFEREI1CES

33

1.

INTRODUCTION

In the fast ejection systems of high-energy accelerators the transmission of pulses through coaxial cables plays an important role. One problem is the power transmission from the storage line pulse generators to the fast kicker magnets, which deflect the par- ticle beam. Rise-time and attenuation of the transmitted pulses have to fulfil certain minimum conditions in order to guarantee a clean ejection. A second point of interest is the distortion of pick-up signals (beam diagnostics, monitoring), which need to be known if one wants to eject efficiently. It is, therefore, very useful to have available theoretical methods, which allow the computation of the pulse response for different types of transmission cables.

The exact calculation of the response of coaxial cables to an input signal with an

arbitrary frequency spectrum is analytically a complex problem.

frequency content of signals practically applied is usually concentrated within a limited

frequency range

which describe the cable behaviour with a good approximation.

Fortunately, however, the

(see Appendix I).

Then it is often possible to find rather simple solutions,

2. TRANSMISSION LINE

EQUATIONS

The purpose of tl1is Section is to review briefly the well-known general transmission

line theory [see, for example, Johnson 1 ), Matick 2 ), and Guillemin 3 )] and to

finitions which are used in the following Sections.

line to an input signal can be calculated from the transmission line equations for voltage V and current I as functions of time t and space coordinate z:

give some de-

The time response of a transmission

(1)

Here R (resistance/length), L (inductance/length), G (conductance/length) and C (capacity/ length) are constant parameters.

that

For the spectral amplitudes of voltage and current, V , I

w

, it follows from Eq.

w

dVw(z)

~

=- (R +

jwL) • Iw (z) =- Z 5 (w) • Iw(z)

(1)

(2)

d-;- diw(z) = -(G + jwC)·VJz) = -Yp(w)• Vw(z)

These equations are also valid if the series impedance/length, z , and the parallel

admittance/length, Yp, are arbitrary functions of w. are given by

s

The general solutions of Eq.

Vw(z) = v;

lw(z) =

f

0

exp (-Yz) +

v:, exp (+Yz)

[v: exp (-Yz)- v:, exp (+Yz)] ,

(2)

(3)

-

2

-

where V+, V- are the voltage amplitudes of the waves moving in the +z or -z direction, respectively. The characteristic impedance Z 0 is

w

w

respectively. The characteristic impedance Z 0 is w w (4) and y represents the complex propagation

(4)

and y represents the complex propagation constant, which is given by

If Z

s

and Y

p

propagation constant, which is given by If Z s and Y p are simple functions of

are simple functions of frequency w, sometimes a solution can be found in

the time domain with the aid of Laplace or Fourier transformation.

3. HIGH-FREQUENCY APPROXI~lATION FOR COAXIAL CABLES WITH LOSSES

Z 0 can nearly be regarded as a real con-

stant and y is a rather simple f1mction of frequency in the frequency range between

several hundreds of kHz and the cut-off frequency. From Eqs. (2) and (4) we see, if

For coaxial cables with small losses,

R <<

wL and

G <<

wC,

that

and

Y

=

z =

0

!1.

-y c

1 + R/jwL

G/jwC

1 +

,

J(R + jwL) (G + jwC)"" jwjLC [1 +

f1_

VC

~(j~L + j~c)]

or,

if y

a+ jS

"' ·- 2 z;;

2

' 0

~"'lR+lG,

y a+ jS "' ·- 2 z;; 2 ' 0 ~"'lR+lG, (6) (7) (8) (9) The

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

The first term of the attenuation constant a represents the losses in the cable con- ductors, whilst the second term is the loss contribution of the dielectric insulator. Below a few hundreds of l~z the dielectric losses are negligible. However, at very high frequencies (more than 1 GHz) they may predominate.

3.1 Coaxial

cables with conductor losses only

Let us consider first a coaxial cable with an ideal dielectric insulator, but with conductors, which have very small, however finite, conductivities a., a (see Fig. 1). The currents produced by the longitudinal field component in the conductors therefore lead to losses, which increase with frequency on account of skin effect. The series im- pedance Zs [Eq. (2)] in this case can be easily calculated with the aid of the Maxwell equations for cylindrical fields. Here the exact solution [which can be found in Johnson 1 )

and Fidecaro 4 )] is not presented,

very simple, but rather accurate, approximation for Z .

l

a

because already at fairly low frequencies there holds a

One can write

s

rather accurate, approximation for Z . l a because already at fairly low frequencies there holds

(10)

-

3

-

where Ri is the resistance of the conductors per length, and Li and La are the internal and external inductances per length.

and La are the internal and external inductances per length. OUTER CONDUCTOR INNER CONDUCTOR DIELECTRIC INSULATOR

OUTER CONDUCTOR

INNER CONDUCTOR

DIELECTRIC INSULATOR

Fig.

1

Configuration of a coaxial

cable

The approximate expression for Zsi obtained with the !~ell equations is given by

for Zsi obtained with the !~ell equations is given by with r., a inner and outer

with r.,

a inner and outer conductor, respectively (see Fig. 1).

and with the well-known formulas for La and C

r, a., a and~-,~

1

a

1

being the radii, conductivities and permeabilities of the

From Eqs.

1

a

(4),

(5),

(10) and (11)

where E

of the From Eqs. 1 a (4), (5), (10) and (11) where E = dielectric constant

= dielectric constant of the insulator

c

2mo:

(11) where E = dielectric constant of the insulator c 2mo: (11) ~ 0 = permeability

(11)

~0 = permeability of the vacuum ~ permeability of the dielectric

and

and B

furthermore

with ~i =~a~ ~ 0 , ai

= aa = ac we get the following

y

=

Aj; + Bjw

a= ~A

B

=

Bw

+ 11. A ,

expressions for

y,

where

A=l /E(_l_+_l_)

2 V~

ra

ri

B

=

1

ln(ra/rJ

~

These formulae are valid as far as the skin depth 6 to the radial thickness of the inner and outer conductors.

12/~wac is small with respect

a

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

-

4

-

For a matched or infinitely long coaxial cable it is now possible to calculate the distortion of arbitrary input signals V.(t), the frequency content of which does not extend

l

considerably beyond the limits of validity of Eqs.

(3) and

(12) one gets the following relation between the Fourier components Vw(i) and Vw(O) of the

(13),

(15) and (16).

From Eqs.

output voltage Vout(t,i)

and the input voltage Vi(t)

(17)

If V.(t) = 0 fort<

l

O, we find the output voltage V ou

of cable by use of the convolution theorem 5 ) as

tlt,i) appearing after the length i

Vout (t,i) =

t-B£

A~ J

2v 1T

0

Vdt-B£- x) exp (- (A£)

4x

2

)

x

~/ dx H(t-Bi),

2

(18)

where H(t) is the Heaviside function.

stricts oneself to the distortion of the signal and if the "cable rise-time" To = (A£) 2

If one neglects the pure cable delay, Bl, andre-

is introduced, one

can

write Eq.

(8) withy= t/T 0 ,

z = x/To

also as

 

y

 

Vout(Y) =

~ J Vi

(y-z)

exp (-lz) 2

~~2

0

(19)

The output voltage Vout' according to Eqs.

any input signal by a FORTRAN program on the computer. easily find an exact solution.

(18) and (191 can be numerically evaluated for

in several cases one can

However,

A very simple response comes out for a delta pulse of weight 1, Vi(y)

= o(y)/T 0 ,

in

the input of the cable.

of a cable with conductor losses is expressed as

By definition of the delta function o(y)

the delta response d (y)

c

The delta response dc(y)

(20)

is a good approximation for rectangular pulses of weight 1,

if the pulse length is much smaller than T 0 In Fig. 2, dc(y) is plotted for To = 1. The

response uc(y) to a unit step input pulse, Vi(y) = H(y), follows directly from Eq.

(19) as

 

Vout(Y) =

uc(Y) =

erfc (

~) H(y)

=

[1-

erf

(z~)] H(y) ,

where

 

erf(x)

1

-

erfc (x)

is the well-known error function.

Figure 3 shows a plot of uc(y). can be expressed with a = T/To as

The response sc(y)

to a square pulse of length T

Vout(Y) =

sc(Y) =

erfc ( 2 }y) H(y)- erfc (u:-a) H(y-a)

(21)

(22)

-

5

-

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

01+

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

de (y)
de (y)

0 0.5

1.0

5.0

Fig.

2

Delta response of a cable with 2 conductor losses only.

normalized time;

t

= time;

To = (A~) ;

~ = cable

length.

10.0

y

y

= t/<o

A plot of square pulses with the same initial length T distorted by different lengths of cable is given in Fig. 4.

The next example is a trapezoidal pulse (see Appendix I) with a flat top length T

a'

and linear rise and fall pulse can be written

T'.

With a= T/< 0 ,

= T'/<o the response tr

c

(y)

to

such a

V,,, (y J ~tr ,(y J ~;!; [! erfc (, }x] dx H(y) - Terfc [,);-] dx H(y - a') -

y-rerfc [,);-] dx H(y - a -a') + y-r••erfc [,);-] dx H(y- a - 2a')]

For a'

to the approximation

<<a (T'

<< T)

andy>

a'

= T'/< 0 , an expansion of trc(y)

(23)

in a Taylor series leads

(T' << T) andy> a' = T'/< 0 , an expansion of trc(y) (23) in a

(24)

1,0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-

6

-

-------------------------------

1,0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 - 6 - -------------------------------

o~------------,--------------r------~-----r,-~--~-r--r--r~--,-~--~.-

0 5

10

15 20

40

60

80

Fig.

y

=

3

t/T 0

Unit

step response of a cable with conductor

losses only.

=normalized

time;

t

time;

To

=

(A~) 2 ; ~=cable length.

100

y

Sc (tiT)

1 .o+-----------~T~/~T~=~oo~----------~

0.5 1.0 1.5
0.5 1.0
1.5

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

2.0

(tiT)

Fig. 4 Distortion of a square pulse after different lengths of a cable

with conductor losses only.

length.

T

=pulse

length;

t

= time;

To = (A~) 2

;

~

=

cable

TI1e distortion of a trapezoidal pulse with a'/a = 0.2 can be seen in Fig. 5. Figure 6 shows the response to a parabolic input pulse (see Appendix I), which is computed numeri-

cally from Eq.

for the parabolic pulse response.

(19).

For small rise and fall times, Eq.

(24)

is also a good approximation

Finally we regard the distortion of a pulse without

-

7

-

For practical purposes it is often not necessary to know the total shape of the dis- torted signal. Generally it is sufficient to know the attenuation and the rise-time of the pulse. Since the pulse, after it has passed through a certain length of cable, does not anymore present a flat top, the most convenient definition of attenuation of square

pulses with

voltage of the input pulse and Vmax the maximum voltage of the distorted pulse.

and without initial rise-time is att = 1- Vmax/V 0 , where V 0 is the flat top

trc (tiT)

TRAPEZOIDAL INPUT PULSE a= T/t 0 = 35 a'= T'/T = 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6
TRAPEZOIDAL INPUT PULSE
a= T/t 0 =
35
a'= T'/T = 0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

tiT

Fig. 5 Response of a cable with conductor losses only to a trapezoidal input pulse and a square pulse of flat top length T. T' = rise-time;

t = time;

length.

To = (A~) 2 ; ~ = cable

1.0

o.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Vout

PARASOL~

INPUT

PULSE

DISTORTED PARABOLIC PULSE SQUARE PULSE AFTER ME a:T/t 0 :35 LENGTH OF CABLE a'= T'
DISTORTED PARABOLIC
PULSE
SQUARE PULSE
AFTER
ME
a:T/t 0 :35
LENGTH
OF CABLE
a'= T' IT
= 0.2
tIT= 1

04L----+---~~--~----~-----r----~----~----~----r---~-------

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Fig. 6 Response of a cable with conductor losses only to a parabolic

input pulse and a square pulse of

t

flat

top

length T.

T'

= rise-time;

= time;

To

= (A~) 2 ; ~ = cable

length.

tiT

-

8

-

Yout

- 8 - Yout 0 0.5 1.0 1 . 5 t i T Fig. 7 Distortion

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

tiT

Fig.

7

Distortion of a sin 2

(nt/T)

input pulse after

different

lengths

of

a cable with conductor

losses

only.

T = pulse

length;

t

= time;

To

=

(A£) 2 ;

t

= cable

length.

A rough idea of the rise-t:iJne of a distorted pulse is given by the "cable rise-t:iJne"

To = (M) 2 • For a unit step To indicates the t:iJne

ing 48% of the input voltage V 0

the strong bending of the response function between V 0 /2 and V max

rx from 0 to a certain ratio x of the max:iJnum voltage Vmax.

the maximum nearly coincides with the starting point of the second term of sc(y)

convenient to define the rise-t:iJne t

after which the output signal is reach-

With this

value, however, one does not take into account

Therefore it seems more

as the t:iJne in which the output signal is increasing

For a square pulse of length T

Therefore it holds approx:iJnately

q

>

1

[see

with q = T/T 0

(25)

(26)

Eq.

(22) and Fig.

that

and

4] provided T > T 0

and Fig. that and 4] provided T > T 0 • att ~ erf ( ~)

att ~erf (

~)

,

q

> 1

2

We can also calculate the relative rise-t:iJne for a rectangular pulse Yrx Eqs. (22) and (25).

valid only for

In Fig.

= V(y

rx

q

> 1,

qyrx

> 1,

x

Yrx

~

[(1

> 0.5.

-

x) .fTici

+ xT 2 ,

t /T, from

rx

(27)

8 the attenuation of a square pulse is plotted as a function of q.

Figure 9

shows a graph of normalized rise-t:iJne Yrx = trx/T versus q for different ratios •

x

)/V max

When using these graphs practically one only has to determine the

• ATTENUATION ott - : i: I 1 I i 1 I I I i
ATTENUATION
ott
-
: i:
I
1
I
i
1
I
I
I
i
~
'
'
I
I
I
t
'
0.1
0.01
!
'<
L
0.001,_~~~~~~--~-W~~~~~~~~~+4~~~~~~~~~~~~~--
0.1
1
10
100
1000
q = T I '1' 0
Fig.
8
Attenuation
(att)
of rectangular pulses
in dependence of pulse length T and of
the
"cable rise-time" To
for cables with
conductor losses
only.
To = (A~) 2 ; ~=cable length.

Fig.

rx

y

=

9

t

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

NORMALIZED RISE-TIME

Yrx I !Ill 1' I ·-~ • !. t I . j····· . : .i
Yrx
I !Ill
1' I
·-~
!.
t
I
.
j·····
.
:
.i
I
I
I
.
·.
I
I
i
i
'j1:: :i
j
I
I
I
l
i
I
I
I
I
.
I
!
I
I
'
I
1
1
!
0
I
I
:
I
I
j
I
•!'

10

100

1000

10

000

q =T I "t 0

Normalized rise-time Yx

rx

/T;

t

rx

= rise-time

(from 0 to

to

from 0

x

x

V max

• Vmax)

;

of distorted

length;

rectangular pulses for

(A£) 2 ;

cables with conductor losses only.

T =pulse

To

=

£ = cable length.

~

Cl

-

11

-

attenuation factor A of the cable, either theoretically [Eq. attenuation curve a(w) [Eq. (13)].

Approximative formulae for attenuation and rise-time of distorted pulses with finite, but, compared with the pulse length T, small initial rise-times T' can be derived from Eq. (24). With q = T/T 0 and a" = T'/T the attenuation is given by

(15)] or from a measured

att

~ erf (

2 /Cl

1

J [

1

-

a"

4

exp

(

-

1 )]

4

q

1

~ ;:rrq

(

1 -

a"J

4

,

(28)

valid for

The expression for the relative rise-time y~x = t~x/T from 0 to x = V(y~x)/Vmax of such an output pulse can be written

a"

«

1,

q

>

1.

,

Yrx

a"

_ t~x _

-

T

- Yrx + z

(

1 + X

3/2) _

-

Yrx

a"

Yrx + z

'

(29)

valid only for

Thus,

a"

«

1,

q

>

1,

qy'

>

1.

rx in a first approximation and under the specified limitations, the output rise-

of a pulse with initial rise-time T'

rx ideal square pulse plus half of the initial rise-time.

time t'

is nearly the sum of the rise-time for an

3.2

Coaxial cables with conductor and dielectric losses

At frequencies higher than 100 MHz the dielectric insulator of a coaxial cable is contributing more and more to the total losses. Hysteresis and relaxation of the polari- zation in the dielectric material are acting in the same way, as if a real conductivity were present. Losses of this kind are linked with the radial electric field component and are quantitatively described by the loss angle 8 of the insulating material. Often 8 is found to be nearly constant in the frequency range between several hundreds of kHz and 1 GHz. If we replace G/wC in Eq. (7) by tg 8 and R by Zsi [see Eqs. (10) and (11)], the complex propagation constant y can be written

y ~ jWB + AfJW+! Bwtg

8

Physically this expression cannot be completely correct, since any transfer function should contain j and w only in the combination jw. Nevertheless, Eq. (30) is often

used 4 ' 6 ' 7 ) and

seems to be a rather good approximation.

(30)

The distortion of arbitrary input signals on a cable with conductor and dielectric

losses can again be computed according to the convolution theorem.

let us first deal with the pulse distortion by dielectric losses only. Disregarding the

cable delay Bt, it holds for the ratio of output and input spectral amplitudes that

But before doing this

(31)

where b =! B tg e. For an arbitrary input pulse Vi(t), Eq. (31) can be solved by Fourier transformation. The response to a delta pulse of weight 1, V.(t) = o(t) follows then

l

-

12

-

simply as

- 12 - simply as or with Td = o£, t/Td = U 2 1 1

or with

Td

= o£,

t/Td = U

2

1

1

Vout(u) = dd(u) =-- -- 2

TI

Td

1 + U

One can find the calculation and a plot of dd(u) pulse response sd(u) can be calculated as

in Ref.

6.

With Eq.

sn(u) =

~ [arctg(u) H(u)- arctg(u-a) H(u-a)],

TI

(32b)

(32a)

(32b)

the square

(33)

where a= T/Td and T =pulse length (Fig. 10).

The response to an arbitrary input pulse .in a cable with conductor and dielectric losses can be computed by the convolution

y

Vout(Y) = J Vi(x) fl(y- x) dx,

0

1vhere fl(y)

dielectric losses.

is the response to a delta pulse of weight 1 of a cable with conductor and

fl(y)

can be computed by the convolution

ll(y) =

y

T 0 2 J dd(y' • x) dc(Y- x) dx

0

,

(34)

(35)

using Eqs. (20) and (32b). The parameter y' T 0 /Td has to be introduced, if the

variable tis

however, different modes of calculation of the general pulse response.

time

normalized to To as in Eqs.

(34) and (35).

The convolution theorem allows,

For example, the

square pulse response scd(y) for conductor and dielectric losses can be computed from a

for conductor and dielectric losses can be computed from a tl T Fig. 10 Distortion of
for conductor and dielectric losses can be computed from a tl T Fig. 10 Distortion of

tl T

Fig. 10 Distortion of a square pulse after different lengths of a cable

with dielectric losses only. time"; £ = cable length.

T = pulse length;

Td

=

=

"cable rise-

-

13

-

convolution between the square pulse response sd(u) for dielectric losses only and the

delta response dc(y)

for conductor losses only:

Vout(y) = sciY)

y

= T 0 Jsiy' • x) dc(Y- x) dx

0

(36)

In Fig. 11 a few distorted square pulses of constant initial length T are presented for different values of y'.

length T are presented for different values of y'. INPUT PULSE 1.0 ---------'--------, I I I

INPUT PULSE

1.0

---------'--------,

I

I

I

0.8 0.6 Tf"o : 8,7 .CONST. 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 tiT
0.8
0.6
Tf"o :
8,7 .CONST.
0.4
0.2
0.5
1.0 1.5
2.0
tiT

Fig.

11

Response of

a

for

To=

(A£) 2

cable with

constant To but different Td•

conductor and dielectric

= Et;

t

y'

losses

to

a

length;

square input pulse

t

T = pulse

=time;

= const.;

Td

=cable length;

= To/Td.

4. LOSSES BY CONDUCTING AND SEMICONDUCTING LAYERS IN COAXIAL HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE CABLES

The simple theory of skin effect and dielectric losses enables us to predict the

behaviour of normal commercial coaxial cables rather accurately. Unfortunately, it fails for many of the available high-voltage pulse cables, in which well-conducting (graphite or carbon loaded paper) or semiconducting (conducting polythene) layers are present between the dielectric insulator and the conductors. These layers are used to increase the life-

time of the cables, especially if they are constructed with braided conductors.

ing layers (generally between outer conductor and dielectric) guarantee a better electrical contact between the single wires and a better mechanical contact with the dielectric in- sulator, which is also protected from the sharp edges of the metallic conductors. Release of high electric point stresses at the wires of the braided internal conductor and elimina- tion of voids caused by thermal expansion of the insulator are the main reasons for using a semiconducting layer between internal conductor and insulator. On the other hand these layers may considerably increase the losses and deteriorate the pulse response. In the following sections some approximative estimates are made concerning the contribution of conducting or semiconducting layers to the total loss of coaxial high-voltage pulse cables.

Conduct-

-

14

-

4.1 Skin effect in conducting layers

The losses arising

in an additional conducting layer are mainly due to skin effect

as in the metal conductors. The total loss of a combination of a well-conducting (metal) and a 'vorse-conducting medium (for instance graphite) will now be studied for a plane case as shown in Fig. 12. We assume having a longitudinal electrical field in z direction,

MEDIUM 0

IDEAL DIELECTRIC OR FREE SPACE

E, IJ.•IJ.o,o'sO

MEDIUM 1

BAD CONDUCTOR

<l'=<l'l,IJ.-IJ.o

z

MEDIUM 2

GOOD CONDUCTOR

<l'=<l'2,IJ.;IJ.o

E:-Eo

2 GOOD CONDUCTOR <l'=<l'2,IJ.;IJ.o E:-Eo y FIELD STRENGTH AMPLITUDE ELECTRICAL Ez(O) Fig. 12 layers

y

FIELD

STRENGTH AMPLITUDE

ELECTRICAL

Ez(O)

E:-Eo y FIELD STRENGTH AMPLITUDE ELECTRICAL Ez(O) Fig. 12 layers of Field distribution infinite extension. in

Fig.

12

layers

of

Field distribution infinite extension.

in an arrangement of two plane conducting

Ez(Y) exp (jwt), the amplitude of which only depends on they coordinate. Since o 1 << o 2 , at low frequencies the main current is flowing in medium 2 with a skin depth of

Oz

= /Zjlpowo 2

Then the resistance per unit length (in

6x (in x direction) is given by

z direction) of a strip of width

x direction) is given by z direction) of a strip of width (37) At frequencies high

(37)

At frequencies high enough, where 8 2 is going to zero, the current is forced to flow mainly in medium 1, where again skin effect is taking place resulting in the higher

resistance

effect is taking place resulting in the higher resistance (38) if 8 1 << d =

(38)

if 8 1 << d = thickness of the conducting layer 1.

impedance Z . of medium 1 and 2 is given in Appendix II.

The exact solution for the total series

The frequency interval where the

Sl

real part of Z ., the resistance R (w), is rising from R 2 to R 1 , is determined by the para-

Sl

S

meters d, o 1 , o 2 Figure 13 shows the exact frequency dependence of Rs(w) for some special values of these parameters and for 6x = lm.

10

1o-•

- 15 - Rs(w) (Q/m) ~l~:~-(V ~ ? v ~ , ll:l-1 v ;I ~
-
15
-
Rs(w)
(Q/m)
~l~:~-(V
~
?
v
~
,
ll:l-1
v
;I
~
,
~
~
,
'\
.
,
'
d
=0.35mm_
lj
~
/
;;,'
6.x
:1m
'II l.~
v
,o,
= 0.35mm
\
o'1-,
d
0
d =
tl.2mm
'?~;
,
~
c,O
~
~: ,.,.
6.,
d =0.3
mm
\
'\.
;,.'
,
k! = 0.2rr
t?j
,
~
,
~,
~
v
v
1o••
10 6
10'
10.
10 7
10 11
10 12
w = 2ttf ( 1/sec)

Fig. 13 Real part, Rs(w), of the series impedance Zsi calculated for skin effect in two conducting media (e.g. copper and graphite) according to Eq. (AII.S). d; thickness of the bad conducting layer (medium 1); 01 ; conductivity of the medium 1.

If we come back to a coaxial configuration (Fig. 1) and assume having a conducting -

a

r.

l

beuveen the dielectric insulator and the outer conductor,

(7)

as

layer of thickness d << r

we find the complex propagation constant from Eq.

r we find the complex propagation constant from Eq. (39) With Eq. (8) and Eq. (AII.S)

(39)

With Eq.

(8) and Eq.

(AII.S)

the attenuation constant a can be expressed for 6x

the attenuation constant a can be expressed for 6x 2nr a as (40) In the time

2nr

a

as

(40)

In the time domain the computation of the distortion of arbitrary pulse shapes by a

cable with a propagation constant y, as given by Eq. approximation.

(40),

can be done

only in a rough

4.2

Losses in semiconducting layers

Whereas in conducting materials very small electric fields

can produce considerable

losses, in semiconductors only high fields will give rise to counting losses on account of

their small conductivity. Therefore, in a semiconducting layer of a coaxial cable mainly the radial electric field is contributing to the total loss. For the coaxial structure as shown in Fig. 14, we can determine the complex propagation constant y , if we suppose the

s

-

16

-

- 16 - OUTER CONDUCTOR INNER CONDUCTOR SEMICONDUCTING LAYER DIELECTRIC INSULATOR Fig. 14 Coaxial cable with

OUTER CONDUCTOR

INNER

CONDUCTOR

SEMICONDUCTING LAYER

DIELECTRIC INSULATOR

Fig.

14

Coaxial

cable with a

internal conductor.

semiconducting

layer between insulator and

conductors and the dielectric insulator to be ideal

conductor tO have the

~diel = ~s = ~o)•

(oc = oo, odiel

= 0)

and the semi-

= ~ c

(~

Same permittivity

E

and permeability ~ as the insulator

In Appendix III, ys is calculated with

as follows

insulator In Appendix III, ys is calculated with as follows Ys For 6 « 1 we

Ys

In Appendix III, ys is calculated with as follows Ys For 6 « 1 we can

For

6

«

1 we can simplify

(41)

(42)

(42)

Separating this expression into real and imaginary parts it holds, with B

that

(43)

(43)

and

S =

wB

(

1 +-

b,

1

2 1 + (Ew/os}

2

)

(44)

These formulae are equivalent to the circuit shown ill Fig. 15.

Equations

(41)

to (44) were developed under the condition of infinite conductivity

of the conductors. If we assume now having also losses in the metal there will not be very much change in the field distribution. The longitudinal electrical field components will not be exactly zero at the interfaces between insulator and metal and between semi- conductor and metal. Nevertheless they are so small that one can linearly superpose them on the semiconductor losses. So we can write the total propagation constant

that one can linearly superpose them on the semiconductor losses. So we can write the total

(45)

-

17

-

OUTER CONDUCTOR

- 17 - OUTER CONDUCTOR Fig. 15 Simple model INNER CONDUCTOR for a cable with a

Fig.

15

Simple model

INNER

CONDUCTOR

for

a

cable with a

semiconducting

layer

cd

capacity/length of

the dielectric

insulator

C

capacity/length of

the

semiconducting

layer

s

G

conductance/length of

the

semiconducting

layer.

s

and the attenuation constant

semiconducting layer. s and the attenuation constant where A is given again by Eq. (15). Equations

where A is given again by Eq. (15). Equations (45) and (46) can easily be modified, if

there is also (or only) a semiconducting layer in contact with the outer conductor.

also dielectric losses or losses by an additional conducting layer are present, the cor- responding terms have to be added or to be modified.

If

(46)

The transfer function fT of a matched or infinitely long coaxial cable with conductor

and semiconductor losses is found from Eqs.

'n = B~, 'D = LB~/2 and To = (A~) 2

(3) and (45) with jw replaced by p,

w

s

= 0

/E

s

'

fr(P.~) = e -TnP

'-or-'

e -FoP

-TDw 5 [1-w 5 /(P+w 5 )]

e

, ,

nonnal

cond.

semicond.

delay

losses

losses

(47)

The antitransformation of Eq.

(47)

into the time domain is possible by using the in-

verse Laplace transform J 0 (alt) of the image function exp (-a 2 /4p)/p [see Ref.

is the normal Bessel function of order zero.

find the transfer function FT(t,~) in the time domain as

5].

J 0

Disregarding the normal cable delay 'n we

F (u.) =

T

>

rr:r;,w

0

D

r:::

2vTI

5

t

J exp[-T /4(t- x)J

0

(

0

t- X

)3/2

exp [-w (x + T

s

)]

D

I

I

(w /4 T

s

x)

D

dx

-

r;;

yX

(48)

where I 1

is the modified Bessel function of order 1.

input pulse V.(t)

1

can be computed from the convolution

TI1en the response to an arbitrary

function of order 1. input pulse V.(t) 1 can be computed from the convolution TI1en the

(49)

ATTENUATION

o<. (db/100m)

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