Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

Adding and Subtracting Matrices

Matrix addition is fairly simple, and is done entry-wise. Add the following matrices:

I need to add the pairs of entries, and then simplify for the final answer:

So the answer is:

Up until now, you've been able to add any two things you felt like: numbers, variables, equations, and so forth. But addition doesn't always work with matrices. Perform the indicated operation, or explain why it is not possible.

Since matrices are added entry-wise, I have to add the

1 and the 4, the 2 and 5, the 0 and the7, and the 3 and the 8. But what do I add

to the 6 and to the 9? There are no corresponding entries in the first matrix that can be added to these entries in the second matrix. So the answer is: I can't add these matrices, because they're not the same size . This is always the case: To be able to add two matrices, they must be of the same size. If they are not the same size (if they do not have the same "dimensions"), then the addition is "not defined" (doesn't make mathematical sense).

Subtraction works entry-wise, too.

Copyright Elizabeth Stapel 2003-2011 All Rights Reserved

Given the following matrices, find

A Band A C, or explain why you can not.

A and B are the same size, each being 2 3 matrices, so I can subtract, working entry-wise:

However,

A and C are not the same size, since A is 2 3 and C is 2 2. So this subtraction is not defined.

A C is not defined, because A and C are not the same size.


Matrix addition and subtraction, where defined (that is, where the matrices are the same size so addition and subtraction make sense), can be turned into homework problems. Find the values of xand

y given the following equation:

First, I'll simplify the left-hand side a bit by adding entry-wise:

Since matrix equality works entry-wise, I can compare the entries to create simple equations that I can solve. In this case, the tell me that

1,2-entries

x + 6 = 7, and the 2,1-entries tell me that 2y 3 = 5. Solving, I get:

x+6=7 x=1

2y 3 = 5 2y = 2 y = 1

2x2 Matrix Multiplication Calculator is an online tool programmed to perform multiplication operation between the two matrices A and B. Unlike general multiplication, matrix multiplication is not commutative. Multiplying A x B and B x A will give different results. 2x2 matrices are most commonly employed in describing basic geometric transformations in a 2-dimensional vector space There are specific restrictions on the dimensions of matrices that can be multiplied. In the matrix multiplication AB, the number of columns in matrix A must be equal to the number of rows in matrix B. The resulting product matrix will have the same number of rows as matrix A and the same number of columns as B

2x2 Matrices Multiplication Formula

Multiplicative Identity Matrix The multiplicative identity matrix is a matrix that you can multiply by another matrix and the resultant matrix will equal the original matrix. The multiplicative identity matrix is so important it is usually called the identity matrix, and is usually denoted by a double lined 1, or an I, no matter what size the identity matrix is The multiplicative identity matrix obeys the following equation: IA = AI = A The multiplicative identity matrix for a 2x2 matrix is:

2x2 Matrices Multiplication Example

The following will show how to multiply two 2x2 matrices:

Properties of Matrix Multiplication 1. Matrix multiplication is NOT commutative in general AB BA 2. Matrix multiplication is associative. It doesn't matter how 3 or more matrices are grouped when being multiplied, as long as the order isn't changed A(BC) = (AB)C 3. Matrix multiplication is associative, analogous to simple algebraic multiplication. The only difference is that the order of the multiplication must be maintained A(B+C) = AB + AC (B+C)A = BA + CA 4. If it's a Square Matrix, an identity element exists for matrix multiplication. It is called either E or I IA = AI = A Matrices are widely used in geometry, physics and computer graphics applications. The array of quantities or expressions set out by rows and columns; treated as a single element and manipulated according to rules. Matrix calculations can be understood as a set of tools that involves the study of methods and procedures used for collecting, classifying, and analyzing data. In many applications it is necessary to calculate 2x2 matrix multiplication where this online 2x2 matrix multiplication calculator can help you to effortlessly make your calculations easy for the respective inputs

How to Multiply Matrices


A Matrix is an array of numbers:

A Matrix
(This one has 2 Rows and 3 Columns) To multiply a matrix by a single number is easy:

These are the calculations: 24=8 20=0 21=2 2-9=-18 We call the number ("2" in this case) a scalar, so this is called

"scalar multiplication".

Multiplying a Matrix by Another Matrix

But to multiply a matrix by another matrix you need to do the "dot product" of rows and columns ... what does that mean? Let me show you with an example: To work out the answer for the 1st row and 1st column:

The "Dot Product" is where you multiply matching members, then sum up:

(1, 2, 3) (7, 9, 11) = 17 + 29 + 311 = 58


We match the 1st members (1 and 7), multiply them, likewise for the 2nd members (2 and 9) and the 3rd members (3 and 11), and finally sum them up. Want to see another example? Here it is for the 1st row and 2nd column:

(1, 2, 3) (8, 10, 12) = 18 + 210 + 312 = 64

We can do the same thing for the 2nd row and 1st column:

(4, 5, 6) (7, 9, 11) = 47 + 59 + 611 = 139


And for the 2nd row and 2nd column:

(4, 5, 6) (8, 10, 12) = 48 + 510 + 612 = 154


And we get:

DONE!

Identity Matrix
The "Identity Matrix" is the matrix equivalent of the number "1":

A 3x3 Identity Matrix


It is "square" (has same number of rows as columns), It has 1s on the diagonal and 0s everywhere else. It's symbol is the capital letter I.

It is a special matrix, because when you multiply by it, the original is unchanged:

AI=A IA=A

What is Matrix Determinant? The determinant is a scalar value assigned to a square matrix. Matrices which are not square do not have a determinant. The determinant of a (1x1) matrix is just its value, e.g |4| = 4 Straight lines are used instead of square brackets to denote the determinant. The determinants of (2x2) and (3x3) matrices are straightforward to calculate A determinant is a property that is unique to matrices. In a way, a determinant is like a magnitude. It gives you some information about the resultant matrix in a matrix multiplication operation. Not all matrices have determinants. It is your task to determine when a matrix will have a determinant, and when it will not. To denote that you are taking a determinant, you can use either of the notations below det A = |A| Notice that the second notation is also used to find magnitudes and absolute values, depending on the system. This further supports the claim that a determinant is like a magnitude How to Find Determinant of a 2x2 Matrix 1. Multiply the entry in the first row and first column by the entry in the second row and second column If we are finding the determinant of the 2x2 matrix A, then calculate a 11 x a22 2. Multiply the entry in the first row and second column by the entry in the second row and first column If we are finding the determinant of the 2x2 matrix A, then calculate a 12 x a21 3. Subtract the second value from the first value 2x2 Matrix

2x2 Matrix Determinant Formula

How to Find Determinant of a 3x3 Matrix 1. Extend the matrix by writing the first and second columns again on the right side of the third column 2. Multiply the three entries on the diagonal from the first row and first column entry to the third row and third column entry. If we are finding the determinant of the 3x3 matrix B, then calculate b 11*b22*b33 3. Repeat this diagonal multiplication for all three diagonals If we are finding the determinant of the 3x3 matrix B, then calculate b12*b23*b31, and b13*b21*b32 4. Add these products together 5. Multiply the three entries on the diagonal from the first row and third column entry to the third row and first column entry If we are finding the determinant of the 3x3 matrix B, then calculate b 13*b22*b31 6. Repeat this diagonal multiplication for all three diagonals If we are finding the determinant of the 3x3 matrix B, then calculate b11*b23*b32, and b12*b21*b33 7. Add these products and subtract the result from the previous total 3x3 Matrix

3x3 Matrix Determinant Formula

Matrices are widely used in geometry, physics and computer graphics applications. The array of quantities or expressions set out by rows and columns; treated as a single element and manipulated according to rules. Matrix calculations can be

understood as a set of tools that involves the study of methods and procedures used for collecting, classifying, and analyzing data. In many applications it is necessary to calculate the matrix determinant where this online matrix determinant calculator can help you to effortlessly make your calculations easy for the respective inputs

The Inverse of a Matrix


To find the inverse of 22 matrix, use the formula below

Adding and Subtracting Matrices


Adding and subtracting values in a matrix is incredibly simple! In fact, all you have to do is match up the position in the matrix with another matrix, and add the values together to create your matrix with the answers. For this reason, you can only add and subtract matrices of the same shape; 3x3, 4x4, etc. You cannot add or subtract a 3x3 matrix with a 3x4 matrix! Let's have an example: Matrix 1: 2 4 5 5 -3 8 1 7 6 4 -1 9 Matrix 2: 6 5 0 -2 3 4

To add these matrices, simply get the value of each element from both matrices, and add them together: (2+4) = 6 (4 + -1) = 3 (5+9) = 14 (5+6) = 11 (-3 + 5) = 2 (8+0) = 8 (1+ -2) = -1 (7+3) = 10 (6+4) = 10

Matrix 1 + Matrix 2: 6 11 -1 3 2 10 14 8 10

And for subtraction, you do the same thing except you subtract instead of add: (2-4) = -2 (4 - -1) = 5 (5-9) = -4 (5-6) = -1 (-3 - 5) = -8 (8-0) = 8 (1- -2) = 3 (7-3) = 4 (6-4) = 2

Matrix 1 - Matrix 2: -2 5 -4 -1 -5 8 3 4 2

It really is that easy! You only have two things to remember: 1. You can only add or subtract matrices of the same size. 2. Make sure you are adding the same element from both matrices!

3x3 Matrices Multiplication Formula

Multiplicative Identity Matrix The multiplicative identity matrix is a matrix that you can multiply by another matrix and the resultant matrix will equal the original matrix. The multiplicative identity matrix is so important it is usually called the identity matrix, and is usually denoted by a double lined 1, or an I, no matter what size the identity matrix is

Properties of Matrix Multiplication 1. Matrix multiplication is NOT commutative in general AB BA 2. Matrix multiplication is associative. It doesn't matter how 3 or more matrices are grouped when being multiplied, as long as the order isn't changed A(BC) = (AB)C 3. Matrix multiplication is associative, analogous to simple algebraic multiplication. The only difference is that the order of the multiplication must be maintained A(B+C) = AB + AC (B+C)A = BA + CA

4. If its a Square Matrix, an identity element exists for matrix multiplication. It is called either E or I IA = AI = A Matrices are widely used in geometry, physics and computer graphics applications. The array of quantities or expressions set out by rows and columns; treated as a single element and manipulated according to rules. Matrix calculations can be understood as a set of tools that involves the study of methods and procedures used for collecting, classifying, and analyzing data. In many applications it is necessary to calculate 3x3 matrix multiplication where this online 3x3 matrix multiplication calculator can help you to effortlessly make your calculations easy for the respective inputs

Singular Matrix Noninvertible Matrix A square matrix which does not have an inverse. A matrix is singular if and only if its determinant is zero.