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2009 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies

A Nonlinear State Observer Design for 2 DOF Twin Rotor System Using Neural Networks
Ferdose Ahammad Shaik
Department of Electrical Engineering MNNIT, Allahabad ferdose7@gmail.com Abstract In this paper, a stable neural network based observer for twin rotor multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system is proposed. The twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) is a highly nonlinear system. First, a simple local state observer for TRMS is presented. The efficiency of this observer will depend on the accuracy of the model. Then, a neural network based observer is proposed. This observer can be applied to TRMS system without any a priori knowledge about the system dynamics. A two layer neural network is used to approximate the nonlinearities of the system. A learning rule for neural network is given which guarantee robustness of the observer. Simulation results are carried out to exemplify the performance of the proposed observers.
Index Terms Nonlinear system, neural networks, state observer, twin rotor MIMO system.

Shubhi Purwar
Department of Electrical Engineering MNNIT, Allahabad spurwar@rediffmail.com In this paper, two different methods of designing observer for TRMS system are presented. In the first method, the efficiency of the observer depends on the accuracy of the model. Hence, all the parameters of the system must be known accurately. Whereas in the NN based observer, there is no need of a prior knowledge about the system dynamics. This paper is organized as follows. The model of 2DOF twin rotor system along with the parameters is presented in Section II. In Section III, a nonlinear state observer for TRMS is developed based on the model of the TRMS system. The neural network based observer is presented in Section IV. The performance of the observer is demonstrated in Section V by simulations carried out on twin rotor MIMO system followed by conclusion in Section VI. II. MODELING OF 2-DOF TRMS The mechanical setup of the twin rotor MIMO system is shown in Fig.1. The complete dynamics of 2 - DOF TRMS system can be represented in the state-space form is as follows [1]. d  = dt Mg k gy a b d  = 1 12  12 + 1 1 sin a1 cos dt I1 I1 I1 I1

I. INTRODUCTION

HE twin rotor MIMO system is a laboratory setup designed for flight control experiments. The TRMS consists of a beam pivoted on its base in such a way that it can rotate freely in both its horizontal and vertical planes. There are two rotors (the main and tail rotors), driven by DC motors, at each end of the beam. If necessary, either or both axes of rotation can be locked by means of two locking screws provided for physically restricting the horizontal or vertical plane rotation. Thus, the system permits both 1 and 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF). The two rotors are controlled by variable speed electric motors enabling the helicopter to rotate in a vertical and horizontal plane (pitch and yaw). The tail rotor could be rotated in either direction, allowing the helicopter to yaw right or left. The motion of the helicopter can be damped by a pendulum, which is hung from a central pivot point. In a real helicopter, the aerodynamic force is controlled by changing the angle of attack but in this model the aerodynamic forces are controlled by varying the speed of rotors, the angle of attack is fixed. The state of a process specifies its behavior and many control schemes such as inverse dynamics and feedback linearization rely on the availability of the states. However, in many practical systems only the input and output of a system are measurable. Therefore, estimating the states of the system plays a crucial role in monitoring the process, detecting and diagnosing of faults, and achieving better performance. Furthermore, most practical systems are nonlinear, and using linearization or quasi linearization methods limits the estimation accuracy to a small dynamic range.

k gy I1

 1 b1 cos( )

B1 I1

+

0.0326 2 sin( 2 ) 2I1

d  = dt

a 2 B1 k a d 1.75  = 2 2  c 1 1.75 12 k c b1 1 dt I2 I2 I2 I2 + b 0.375 0.375 k c a1 12 .e 0.5t + b1 k c 1 .e 0.5t + 2 2 I2 I2 I2

d T k 1 = 10 1 + 11 u1 dt T11 T11 T k d 2 = 20 2 + 22 u 2 (1) dt T21 T21 The parameters of the system are given in Table 1. From (1) it can be seen that this model has six states. For designing a state feedback controller, all the states should be measurable accurately. But in the real time TRMS system only two states are measurable. Hence, we need to design
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978-0-7695-3915-7/09 $26.00 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ACT.2009.219

observers which will estimates all the states accurately.


TABLE 1 2 DOF TRMS SYSTEM PARAMETERS

Define ( x ) = [1 ( x ), " , n ( x )]T

(4)

Parameter

Value
6.8 10 2 2 10 2

I 1 -moment of inertia of vertical of vertical rotor I 2 -moment of inertia of horizontal rotor a1 -static characteristic parameter b1 - static characteristic parameter a 2 - static characteristic parameter b2 -static characteristic parameter
M g -gravity momentum B1 -friction momentum function

0.0135 0.0924 0.02 0.09 0.32 N m

1 ( x, u ) ( x, u ) ( x, u ) = 2 (5) # n ( x, u ) Theorem 1: Let us consider, the system (2) has a relative degree m , then a local observer is given by [2] ) ( x  = f (x ) + g ( x )u + )). x K ( y h( x (6) x where the matrix K is selected so that the solution of (6) satisfies the following condition (t ) x (t ) x (0) x(0) e t x ; t 0 (7) Given 1 > 0, 2 > 0, 3 > 0, > 0 and > 0 .provided
1

parameter B1 -friction momentum function parameter K gy -gyroscopic momentum parameter k11 -motor 1 gain k 22 -motor 2 gain

6 10 -3 N m 110 N m
0.05 s / rad 1.1 0.8 1.1
-1

(0) x(0) < 3 . that x(t ) < 1 , u (t ) < 2 t 0 and x


The dynamic state space representation of Twin rotor MIMO system is given in equation (1), which can be represented as follows: x2 a1 x 2 + b1 x M g sin x + k gy b cos( x ) x x 1 1 1 4 5 I 5 I 5 I1 I1 1 1 k gy B1 0.0326 2 2 ( ) + sin 2 cos x x a x x x x 1 4 1 1 4 5 2 2 I I I 1 1 1 x4 kc a1 a2 2 b2 2 1.75  = x6 + x6 x 1.75 x5 kc b1 x5 I2 I2 I2 I2 0.375 B 0.375 1 2 + x4 + kc a1 x5 b1kc x5 .e0.5t I2 I2 I2 T 10 x5 T11 T20 x6 T21

T11 -motor 1 denominator parameter


T10 - motor 1 denominator parameter

1 1 1 2
3.5
0.2

T21 - motor 2 denominator parameter


T20 - motor 2 denominator parameter
T p -cross reaction momentum parameter

T0 -cross reaction momentum parameter k c -cross reaction momentum gain III.

NONLINEAR STATE OBSERVER DESIGN

Let us consider a MIMO nonlinear system described by the state space representation  = f ( x ) + g ( x )u x (2) y = h( x) where

x R n , u , y r p , f and g are C r

vector fields

on R n , and h : R n R p is a C r function. Assume that f (0) = 0, h(0) = 0, i.e., 0 R n is an equilibrium point of the unforced system. Definition 1 [3]: A nonlinear system (2) has robust relative degree m about x = 0 if there exist smooth functions i ( x), i = 1, " , m such that h( x) = 1 ( x) + 0 ( x, u )
L f + gui ( x ) = i +1 ( x ) + i ( x, u )
L ( x ) = b ( x ) + a ( x )u + ( x , u )
f + gu m m

0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0
y = [ x1 x3 ]
T

k11
T11 0

0 u k22 T21

h( x )

(8) ; u = [u1 u 2 ]T and

where

i = 1, " , m 1

  1 2 ]T x=[
T

(3)
2

where the functions ( x, u ), i = 1," , m are ( x, u ) and


i

a( x) is ( x) .
0

y=[ ] System (8) has a vector relative degree of [3, 3] about the origin and the corresponding ( x) can be chosen as

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x1 x 3 x2 x4 ( x) = Mg k gy B1 b1 x5 x2 + b1 cos x1x4 x5 sin x1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 B1 1.75 0.375 b2 0.5t I x6 I x4 I kcb1x5 + I b1kc x5e 2 2 2 2 (9) As a result, we have 0 0 0 0 ( x, u ) = a k 0.0326 gy 2 2 2 1 x5 a1 cos x1 x4 x5 sin 2 x1.x4 + I1 2 I1 I1 a2 x 2 kc a1 1.75 x 2 + 0.375 k a x 2 e 0.5t 6 5 c 1 5 I2 I2 I2

) ( x where x

K is given
k4 k8 ak2 + bk6 + ck8 + dk10 2 ek2 + fk6 + gk8 + hk10 + k12 9 k2 k6

k1 k 5 k3 k7 ak1 + bk5 + ck7 + dk9 ek + fk + gk + hk + 2 k 5 7 9 11 1 9

where k1 , k 2 , " , k12 are the observer parameters and a, b, c, d , e, f , g , and h are the nonlinear functions given by: 1 + 231sin x 1 x 4 x 5 1 1600cos x a= 1 x 4 231 20 + cos x b=
d=

100 1 , 1 x 4 77 20 + cos x
3400 1 1 x 4 231 20 + cos x

c=

1 x 5 cos x 1 x 4 20 + cos x

(10) and hence Theorem 1 can be applied. Thus, from (6) the observer for the TRMS system turns out to be as follows
2 x a 2 b Mg B1 1 1 1 2 x sin x x5 + x5 I1 I1 I1 I1 0.0326 2 + 1 ) x 4 sin(2 x 2 I1 k k gy gy 2 1 ) x 4 x 5 1 ) x 4 x 5 ( a x b x cos( cos + 1 1 I I1 1 x4 = x a B k a b 1.75 1 2 2 2 x 6 + 2 x 6 4 c 1 1.75 x 5 5 x kc b1 x I2 I2 I2 I2 I 2 0.5t 0.375 2 + 0.375 k a x . b k x e + c 1 5 1 c 5 I I 2 2 T10 5 x T11 T20 6 x T21

e= f = g= h=

1 + 231sin x 1 x 4 x 5 ) (14 + 3e0.5t ) (16000 cos x 1 x 4 ) 9000(20 + cos x 1 14 + 3e 0.5t 1 x 4 30 20 + cos x 1 x 5 0.07 cos x 1 x 5 e 0.5t + 1.11cos x 1 x 4 + 22.2 0.359 cos x 1 x 4 ) (20 + cos x

17 14 + 3e 0.5t 1 x 4 45 20 + cos x The observer presented in this section is applicable to completely known nonlinear systems. The neural observer presented in the next section can be applied to unknown nonlinear systems.

k11 0 0 0 0 T 11 + 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 ) u + ( x ) ) x K ( y h( x k22 T21 (11) Fig.1 The twin rotor MIMO system


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x1 state observer error

0.5

x3 state observer error

NN observer nonlinear state obsever

0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0 10 20 30 NN observer nonlinear state observer

-0.5

-1 0

10 Time [s]

20

30

Time [s]
Weight updates for the NN is given by  = y T C k y  W W
w

Fig.2 State observer errors with NN observer and nonlinear state observer

IV. NEURAL OBSERVER The TRMS system (1) can be represented as  = f ( x, u ) x (12)

(16)

y = Cx where
u = [u1 u 2 ]T ; x = [x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x 6 ]T ;
1 0 0 0 0 0 C= 0 0 1 0 0 0 and f ( x, u ) is a nonlinear function.

where ~ y = yy Thus, the function can be approximated by T (x (x , u ) = W ) g The observer is given by [6]  T (x ) + G ( y Cx ) = Ax + W x = Cx (t ) y

(17)

(18)

(13) y = Cx where A is a Hurwitz matrix, the pair (C , A) is observable, and g ( x, u ) = f ( x, u ) Ax. Now, the observer model can be selected as  ( t ) = Ax +g (x , u ) + G ( y Cx ) x

Now, by adding and subtracting Ax , (12) becomes  = Ax + g ( x, u ) x

(14) (t ) = Cx (t ) y denotes the state of the observer, and the observer where x gain G is selected such that A GC is a Hurwitz matrix. Let S be a compact simply connected set of R n . With map g : S R n , define C m ( S ) the functional space such that g is continuous. A general nonlinear function

Stability analysis: Consider the positive definite Lyapunov function candidate 1 T~ 1 ~ ~ L= ~ x x + tr (W T 1W ) (19) 2 2 ~ and = T > 0 , W = W W where ~ x = xx The time derivative of (19) is given by 1 T~ ~ T 1 ~ T ~  + tr (W =1~ L x x+ ~ x x W) (20) 2 2 By choosing the weight tuning law as (16) the observer converge to error is bounded and neural network weights W W . The detailed stability analysis is not presented here as it is beyond the scope of this paper.
V. SIMULATION RESULTS In this section, a simulation study is carried out to illustrate the efficiency of the observer using MATLAB. A. Nonlinear state observer The designed nonlinear state observer (11) is simulated with the following parameters k1 = 100, k 2 = 100, k 3 = 100, k 4 = 100, k 5 = 100, k 6 = 100, k 7 = 100, k 8 = 100, k 9 = 100, k10 = 100, k11 = 100, k12 = 100 . The initial conditions for TRMS system are taken as x1 (0) = 0.1, x 2 (0) = 0, x 3 (0) = 0.1, x 4 (0) = 0, x 5 (0) = 0, x 6 (0) = 0 and the initial conditions for the observer are
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g ( x) C m ( S ) , x (t ) S can be approximated by an NN as g ( x ) = W T ( x) + ( x)
(15) where W is the weight matrix and ( x) is the bounded neural network approximation error, and ( x) is the transfer function of the hidden neurons that is usually considered as sigmoid function [4],[5]. Assumption 1: The ideal weights are bounded by known positive values so that W F W1M .

2 (0) = 0, 4 (0) = 0, 1 (0) = 0.9, 3 (0) = 0.5, x x x x 6 (0) = 0 . The system is operated in the open 5 (0) = 0, x x loop with the main rotor and tail rotor inputs as u1 = sin(0.5t ) and u 2 = sin( 0.5t ) respectively. The inputs and outputs of the TRMS system are given as the input to the observer. The error between the actual and the observer states during the steady state is going to zero. B. Neural observer The proposed neural observer (18) the following parameters 0 A11 = 150 ; k w = 0.01 ; A = 0 A22 0 0
1 20 where A11 = A22 = A33 = 0 20 17.4282 0.0041 0.4355 0.3036 0.0041 17.4282 and G = 0.0001 0.4360 0. 0.0109 0.0003 0

was simulated using

The second method of observer design is based on the neural network approximation. This type of observer design is suitable for the systems with highly nonlinear dynamics. The nonlinearity present in the system is assumed to be unknown and approximated using a two layer neural network. Hence, we need not require the accurate model of the system. The simulation response of both the observers is shown. The response of the observers is satisfactory. In case of NN based observer, the observer error will converge to zero quickly. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

0 0 A33

The authors acknowledge the contribution of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India through project SR/S3/EECE/004/2008. REFERENCES [1] Twin Rotor MIMO System Manual, Feedback Instruments Ltd., UK, 2002. [2] Jo, N.H.; Seo, J.H., A state observer for nonlinear systems and its application to ball and beam system, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Volume 45, Issue 5, May 2000 Page(s):968 973. [3] Hassan K.Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002. [4] G. Cybenko, Approximation by superposition of sigmoidal functions, Math. Control, Signals and Syst., PP. 303-314, Oct. 1989. [5] A. R. Barron, Universal approximation bounds for superposition of a sigmoidal function, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 39, pp. 930-945, Mar. 1993. [6] Abdollahi, F.; Talebi, H.A.; Patel, R.V., A Stable Neural Network-Based Observer With Application to Flexible-Joint Manipulators, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, Volume 4, Issue, 18-22 Nov. 2002 Page(s): 1910 1914.

A two layer neural network was used with ten neurons in the hidden layer, and six neurons in the output layer. The 1 , x 2 , x 4 , x 6 , u1 , and 3 , x 5 , x inputs to the network are x u 2 . The hidden layer neurons have sigmoidal transfer functions and the output neurons use linear activation functions. The tuning of the neural network weights is done online. The initial weights of the network are selected as small random numbers. The initial conditions for TRMS system and for the observer are taken as same as in the previous case. The system is operated in the open loop with the main rotor and tail rotor inputs as same as in the previous case. Fig.2 shows the observer error of TRMS system with both observers. As it can be seen from the response, the effect of initial conditions is very small in case of NN observer when compared to nonlinear state observer and the observer error converge to zero quickly as compared to the nonlinear state observer. VI. CONCLUSION In this study, two different methods of designing an observer for twin rotor MIMO system were presented. First one is a local state observer with approximate input output linearization. This type of observer design is suitable for lower order systems with small nonlinearities present in the dynamics of the system. As the system order increases, the design process will become tedious. Hence, for highly nonlinear systems, this type of observer design is complex.
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