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Glossary of Globalization IGO. Intergovernmental organization. Formed by and membership restricted to stat es. Examples: UN, NATO.

Imagined communities. Definition of nations as finite, sovereign communities, im agined rather than face-to-face or primordial, stressing deliberate creation of binding tradition and shared identity (B. Anderson) INGO. International nongovernmental organization. Members can be individuals, co mpanies, or associations. Examples: Amnesty International, Red Cross, Internatio nal Olympic Committee, International Organization for Standardization. Imperialism. See Colonialism. Indigenous Peoples. Groups held to be original residents of certain areas, espec ially nonliterate groups under threat of displacement due to development, now po ssessing globally recognized claims to autonomy and identity fostered by support ive movements. Internet. Network of computers facilitating electronic communication across glob e. Rooted in 1960s U.S. defense research, came into widespread use in 1990s via implementation of World Wide Web. J (back to the top) K L M Multiculturalism. Doctrine asserting value of different cultures coexisting with in single society; globally, vision of cultural diversity deliberately fostered and protected (see also Issues, #5) N (back to the top) Neoliberalism. Late-twentieth century variant of theory that competition among b usinesses in market with limited state regulation best fosters growth; specifica lly, advocacy of free enterprise in competitive global markets and movement of g oods and capital unburdened by tariffs and regulations; commonly, term of opprob rium used by critics of capitalist ideology to denote emphasis on market expansi on as value in itself, held to cause destruction of "collective structures which may impede the pure market logic" (P. Bourdieu; cf. P. Treanor and Global Issue s) New International Division of Labor. Spread of different stages of manufacturing to locations in different countries, to exploit differences in factor costs and economies of scale; more generally, since late 1970s, process in which especial ly Asian countries assume key roles in certain industries (cf. commodity chains) NGO. Nongovernmental organization. Many domestic NGOs connected internationally. Cf. INGO. NWICO. New World Information and Communication Order (also New International Inf ormation Order), proposal by developing country and communist representatives in UNESCO in 1970s for balanced news coverage through multiple channels to counter Western dominance of news organizations and content. Subject of unresolved deba te into 1980s. O (back to the top) Orientalism. Historically, scholarship by Western experts on Asia; currently, di storted representation of non-Western culture by Western intellectuals, attribut ed to political bias and assumed superiority. Influentially used by E. Said in O rientalism to criticize Western treatment of Arab culture as reflective of histo rical domination. For details, click here. P (back to the top) Particularism. Values or practices valid only for specific group in own setting as basis for distinct identity, also view emphasizing importance thereof. Common ly contrasted with, or criticized on grounds of, universalism. Periphery. Poor, exploited regions, historically dominated by strong, wealthy co

untries. World-system theory concept denoting militarily weak regions economical ly dominated by capitalist core, subject to unequal exchange, limited to raw mat erial exports, reliant on labor-intensive production. Protectionism. Effort to shield domestic producers against foreign competition v ia tariffs, quotas, etc. Widely reduced under global free trade agreements; popu lar among critics of trade for countering job loss and environmental harm; criti cized by economists for ignoring comparative advantage doctrine. Q (back to the top) R (back to the top) Realism. Theory asserting primacy of states and state interests in international affairs; claims that states act rationally in pursuit of power, international s ystem is "anarchy," and international politics is separate from domestic; influe ntial but disputed (cf. V. Ferraro) Rio Declaration. Statement of principles calling for worldwide environmental pro tection by 1992 UN "Earth Summit" conference in Rio de Janeiro. Click here for t ext. S (back to the top) Structural Adjustment. Policy of reducing government expenditures, lowering infl ation, limiting imports, devaluing currency, and increasing economic efficiency, required by IMF of countries in debt as condition for debt restructuring (acron ym: SAP). Criticized for inducing economic decline, decreased social protection. For IMF review of criticism, click here. Subaltern. Vantage point of historically subordinate peoples, recently revalued in literature and scholarship, from which to reinterpret experience of oppressio n and assess global processes Sustainable Development. Policy of promoting growth consistent with protection o f environment, e.g., via shift to renewable resources and local community partic ipation in development projects. Compromise reached in international negotiation , recognizing interests of developed and developing countries. Normative princip le with mixed practical effect.