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Mobile Network 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10


3FL12479ABAAWBZZA Edition 4

STUDENT GUIDE

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010

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Document History Edition 01 Date YYYY-MM-DD Author Last name, first name Remarks First edition

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Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Identify the location of the 9130 BSC Evolution within the GSM network Describe the functions implemented in the 9130 BSC Evolution Describe the hardware architecture of the 9130 BSC Evolution Describe the software architecture organization of the 9130 BSC Evolution Describe the IP architecture of the 9130 BSC Evolution Describe the defense mechanism of the 9130 BSC Evolution in case of hardware or software failure

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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Switch to notes view!
1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description 2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description 2.1 An Architecture Based on the MX Platform 2.2 General View of the Hardware Architecture 2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules 2.4 Hardware Description of LIU Modules 2.5 Power Distribution Unit Cabling 3 9130 BSC Evolution Software Architecture 3.1 Generalities 3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization 3.3 BSS Software Organization 4 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture 4.1 9130 BSC Evolution Traffic Flows 4.2 Internal IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution 4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution 5 9130 BSC Evolution Defense Mechanism 5.1 Redundancy Schemes 5.2 Switchover Scenarios 6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance 6.1 9130 BSC Evolution Standalone Configuration 6.2 9130 BSC Evolution Rack-Shared Configuration 6.3 Capacity: BSC Capacities in Terms of Boards 6.4 Capacity: Capacity and Dimensioning for E1 Links 6.5 Capacity: Abis and Atermux Allocation on LIU Boards 6.6 HSL Introduction All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010 5 Mobile 7Network Annex Alcatel Lucent 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10 7.1 ATCA Shelf Layout for BSC "Standalone Configuration" 7.2 Board Allocation in LIU Shelf for BSC "Standalone Configuration" 7.3 BSC Standalone and Rack-Shared Configurations 7.4 IP Addresses in Subnets A/B/C 7.5 9130 BSC Evolution VLAN 7.6 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and OMC-R: Direct IP Network 7.7 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and OMC-R: IP over Ater 7.8 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and CBC: Direct IP Network 7.9 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and CBC: IP over Ater 7.10 ATCA Back Panel 7.11 Architecture BSC G2 Mx BSC 7.12 Abis Signaling Flow for LAPD QMUX RW 7.13 Ater Signaling Flow 7.14 Traffic Flow PS CS 7.15 TDM Extraction 7.16 Alarm Octet Principle 7.17 TCP/IP Model 7.18 MAC Address Definition 7.19 IP Address Definition 7.20 What Is a LAN? 7.21 LAN Definition: Subnetwork Constitution 7.22 Network Packet Transfer 8 Abbreviations and Acronyms Page 7 15 16 18 22 39 42 46 47 48 56 65 66 68 72 77 78 79 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 112 113 115 117

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!
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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Location and Functions of the 9130 BSC Evolution in the GSM Architecture

The 9130 BSC, one component of the BSS has 3 functions:


Telecom Transmission O&M
PSTN

MSC

ISDN

VLR Ms Air BTS 9130 BSC Abis Atermux MFS SGSN Mobile Radio Acces Gb GPRS Core Network
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TC

HLR A Gr

AuC GSM Core Network

PDN

IP IP network

GGSN

In a Mobile Radio Network, the Mobile Radio Access part or BSS provides radio coverage for GSM/GPRS/EDGE subscribers in a defined area. Its principal role is to provide traffic channels and support signaling between: Mobile Stations and the Mobile Core Circuit-Switching part in case of GSM circuit-switched transmission for voice. Mobile Stations and the General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) Mobile Core Network interconnecting the Internet world in case of packet-switched transmission for data.

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Telecom Functions
The main telecom functions performed by the 9130 BSC Evolution are:
GSM and GPRS Radio Frequency Management:
managing the radio resources

Traffic Channel Resources Management:


Selecting TCH. Establishing and releasing radio resources in response to requests from the MSC, the MFS and the MS

Short Message Service Cell Broadcast:


Broadcasting messages to all the MSs of one or more cells

BSSAP Protocol Management:


Handling messages between the MS and the MSC for circuit service

BSCGP Protocol management:


Handling messages between MS and MFS for packet service

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The GSM Radio Frequency Management consists of 4 sub-functions: Managing the broadcast and common control channels. Managing the signaling channels. Processing radio measurements. Handling the "In call-modification". The GPRS radio frequency management consists of 4 sub-functions: Managing the packet broadcast and common control channels. Managing the packet data channels TCH RM The selection of a TCH can be requested for a variety of reasons such as the initial assignment as a channel for speech and data use, the handover of a channel, etc. Normally acts on requests immediately. Can queue requests, if a TCH is not available, until either a TCH becomes free or a timer expires. SMS-Cell Broadcast There are two types of Short Message Service (SMS): Point-to-point SMS, which allows a short message to be sent to, or received from, a specific MS. SMS-CB service, which allows messages to be broadcast to all the MSs of a cell. This service can be used for a number of reasons. For example, to transmit charging information, road traffic information, etc. An SMS-CB message is transmitted to all the cells connected to the BSC, or to selected cells only, as required.

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Telecom Functions [cont.]


The BSSAP protocol which handles messages distribution between the MS and the MSC is composed of 2 protocols:
DTAP: messages transparent for the 9130 BSC Evolution. BSSMAP: messages understood by the 9130 BSC Evolution.

The BSCGP protocol used between the 9130 BSC Evolution and the MFS is responsible for:
GSM/GPRS paging. GPRS access procedure. Allocation / de-allocation of PDCH or MPDCH within a cell. Activation / release of PDCH.
DTAP
BSSMAP TC MSC

BSC BTS

MFS BSCGP
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The BSSMAP performs radio channel management functions such as assignment, handover for channels that are used for circuit-switched calls. The GPRSAP performs radio channel management functions for channels that are used for packet-switched calls.

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Transmission Functions
The transmission functions consist for the 9130 BSC Evolution in providing BTS to TC access for CS Services and MFS access for PS services. The transmission architecture can be viewed as four major parts:
NE1oE control Remote Tributary Alarm management Remote NE configuration and supervision via Qmux Ring control for Abis.

The Qmux protocol is a transmission protocol used to supervise and to configure the transmission element of TC equipment and non-Evolium BTS. This implies a Transmission Sub-system Controller (TSC) function, responsible for:
Polling the transmission elements. Sending data to the transmission elements. Reporting alarms.
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The transmission architecture can be viewed as four major parts: NE1oE control: NE1oE control provides TDM frame transferring inside the 9130 BSC Evolution platform, and user plane supervision and redundancy management. This NE1oE will be explained in the 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description chapter. Remote Tributary Alarm management: This allows to supervise A terminations points on TC side (For more information about alarm octet, consult the Annex chapter) Remote NE configuration and supervision via Qmux. Ring control for Abis: The purpose of a ring configuration is to protect against any fault on a link or a BTS, which leads to the loss of BTSs that are not faulty. This protection is performed by TPGSM (see the 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description chapter). The TSC is not involved in the supervision and the configuration of the transmission board on Evolium BTS because these operations are done via OML.

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Transmission Functions - TSC Clustering

BSC
Atermux1
Cluster

TC

MT120 TCIL bus

Atermux2 Atermux6
Switching Function Mux / Demux function

Atermux7 Atermux8 Atermux12

MT120

MT120

: Qmux
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One TC cluster is a group of 6 MT120 boards allocated to one BSC in case of an A925 TC, or 6 ASMC, 24 ATBX, 48 DT16 in case of a TC G2. The TSC is not involved in the supervision and the configuration of the transmission board on Evolium BTS because these operations are done via OML. Rule: 1 TSC per TC cluster (6 atermux). The first 2 Atermux support Qmux nibble for security reasons. The Qmux nibble is located on the first nibble of the TS 14 on the first 2 atermux of each group of 6 atermux.

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

Transmission Functions - 9130 BSC Evolution and Channels


In the diagram below, find the mapping of channels on Abis, Atermux, A and Gb interfaces. A
Atermux Abis

CIC compressed

CIC Alarm octet N7

TCH

Qmux N7 RSL
9130 BSC

GSM Core Network TC

BTS

OML

GCH

MFS

GPRS Core Network

Bearer Channel GSL


Atermux
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Gb

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1 9130 BSC Evolution Functions Description

O&M Functions
The main O&M functions performed by the 9130 BSC Evoultion are:
Database Management Software Management Logical and Hardware Configuration Management Fault Management Performance Management Remote Inventory Management
OMC-R
BSC

BSC terminal

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The Database (or DLS for Data Load Segment) of the 9130 BSC Evolution ontains all the hardware and logical configuration of the BSS. This Database is updated via operator commands from the OMC-R. Software Management allows the operator to upgrade or maintain the current BSS Software. Logical and Hardware Configuration Management allows the operator to display or modify the current BSS hardware and logical Configuration (extension reduction operations on the field, configure certain BSS parameters like BTS characteristics, modify or create cell, etc.). Fault Management The 9130 BSC Evolution manages all the maintenance functions relating to itself, that is, detection, localization, defense and reconfiguration. Reports are sent to the OMC-R when the BSC detects faults or performs maintenance functions. Performance Management The BSC Performance Management function, on request of the OMC-R, monitors the telecommunication operations and produces reports. These reports contain processed counters. The reports are stored on disk and are available to the operator at the OMC-R. The BSC controls the sampling, data collection and generation of observation and measurement files. It then transfers the files (either on-demand or autonomously) to the OMC-R. Remote Inventory Management The Remote Inventory is a facility which consists in retrieving inventory hardware and firmware of the 9130 BSC Evolution. This facility can be performed locally but also remotely with the OMC-R. All those functions are performed by the BSC and the OMC-R. If the OMC-R is not connected, the network is still operational, but these tasks may not be performed.

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

2.1 An Architecture Based on the MX Platform


The MX platform is the Multi-Standard Controller Platform for the Alcatel-Lucent Mobile Equipment:
9130 BSC 9130 MFS

Interests of MX platform:
Increasing BSC and MFS capacities Optimization of BSC and MFS configuration Equipment cost reduction Network maintenance simplification

Characteristics of the MX platform: based on ATCA technology

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The 9130 BSC capacity ranges from 200 TRXs (1 active CCP board) to 1000 TRXs (5 active CCP boards). Maintenance is easier thanks to redundancy and a short number of board types.

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2.1 An Architecture Based on the MX Platform

ATCA Shelf Description


Characteristics of the ATCA Subrack:
A standard development fully compliant with the PICMG 3.0 R1.0 specifications. 14 slots which can be equipped with ATCA node blades. Gigabit Ethernet architecture. Two ShMC shelf manager boards. Each blade is connected to the shelf manager through an Intelligent Platform Management Bus (IPMB).

"five nines" uptime (99.999%)

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The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG) is a consortium of more than 700 companies who collaboratively develop specifications that adapt PCI technology for use in industrial and telecommunications applications. PICMG specifications include Compact PCI for Euro card, rack mount applications and PCI/ISA for passive backplane, standard format cards. Today, with the development of high-rate Internet, the PCI bus reaches its limits in terms of bandwidth for the implementation of system of switching. Thats why PICMG has defined a new standard based on a new electromechanical platform. This new standard called Advanced Telecom Computer Architecture (ATCA) is specified in PICMG 3.x. One of the major characteristics of this PICMG 3.x standard is an architecture based on gigabit Ethernet switching.

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

2.2 General View of the Hardware Architecture


An ATCA rack can contain two ATCA shelves and 2 LIU shelves. Each ATCA shelf is paired with a unique LIU shelf. External Ethernet links (OMC and local terminal)
TP GSM TP GSM CCP1 SSW SSW CCP2 CCP N Spare CCP OMCP OMCP

ONE ATCA shelf

ONE LIU shelf

MUX 1

MUX 2

LIU1

LIU2 LIU 16

Abis & Ater-mux links

Ethernet links Working function Redundant function

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The number of CCP boards depends on the configuration of the 9130 BSC Evolution. TP boards manage the transmission part. CCP boards manage the Telecom part. OMCP boards manage the O&M part. One LIU board can connect up to 16 E1 links. Physical characteristics of the MX rack: Standard 19" rack (0.6 x 0.6 x 2 m) Useful height (40 U) 1 PDU with 2-wire power supply 1 or 2 ATCA shelves (height = 13 U each) 1 or 2 LIU shelves (height = 3 U each) A standard unit is 1U of 44.45 mm. The same equipment platform is used for BSC and MFS (PCU). 19" rack = 19 inches rack 1 inch = 25 mm

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2.2 General View of the Hardware Architecture

LIU Modules
The 9130 BSC Evolution equipment is composed of 6 types of modules. Associate each module from the list on the left with the appropriate definition from the list on the right.
TPGSM SSW CCP OMCP LIU MUX Is in charge of managing the whole platform Is in charge of multiplexing n E1 links into one Ethernet link Is in charge of transmission processing features Is in charge of physical E1 connections Is in charge of call control processing Allows exchanges between all the elements of the platform and external IP/Ethernet equipment
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2.2 General View of the Hardware Architecture

NE1oE Protocol
In the 9130 BSC Evolution, the NE1oE protocol is used between the E1 LIU shelf and the TPGSM module. The NE1oE protocol consists in transporting n E1 frames embedded into an Ethernet payload to a board assigned by its MAC address. The NE1oE protocol carries telecom traffic flow: it includes voice and data traffic, telecom signaling (RSL, GSL, SS7) and O&M signaling (OML, Q1, ML-PPP).
External E1 links

O&M + TELECOM
LIU Shelf

OMCP OMCP p
w

TP

TP

CCP CCPP 1 CCP N

NE1oE
SSW W SSW P
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1 Gigabit Ethernet - ATCA Base Interface


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The different messages from telecom traffic are distributed to different planes (User Plane and Control Plane) by TPGSM (see the 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture chapter). O&M and Telecom signaling are distributed to the control plane as the BSC internal message flow. The voice/data traffic is switched then re-encapsulated into Ethernet frames and routed back to the LIU shelf.

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2.2 General View of the Hardware Architecture

IPMI Bus
The low-level management of the modules at the ATCA shelf is performed by one Shelf Management Module (SMM) via two redundant IPMI Buses (IPMBs). SMM Functions:
Board powering-up Temperature Regulation ATCA boards and other shelf components monitoring and controlling Inventory information retrieving Communication with the system manager Etc.
M SMtive) (ac M ) S M ku p c (ba N FA ay tr

MC Sh

MC Sh

C IPM

IPMB1

IPMB2
C IPM

C IPM
SW W

C IPM

C IPM

CC

TP

M GS

System manager

C OM

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The Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is a specification that defines a set of common interfaces to computer hardware and firmware that is used to monitor system health and manage the system as the regulation of temperature, voltage and power. IPMI operates independently from the Operating System, and as defined in the IPMI specification, there are 2 Shelf Management Modules (SMMs) implemented in the architecture of 9130 BSC Evolution: one active and one backup for redundancy reasons. On the Shelf Management Module, there is one Shelf Management Controller (ShMC) which interrogates each IPMI Controller (IPMC) located in each module using the IPMI protocol. They operate in master-slave mode. The role of the ShMC consists in sending messages to the system manager in order to supervise all the ATCA shelves remotely. The system manager is the highest level of management entity referenced in this specification, responsible for managing one or more systems, each compring one or more shelves. The system manager is designed to: watch over the basic health of the system, report anomalies, take corrective action when needed. The remote inventory is a facility which consists in retrieving inventory hardware and firmware of the 9130 BSC Evolution. This facility can be performed locally but also remotely with the OMC-R. By the way, the OMC-R operator can access the inventory data for maintenance purposes and list the necessary information to replace a board in case of failure.

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules


The ATCA shelf is composed of CCP, OMCP, SSW and TPGSM modules. The shelf ensures the power supply of boards and the air cooling inside the rack.
Fan

Air inlet

ATCA shelf front view

ATCA shelf right-side view

ATCA shelf rear view

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This ATCA shelf is based on a 14-slot Dual-Star Middle plane, and is always equipped with: 4 individual fan trays. 4 Power Entry Modules (PEMs) located on the rear side. 2 Shelf Management Controllers (ShMCs) located on the rear side. 2 Personality Cards (PCs) located on the rear side. One of the functions of the PC is the setting of the geographical address of the ATCA shelf by adjusting 2 rotary switches. According to the number of TRXs managed by the 9130 BSC Evolution, different configurations are defined: Conf1 (1 active CCP + 1 stand by CCP) = 200TRXs Conf2 (2 active CCP + 1 stand by CCP) = 400 TRXs Conf3 (3 active CCP + 1 stand by CCP) = 600 TRXs Conf4 (4 active CCP + 1 stand by CCP) = 800 TRXs Conf5 (5 active CCP + 1 stand by CCP) = 1000 TRXs A module or a board inside the ATCA shelf is composed of one front RIT and optionally one rear RIT. For all configurations based on ATCA shelf, each slot unused by a board has to be closed by a filler plate with front panel on the front and rear sides of the shelf. The ATCA front fillers are used to create the appropriate air flow within the subrack.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

ATCA Back Panel

SSW1/2 Backplane
I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O
1G Ethernet Layer1G 3 Switch Ethernet Layer 2+ Switch 10G Ethernet Layer1G 2 Switch Ethernet Layer 2 Switch

OMCP/CCP
Pentium M CG Linux PCI

Base Channel

PMC

PMC

Fabric (Dual Star)


TDM Clock Generator TDM Clock Generator

1G Ethernet L 2 Switch PMC

Update Ports TDM Clocks Power Distribution System Management


PMC

ShMC ShM

ATCA-M100 / SMM

Fans, Thermal Sensors, Power Monitor

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Characteristics: Base channel: Board communication. Fabric interface: not used. Update port: Bus between two colocated boards (for example, TPGSM or SSW). TDM clock: clock distribution. Power distribution. System management: IMPI bus.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

SSW Module: Board Description


Characteristics:
GbE Base Interface Switch
16 Base channels (allowing Gigabit Ethernet switching at shelf level) 8 GbE uplinks via RTM (allowing Ethernet external connection) OMCR/CBC/EAB/NE1o1/NEM Daisy chain, etc.) Layer 2 switching

Not Used

Update Channel IPMI V1.5 Front Ethernet and serial ports (Debug)

Front RIT: JBXSSW


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Rear RIT: JAXSSW

Other components: GbE Fabric Interface Switch (not used): 15 fabric channels. 1 GbE uplink via RTM. SNMP agent for switch management.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

SSW Module: Composition

SSW module
Interconnection with the second SSW Module - same shelf 1000BASE-T 10/100/1000BASE-T ATCA module 1 1000BASE-T External interfaces: GbE (NE1oE), CBC, OMC-R, EAB, NEM, etc.

Geth switch 10 Gb Ethernet

ATCA module 12
TCP, CCP, OMCP

1000BASE-T

2 external interfaces: 1st ATCA to 2nd ATCA shelves

10/100BASE-T SMM

IPMI interf

Backplane interfaces
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External interfaces

The SSW module has: 12 x 1000BASE-T interfaces in backpanel, compliant with ATCA PICMG 3.0. 2 shelf interfaces (the second Gigabit Ethernet is not used in this case because there are only 2 ATCA shelves). At least four 10/100/1000BASE-T interfaces in rear panel for connection of external equipment: E1 Termination Shelf, CBC, etc. One 1000BASE-T interface for interconnection between pairs of SSW. One 10/100BASE-T interface (switch port) to link the SMM. An IPMI interface. The Gigabit Ethernet switch allows exchanges between all the elements of the platform and external IP/ Ethernet equipment and supports IP layer 3 functions.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

SSW Module
Shelf location of the SSW module Thanks to Annex 7.1, fill in the diagram at the end of this section with the appropriate RIT names that compose the SSW module.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

SSW Module: Connection Ports


Thanks to Annex 7.3, associate each external equipment from the middle of the diagram with the appropriate connection port on each 1GbE links rear RIT. 48 VDC 48 VDC
LIU MUX MUX LIU PEM LIU LIU PEM

LIU shelf

E1 External links

CBC

OMC-R

EAB

External Alarm Box

Rear RIT: JAXSSW


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NEM PC

Rear RIT: JAXSSW

Each Ethernet port from the JAXSSW switch is pre-configured.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

TPGSM Module: Board Description


Characteristics:
Multiplexing/demultiplexing of up to 252 E1 links from/to the Gigabit Ethernet interface (NE1oE) Handling of GSM protocols HDLC, SS7, Q1 and R/W bits (ML-)PPP handling and IP routing Gigabit Ethernet switching TDM switching IPMI V1.5

New hardware version of JBXTP3 with one cage supporting hot insertion of 4 STM-1 electro/optic modules (multi- or monomode fiber optic transceivers)

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(ML-)PPP: IP extraction over Ater R/W: R: Ring control W: alarm byte The E1 VC-12 module supports the Automatic Protection Switching (APS) function, required for optical line interface. The APS decision is independent for each STM-1 link.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

TPGSM Module: General Architecture of the TPGSM Board

Control processor

O&M and Sig. GbE switch

GbE

HDLC + SS7

Q1

R/W bits

GbE
GbE switch 252 x E1 framer NE1oE

TDM switch (nx8kbps)

NE1o1

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The TPGSM has the following external interfaces: Dual Gigabit Ethernet interfaces on the backplane carrying O&M, Telecom and Signaling. One fast Ethernet interface for test and debug on the front panel. An IPMI interface on the back panel. The control processor is a Pentium M at 1.6 GHz. The GbE links between the TPGSM and the SSW carry 3 flows of information: O&M: to/from the OMCP (commands, files, etc.). Signaling: to / from the CCP (No.7, RSL). Telecom (NE1oE): to / from the MUX, via the SSW (all the channels: OML, RSL, TCH, No.7, etc.).

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

TPGSM Module: Exercise


According to you, why are there two Gb Ethernet switches in the TPGSM? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------The diagram represents another view of the hardware architecture of the 9130 BSC Evolution. Fill in the blanks in the diagram with the appropriate module names.
The proposed values are given in the commentary page.

SSW1

SSW2

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The proposed values are: CCP1, CCPn, TPGSM1, TPGSM2, OMCP1, OMCP2,

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

TPGSM Module
Shelf location of the TPGSM module The TPGSM module is composed of one front RIT named JBXTP and one rear RIT which is a filler. Thanks to Annex 7.1, fill in the diagram at the end of this section with the appropriate RIT names that compose the TPGSM module.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

CCP Module: Board Description


Characteristics:
Pentium M, 1.8 GHz 2GB SDRAM Redundant ATCA Base Interface 2 x USB 2.0 ports at face plate Carrier Grade Linux Ed. 3.1 IPMI V.1.5 (2 buses)

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

CCP Module: Functions


The CCP module performs:
GSM and GPRS radio frequency management. Signaling protocol processing (BSSAP/SCCP/GPRSAP). Data processing:
radio measurements, handover measurements, performance counters.

A CCP board is able to support 200 TRXs whatever their type.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

CCP Module
Shelf Location of the CCP board The CCP module is composed of one front RIT named JBXCCP and one rear RIT which is a filler. Thanks to Annex 7.1, fill in the diagram at the end of this section with the appropriate RIT names that compose the CCP (with a conf2 9130 BSC Evolution) module.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

OMCP Module: Board Description


Characteristics:
Pentium M, 1.8 GHz 2GB SDRAM 60GB hard disk drive IDE Redundant ATCA base interface 2 x USB 2.0 ports at face plate Carrier Grade Linux Ed. 3.1 IPMI V.1.5

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

OMCP Module: Functions


The OMCP module performs:
Traffic channel resource management. O&M control of the BSC functions. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast. Transmission function:
Abis and Ater termination points (BTS/BSC/TC). management of TC equipment. transmission links.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

OMCP Module
Shelf location of the OMCP module The OMCP module is composed of one front RIT named JBXOMCP and one rear RIT which is a filler. Thanks to Annex 7.1, fill in the diagram at the end of this section with the appropriate RIT names that compose the OMCP module.

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2.3 Hardware Description of ATCA Modules

ATCA Shelf Layout


Thanks to Annex 7.1, fill in each slot of the rear and front view of the ATCA shelf with the appropriate RIT names that compose the SSW, TPGSM, CCP (with a conf2 9130 BSC) and OMCP modules.
Rear view of the ATCA shelf

Mid plane

Slot number

10

11

12

13

14

Front view of the ATCA shelf


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The SSW module is composed of one front RIT named JBXSSW and on rear RIT named JAXSSW. The TPGSM module is composed of one front RIT named JBXTP and one rear RIT which is a filler. The CCP module is composed of one front RIT named JBXCCP and one rear RIT which is a filler. The OMCP module is composed of one front RIT named JBXOMCP and one rear RIT which is a filler.

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

2.4 Hardware Description of LIU Modules


The LIU shelf is based on a 21-slot capacity on front side access only, composed of:
2 Power Entry Modules (JBXPEM). 2 MUX boards (JBXMUX). 8 or 16 LIU boards (JBXLIU).
48 VDC

1GbE links

48 VDC

P E M

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I

L I

L I U

L I

M U

M U X

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

L I U

P E M

U U

U X

E1 External links
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An LIU shelf configuration is always equipped with two (for redundancy) Power Entry Modules (JBXPEM) installed in the first and last slots of the shelf. They include each DC/DC converter (-48VDC to -12VDC), fuses and line filter. These two JBXPEMs are installed in slot 1 and 21. Slot 11 is in the center of shelf and is always free, which allows the access to the shelf address jumpers. 18 slots are free for other types of boards dedicated to BSS applications. Note: For all configurations based on LIU shelf, each slot unused by a board has to be closed by a filler front panel.

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2.4 Hardware Description of LIU Modules

Global Architecture of the LIU Shelf


One LIU board is able to manage up to 16 E1 links. One MUX board is able to manage up to 256 E1 links.

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Each LIU board is designed to ensure connections of up to 16 physical E1 interfaces (Tx/Rx) and multiplexing and demultiplexing of 16 E1 to/from the two concentration boards. Each MUX board is designed to ensure multiplexing and demultiplexing of up to 16 E1 streams from the LIU boards (16 E1 for each LIU board) and NE1oE packing/unpacking (TPGSM boards). The mechanical shelf is able to interconnect 16 LIU boards, with 1 active MUX board + 1 standby MUX board. The LIU shelf handles 16 x 16 E1s = 256 E1 links max among which only 252 are usable.

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2.4 Hardware Description of LIU Modules

LIU Shelf Layout


Thanks to Annex 7.2, fill in each slot of the LIU shelf with the appropriate RIT name, in case of a 400-TRX configuration.

1
P E M

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
M U X M U X P E M

Front view of the LIU shelf

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Hardware Description

2.5 Power Distribution Unit Cabling


The BSC rack is supplied with 2 redundant DC power supplies of -48 VDC.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

PDU

A1 A3

P E M P E M P E M P E M

P E M P E M

ATCA Shelf 2

P E M P E M P E M P E M

P E M P E M

B1

B3

ATCA Shelf 1

A2

B2

LIU Shelf 2

A4

B4

LIU Shelf 1
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The BSC rack is supplied with 2 redundant DC nominal voltages: -48 VDC. The PDU is in charge of power supply distribution and protection inside the rack. 10 circuit breakers are mounted on the PDU. From left to right, we have switches A1 to A5 and then B1 to B5. Each one corresponds to one ATCA shelf or LIU shelf and to one distribution branch: A1 and B1 supply the ATCA shelf No.2. A2 and B2 supply the LIU shelf No.2. A3 and B3 supply the ATCA shelf No.1. A4 and B4 supply the LIU shelf No.1. A5 and B5 are not used. Note: Power cables from the PDU to the shelves (ATCA and/or LIU) are always pre-equipped. Power supply and signal cables may enter the MX cabinet from the top or the bottom. Maximum dissipated power per shelf: ATCA shelf: 2400 W (14x150 processing blades, + cooling). LIU shelf: 100 W.

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2.5 Power Distribution Unit Cabling

ATCA 48V Rack Distribution


JBXPS boards distribute 48V inside the ATCA shelf. The JBXPS 1 and 2 supply the JAXSMM and JBXFAN boards and all the odd parity slots of the ATCA shelf. The JBXPS 3 and 4 supply all the even parity slots of the ATCA shelf.

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Power cables from the PDU to the shelves (ATCA and/or LIU) are always pre-equipped. Power supply and signal cables may enter the MX cabinet from the top or the bottom. Maximum dissipated power per shelf: ATCA shelf: 2400 W (14x150W for processing blades, + 300W for cooling). LIU shelf: 100 W.

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5 PDU Description

Power Distribution Unit Cabling [cont.]


ATCA low power distribution: The low power (3.4V) coming from the redundant JAXSMM supplies all the modules related to all the IPMI modules of each ATCA shelf.

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Power cables from the PDU to the shelves (ATCA and/or LIU) are always pre-equipped. Power supply and signal cables may enter the MX cabinet from the top or the bottom. Maximum dissipated power per shelf: ATCA shelf: 2400 W (14x150 processing blades, + cooling). LIU shelf: 100 W.

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Exercise
How many lines is the 9130 BSC Evolution supplied by? -------------------------------------------------------How many PEMs are used to supply the ATCA shelf? ---------------------------------------------------------------

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3 9130 BSC Evolution Software Architecture

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3 9130 BSC Evolution Software Architecture

3.1 Generalities
The 9130 BSC software is composed of 2 software operating with Linux:
9130 BSC application software. 9130 BSC platform software

A9130 BSC APPLICATION

High Availability Services: Responsible for fault detection, notification and recovery

Adaptation layer Control Services: Responsible for hardware and software components management Application Support Services: Responsible for resource monitoring, time synchronization, miscellaneous real-time services

Application Support Services

High Availability Services

Control Services

LINUX Carrier Grade Operating system A9130 BSC PLATFORM


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The 9130 BSC Evolution software is composed of: One 9130 BSC application software which supports telecommunication function of the 9130 BSC Evolution. One 9130 BSC platform software which is in charge of processes management, hardware management, software management, initialization and a few basic services like traces or date synchronization. High Availability Services Through a high-availability service interface, the PMS and HWM subsystems receive service calls from, and send event notifications to the applications. The Self-Reliant middleware product implements the fault detection and low-level component control. PMS: The PMS subsystem manages processes at platform level. HMS: Low-level component control. Application Support Services This layer covers aspects related to the usability and manageability of the platform and application components: logs and traces services. post mortem and live debugging. Network Time Protocol (NTP). Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Control Services The aim of control services is the automation of MxPF software and hardware management, minimizing manual interventions and associated risks. Concerning the software (SWM), the main objective is the management of new software releases and correction patches. Importance is placed on integrating new software into the MxPF without causing unnecessary service disruptions. Concerning the hardware (HWM), the best effort is focused on giving assistance on fault detection, isolation and recovery and minimizing the outage in case of replacement of a Field Replaceable Unit. Thanks to HPI support provided by the SelfReliant and EndurX software, the application may control (Reset, Power on or off, blinks the Led), monitor (Insertion, Removal and failure notifications) and audit (alarms, states).

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2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Architecture

3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization


In the 9130 BSC Evolution, the basic element of software is called process.
ATCA board
APPLICATION

Process Name VCE CMW

Definition Process responsible for one telecommunication function handling Process that allows the internal communication among the application processes Process that allows the communication between A9130 BSC application and A9130 platform services Process responsible for the management of all the processes at board level One SUP process per board Process responsible for coordinating and supervising all local SUP It is a global manager process that runs on OMCP boards in active/standby mode
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010

VCE2 VCE1 CMW

VCEn

CPI

PLATFORM

CPI SUP GSUP

SUP

GSUP

TCP/IP

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The CMW process allows the communication of all the application processes located on the board or on another board of the same shelf. When one application service requests a platform service, the CMW sends messages to the CPI. The CPI calls platform services so that they provide the requested services. Once the service is treated, the CPI process sends back the corresponding messages. The platform services that go through CPI are: Process management: starting or stopping a process, etc. Hardware management: remote inventory, board commands (reset, power off/on), board supervision (insertion, removal, fault), etc. Software management: download, pre-download, activation, etc. Communication: internal and external files transfer, supervision of IP internal and external link, etc. Basic services: trace log, date and time synchronization, etc. NE1oE agent management.

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

BSC Application Software


In the 9130 BSC Evolution, a VCE is defined according to the functions it performs.
VCE Names V-TCU V-DTC V-DTCtchrm EIM-L EIM-R V-sCPR V-oCPR SLH V-TSC
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VCE Functions
GSM and GPRS radio frequency management Signaling protocol processing (BSSAP/SCCP/GPRSAP) Traffic Channel Resource management TCP connection management with the 9130 BSC terminal and NEM External communication management with the CBC and the OMC-R Database management SMS-CB, Logical and Hardware Configuration Management No.7 termination TSC functions
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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

BSC Application Software [cont.]


One ATCA module is able to support more than one VCE. A CP_LOG is a group of VCE mapped on one ATCA module. In order to allow the communication between VCEs of one board or between VCEs on different boards, it is necessary to have a routing table which contains the address of each VCE. This routing table is located in each CMW.
Proc_name VCE1 VCE2 VCE3 VCEn CP-LOG 1 1 2 i CP_HW 12 12 13 n Ip-@ IP@-2 IP@-2 IP@-3 IP@-n

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Fields of the Routing Table: Proc_ name: is the identification of the process related to intra- or inter-board communication. It is the logical identification of a VCE. CP-LOG: is the logical aspect with a group of VCEs mapped. The mapping between VCEs and CP-LOG is determined according to the BSC configuration type. CP-HW: is the physical CP which represents CCP, OMCP or TPGSM board. IP-@: is the IP address of the board. For example: TCUs have the same CP-LOG number. DTCs have the same CP-LOG number.

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

BSC Application Software [cont.]


The diagram below shows the path followed by VCE3 to communicate with VCE6.
CCP / TPGSM
VCE1 VCE2 VCE3 VCE4

OMCP
VCE5

CMW

VCE6

CMW

CPI SUP TCP/IP


SUP

CPI

GSUP

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

Process Mapping on OMCP Board


According to the processes mentioned in the commentary page and to the functions of the boards seen in the previous chapter, fill in the diagram below with the appropriate VCE names.
The proposed values are given in the commentary page.

CMW

CPI

SUP

GSUP

NE1oE Agent

Init/ SW

HW mgt

DHCP server

FTP server

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The proposed values are: EIM-L, EIM-R, SLH, V-DTC, V-DTC (TCH-RM), V-SCPR, V-TCU, V-TSC, V-OCPR. The OMCP board is used to manage the O&M function of both platform services and application services. But according to some specific requirements of 9130 BSC application, some processes not used for O&M function but for telecom function are also mapped on the OMCP board. CPI, NE1oE agent, HW management, GSUP/SUP, init/SW and FTP server are the platform service processes. All the services are used for O&M management of the Mx platform. The service is covering Mx hardware management, Mx platform process management, Mx platform software management, Mx platform installation and initialization, NE1oE traffic O&M management.

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

Process Mapping on CCP Board


According to the processes mentioned in the commentary page and to the functions of the boards seen in the previous chapter, fill in the diagram below with the appropriate VCE names.
The proposed values are given in the commentary page.

CMW

CPI GSUP Init/ SW

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The proposed values are: EIM-L, EIM-R, SLH, V-DTC, V-DTC (TCH-RM), V-SCPR, V-TCU, V-TSC, V-OCPR. The CCP board is used to handle the 9130 BSC Evolution telecom functions. The CCP board is passively managed by a platform service in the OMCP, so there is less platform service running on this board. Only the SUP for process management and init&SW for software loading are mapped on this board.

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

Process Mapping on TPGSM Board


According to the processes mentioned in the commentary page and to the functions of the boards seen in the previous chapter, fill in the diagram below with the appropriate VCE name.
The proposed values are given in the commentary page.

CMW

CPI

TP-Main

SUP

Init/ SW

Qmux handler

TDM handler

HDLC MLPPP handler

HDLC LAPD handler

R/W bits Alarm octet handler

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The proposed values are: EIM-L, EIM-R, SLH, V-DTC, V-DTC (TCH-RM), V-SCPR, V-TCU, V-TSC, V-OCPR. TPGSM is the centralized board handling the lower layer of GSM signaling protocol and the switching function in the 9130 BSC Evolution. TP-Main is the high centralized process in the 9130 BSC Evolution. It covers HDLC, Qmux, R/W bit handling, ML-PPP switching and the O&M function.

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3.2 9130 BSC Evolution Software Organization

Communication Process between VCEs


Illustration of communication process between VCEs (case of HDLC RSL signaling processing).
TPGSM
SLH CMW CMW

CCP
VDTCU VTCU VDTCU VTCU VTCU VDTCU VTCU VDTCU VDTC1 VTC1

VDTC

HDLC LAPD handler TDM handler NE1oE Agent NE1o1


55

TP-Main

CPI R/W bits Alarm octet handler

CPI

SUP

Qmux handler

SUP

TCP/IP
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3 9130 BSC Evolution Software Architecture

3.3 BSS Software Organization


The BSS software is composed of the Mx BSC software and BTS software. The BSS software consists of a collection of files, representing the programs, patches and data needed for a particular and complete load of every module in the BSS, BSC or BTS. The Master Files (MFs) concept is used in the BSS environment to define the software context of the complete BSS. An MF identifies clearly and unambiguously the set of files which together represent the software package and the database needed for the whole BSS, BSC or BTS types.

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The BSS software is also called build.

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

MF Concept

Bootroot File

BSS Master File BSS-MF Master Files n MX Platform-MF BSC-SW-MF BSS-Map File BSC-DB-MF BTS-SW-MF BTS-DB-MF

Application Files m Platform File 1 n 1 Application File DLS MX-BSC conf TC_CPF n 1 Application File OMU-CPF File n 1

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MX-BSC conf is a file describing the configuration of the 9130 BSC Evolution. There are more than one BTS-SW-MF depending on the generation of the BTS.

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

MF Organization
BSS Master File: This file for a given BSS and a specific SW version identifies the BSC SW Master File, BSC DB Master File, BSS Mapping File, BTS DB Master File and the list of needed BTS SW Master Files. MX platform Master File: This file contains the list of all Mx platform files. It is a simplified MF. It just gives the MxPF version. BSC SW Master File: This file references all application files that correspond to BSC software application. BSC DB Master File: This file for a given BSC SW version identifies the BSS Database file (DLS) and the CPF files for BSC and TC. The DLS gives the logical configuration and hardware configuration of the BSS.

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

MF Organization [cont.]
BTS DB Master File: This file identifies all the OMU-CPF files for the BTSs. The OMU-CPF file defines the HW for each type of BTS. BTS SW Master File: This file for a given BTS SW gives the code files (but not the OMU-CPFs) associated to that version. Because the name part of the BTS SW Master File does not identify the BTS, it is possible to assign BTS SW Master File to more than one BTS and consequently there are less BTS SW Master Files in the BSS Master File than there are BTSs. BSS Map File: This file links each BTS index (corresponding to the declared BTSs in the BSS) to one BTS-SW-Master File and one OMU-CPF identified in the BTSDB-MSF.

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

File Naming Convention


The general format of a loadable file name is AAAAAAAA.BBC. AAAAAAAA is the main part. It comprises a string of 8 characters between [ A .. Z ] and / or [ 0 .. 9 ] and / or [ - ]. BBC is the extension part which has 3 characters, where:
BB is the file version number. The allowed range of values is between [ 00 .. 99 ]. C is the sub-version character. Only one character is allowed between [ A .. Z ].

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

File Naming Convention [cont.]

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

File Numbering Convention


The file number is an internal BSC reference stored in the last field of the file descriptor. The following ranges of file numbers are allowed, depending on the sub-system involved:
BSC files: Most of the files have four-digit numbers, where the first digit indicates the release. E.g., the BSS Master File for the various releases is:
2100: release B9 3100: release B10

BTS files: for BTS files, the allowed range for file numbers is [x700..x999].

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3.3 BSS Software Organization

File Numbering Convention [cont.]

BSS master file BSC- SW Master file BSC-DB Master file DLS BTS-SW Master file BTS-DB Master file BSS Mapfile MxPF Master file

ML3MAW01.01A BSXMAW30.30.R ML3LAW01.01A ML3DAW01.01A BM1SAWD7.07D ML3CAW01.01A ML3XAW01.01A MXPFAA03.19D

3100 3101 3102 3280 3112 3180 3182 3190

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Exercise
Can you mention at least 3 processes from:
the 9130 BSC platform software? the 9130 BSC application software?

What is a master file? Is there always the same number of BTS SW Master Files as there are BTSs? What is an OMU-CPF file? How to identify BSS files?

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4 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture

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4 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture

4.1 9130 BSC Evolution Traffic Flows


The 9130 BSC Evolution manages 3 types of traffic using the IP protocol:
telecom traffic. Internal traffic. External traffic.
OMC-R/CBC router External E1 links

OMCP

LIU shelf
TPG

OMCP

CCPn

CCP1

TPGSM

SSW SSW
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4 9130 BSC Evolution IP architecture

4.1 9130 BSC Evolution Traffic Flows [cont.]


Due to the number of flows implemented in the 9130 BSC Evolution, VLAN concept is implemented. A Virtual Local Area Network is a logical sub-network defined on the same physical network, by assigning the various ports of the switches administrable in the various sub-networks. 2 kinds of IP addresses are used within the 9130 BSC Evolution:
Internal IP addresses External IP addresses

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A VLAN is a way to distinguish different flows of information at MAC layer. A tag is assigned to each VLAN and is used for routing in the Ethernet network. The principle of VLAN is to have more than one virtual network on one ethernet network. The routing of the Ethernet frame inside a switch is performed thanks to an identification called tag. Each port of an Ethernet switch is configured to change the value of a tag. Internal Traffic (VLAN 1) This is the default VLAN also called No Tag/ untagged VLAN or VLAN tag 1. It is used for internal communication. The subnets 172.16.0.0/16, 172.17.0.0/16, 172.18.0.0/16 are assigned on this VLAN. Telecom Traffic (VLANs 3 and 4) These two VLANs ensure NE1oE Ethernet communications between the MUX boards of the LIU shelf and TPGSM NE1oE component. These two VLANs are the VLANs tag 3 and tag 4. External Traffic (VLANs 22 and 23) These two VLANs are used for external communications between the Mx BSC, the Mx MFS and can be accessed from the exterior: OMC-R, CBC, etc. The external VLANs are composed of VLAN tag 22 on the SSW1 and VLAN tag 23 on the SSW2. For more information about VLANs inside the 9130 BSC Evolution, consult the Annex.

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4 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture

4.2 Internal IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution


In the 9130 BSC Evolution, there are two Ethernet networks:
SMM and MUX have access to only one Ethernet network. TP, CCP and OMCP have access to both Ethernet networks.

SMM 1

SSW 1

MUX 1

Physical @: 172.17
TP1 TP2 CCP 4 CCP 1 CCP 2 CCP 3

Virtual @: Act: 172.16.33.1 Stb: 172.16.34.1


OMCP 1 OMCP 2

Logical @: 172.16

Physical @: 172.18
SMM 2 SSW 2 MUX 2

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3 types of addresses are defined: physical, logical, virtual. The Ethernet interface from ATCA boards connected to SSW1 board is called ETH0. The Ethernet interface from ATCA boards connected to SSW2 board is called ETH1.

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4.2 Internal IP Addresses in the 9130 BSC Evolution

Types of Internal IP Addresses


The physical IP address is the board IP address on one Ethernet interface:
Physical IP SSW1 plane: 172.17. <Shelf>. <Logical Slot x10> (172.17.2.70) Physical IP SSW2 plane: 172.18. <Shelf>. <Logical Slot x10> (172.17.2.80)

The logical board IP address is the IP address used to communicate with a board independently of the Ethernet port used (logical board IP address: 172.16. <Shelf>. <Logical Slot x10>). The virtual IP OMCP is the IP address used to communicate with the active or the standby board:
Virtual IP address (active OMCP board): 172.16.33.1 Virtual IP address (standby OMCP board): 172.16.34.1

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An internal IP address is an IP address solely used internally to the MxPF and used for inter-board communication. An internal IP address can be: a physical IP address SSW1: board IP address on Ethernet interface ETH0 plugged on the switch 1. a physical IP address SSW2: board IP address on Ethernet interface ETH1 plugged on the switch 2. a logical board IP address: IP address used to communicate with a board independently of the Ethernet port used (ETH0 or ETH1). It can be mapped either to the "Physical IP address SSW1" or to the "Physical IP address SSW2". a virtual IP active: IP address used to communicate with the active board. It is mapped on the active Ethernet port of the active board (4 choices). a virtual IP standby: IP address used to communicate with the standby board. Used for OMCP. It is mapped on the active Ethernet port of the standby board (4 choices). a virtual IP SSW1: IP address used by Ne1oE to communicate with the OMCP active board. It is mapped on the active SSW1 Ethernet port of the active OMCP board (2 choices). a virtual IP SSW2: IP address used by Ne1oE to communicate with the OMCP active board. It is mapped on the active SSW2 Ethernet port of the active OMCP board (2 choices). an external IP address: IP address that is visible from the external world and used to access particular board/application in the Mx BSC.

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4.2 Internal IP Addresses in the 9130 BSC Evolution

Types of Internal IP Addresses


ATCA shelf physical and logical slots.

1 13
J B X T P

2 11
J B X T P

3 9
J B X C C P

4 7
J B X C C P

5 5
J B X C C P

6 3
J B X O M C P

7 1
J B X S S W

8 2
J B X S S W

9 4
J B X O M C P

10 6
J B X C C P

11 8
J B X C C P

12 10
J B X C C P

13 12
F I L L E R

14 14
F I L L E R

Physical slot Logical slot

Front view of the ATCA shelf with a 1000-TRX configuration BSC

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Only physical slots are written and so visible on the ATCA shelf.

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Exercise
An operator suspects an Ethernet link failure on the board which is inserted in the physical slot numbered 4 of the first ATCA shelf. What can you suggest him to do once he is connected to the OMCP board with his local terminal?

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4 9130 BSC Evolution IP Architecture

4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution


The OMC-R communicates with the 9130 BSC Evolution using the IP protocol. The network access can be done either:
Via ethernet: SSW connected to one or 2 external routers, or Via the Ater interface: usage of n TSs at 64 Kb/s on atermuxes with ML-PPP. Fill in the diagram below with the names of the modules on which the links are connected.
1 2

TC A9130 BSC
1 2

MSC

IP over Ater
IP router/ML-PPP

IP on Ethernet EAB

IP Network

IP/X.25 router

OMC-R

BSC terminal / NEM


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The 2 OMCP boards from the 9130 BSC Evolution are responsible for supervision and configuration parts of the BSS. The active OMCP provides the OMC-R with the logical interface. The OMC-R can supervise and configure the 9130 BSC Evolution in 2 ways: Direct IP network. IP over Ater. In case of IP over Ater, MultiLink PPP (ML-PPP) is used in order to split, recombine and sequence datagrams across multiple logical data links. The O&M traffic coming from 9130 BSC Evolution is spread over 2 to 16 E1 timeslots at 64Kbit/s, but the recommended value is 4 E1 timeslots (256 Kbit/s). The last timeslots from Ater are routed by MSC on the PCM link(s) between the MSC and the Cisco router. Each timeslot from PCM link(s) is defined as virtual serial interface in the Cisco router by its E1 controller. All these virtual serial interfaces are integrated, by the Cisco router, in the MultiLink PPP interface. The extraction can be done on MSC or TC side. External alarms are available and managed on the 9130 BSC Evolution through an External Alarms Box (EAB). The alarms are: routed through an external Ethernet link IP connection to the OMC-R via O&M links, transparent for the 9130 BSC application. The External Alarms Box provides external alarm inputs which can be adapted to the requirements of each customer. Typically, they are used for main power supply, rectifiers, batteries, air conditioning, intrusion etc. The SMS-CB service uses the X.25 protocol, according to 3GPP definition. 2 possibilities are offered to the customer: Communication between CBC and 9130 BSC Evolution over Ater on TC or MSC site (use of ML-PPP). Communication between CBC and 9130 BSC Evolution over IP network.

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4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution

External Subnet of the 9130 BSC Evolution


The 9130 BSC Evolution is able to support different LANs configuration: Two-LAN solution via a CISCO router:
One external subnet called A subnet 2 local subnets called B and C subnets Usage of RIP protocol

One-LAN solution via a CISCO router:


Only one external subnet called A No usage of RIP protocol, static routing is used

The ONE LAN solution is not possible over Ater

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2 different LANs configuration are available on the 9130 BSC Evolution. Historically, Alcatel-Lucent implemented first the Two-LAN solution with RIP protocol. Standard RIP is used to perform the path failure detection and routes update for the O&M flows. This solution implies to define 3 different subnets (A,B and C). B and C are internal and only the subnet A is visible from the IP Network. Thats why it is called 2 LANs One drawback of RIP protocol can be the reaction time for updating routing tables when a failure (SSW, link, or Router problem) appears. This is not a problem from the O&M point of view, but with the introduction of some Telecom facilities based on IP in the next release (such as A Flex), RIP solution protocol will be not able to guarantee the continuity of the telecom service. Thats why Alcatel-Lucent proposes another solution based on the one-LAN solution .

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4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution

External Subnet of the 9130 BSC Evolution


on uti l o NS
IP Network B6 C6 Subnet C OMC-R

A 2-L

Subnet B

B1
SSW1

O M C P1 O M C P2

C1 C2
SSW2

B2

Engineering rules for A1 for OMCP1 A2 for OMCP2 A3 for Active OMCP A6 for Alarm box

A subnet: AIP address AIP address + 1 AIP address + 2 AIP address + 5

Active board

Alarm Box
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Subnet A
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Standby board

The above diagram represents the 9130 BSC Evolution communicating via an Ethernet link with the OMC-R (the scenario will be the same in case of IP over Ater interface (ML-PPP on TPGSM active board)). The use of the RIP V2 protocol on OMCP, TPGSM boards and on an external router provides a way to automatically update the routing table on these stations each time a change occurs (link, switch failure, OMCP switchover, etc.) The subnet A is visible everywhere in the IP network. The OMC-R uses the A3 IP address in order to communicate with the active OMCP of the 9130 BSC Evolution. Once the router receives A3 IP, it converts this AIP into B or into CIP address according to the active couple switch/OMCP board. The alarm box may be connected to the SSW1 of the 9130 BSC Evolution or directly to a LAN. The local subnets B and C are visible only by the routers in entrance of the IP network. For the definition of the subnet B, the necessary O&M parameters are set in the 9130 BSC Evolution in the following way: B1: OMCP 1 connected to SSW1 = BIP address B2: OMCP 2 connected to SSW1 = BIP address +1 B6: external router connected to SSW1 = BIP address + 5 For the definition of the subnet C, the necessary O&M parameters are set in the 9130 BSC Evolution in the following way: C1: OMCP 1 connected to SSW2 = BIP address C2: OMCP 2 connected to SSW2 = BIP address +1 C6: external router connected to SSW2 = BIP address + 5 In case of MFS colocated with the BSC, a supplementary AIP address is assignable to the active OMCP from the MFS. This address is named A4 (AIP address + 3) and is mapped on the active ethernet from the active OMCP.
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4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution

External Subnet of the 9130 BSC Evolution [cont.]


on uti l o NS
IP Network

A 1-L

OMC-R

O M C P1

SSW1

O M C P2

SSW2

Engineering rules for A1 for OMCP1 A2 for OMCP2 A3 for Active OMCP A6 for Alarm box

A subnet: AIP address AIP address + 1 AIP address + 2 AIP address + 5

Subnet A

Active board

Alarm Box
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Standby board

In a one-LAN solution, it is possible to get 2 routers instead of one, as represented above. The advantage of 2 routers is to provide a redundancy router with the implementation of the VRRP or HSRP protocol. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) specifies an election protocol that dynamically assigns responsibility for a virtual router (a Virtual router composed of 2 physical routers). VRRP controls the IP addresses associated with a virtual router. Alcatel-Lucent recommends to connect the external alarm box directly to the router, even if connection at BSC switch remains possible. In the one-LAN solution, the address of the router has only one address which is unique. By default, this address is A5 (AIP address + 4). Router access or BSC switch failure scenario: Detected through a reachability test on both switch sides (active OMCP). Test based on ARP echo request. In case of failure of active switch side, the BSC swaps its addresses to the other switch side. Gratuitous ARP sent by the BSC, triggering the ARP cache update on router side. OMCP switchover scenario: Gratuitous ARP sent by newly active OMCP. Same switch as before OMCP switchover remains active. In case of MFS colocated with the BSC, a supplementary AIP address is assignable to the active OMCP from the MFS. This address is named A4 (AIP address + 3) and is mapped on the active ethernet from the active OMCP.

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4.3 External IP Addresses of the 9130 BSC Evolution

IP Addresses in Subnets A/B/C


Let's assume SSW2 and OMCP1 are active. Fill in the diagram below with the IP address of Subnets A, B and C.
The proposed values are given in the commentary page.

SSW1
(w) O M C P1

SSW2 (W)

O M C P2

OMC-R
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The proposed values are: A1, A2, A3. B1, B2, B6. C1, C2, C6.

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5 9130 BSC Evolution Defense Mechanism

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5 9130 BSC Evolution Defense Mechanism

5.1 Redundancy Schemes


The architecture of the 9130 BSC Evolution enables an excellent availability and reliability of the functions. 2 redundancy schemes are implemented: N+1 and 1+1. Fill in the tables below with the appropriate redundancy scheme.

Board CCP OMCP TP-GSM SSW

Redundancy scheme

Board LIU MUX PEM

Redundancy scheme

Defense mechanism in the ATCA shelf


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Defense mechanism in the LIU shelf

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5 9130 BSC Evolution Defense Mechanism

5.2 Switchover Scenarios


Switchover scenario for 1+1 (duplication) redundancy scheme.
CCP1

CCP2 CCPN

SSW1

OMCP1

SSW2

OMCP2

TP1

Working function Redundant function

TP2

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5 9130 BSC Evolution Defense Mechanism

5.2 Switchover Scenarios [cont.]


Switchover scenario for N+1 redundancy scheme.
CCP1

CCP2 CCPN

OMCP1 SSW1 OMCP2

SSW2

TP1

Working function Redundant function

TP2

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In the N+1 scheme, the redundant CCP board takes over the processing and capacity of the failed CCP with a minimum service interruption.

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.1 9130 BSC Evolution Standalone Configuration


The 9130 BSC Evolution standalone configuration consists of one rack dedicated to one BSC. Rules: A single BSC is always installed with:
Shelf 3 dedicated to the ATCA shelf. Shelf 1 dedicated to the LIU shelf.
PDU

Shelf 4 none

ATCA Shelf 3 (BSC) LIU Shelf 2 none BSC standalone


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LIU Shelf 1 (BSC)

Rules are applied for shelf positions regarding weight, security stability constraints and logistics benefit. As for the BSC, there is also an MFS standalone configuration which is called: Either "MFS 9 GP standalone". The cabinet is composed of 1 ATCA shelf (shelf 3) and 1 LIU shelf (shelf 1), Or "MFS 21 GP standalone". The cabinet is composed of 2 ATCA shelves (shelves 3 and 4) and one LIU shelf (shelf 1). The whole cabinet is seen as one single network element.

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.2 9130 BSC Evolution Rack-Shared Configuration


The 9130 BSC Evolution rack-shared configuration consists of one rack shared between 2 BSCs or between one MFS and one BSC.
PDU PDU PDU

ATCA Shelf 4 (BSC2)

ATCA Shelf 4 (MFS)

ATCA Shelf 4 (BSC)

ATCA Shelf 3 (BSC1) LIU Shelf 2 (BSC2) LIU Shelf 1 (BSC1) 2 x BSC rack-shared
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ATCA Shelf 3 (BSC) LIU Shelf 2 (MFS) LIU Shelf 1 (BSC) BSC-MFS rack-shared
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010

ATCA Shelf 3 (MFS) LIU Shelf 2 (BSC) LIU Shelf 1 (MFS) BSC-MFS rack-shared

Rules are applied for shelf positions regarding weight, security stability constraints and logistics benefit. The "BSC rack-shared" configuration which is composed of two shelves is also called a "BSC double capacity" because of two independent network elements.

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.3 Capacity: BSC Capacities in Terms of Boards


Three BSC capacities are defined depending on the number of TRXs.

Equipment ATCA shelf CCP Spare CCP TP-GSM OMCP SSW LIU Shelf MUX LIU Shelf
84

BSC capacity 200 TRX 400 TRX 600 TRX 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 8


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800 TRX 4

1000 TRX 5

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The quantity of TPGSM, OMCP, SSW and MUX boards has to be considered as 1 active + 1 standby for redundancy purposes in the shelf.

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.4 Capacity: Capacity and Dimensioning for E1 Links


The 9130 BSC Evolution is able to process up to 4500 erlangs.

Equipment Max number of BTS Max number of cells Total number of E1's Number of Abis Number of Atermux CS Number of Atermux PS Number of Erlangs traffic Ater PS (Mbps

BSC capacity 200 TRX 400 TRX 600 TRX 150 255 255 200 400 500 112 128 224 96 96 176 10 20 30 6 12 18 900 1800 2700 12 24 36

800 TRX 255 500 240 176 40 24 3600 53

1000 TRX 255 500 252 176 48 28 4500 67

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.5 Capacity: Abis and Atermux Allocation on LIU Boards


Abis and Atermux allocation on LIU boards versus BSC capacity.
1000 TRX 800 TRX 600 TRX 400 TRX 200 TRX LIU 12 LIU 13 LIU 14 LIU 15 LIU 16 69 59 21 2 1 70 60 22 4 3 71 61 23 6 5 72 62 24 8 7 73 63 25 10 9 74 64 26 12 11 75 65 27 14 13 76 66 28 16 15 x 67 29 18 17 x 68 30 20 19 x 54 48 42 41 x 53 47 40 39 58 52 46 38 37 57 51 45 36 35 56 50 44 34 33 55 49 43 32 31
Ater Ports

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

600 TRX 1000 TRX 200 TRX 400 TRX LIU 1 LIU 2 LIU 3 LIU 4 LIU 5 LIU 6 LIU 7 LIU 8 LIU 9 LIU 10 1 17 33 49 65 81 97 113 129 145 2 18 34 50 66 82 98 114 130 145 3 19 35 51 67 83 99 115 131 147 4 20 36 52 68 84 100 116 132 148 5 21 37 53 69 85 101 117 133 149 6 22 38 54 70 86 102 118 134 150 7 23 39 55 71 87 103 119 135 151 8 24 40 56 72 88 104 120 136 152 9 25 41 57 73 89 105 121 137 153 10 26 42 58 74 90 106 122 138 154 11 27 43 59 75 91 107 123 139 155 12 28 44 60 76 92 108 124 140 156 13 29 45 61 77 93 109 125 141 157 14 30 46 62 78 94 110 126 142 158 15 31 47 63 79 95 111 127 143 159 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160
Abis ports

LIU 11 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176

400

200

One Ater LIU board for 200 TRXs

Abis ports (max 176) Atermux CS (max 48) Ater mux PS (max 28)

Usable only for HSL or Packet


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LIU boards are fitted in the LIU shelf depending on the BSC configuration (capacity + connectivity), but: Only 2 HW configurations for the LIU shelf are considered: one with 8 LIU boards, one with 16 LIU boards. Assignment to each LIU board either to Abis or to Ater. On average, 1 Ater LIU board is needed for 200 TRXs. On the Ater LIU, 10 TPs are "generic" (can be assigned to PS, full CS or a mixed of the 2), and the 6 others are dedicated to PS. In case of a 200-TRX configuration, Alcatel-Lucent decided to split the traffic up into 2 LIU boards (even if one LIU board should be efficient) in order not to impact all the traffic in case of one LIU board failure. The maximum of available LIU boards are used for Abis, to offer maximum flexibility to the clients. The ports numbered 9, 10, 11 and 12 on the LIU 12 are not used.

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200

400

Maximum flexibility on Abis LIU board

6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.6 HSL Introduction


9130 BSC Capacity with the LSL Mode: The No.7 signaling is carried with the standard Low-Speed Signaling Link (LSL) mode. This mode allows up to 16 64-kbps signaling channels. With this mode, the committed capacity on the A interface is 2600 Erlangs.
LSL mode
MX BSC 1 600 TRXs 2 Ater Mux A No. 7 TC MSC No. 7 No. 7

16

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.6 HSL Introduction [cont.]


BSC Capacity with the HSL Mode: The HSL mode allows to carry dedicated No. 7 signaling on a whole PCM link (TS 1 to 31). The HSL mode is designed for large BSC capacity (1000 TRXs, 4500 erlangs).
MX BSC 1 2 1000 TRXs 16 HSL1 No. 7 TC MSC

Ater Mux

HSL mode
HSL2

No. 7

2 HSLs for redundancy purposes (load sharing)


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In TDM mode, the HSL links are connected from the BSC to the MSC without going through the TransCoder (TC). For redundancy purposes, 2 HSLs are used. The load is shared between both HSLs. The HSL functionality is optional. This option should be supported by the MSC. The BSC does not accept an LSL-HSL mix configuration. Indeed, switching from one mode to another generates an outage (BSC terminal).

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6 9130 BSC Evolution Performance

6.6 HSL Introduction [cont.]


HSL Engineering Rules The HSL configuration requires 2 AterMux. Any AterMux can be candidate if: it does not carry Qmux. it does not carry IP over Ater. it is configured for CS traffic only. The HSL and LSL modes cannot be mixed on a BSC. The AterMux supporting HSL must be configured on different LIU boards.

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Alcatel-Lucent recommends to use as candidates for HSL E1 ports: atermux numbered 59 or 60, plus another CS Atermux located on one different LIU.

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Exercise
One customer wants to implement one BSS on a new site. The capacity estimated in erlang is 1230. What is the capacity needed for the 9130 BSC Evolution? What is the configuration of the 9130 BSC Evolution? Draw the rack layout of the 9130 BSC Evolution with the appropriate number of:
ATCA and LIU shelves. boards for each shelf.

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7 Annex

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7 Annex

7.1 ATCA Shelf Layout for BSC "Standalone Configuration"

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U means unused slot and closed with front or rear filler.

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7 Annex

7.2 Board Allocation in LIU Shelf for BSC "Standalone Configuration"

600 & 1000 TRx

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U means unused slot and closed with front or rear filler. One LIU shelf is composed of 8 or 16 LIU boards. In the case of 200 & 400 TRX BSC configuration, for logistic reasons, in order to deliver all LIU basic shelves with identical configurations, (8 LIU boards in slots 2 up to 9) final location of LIU boards have to be arranged during installation session by an installation method step (LIU boards in slot 8&9 at delivery will be moved to slot 19&20 during installation). In the case of 600 TRXs, 16 LIU boards will be installed even if boards LIU 12 and 13 are not used. There will be no extension of LIU boards in case of BSC with 800 or 1000 TRXs in future release.

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7 Annex

7.3 BSC Standalone and Rack-Shared Configurations

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7 Annex

7.4 IP Addresses in Subnets A/B/C

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7 Annex

7.5 9130 BSC Evolution VLAN

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Internal VLAN (VLAN 1) This is the default VLAN also called No Tag/ untagged VLAN or VLAN tag 1. It is used for internal communication. The subnets 172.16.0.0/16, 172.17.0.0/16, 172.18.0.0/16 are assigned on this VLAN. Telecom VLANs (VLANs 3 and 4) These two VLANs ensure NE1oE Ethernet communications between the MUX boards of the LIU shelf and TPGSM NE1oE component. These two VLANs are the VLANs tag 3 and tag 4. Reminder: the NE1oE protocol is based on level-2 Ethernet communications (not on IP). External VLANs (VLANs 22 and 23) These two VLANs are used for external communications between the Mx BSC, the Mx MFS and can be accessed from the exterior: OMC-R, CBC, etc. The external VLANs are composed of VLAN tag 22 on the SSW1 and VLAN tag 23 on the SSW2.

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6 Annex

7.6 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and OMC-R: Direct IP Network

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7 Annex

7.7 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and OMC-R: IP over Ater

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7 Annex

7.8 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and CBC: Direct IP Network

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7 Annex

7.9 Interface between 9130 BSC Evolution and CBC: IP over Ater

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7 Annex

7.10 ATCA Back Panel


Dual start configuration Full mesh configuration

Update channel interconnection


DUAL STAR BACKPLANE 13=11-9=7-5=3-1=2-4=6-8=10-12=14 Each pair of slots in the list above with a = in between has an Advanced TCA update channel interconnect. Switches mounted in logical slots 1 and 2 complement this backplane routing to a complete communication and synchronization infrastructure.

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Base channel Fabric interface Update port TDM clock Power distribution System management

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7 Annex

7.11 Architecture BSC G2 Mx BSC

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7 Annex

7.12 Abis Signaling Flow for LAPD QMUX RW

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7 Annex

7.13 Ater Signaling Flow

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7 Annex

7.14 Traffic Flow PS CS

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7 Annex

7.15 TDM Extraction


8 1 Bits TS 8 8 NE1oE Ethernet frame 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Frame 278

Frame 283

282

281

278

Frame 1 Frame 0

LINKS 0 to 251 252 to 267 268 to 269 270 to 279 280 to 282 283
106

FUNCTIONS E1 links 0

TIME SLOTS to 8063 to 8575 to 8639 to 8959 to 9055 to 9087 0

BITS to 64511

HDLC links SS7 links RW links UART links iddle

8064 8576 8540 8960 9056

64512 to 68607 68608 to 69119 69120 to 71679 71680 to 72447 71448 to 72703

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7 Annex

7.16 Alarm Octet Principle


Basic transmission principle:
Tx Rx Trans Eqt Tx Rx 3 AISs 4 RAIs Rx Tx Trans Eqt Tx Rx 1 LIS 2 RAIs

11111111

TS 15 is used to carry AIS and RAI alarms from the TRCU module to the BSC.
5 AISs Alarm bit manager 3 AISs Trans Eqt 6 RAIs Trans Eqt 4 RAIs 1 RAIs 1 LIS

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If we transpose in the BSC context, the diagram illustrating the basic transmission principle, in case of TC G2, the transmission equipment 1 to 4 represent the ATBX boards and the transmission equipment 5 represents the ASMC board or in case of A925 TC, the previous boards all together represent the MT120 board. The transmission equipment 6 represents one board from the A9130 BSC Evolution that well discover in the Hardware Architecture of the A9130 BSC Evolution chapter. In this context, the remote tributary alarm is defined for alarm occurring on the A interface. In Atermux, TS 15 is typically defined for alarm octet usage and is used to carry per tributary A (AIS: Alarm Indication Status) or R (RAI:Remote Alarm Indication) information in order to make multiplexed links transparent for alarm forwarding. The layout of the Alarm Octet is: 0 = No alarm; 1 = Alarm active. Principle:
1. When a Loss of Incoming Signal (LIS) alarm is detected on the A interface, the RAI is returned to the MSC. 2. The AIS is forwarded to the ASMC. The ASMC detects the AIS alarm and returns the RAI to the ATBX. 3. The ASMC sets an Ai bit in the alarm octet for the tributary. 4. The Alarm bit manager function detects the Ai bit and generates an AIS to the application and returns 10

(RAI indication) of the impacted A-TRUNK.

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7 Annex

7.17 TCP/IP Model

APPLICATIONS Transport

Routing

Physical

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Applications: Support applications users. Transport: Segment the messages into datagrams. Assign an odrer number for the recombination. Assign a tp order. Provide a checksum for requesting in case of problem. Assign the IP@ of the recipient to IP. Routing: Ensuring the routing of IP packets inside an Internet architecture with the help of ARP. Physical: Adapt the datagram to the support: Ethernet, data link, etc. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) does not guarantee reliability or ordering in the same way as TCP. Datagrams may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. Avoiding the overhead of checking whether every packet actually arrived makes UDP faster and more efficient, at least for applications that do not need guaranteed delivery. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropped packets are preferable to delayed packets. The Transport Control Protocol (TCP) guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from sender to receiver. TCP also distinguishes data for multiple connections by concurrent applications. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is used by networked computers operating system to send error messagesindicating, for instance, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. The most common use is the ping tool, which sends ICMP Echo Request messages (and receives Echo Response messages) to determine whether a host is reachable and how long packets take to get to and from that host. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is primarily used to translate IP addresses into Ethernet MAC addresses.

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7 Annex

7.18 MAC Address Definition


A MAC address is a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies each device on a network.

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7 Annex

7.19 IP Address Definition


What is an IP Address? Every machine on Internet has a unique identification number inside one IP network called Local Area Network. This number is called IP address. The format of an IP address (IPv4) is a 32-bit numeric address (binary format). To make it easier for humans, IP addresses are normally expressed in decimal format as a "dotted decimal number" written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can range from zero to 255.
Binary format

10101100 . 00010001 . 00000011 . 00011110

Decimal format

172

17

30

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IPv4 (232 ) address = 4.3 billion possible combinations. The use of certain values is restricted as for typical IP addresses. For example, the IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255 is used for broadcasts. A new IP version, IPv6, expands the size of the IP address to 128 bits. Loopback The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loopback address. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing. Netmask(s): in CIDR notation (/25) or dotted decimals (255.255.255.0)

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7 Annex

7.19 IP Address Definition [cont.]


The IP address space is divided into three address classes:
Class A for very large networks.
Net Id 0 7 bits 8 bits Host Id 8 bits 8 bits

First octet from 1 to 126 Default subnet mask: 255.0.0.0

N NNNNNNN (27) -2=126

nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnn n (224) 2 = 16 777 214

Class B, for medium-sized networks.


10 NNNNNNNN (214) Net Id 14 bits NNNNNNNN 8 bits

Host Id 8 bits

First octet from 128 to 191 Default subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn (216) 2 = 65 534 Host Id 8 bits NNNNNNNN nnnnnnnn (28)


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= 16 384 Net Id 21 bits NNNNNNNN (221) = 2 097 152

Class C for small to mid-sized businesses.


110 NNNNNNNN

First octet from 192 to 223 Default subnet mask: 255.255.255.0

2 =254

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To provide the flexibility required to support networks of varying sizes, Internet designers decided that the IP address space should be divided into three address classes: Class A: In Class A networks, the high order bit value (the very first binary number) in the first octet is always 0. This class is for very large networks. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 belong to class A. The default subnet mask for Class A address is 255.0.0.0. Class B: Class B is used for medium-sized networks. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to 191 belong to class B. The default subnet mask for Class B address is 255.255.0.0. Class C: Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-sized businesses. IP addresses with a first octet from 192 to 223 belong to class C. The default subnet mask for Class C address is 255.255.255.0. Class D address is used for multicast. Class E is used for experimental purposes only. An IP address is divided into 2 sections: The Net section (N) always contains the first octet. It is used to identify the network a computer belongs to. The Host section (n) identifies a unique computer on the network.

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7 Annex

7.20 What Is a LAN?


A Local Area Network (LAN), also called a subnetwork, represents an IP network in which all the terminals can communicate with each other. The LAN can be composed of Hubs, bridges or switches.
PC1 PC3

IP@PC1:172.25.100.10

IP@PC3:172.25.100.30

LAN1

PC2

PC4

IP@PC2:172.25.100.20

IP@PC4:172.25.100.40

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A router runs at level 3 (OSI model), which means that this equipment has a routing capability and is able to forward packets to different LANs. A switch runs at level 2 (OSI model). Packets are forwarded only to the relevant port according to its MAC address. A Hub runs at level 1 (OSI model). Packets are broadcast on all ports.

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7 Annex

7.21 LAN Definition: Subnetwork Constitution


Assigning an IP address to one terminal is not sufficient. A subnet mask is also needed in order to define the subnetwork or the LAN to which the PC belongs. The IP address combined to its subnetmask with a logical AND defines the LAN (this operation is also called "Bitwise"). The terminals which have the same subnetwork can communicate because they belong to the same LAN.
192
11000000

IP@ PC1 in decimal IP@ PC1 in binary


SubNetmask PC1 in decimal SubNetmask PC1 in binary SubNetwork PC1 in binary SubNetwork PC1 in decimal

240
1111000 0

15
00001111

3
00000011

255
11111111

255
11111111

255
11111111

248
11111000

A N D

11000000

1111000 0

00001111

00000000

192

240

15

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With this subnet mask, the number of hosts belonging to that network is limited to 2 ^ n 2 (2^3 2= 6).

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7 Annex

7.21 LAN Definition: Subnetwork Constitution [cont.]


If we consider the previous example, do all the PCs belong to the same LAN?
Yes No

If yes, fill in the value of the subnetwork.


PC1 PC3

IP@PC1:172.25.100.10 Subnetmask:255.255.255.0

LAN1

IP@PC3:172.25.100.30 Subnetmask:255.255.255.0

PC2

PC4

Subnetwork IP@PC2:172.25.100.20 Subnetmask:255.255.255.0


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IP@PC4:172.25.100.40 Subnetmask:255.255.255.0

With this subnet mask, the number of hosts belonging to that network is limited to 2 ^ n 2 (2^3 2= 6).

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7 Annex

7.22 Network Packet Transfer


Host @ IPA 172.25.100.1 0 Mac1@ Host @ IPB Mac2@ 172.25.100.2 0

LAN1

DATA

IP source: IP destination: IPA IPA

MacSource: MAC1@

MacDestination: MAC2@

1. 2.

3.

Station A checks if both stations belong to the same LAN (bitwise operation). If it is not the case, a router is needed. If both IP addresses belong to the same LAN, station A reads from his ARP table the corresponding MAC address. If the ARP table does not contain this information, an ARP request is executed. With this information, the Ethernet packet can be built and sent over the LAN.
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A MAC address is unique in the world. The MAC address format is 48-bit length (6 bytes) (22-bit manufacturer sections / 26-bit Board serial number).

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7 Annex

7.22 Network Packet Transfer [cont.]


When a terminal wants to communicate with another terminal which does not belong to the same LAN, a gateway is needed to allow the communication. The gateway is performed by a ROUTER.
PC1 PCA

172.25.100 PC2 LAN 1 Router PC3

172.25.200 LAN 1

PCB

PCC

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A router runs at level 3 (OSI model), which means that this equipment has a routing capability and is able to forward packets to different LANs. A switch runs at level 2 (OSI model). Packets are forwarded only to the relevant port according to its MAC address. A Hub runs at level 1 (OSI model). Packets are broadcast on all ports.

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8 Abbreviations and Acronyms

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


2G

A A Abis ACSE AIS APS ARP ASMB ASMC ATCA Ater Aterm ux ATM AuC B BIUA BSC BSCGP BSS BSSAP BSSGP BTS

Switch to notes view!


BSC-MSC interface BTS-BSC interface Association Control Service Elem ent Alarm Indication Status Autom atic Protection Sw itching Address Resolution Protocol Ater Sub-m ultiplexer BSC Ater Sub-m ultiplexer TC Advanced Telecom Com puting Architecture telecom interface between the BSS and the MSC Ater interface sub-m ultiplexed Asynchronous Transfer Mode Authentication Center

second Generation

Base station Interface Unit Abis Base Station Controller BSC GPRS Protocol Base Station Subsystem BSS Application Part BSS GPRS Protocol Base Transceiver Station

C CBC Cell Broadcast Center All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010 118 CCP Mobile Network Call Control Processing Alcatel Lucent 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10 CIC Circuit Identification Code CIDR Classless Inter-Dom ain Routing CMISE Com m on Managem ent Inform ation Service Elem ent CMW Mx BSC Comm unication MidW ay CP_HW Control Processing Hardware CP_LOG Control Processing Logic CPF Configuration Param eter data File CPI Com m unication Platform Interface CS Circuit Sw itching D DC DHCP DLS DNS DR DTAP DTC E E1 EAB EIM-L EIM-R F FDDI FR FTP

Direct Current Dynam ic Host Configuration Protocol Data Load Segm ent Dom ain Name Server Dual Rate Direct Transfer Application Part Digital Trunk Controller

prim ary rate or aggregate bandwidth transm issions External Alarm s Box External Interface Manager Local External Interface Manager - Rem ote

Fiber Distributed Data Interface Full Rate File Transfer Protocol

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


G Switch to notes view! Gb Gigabit GB Gigabyte GbE Gigabit Ethernet Gbps Gigabits per second GCH GPRS Channel GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node GHz GigaHertz GIC GPRS Identity Code GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPRSAP GPRS Application Part GSL GPRS Signaling Link GSM Global System for Mobile communications GSS GPRS SubSystem GSUP Global Supervisor H HDLC High-level Data Link Control HLR Home Location Register HMI Human-Machine Interface HMS Hardware Management Service HO HandOver HPI Hardware Platform Interface HR Half Rate HSL High-speed Signaling Link 119 HW Mobile NetworkHardWare Alcatel Lucent 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10 HWM Hardware Management I I/O ICMP IDE IEEE IMT IP IPMB IPMC IPMI IPv4 IPv6 ISA ISDN K kbps L LAN LAPB LAPD LIS LIU LLC LSL LVDS

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Input/Output Internet Control Message Protocol Integrated Development Environment Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Installation and Maintenance Terminal Internet Protocol Intelligent Platform Management Bus IPMI Controller Intelligent Platform Management Interface Internet Protocol version 4 Internet Protocol version 6 Industry Standard(s) Architecture Integrated Digital Subscriber Network

kilobits per second

Local Area Network Link Access Protocol Balanced Link Access Protocol on the D Channel Loss of Incoming Signal Line Interface Unit Logical Link Control Low-speed Signaling Link Low Voltage Differential Signaling

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


M Switch to notes view! m meter MAC Medium Access Control Mbps Megabits per second MF Master File MFS Multi-BSS Fast packet Server ML-PPP Multi-Link PPP mm millimeter MPDCH Master Packet Data Channel MS Mobile Station MSC Mobile services Switching Center MX Multistandard controller platform MXPF Mx Platform N NE1oE NEM NIC NSS NTP

n E1 over Ethernet Network Element Manager Network Interface Controller Network Sub-System Network Time Protocol

O O&M Operation and Maintenance OBCI On Board Controller Interface OMC 120 Operation and Maintenance Center All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010 Mobile Network OMCP Control Processing Alcatel LucentO&M 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10 OMC-R Operation and Maintenance Center Radio OML Operation and Maintenance Link OSI Open System Interconnection OUI Organisationally Unique Identifier P PC PC PCI PCM PDCH PDN PDU PEM PICMG PLD PM PMC PMS PPP PS PSTN Q Qmux

Personality Card Personal Computer Peripheral Component Interconnect Pulse Code Modulation Packet Data Channel Packet Data Network Packet Data Unit Power Entry Module PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group Programmable Logic Device Performance Management PCI Mezzanine Card Process Management Service Point-to-Point Protocol Packet Switching Public Switched Telephone Network

Transmission equipment supervision bus

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


R RAI RIP RIT RNO RSL RTM Rx S SCCP SDRAM SGSN ShM C SMM SMS-CB SMTP SNMP SS7 SSW STM -1 SUP SW M

Switch toAlarm notes view! Rem ote Indication


Routing Inform ation Protocol Replaceable Item Radio Network Optim ization Radio Signaling Link Rear Transm ission M odule Reception

Signaling Connection Control Part Synchronous Dynam ic Random Access M em ory Serving GPRS Support Node Shelf Manager Controller Shelf Managem ent Module Short M essage Service - Cell Broadcast Sim ple M ail Transport Protocol Sim ple Network Managem ent Protocol Signaling System No.7 Subrack Sw itch (board) Synchronous Transport Module of level 1 Supervisor Software Managem ent

T TC TransCoder TCH Traffic Channel TCIL 121 TransCoder Internal Link All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2010 Mobile Network TCP/IP Transm ission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol Alcatel Lucent 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10 TCU TRX Control Unit TDM Tim e-Division M ultiplexing TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol TP Transm ission Path TPGSM Transm ission Processing TRCU Transcoder Control Unit TRX Transceiver TS Tim e Slot TSC Transm ission Sub-System Controller Tx Transm ission U UART UDP USB V V VC VCE VDC V-DTC V-DTC tchrm VLAN VLR

Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transm itter User Datagram Protocol Universal Serial Bus

Volt Virtual Channel Virtual Control Elem ent Volt Direct Current Virtual Digital Trunk Controller V-DTC TCH resource m anagem ent Virtual LAN Visitor Location Register

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Abbreviations and Acronyms


V V-oCPR V-sCPR V-TCU V-TSC W W X XOT

Switch to notes view! Virtual Osi Com m on Processor


Virtual system Com m on Processor Virtual Term inal Control Unit Virtual Transm ission Su-System Controller

W att

External O utput

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End of Module 9130 BSC Evolution Description in B10

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