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Volume 5 - IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE March 2009 xxi Glossary Term Description Gross irrigation system capacity

Ability of an irrigation system to deliver the net required rate and volume of water necessary to meet crop water needs plus any losses during the application process. Crop water needs can include soil moisture storage for later plant use, leaching of toxic elements from the soil, air temperature modification, crop quality, and other plant needs. A device used to intercept gross pollutants being transported in runoff. Gross pollutants Runoff laden debris typically larger than 3 mm (includes litter and organic matter). Water in land beneath the soil surface, under conditions where the pressure in the water is greater than or equal to atmospheric pressure, and where all the voids are filled with water A round, mound-shaped surface in a water table or other potentiometric surface that builds up as a result of the downward percolation of water. The free surface of the underground water that is frequently subjected to conditions such as fluctuating atmospheric pressure with the season, withdrawal rates and restoration rates. Therefore, the groundwater table is seldom static. The period, often the frost-free period, during which the climate is such that crops can be produced. An electrical resistance block in which the material used to absorb water is gypsum. It is used to measure soil water content in non-saline soils. The kind of locality in which animal breeds or plants normally grow. It is also the geographic distribution or native home of plant or animals. Ditch across the upper end of a field used for distributing water in surface irrigation. Water control structure at the entrance to a conduit or canal. A chemical substance designed to kill or inhibit the growth of plants, especially weeds. Types include: ContactA herbicide designed to kill foliage on contact.. Non-selectiveA herbicide that destroys or prevents all plant growth. Post-emergenceA herbicide designed to be applied after a crop is above the ground. Pre-emergenceA herbicide designed to be applied before the crop emerges through the soil surface. SelectiveA herbicide that targets specific plants. Climate characterized by high rainfall and low evaporation potential. A region generally is considered as humid when precipitation averages more than 40 inches (1,000 mm) per year. Rich black or brown material formed from decayed organic matter. Cross between two different species. An outlet, usually portable, used for connecting surface irrigation pipe to an alfalfa valve outlet.

Gross pollutant trap


Groundwater mound

Groundwater table

Growing season

Gypsum block


Head ditch

Head gate Herbicide

Humid climates

Humus Hybrid Hydrant